source: networking/netprogs/wpa_supplicant.xml@ b023f19

10.0 10.1 11.0 11.1 9.1 lazarus qt5new trunk upgradedb xry111/intltool xry111/test-20220226
Last change on this file since b023f19 was b023f19, checked in by Douglas R. Reno <renodr@…>, 2 years ago

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6
7 <!ENTITY wpa_supplicant-download-http
8 "https://w1.fi/releases/wpa_supplicant-&wpa_supplicant-version;.tar.gz">
9 <!ENTITY wpa_supplicant-download-ftp " ">
10 <!ENTITY wpa_supplicant-md5sum "2d2958c782576dc9901092fbfecb4190">
11 <!ENTITY wpa_supplicant-size "3.1 MB">
12 <!ENTITY wpa_supplicant-buildsize "35 MB">
13 <!ENTITY wpa_supplicant-time "0.5 SBU (with optional gui)">
14]>
15
16<sect1 id="wpa_supplicant" xreflabel="wpa_supplicant-&wpa_supplicant-version;">
17 <?dbhtml filename="wpa_supplicant.html"?>
18
19 <sect1info>
20 <othername>$LastChangedBy$</othername>
21 <date>$Date$</date>
22 </sect1info>
23
24 <title>wpa_supplicant-&wpa_supplicant-version;</title>
25
26 <indexterm zone="wpa_supplicant">
27 <primary sortas="a-wpa_supplicant">wpa_supplicant</primary>
28 </indexterm>
29
30 <sect2 role="package">
31 <title>Introduction to WPA Supplicant</title>
32
33 <para>
34 <application>WPA Supplicant</application> is a Wi-Fi Protected Access
35 (WPA) client and IEEE 802.1X supplicant. It implements WPA key negotiation
36 with a WPA Authenticator and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)
37 authentication with an Authentication Server. In addition, it controls the
38 roaming and IEEE 802.11 authentication/association of the wireless LAN
39 driver. This is useful for connecting to a password protected wireless
40 access point.
41 </para>
42
43 &lfs91_checked;
44
45 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Package Information</bridgehead>
46 <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
47 <listitem>
48 <para>
49 Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&wpa_supplicant-download-http;"/>
50 </para>
51 </listitem>
52 <listitem>
53 <para>
54 Download (FTP): <ulink url="&wpa_supplicant-download-ftp;"/>
55 </para>
56 </listitem>
57 <listitem>
58 <para>
59 Download MD5 sum: &wpa_supplicant-md5sum;
60 </para>
61 </listitem>
62 <listitem>
63 <para>
64 Download size: &wpa_supplicant-size;
65 </para>
66 </listitem>
67 <listitem>
68 <para>
69 Estimated disk space required: &wpa_supplicant-buildsize;
70 </para>
71 </listitem>
72 <listitem>
73 <para>
74 Estimated build time: &wpa_supplicant-time;
75 </para>
76 </listitem>
77 </itemizedlist>
78<!--
79 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Additional Downloads</bridgehead>
80 <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
81 <listitem>
82 <para>
83 Required patch:
84 <ulink url="&patch-root;/wpa_supplicant-&wpa_supplicant-version;-upstream_fixes-2.patch"/>
85 </para>
86 </listitem>
87 </itemizedlist>
88-->
89 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">WPA Supplicant Dependencies</bridgehead>
90
91 <bridgehead renderas="sect4">Recommended</bridgehead>
92 <para role="recommended">
93 <xref linkend="desktop-file-utils"/> (for running
94 <command>update-desktop-database</command>) and
95 <xref linkend="libnl"/>
96 </para>
97
98 <bridgehead renderas="sect4">Optional</bridgehead>
99 <para role="optional">
100 <xref linkend="dbus"/>,
101 <xref linkend="libxml2"/>, and
102 <xref linkend="qt5"/>
103 </para>
104
105 <para condition="html" role="usernotes">User Notes:
106 <ulink url="&blfs-wiki;/wpa_supplicant"/>
107 </para>
108
109 </sect2>
110
111 <sect2 role="kernel" id="wpa_supplicant-kernel">
112 <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
113
114 <para>
115 Enable the following options in the kernel configuration as well as
116 specific device drivers for your hardware and recompile the kernel if
117 necessary:
118 </para>
119
120<screen><literal>[*] Networking support ---&gt; [CONFIG_NET]
121 [*] Wireless ---&gt; [CONFIG_WIRELESS]
122 &lt;*/M&gt; cfg80211 - wireless configuration API [CONFIG_CFG80211]
123 [*] cfg80211 wireless extensions compatibility [CONFIG_CFG80211_WEXT]
124 &lt;*/M&gt; Generic IEEE 802.11 Networking Stack (mac80211) [CONFIG_MAC80211]
125Device Drivers ---&gt;
126 [*] Network device support ---&gt; [CONFIG_NETDEVICES]
127 [*] Wireless LAN ---&gt; [CONFIG_WLAN]</literal></screen>
128
129 <para>
130 Open the submenu and select the options that support your hardware:
131 <command>lspci</command> from <xref linkend="pciutils"/> can be used to
132 view your hardware configuration.
133 </para>
134
135 <indexterm zone="wpa_supplicant wpa_supplicant-kernel">
136 <primary sortas="d-wpa_supplicant">wpa_supplicant</primary>
137 </indexterm>
138 </sect2>
139
140 <sect2 role="installation">
141 <title>Installation of WPA Supplicant</title>
142
143 <para>
144 First you will need to create an initial configuration file for the
145 build process. You can read <filename>wpa_supplicant/README</filename>
146 and <filename>wpa_supplicant/defconfig</filename> for the explanation
147 of the following options as well as other options that can be used.
148 Create a build configuration file that should work for standard WiFi
149 setups by running the following command:
150 </para>
151
152<screen><userinput>cat &gt; wpa_supplicant/.config &lt;&lt; "EOF"
153<literal>CONFIG_BACKEND=file
154CONFIG_CTRL_IFACE=y
155CONFIG_DEBUG_FILE=y
156CONFIG_DEBUG_SYSLOG=y
157CONFIG_DEBUG_SYSLOG_FACILITY=LOG_DAEMON
158CONFIG_DRIVER_NL80211=y
159CONFIG_DRIVER_WEXT=y
160CONFIG_DRIVER_WIRED=y
161CONFIG_EAP_GTC=y
162CONFIG_EAP_LEAP=y
163CONFIG_EAP_MD5=y
164CONFIG_EAP_MSCHAPV2=y
165CONFIG_EAP_OTP=y
166CONFIG_EAP_PEAP=y
167CONFIG_EAP_TLS=y
168CONFIG_EAP_TTLS=y
169CONFIG_IEEE8021X_EAPOL=y
170CONFIG_IPV6=y
171CONFIG_LIBNL32=y
172CONFIG_PEERKEY=y
173CONFIG_PKCS12=y
174CONFIG_READLINE=y
175CONFIG_SMARTCARD=y
176CONFIG_WPS=y
177CFLAGS += -I/usr/include/libnl3</literal>
178EOF</userinput></screen>
179
180 <para>
181 If you wish to use <application>WPA Supplicant</application> with
182 <xref linkend="NetworkManager"/>, make sure that you have installed
183 <xref linkend="dbus"/> and <xref linkend="libxml2"/>, then add the
184 following options to the <application>WPA Supplicant</application>
185 build configuration file by running the following command:
186 </para>
187
188<screen><userinput>cat &gt;&gt; wpa_supplicant/.config &lt;&lt; "EOF"
189<literal>CONFIG_CTRL_IFACE_DBUS=y
190CONFIG_CTRL_IFACE_DBUS_NEW=y
191CONFIG_CTRL_IFACE_DBUS_INTRO=y</literal>
192EOF</userinput></screen>
193
194 <para>
195 Install <application>WPA Supplicant</application> by running the
196 following commands:
197 </para>
198
199<screen><userinput>cd wpa_supplicant &amp;&amp;
200make BINDIR=/sbin LIBDIR=/lib</userinput></screen>
201
202 <para>
203 If you have installed <xref linkend="qt5"/> and wish to build
204 the <application>WPA Supplicant</application> GUI program, run
205 the following commands:
206 </para>
207
208 <note><para>The following directory name is labelled qt4, but
209 is compatible with <xref linkend="qt5"/>.</para></note>
210
211<screen><userinput>pushd wpa_gui-qt4 &amp;&amp;
212qmake wpa_gui.pro &amp;&amp;
213make &amp;&amp;
214popd</userinput></screen>
215
216 <para>
217 This package does not come with a test suite.
218 </para>
219
220 <para>
221 Now, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
222 </para>
223
224<screen role="root"><userinput>install -v -m755 wpa_{cli,passphrase,supplicant} /sbin/ &amp;&amp;
225install -v -m644 doc/docbook/wpa_supplicant.conf.5 /usr/share/man/man5/ &amp;&amp;
226install -v -m644 doc/docbook/wpa_{cli,passphrase,supplicant}.8 /usr/share/man/man8/</userinput></screen>
227
228 <para revision="systemd">
229 Install the <application>systemd</application> support files by
230 running the following command as the <systemitem
231 class="username">root</systemitem> user:
232 </para>
233
234<screen role="root" revision="systemd"><userinput>install -v -m644 systemd/*.service /lib/systemd/system/</userinput></screen>
235
236 <para>
237 If you have built <application>WPA Supplicant</application> with
238 <application>D-Bus</application> support, you will need to install
239 <application>D-Bus</application> configuration files. Install them
240 by running the following commands as the
241 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
242 </para>
243
244<screen role="root"><userinput>install -v -m644 dbus/fi.w1.wpa_supplicant1.service \
245 /usr/share/dbus-1/system-services/ &amp;&amp;
246install -v -d -m755 /etc/dbus-1/system.d &amp;&amp;
247install -v -m644 dbus/dbus-wpa_supplicant.conf \
248 /etc/dbus-1/system.d/wpa_supplicant.conf</userinput></screen>
249
250 <para revision="systemd">
251 Additionally, enable the <filename>wpa_supplicant.service</filename>
252 so that <application>systemd</application> can properly activate the
253 <application>D-Bus</application> service. Note that the
254 per-connection service and the D-Bus service cannot be enabled
255 at the same time. Run the following command as the
256 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
257 </para>
258
259<screen role="root" revision="systemd"><userinput>systemctl enable wpa_supplicant</userinput></screen>
260
261 <para>
262 If you have built the <application>WPA Supplicant</application> GUI
263 program, install it by running the following commands as the
264 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
265 </para>
266
267<screen role="root"><userinput>install -v -m755 wpa_gui-qt4/wpa_gui /usr/bin/ &amp;&amp;
268install -v -m644 doc/docbook/wpa_gui.8 /usr/share/man/man8/ &amp;&amp;
269install -v -m644 wpa_gui-qt4/wpa_gui.desktop /usr/share/applications/ &amp;&amp;
270install -v -m644 wpa_gui-qt4/icons/wpa_gui.svg /usr/share/pixmaps/</userinput></screen>
271
272 <note>
273 <para>
274 You will need to restart the system <application>D-Bus</application> daemon
275 before you can use the <application>WPA Supplicant</application>
276 <application>D-Bus</application> interface.
277 </para>
278 </note>
279
280 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
281 href="../../xincludes/update-desktop-database.xml"/>
282
283 </sect2>
284
285 <sect2 role="configuration">
286 <title>Configuring wpa_supplicant</title>
287
288 <sect3 id="wpa_supplicant-config">
289 <title>Config File</title>
290
291 <para revision="sysv">
292 <filename>/etc/sysconfig/wpa_supplicant-*.conf</filename>
293 </para>
294
295 <para revision="systemd">
296 <filename>/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant-*.conf</filename>
297 </para>
298
299 <indexterm zone="wpa_supplicant wpa_supplicant-config" revision="sysv">
300 <primary
301 sortas="e-etc-sysconfig-wpa_supplicant-star.conf">/etc/sysconfig/wpa_supplicant-*.conf</primary>
302 </indexterm>
303
304 <indexterm zone="wpa_supplicant wpa_supplicant-config" revision="systemd">
305 <primary
306 sortas="e-etc-wpa_supplicant-wpa_supplicant-star.conf">/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant-*.conf</primary>
307 </indexterm>
308
309 </sect3>
310
311 <sect3>
312 <title>Configuration Information</title>
313
314 <para>
315 To connect to an access point that uses a password, you need to put
316 the pre-shared key in
317 <phrase revision="sysv"><filename>
318 /etc/sysconfig/wpa_supplicant-<replaceable>wifi0</replaceable>.conf</filename>.</phrase>
319 <phrase revision="systemd"><filename>
320 /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant-<replaceable>wifi0</replaceable>.conf</filename>.</phrase>
321 SSID is the string that the access point/router transmits to
322 identify itself. Run the following command as the
323 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
324 </para>
325
326<screen role="root" revision="sysv"><userinput>wpa_passphrase <replaceable>SSID</replaceable> <replaceable>SECRET_PASSWORD</replaceable> &gt; /etc/sysconfig/wpa_supplicant-<replaceable>wifi0</replaceable>.conf</userinput></screen>
327
328<screen role="root" revision="systemd"><userinput>install -v -dm755 /etc/wpa_supplicant &amp;&amp;
329wpa_passphrase <replaceable>SSID</replaceable> <replaceable>SECRET_PASSWORD</replaceable> &gt; /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant-<replaceable>wifi0</replaceable>.conf</userinput></screen>
330
331 <para>
332 <phrase revision="sysv"><filename>/etc/sysconfig/wpa_supplicant-<replaceable>wifi0</replaceable>.conf </filename></phrase>
333 <phrase revision="systemd"><filename>/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant-<replaceable>wifi0</replaceable>.conf</filename></phrase>
334 can hold the details of several access points. When
335 <command>wpa_supplicant</command> is started, it will scan for the
336 SSIDs it can see and choose the appropriate password to connect.
337 </para>
338
339 <para>
340 If you want to connect to an access point that isn't password
341 protected, put an entry like this in
342 <phrase revision="sysv" ><filename>/etc/sysconfig/wpa_supplicant-<replaceable>wifi0</replaceable>.conf</filename></phrase>
343 <phrase revision="systemd"><filename>/etc/sysconfig/wpa_supplicant-<replaceable>wifi0</replaceable>.conf</filename></phrase>.
344 Replace "Some-SSID" with the SSID of the access point/router.
345 </para>
346
347<screen>network={
348 ssid="<replaceable>Some-SSID</replaceable>"
349 key_mgmt=NONE
350}</screen>
351
352 <para>Connecting to a new access point that is not in the configuration
353 file can be accomplished manually via the command line or GUI, but it
354 must be done via a privileged user. To do that, add the following to the
355 configuration file:</para>
356
357<screen>ctrl_interface=DIR=/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=&lt;privileged group&gt;
358update_config=1</screen>
359
360 <para>
361 Replace the &lt;privileged group&gt; above with a system group where
362 members have the ability to connect to a wireless access point.
363 </para>
364
365 <para>
366 There are many options that you could use to tweak how you connect
367 to each access point. They are described in some detail in the
368 <filename>wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf</filename> file in the
369 source tree.
370 </para>
371
372 </sect3>
373
374 <sect3>
375 <title>Connecting to an Access Point</title>
376
377 <para id="wpa-service" revision="sysv">
378 If you want to configure network interfaces at boot using
379 <command>wpa_supplicant</command>, you need to install the
380 <filename>/lib/services/wpa</filename> script
381 included in <xref linkend="bootscripts"/> package:
382 </para>
383
384<screen role="root" revision="sysv"><userinput>make install-service-wpa</userinput></screen>
385
386 <indexterm zone="wpa_supplicant wpa-service" revision="sysv">
387 <primary sortas="f-wpa">wpa</primary>
388 </indexterm>
389
390 <para revision="sysv">
391 If your router/access point uses DHCP to allocate IP addresses, you
392 can install <xref linkend="dhcp"/> client and use it to
393 automatically obtain network addresses. Create the
394 <filename>/etc/sysconfig/ifconfig-<replaceable>wifi0</replaceable>
395 </filename> by running the following command as the
396 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
397 </para>
398
399<screen role="root" revision="sysv"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/sysconfig/ifconfig.<replaceable>wifi0</replaceable> &lt;&lt; "EOF"
400<literal>ONBOOT="yes"
401IFACE="<replaceable>wlan0</replaceable>"
402SERVICE="wpa"
403
404# Additional arguments to wpa_supplicant
405WPA_ARGS=""
406
407WPA_SERVICE="dhclient"
408DHCP_START=""
409DHCP_STOP=""
410
411# Set PRINTIP="yes" to have the script print
412# the DHCP assigned IP address
413PRINTIP="no"
414
415# Set PRINTALL="yes" to print the DHCP assigned values for
416# IP, SM, DG, and 1st NS. This requires PRINTIP="yes".
417PRINTALL="no"</literal>
418EOF</userinput></screen>
419
420 <para revision="sysv">
421 If you prefer <xref linkend="dhcpcd"/> instead of
422 <xref linkend="dhcp"/> client, then create the
423 <filename>/etc/sysconfig/ifconfig-<replaceable>wifi0</replaceable>
424 </filename> by running the following command as the
425 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
426 </para>
427
428<screen role="root" revision="sysv"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/sysconfig/ifconfig.<replaceable>wifi0</replaceable> &lt;&lt; "EOF"
429<literal>ONBOOT="yes"
430IFACE="<replaceable>wlan0</replaceable>"
431SERVICE="wpa"
432
433# Additional arguments to wpa_supplicant
434WPA_ARGS=""
435
436WPA_SERVICE="dhcpcd"
437DHCP_START="-b -q <replaceable>&lt;insert appropriate start options here&gt;</replaceable>"
438DHCP_STOP="-k <replaceable>&lt;insert additional stop options here&gt;</replaceable>"</literal>
439EOF</userinput></screen>
440
441 <para revision="sysv">
442 Alternatively, if you use static addresses on your local network,
443 then create the
444 <filename>/etc/sysconfig/ifconfig-<replaceable>wifi0</replaceable>
445 </filename> by running the following command as the
446 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
447 </para>
448
449<screen role="root" revision="sysv"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/sysconfig/ifconfig.<replaceable>wifi0</replaceable> &lt;&lt; "EOF"
450<literal>ONBOOT="yes"
451IFACE="<replaceable>wlan0</replaceable>"
452SERVICE="wpa"
453
454# Additional arguments to wpa_supplicant
455WPA_ARGS=""
456
457WPA_SERVICE="ipv4-static"
458IP="192.168.1.1"
459GATEWAY="192.168.1.2"
460PREFIX="24"
461BROADCAST="192.168.1.255"</literal>
462EOF</userinput></screen>
463
464 <para revision="systemd">
465 There are 3 types of <application>systemd</application> units
466 that were installed:
467 </para>
468
469 <itemizedlist spacing="compact" revision="systemd">
470 <listitem>
471 <para>
472 wpa_supplicant@.service
473 </para>
474 </listitem>
475 <listitem>
476 <para>
477 wpa_supplicant-nl80211@.service
478 </para>
479 </listitem>
480 <listitem>
481 <para>
482 wpa_supplicant-wired@.service
483 </para>
484 </listitem>
485 </itemizedlist>
486
487 <para revision="systemd">
488 The only difference between 3 of them is what driver
489 is used for connecting (-D option). The first one uses
490 the default driver, the second one uses the nl80211
491 driver and the third one uses the wired driver.
492 </para>
493
494 <para>
495 You can connect to the wireless access point by
496 running the following command as the
497 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
498 </para>
499
500<screen role="root" revision="sysv"><userinput>ifup <replaceable>wifi0</replaceable></userinput></screen>
501
502 <para revision="sysv">
503 Replace <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable> with the correct
504 wireless interface and <replaceable>wifi0</replaceable>
505 with desired name for the configuration file. Please note
506 that <filename>wpa_supplicant-*.conf</filename> and
507 <filename>ifconfig.*</filename> configuration files need
508 to have identical names, ie both contain
509 <replaceable>wifi0</replaceable> in their name.
510 </para>
511
512<screen role="root" revision="systemd"><userinput>systemctl start wpa_supplicant@<replaceable>wlan0</replaceable></userinput></screen>
513
514 <para revision="systemd">
515 To connect to the wireless access point at
516 boot, simply enable the appropriate
517 <command>wpa_supplicant</command> service
518 by running the following command as the
519 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
520 </para>
521
522<screen role="root" revision="systemd"><userinput>systemctl enable wpa_supplicant@<replaceable>wlan0</replaceable></userinput></screen>
523
524 <para revision="systemd">
525 Depending on your setup, you can replace the
526 <filename>wpa_supplicant@.service</filename>
527 with any other listed above.
528 </para>
529
530 <para revision="systemd">
531 To assign a network address to your wireless interface, consult the
532 <ulink url="&lfs-root;/chapter07/network.html">General Network Configuration</ulink>
533 page in LFS.
534 </para>
535
536 </sect3>
537
538 </sect2>
539
540 <sect2 role="content">
541 <title>Contents</title>
542
543 <segmentedlist>
544 <segtitle>Installed Programs</segtitle>
545 <segtitle>Installed Libraries</segtitle>
546 <segtitle>Installed Directories</segtitle>
547
548 <seglistitem>
549 <seg>
550 wpa_gui, wpa_supplicant, wpa_passphrase and wpa_cli
551 </seg>
552 <seg>
553 None
554 </seg>
555 <seg>
556 None
557 </seg>
558 </seglistitem>
559 </segmentedlist>
560
561 <variablelist>
562 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
563 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
564 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
565
566 <varlistentry id="wpa_gui">
567 <term><command>wpa_gui</command></term>
568 <listitem>
569 <para>
570 is a graphical frontend program for interacting with
571 <application>wpa_supplicant</application>.
572 </para>
573 <indexterm zone="wpa_supplicant wpa_gui">
574 <primary sortas="b-wpa_gui">wpa_gui</primary>
575 </indexterm>
576 </listitem>
577 </varlistentry>
578
579 <varlistentry id="wpa_supplicant-prog">
580 <term><command>wpa_supplicant</command></term>
581 <listitem>
582 <para>
583 is a daemon that can connect to a password protected wireless
584 access point.
585 </para>
586 <indexterm zone="wpa_supplicant wpa_supplicant-prog">
587 <primary sortas="b-wpa_supplicant">wpa_supplicant</primary>
588 </indexterm>
589 </listitem>
590 </varlistentry>
591
592 <varlistentry id="wpa_passphrase">
593 <term><command>wpa_passphrase</command></term>
594 <listitem>
595 <para>
596 takes an SSID and a password and generates a simple
597 configuration that <command>wpa_supplicant</command> can
598 understand.
599 </para>
600 <indexterm zone="wpa_supplicant wpa_passphrase">
601 <primary sortas="b-wpa_passphrase">wpa_passphrase</primary>
602 </indexterm>
603 </listitem>
604 </varlistentry>
605
606 <varlistentry id="wpa_cli">
607 <term><command>wpa_cli</command></term>
608 <listitem>
609 <para>
610 is a command line interface used to control a running
611 <command>wpa_supplicant</command> daemon.
612 </para>
613 <indexterm zone="wpa_supplicant wpa_cli">
614 <primary sortas="b-wpa_cli">wpa_cli</primary>
615 </indexterm>
616 </listitem>
617 </varlistentry>
618
619 </variablelist>
620
621 </sect2>
622
623</sect1>
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