International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogolubov, N.N. Jr.; Prykarpatsky, A.K.; Ufuk Taneri
2008-07-01
The main fundamental principles characterizing the vacuum field structure are formulated and the modeling of the related vacuum medium and charged point particle dynamics by means of de- vised field theoretic tools are analyzed. The Maxwell electrodynamic theory is revisited and newly derived from the suggested vacuum field structure principles and the classical special relativity theory relationship between the energy and the corresponding point particle mass is revisited and newly obtained. The Lorentz force expression with respect to arbitrary non-inertial reference frames is revisited and discussed in detail, and some new interpretations of relations between the special relativity theory and quantum mechanics are presented. The famous quantum-mechanical Schroedinger type equations for a relativistic point particle in the external potential and magnetic fields within the quasiclassical approximation as the Planck constant (h/2π) → 0 and the light velocity c → ∞ are obtained. (author)
Formal scattering theory approach to S-matrix relations in supersymmetric quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amado, R.D.; Cannata, F.; Dedonder, J.P.
1988-01-01
Combining the methods of scattering theory and supersymmetric quantum mechanics we obtain relations between the S matrix and its supersymmetric partner. These relations involve only asymptotic quantities and do not require knowledge of the dynamical details. For example, for coupled channels with no threshold differences the relations involve the asymptotic normalization constant of the bound state removed by supersymmetry
Analytical mechanics for relativity and quantum mechanics
Johns, Oliver Davis
2011-01-01
Analytical Mechanics for Relativity and Quantum Mechanics is an innovative and mathematically sound treatment of the foundations of analytical mechanics and the relation of classical mechanics to relativity and quantum theory. It is intended for use at the introductory graduate level. A distinguishing feature of the book is its integration of special relativity into teaching of classical mechanics. After a thorough review of the traditional theory, Part II of the book introduces extended Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods that treat time as a transformable coordinate rather than the fixed parameter of Newtonian physics. Advanced topics such as covariant Langrangians and Hamiltonians, canonical transformations, and Hamilton-Jacobi methods are simplified by the use of this extended theory. And the definition of canonical transformation no longer excludes the Lorenz transformation of special relativity. This is also a book for those who study analytical mechanics to prepare for a critical exploration of quantum...
Klink, William H.; Schweiger, Wolfgang
2018-03-01
This book covers relativistic quantum theory from the point of view of a particle theory, based on the irreducible representations of the Poincaré group, the group that expresses the symmetry of Einstein relativity. There are several ways of formulating such a theory; this book develops what is called relativistic point form quantum mechanics, which, unlike quantum field theory, deals with a fixed number of particles in a relativistically invariant way. A chapter is devoted to applications of point form quantum mechanics to nuclear physics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawden, D.F.
1985-01-01
The book on elements of relativity theory is intended for final year school students or as an early university course in mathematical physics. Special principle of relativity, lorentz transformation, velocity transformations, relativistic mechanics, and general theory of relativity, are all discussed. (U.K.)
Functional methods underlying classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kryukov, A
2013-01-01
The paper investigates the physical content of a recently proposed mathematical framework that unifies the standard formalisms of classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory. In the framework states of a classical particle are identified with Dirac delta functions. The classical space is ''made'' of these functions and becomes a submanifold in a Hilbert space of states of the particle. The resulting embedding of the classical space into the space of states is highly non-trivial and accounts for numerous deep relations between classical and quantum physics and relativity. One of the most striking results is the proof that the normal probability distribution of position of a macroscopic particle (equivalently, position of the corresponding delta state within the classical space submanifold) yields the Born rule for transitions between arbitrary quantum states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banai, M.
1983-11-01
A quantum relativity theory formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity principle is outlined. The first task in this theory as in classical relativity theory is to model space-time, the arena of natural processes. It is argued that the quantum space-time models of Banai introduced in an earlier paper is formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity. Then it is shown that the recently proposed classical relativistic quantum theory of Prugovecki and his corresponding classical relativistic quantum model of space-time open the way to introduce in a consistent way the quantum space-time model (the 'canonically quantized Minkowski space') proposed by Banai earlier. The main new aspect of the quantum mechanics of the quantum relativistic particles is, in this model of space-time, that it provides a true mass eigenvalue problem and, that the excited mass states of such particles can be interpreted as classifically relativistic (massive) quantum particles ('elementary particles'). The question of field theory over quantum relativistic models of space-time is also discussed. Finally, it is suggested that 'quarks' should be considered as quantum relativistic particles. (author)
The enhancon mechanism in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarv, Laur
2002-01-01
The enhancon mechanism is a specific phenomenon in string theory which resolves a certain naked spacetime singularity arising in the supergravity description related to N = 2 supersymmetric pure gauge theory. After reviewing the problem of singularities in general relativity as well as in string theory, and discussing the prototypical enhancon example constructed by wrapping D6-branes on a K3 surface, the thesis presents three generalisations to this static spherically symmetric case pertaining to large N SU(N) gauge theory. First we will use orientifolds to show how the enhancon mechanism also works in similar situations related to SO(2N+1), USp(2N) and SO(2N) gauge theories. Second we will wrap D-brane distributions on K3 to obtain the enhancon in oblate, toroidal and prolate shapes. Third we will study a rotating enhancon configuration and consider its implications for the black hole entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remler, E.A.
1977-01-01
A gauge-invariant version of the Wigner representation is used to relate relativistic mechanics, statistical mechanics, and quantum field theory in the context of the electrodynamics of scalar particles. A unified formulation of quantum field theory and statistical mechanics is developed which clarifies the physics interpretation of the single-particle Wigner function. A covariant form of Ehrenfest's theorem is derived. Classical electrodynamics is derived from quantum field theory after making a random-phase approximation. The validity of this approximation is discussed
Entropy, Topological Theories and Emergent Quantum Mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Cabrera
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The classical thermostatics of equilibrium processes is shown to possess a quantum mechanical dual theory with a ﬁnite dimensional Hilbert space of quantum states. Speciﬁcally, the kernel of a certain Hamiltonian operator becomes the Hilbert space of quasistatic quantum mechanics. The relation of thermostatics to topological ﬁeld theory is also discussed in the context of the approach of the emergence of quantum theory, where the concept of entropy plays a key role.
The Green-Schwarz mechanism and geometric anomaly relations in 2d (0,2) F-theory vacua
Weigand, Timo; Xu, Fengjun
2018-04-01
We study the structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies in 2d N = (0 , 2) theories obtained by compactification of F-theory on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau 5-folds. Abelian gauge anomalies, induced at 1-loop in perturbation theory, are cancelled by a generalized Green-Schwarz mechanism operating at the level of chiral scalar fields in the 2d supergravity theory. We derive closed expressions for the gravitational and the non-abelian and abelian gauge anomalies including the Green-Schwarz counterterms. These expressions involve topological invariants of the underlying elliptic fibration and the gauge background thereon. Cancellation of anomalies in the effective theory predicts intricate topological identities which must hold on every elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau 5-fold. We verify these relations in a non-trivial example, but their proof from a purely mathematical perspective remains as an interesting open problem. Some of the identities we find on elliptic 5-folds are related in an intriguing way to previously studied topological identities governing the structure of anomalies in 6d N = (1 , 0) and 4d N = 1 theories obtained from F-theory.
Relativity. The theory and its philosophy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angel, R.B.
1980-01-01
An attempt is made to provide a completely self-contained treatment of the philosophical foundations of the theory of relativity. The chapter headings are: mathematical preliminaries; relativity and Newtonian mechanics; the principle of special relativity; empiricism, rationalism and special relativity; special relativity and conventionalism; the commensurability of classical and relativistic mechanics; more mathematics; the path to general relativity; an outline of general relativity; relativity and covariance; spacetime and geometry. (U.K.)
Quantum field theory and statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jegerlehner, F.
1975-01-01
At first a heuristic understanding is given how the relation between quantum field theory and statistical mechanics near phase transitions comes about. A long range scale invariant theory is constructed, critical indices are calculated and the relations among them are proved, field theoretical Kadanoff-scale transformations are formulated and scaling corrections calculated. A precise meaning to many of Kadanoffs considerations and a model matching Wegners phenomenological scheme is given. It is shown, that soft parametrization is most transparent for the discussion of scaling behaviour. (BJ) [de
Quantum relativity theory and quantum space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banai, M.
1984-01-01
A quantum relativity theory formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity principle is outlined. The first task in this theory as in classical relativity theory is to model space-time, the arena of natural processes. It is shown that the quantum space-time models of Banai introduced in another paper is formulated in terms of Davis's quantum relativity. The recently proposed classical relativistic quantum theory of Prugovecki and his corresponding classical relativistic quantum model of space-time open the way to introduce, in a consistent way, the quantum space-time model (the quantum substitute of Minkowski space) of Banai proposed in the paper mentioned. The goal of quantum mechanics of quantum relativistic particles living in this model of space-time is to predict the rest mass system properties of classically relativistic (massive) quantum particles (''elementary particles''). The main new aspect of this quantum mechanics is that it provides a true mass eigenvalue problem, and that the excited mass states of quantum relativistic particles can be interpreted as elementary particles. The question of field theory over quantum relativistic model of space-time is also discussed. Finally it is suggested that ''quarks'' should be considered as quantum relativistic particles. (author)
The Frame of Fixed Stars in Relational Mechanics
Ferraro, Rafael
2017-01-01
Relational mechanics is a gauge theory of classical mechanics whose laws do not govern the motion of individual particles but the evolution of the distances between particles. Its formulation gives a satisfactory answer to Leibniz's and Mach's criticisms of Newton's mechanics: relational mechanics does not rely on the idea of an absolute space. When describing the behavior of small subsystems with respect to the so called "fixed stars", relational mechanics basically agrees with Newtonian mechanics. However, those subsystems having huge angular momentum will deviate from the Newtonian behavior if they are described in the frame of fixed stars. Such subsystems naturally belong to the field of astronomy; they can be used to test the relational theory.
Relativity, symmetry and the structure of quantum theory
Klink, William H; Schweiger, Wolfgang
Quantum theory is one of the most successful of all physical theories. Our everyday world is dominated by devices that function because of knowledge of the quantum world. Yet many, physicists and non-physicists alike, find the theory which explains the behavior of the quantum world baffling and strange. This book is the first in a series of three that argues that relativity and symmetry determine the structure of quantum theory. That is to say, the structure of quantum theory is what it is because of relativity and symmetry. There are different types of relativity, each leading to a particular type of quantum theory. This book deals specifically with what we call Newton relativity, the form of relativity built into Newtonian mechanics, and the quantum theory to which it gives rise, which we call Galilean (often misleadingly called non-relativistic) quantum theory. Key Features: • Meaning and significance of the term of relativity; discussion of the principle of relativity. • Relation of symmetry to relati...
Quantum information and relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peres, Asher; Terno, Daniel R.
2004-01-01
This article discusses the intimate relationship between quantum mechanics, information theory, and relativity theory. Taken together these are the foundations of present-day theoretical physics, and their interrelationship is an essential part of the theory. The acquisition of information from a quantum system by an observer occurs at the interface of classical and quantum physics. The authors review the essential tools needed to describe this interface, i.e., Kraus matrices and positive-operator-valued measures. They then discuss how special relativity imposes severe restrictions on the transfer of information between distant systems and the implications of the fact that quantum entropy is not a Lorentz-covariant concept. This leads to a discussion of how it comes about that Lorentz transformations of reduced density matrices for entangled systems may not be completely positive maps. Quantum field theory is, of course, necessary for a consistent description of interactions. Its structure implies a fundamental tradeoff between detector reliability and localizability. Moreover, general relativity produces new and counterintuitive effects, particularly when black holes (or, more generally, event horizons) are involved. In this more general context the authors discuss how most of the current concepts in quantum information theory may require a reassessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deruelle, N.; Uzan, J.P.
2014-01-01
This book is a quite complete route towards general relativity via special relativity with a start point at Newton's mechanics. The mathematical formulation is based on tensors. All the relativistic aspects of only classical physics - it means no quantum mechanics - are exposed. This book is divided into 3 books and each book represents a consistent knowledge of physics at a certain time in the past: in Newton's time, in the second half of the 19. century and today. The advantage of this presentation is to make the reader feels the changes over time in the concepts of time, space, gravity, cosmology. Each book is divided into 3, 4 and 5 parts which are sub-divided into numerous chapters. Book 1: Space, time and gravity in Newton's theory, with part 1: kinematics, part 2: dynamics and part 3: gravity. Book 2: Special relativity and Maxwell's theory, with part 1: kinematics, part 2: dynamics, part 3: electromagnetism and part 4: electrodynamics. And Book 3: General relativity and gravity, with part 1: curved space-time and gravity, part 2: Schwarzschild solution and black holes, part 3: general relativity and experiments, part 4: Friedman-Lemaitre solutions and cosmology, and part 5: elements or Riemann geometry. The 3. book dedicated to general relativity, tackles topics like the relationships between space-time curvature and gravity, Schwarzschild solutions and black holes, gravitational waves, Friedmann-Lemaitre solutions and cosmology, and Riemann geometry. (A.C.)
Reconstructing constructivism: causal models, Bayesian learning mechanisms, and the theory theory.
Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M
2012-11-01
We propose a new version of the "theory theory" grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework theories. We outline the new theoretical ideas, explain the computational framework in an intuitive and nontechnical way, and review an extensive but relatively recent body of empirical results that supports these ideas. These include new studies of the mechanisms of learning. Children infer causal structure from statistical information, through their own actions on the world and through observations of the actions of others. Studies demonstrate these learning mechanisms in children from 16 months to 4 years old and include research on causal statistical learning, informal experimentation through play, and imitation and informal pedagogy. They also include studies of the variability and progressive character of intuitive theory change, particularly theory of mind. These studies investigate both the physical and the psychological and social domains. We conclude with suggestions for further collaborative projects between developmental and computational cognitive scientists.
Quantum mechanics theory and experiment
Beck, Mark
2012-01-01
This textbook presents quantum mechanics at the junior/senior undergraduate level. It is unique in that it describes not only quantum theory, but also presents five laboratories that explore truly modern aspects of quantum mechanics. These laboratories include "proving" that light contains photons, single-photon interference, and tests of local realism. The text begins by presenting the classical theory of polarization, moving on to describe the quantum theory of polarization. Analogies between the two theories minimize conceptual difficulties that students typically have when first presented with quantum mechanics. Furthermore, because the laboratories involve studying photons, using photon polarization as a prototypical quantum system allows the laboratory work to be closely integrated with the coursework. Polarization represents a two-dimensional quantum system, so the introduction to quantum mechanics uses two-dimensional state vectors and operators. This allows students to become comfortable with the mat...
A general theory of quantum relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minic, Djordje; Tze, C.-H.
2004-01-01
The geometric form of standard quantum mechanics is compatible with the two postulates: (1) the laws of physics are invariant under the choice of experimental setup and (2) every quantum observation or event is intrinsically statistical. These postulates remain compatible within a background independent extension of quantum theory with a local intrinsic time implying the relativity of the concept of a quantum event. In this extension the space of quantum events becomes dynamical and only individual quantum events make sense observationally. At the core of such a general theory of quantum relativity is the three-way interplay between the symplectic form, the dynamical metric and non-integrable almost complex structure of the space of quantum events. Such a formulation provides a missing conceptual ingredient in the search for a background independent quantum theory of gravity and matter. The crucial new technical element in our scheme derives from a set of recent mathematical results on certain infinite-dimensional almost Kahler manifolds which replace the complex projective spaces of standard quantum mechanics
Unified connected theory of few-body reaction mechanisms in N-body scattering theory
Polyzou, W. N.; Redish, E. F.
1978-01-01
A unified treatment of different reaction mechanisms in nonrelativistic N-body scattering is presented. The theory is based on connected kernel integral equations that are expected to become compact for reasonable constraints on the potentials. The operators T/sub +-//sup ab/(A) are approximate transition operators that describe the scattering proceeding through an arbitrary reaction mechanism A. These operators are uniquely determined by a connected kernel equation and satisfy an optical theorem consistent with the choice of reaction mechanism. Connected kernel equations relating T/sub +-//sup ab/(A) to the full T/sub +-//sup ab/ allow correction of the approximate solutions for any ignored process to any order. This theory gives a unified treatment of all few-body reaction mechanisms with the same dynamic simplicity of a model calculation, but can include complicated reaction mechanisms involving overlapping configurations where it is difficult to formulate models.
Catastrophe theory and its application status in mechanical engineering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinge LIU
Full Text Available Catastrophe theory is a kind of mathematical method which aims to apply and interpret the discontinuous phenomenon. Since its emergence, it has been widely used to explain a variety of emergent phenomena in the fields of natural science, social science, management science and some other science and technology fields. Firstly, this paper introduces the theory of catastrophe in several aspects, such as its generation, radical principle, basic characteristics and development. Secondly, it summarizes the main applications of catastrophe theory in the field of mechanical engineering, focusing on the research progress of catastrophe theory in revealing catastrophe of rotor vibration state, analyzing friction and wear failure, predicting metal fracture, and so on. Finally, it advises that later development of catastrophe theory should pay more attention to the combination of itself with other traditional nonlinear theories and methods. This paper provides a beneficial reference to guide the application of catastrophe theory in mechanical engineering and related fields for later research.
Convergence of scalar-tensor theories towards general relativity and primordial nucleosynthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serna, A; Alimi, J-M; Navarro, A
2002-01-01
In this paper, we analyse the conditions for convergence towards general relativity of scalar-tensor gravity theories defined by an arbitrary coupling function α (in the Einstein frame). We show that, in general, the evolution of the scalar field (φ) is governed by two opposite mechanisms: an attraction mechanism which tends to drive scalar-tensor models towards Einstein's theory, and a repulsion mechanism which has the contrary effect. The attraction mechanism dominates the recent epochs of the universe evolution if, and only if, the scalar field and its derivative satisfy certain boundary conditions. Since these conditions for convergence towards general relativity depend on the particular scalar-tensor theory used to describe the universe evolution, the nucleosynthesis bounds on the present value of the coupling function, α 0 , strongly differ from some theories to others. For example, in theories defined by α ∝ |φ| analytical estimates lead to very stringent nucleosynthesis bounds on α 0 (∼ -19 ). By contrast, in scalar-tensor theories defined by α ∝ φ much larger limits on α 0 (∼ -7 ) are found
Measurement theory in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, G.
1980-01-01
It is assumed that consciousness, memory and liberty (within the limits of the quantum mechanics indeterminism) are fundamental properties of elementary particles. Then, using this assumption it is shown how measurements and observers may be introduced in a natural way in the quantum mechanics theory. There are no longer fundamental differences between macroscopic and microscopic objects, between classical and quantum objects, between observer and object. Thus, discrepancies and paradoxes have disappeared from the conventional quantum mechanics theory. One consequence of the cumulative memory of the particles is that the sum of negentropy plus information is a constant. Using this theory it is also possible to explain the 'paranormal' phenomena and what is their difference from the 'normal' ones [fr
Pure Relationality as a Sociological Theory of Communication
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sam Whimster
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In order to explain the success of populist politicians use of social media, we need to subtract the social from relationality and separate social relationships from network theory applications. A pure theory of relationality is suggested by Werner Heisenberg’s breakthrough in quantum mechanics. It is argued that sociology, to its detriment, has failed to incorporate a theory of communication, one adequate to the explosion of social media and the recent rise of populist politics, here instanced by Donald Trump. Realizing the underlying importance of communication technology in all social relationships, and treating these two aspects in a complementary fashion, is the purpose of this essay in sociological theory.
Statistical mechanics and field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samuel, S.A.
1979-05-01
Field theory methods are applied to statistical mechanics. Statistical systems are related to fermionic-like field theories through a path integral representation. Considered are the Ising model, the free-fermion model, and close-packed dimer problems on various lattices. Graphical calculational techniques are developed. They are powerful and yield a simple procedure to compute the vacuum expectation value of an arbitrary product of Ising spin variables. From a field theorist's point of view, this is the simplest most logical derivation of the Ising model partition function and correlation functions. This work promises to open a new area of physics research when the methods are used to approximate unsolved problems. By the above methods a new model named the 128 pseudo-free vertex model is solved. Statistical mechanics intuition is applied to field theories. It is shown that certain relativistic field theories are equivalent to classical interacting gases. Using this analogy many results are obtained, particularly for the Sine-Gordon field theory. Quark confinement is considered. Although not a proof of confinement, a logical, esthetic, and simple picture is presented of how confinement works. A key ingredient is the insight gained by using an analog statistical system consisting of a gas of macromolecules. This analogy allows the computation of Wilson loops in the presence of topological vortices and when symmetry breakdown occurs in the topological quantum number. Topological symmetry breakdown calculations are placed on approximately the same level of rigor as instanton calculations. The picture of confinement that emerges is similar to the dual Meissner type advocated by Mandelstam. Before topological symmetry breakdown, QCD has monopoles bound linearly together by three topological strings. Topological symmetry breakdown corresponds to a new phase where these monopoles are liberated. It is these liberated monopoles that confine quarks. 64 references
Some speculations on a causal unification of relativity, gravitation, and quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buonomano, V; Engel, A [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Instituto de Matematica
1976-03-01
Some speculations on a causal model that could provide a common conceptual foundation for relativity, gravitation, and quantum mechanics are presented. The present approach is a unification of three theories, the first being the repulsive theory of gravitational forces first proposed by Lesage who attempted to explain gravitational forces from the principle of conservation of momentum of the hypothetical particles gravitons. The second of these theories is the Brownian motion theory of quantum mechanics or stochastic mechanics, which treats the nondeterministic nature of quantum mechanics as being due to a Brownian motion of all objects. This Brownian motion being caused by the statistical variation in the graviton flux. The above two theories are unified in this article with the causal theory of special relativity. The Big Bang theory of the creation of the Universe is assumed. An experimental test is proposed.
Convergence of scalar-tensor theories towards general relativity and primordial nucleosynthesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serna, A [Dept. Fisica y Computacion, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, E03202-Elche (Spain); Alimi, J-M [LAEC, CNRS-UMR 8631, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, F92195-Meudon (France); Navarro, A [Dept. Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, E30071-Murcia (Spain)
2002-03-07
In this paper, we analyse the conditions for convergence towards general relativity of scalar-tensor gravity theories defined by an arbitrary coupling function {alpha} (in the Einstein frame). We show that, in general, the evolution of the scalar field ({phi}) is governed by two opposite mechanisms: an attraction mechanism which tends to drive scalar-tensor models towards Einstein's theory, and a repulsion mechanism which has the contrary effect. The attraction mechanism dominates the recent epochs of the universe evolution if, and only if, the scalar field and its derivative satisfy certain boundary conditions. Since these conditions for convergence towards general relativity depend on the particular scalar-tensor theory used to describe the universe evolution, the nucleosynthesis bounds on the present value of the coupling function, {alpha}{sub 0}, strongly differ from some theories to others. For example, in theories defined by {alpha} {proportional_to} |{phi}| analytical estimates lead to very stringent nucleosynthesis bounds on {alpha}{sub 0}({approx}<10{sup -19}). By contrast, in scalar-tensor theories defined by {alpha} {proportional_to} {phi} much larger limits on {alpha}{sub 0}({approx}<10{sup -7}) are found.
Advanced mechanics and general relativity an introduction to general relativity
Franklin, Joel
2010-01-01
Aimed at advanced undergraduates with background knowledge of classical mechanics and electricity and magnetism, this textbook presents both the particle dynamics relevant to general relativity, and the field dynamics necessary to understand the theory. Focusing on action extremization, the book develops the structure and predictions of general relativity by analogy with familiar physical systems. Topics ranging from classical field theory to minimal surfaces and relativistic strings are covered in a homogeneous manner. Nearly 150 exercises and numerous examples throughout the textbook enable students to test their understanding of the material covered.
Test theories of special relativity: a general critique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maciel, A.K.A.; Tiomno, J.
1988-01-01
Absolute Spacetime Theories conceived for the purpose of testing Special Relativity (SR) are reviewed. It is found that most theories proposed were in fact SR in different coordinate systems, since in general no specific SR violations were introduced. Models based on possible SR violating mechanisms are considered. Misconceptions in recently published papers are examined. (author) [pt
Relativistic mechanics of two interacting particles and bilocal theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takabayasi, Takehiko
1975-01-01
New relativistic mechanics of two-particle system is set forth, where the two constituent particles are interacting by an arbitrary (central) action-at-a-distance. The fundamental equations are presented in a form covariant under general transformation of parameters parametrizing the world lines of constituent particles. The theory represents the proper relativistic generalization of the usual Newtonian mechanics in the sense that it tends in the non-relativistic (and weak interaction) limit to the usual mechanics of two particles moving under a corresponding non-relativistic potential. For the analysis of theory it is convenient to choose a certain particular gauge (i.e., parametrization) fixed by two gauge relations. This brings the theory to a canonical formalism accompanied by two weak equations, and in this gauge quantization can be performed. The result verifies that the relativistic quantum mechanics for two particles interacting by an action-at-a-distance is just represented by a bilocal wave equation and a subsidiary condition, with the clarification of its correspondence-theoretical foundation and internal dynamics. As an example the case of Hooke-type force is illustrated, where the internal motions are elliptic oscillations in the center-of-mass frame. Its quantum theory just reproduces the original form of bilocal theory giving bound states lying on a straightly rising trajectory and on its daughter trajectories. (auth.)
Quantum effects from a purely geometrical relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, Homer G
2005-01-01
A purely geometrical relativity theory results from a construction that produces from three-dimensional space a happy unification of Kaluza's five-dimensional theory and Weyl's conformal theory. The theory can provide geometrical explanations for the following observed phenomena, among others: (a) visibility lifetimes of elementary particles of lengths inversely proportional to their rest masses; (b) the equality of charge magnitude among all charged particles interacting at an event; (c) the propensity of electrons in atoms to be seen in discretely spaced orbits; and (d) 'quantum jumps' between those orbits. This suggests the possibility that the theory can provide a deterministic underpinning of quantum mechanics like that provided to thermodynamics by the molecular theory of gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kinnebrock, Werner
2011-01-01
The past century changed the classical, scientific way of view enormously. The quantum theory broke with the imagination of continuity of all dynamical processes and gave space to completely new, nearly revolutionary approaches of thinking. Einstein's relativity theory put the absoluteness of time and space as well as the general validity of the Euclidean geometry in question. The absolute calculability, as it was formulated by Laplace, was by the influence of chaos theory proven as illusion. Computers made by the Mandelbrot set the presentation of new esthetic and never seen structures. Hilbert's century program of a complete formalization of mathematics failed because of the famous law of Goedel. It is the demand of this book to present all these theories and conclusions easily understandably and entertainingly.
Statistical mechanics, gravity, and Euclidean theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fursaev, Dmitri V.
2002-01-01
A review of computations of free energy for Gibbs states on stationary but not static gravitational and gauge backgrounds is given. On these backgrounds wave equations for free fields are reduced to eigenvalue problems which depend non-linearly on the spectral parameter. We present a method to deal with such problems. In particular, we demonstrate how some results of the spectral theory of second-order elliptic operators, such as heat kernel asymptotics, can be extended to a class of non-linear spectral problems. The method is used to trace down the relation between the canonical definition of the free energy based on summation over the modes and the covariant definition given in Euclidean quantum gravity. As an application, high-temperature asymptotics of the free energy and of the thermal part of the stress-energy tensor in the presence of rotation are derived. We also discuss statistical mechanics in the presence of Killing horizons where canonical and Euclidean theories are related in a non-trivial way
Principles of general relativity theory in terms of the present day physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pervushin, V.N.
1986-01-01
A hystory of gradual unification of general relativity theory and quantum field theory on the basis of unified geometrical principles is detected. The gauge invariance principles became universal for construction of all physical theories. Quantum mechanics, electrodynamics and Einstein gravitation theory were used to form geometrical principles. Identity of inertial and gravitational masses is an experimental basis of the general relativity theory (GRT). It is shown that correct understanding of GRT bases is a developing process related to the development of the present physics and stimulating this development
Quantum mechanics, relativity and casuality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tati, T.
1976-01-01
In quantum mechanics, the state is prepared by a measurement on a spacelike surface sigma. What is that determine the surface sigma on which the measurement prepares the stae. It si considered either a mechanism proper to the measuring process (apparatus) or a universal property of space-time. In the former case, problems arise, concerning casuality or conservation of probability due to the fact that the velocity of reduction of a wave packet is considered to exceed the light velocity. The theory of finite degree of freedom proposed previously belongs to the latter case. In this theory, the surface sigma is restricted to the hyper-plane perpendicular to a universal time-like vector governing casual relations. An experimental to discriminate between the above-mentioned two cases and to test the existence of the universal timelike vector is proposed
Quantum mechanics, relativity and causality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tati, Takao.
1975-07-01
In quantum mechanics, the state is prepared by a measurement on a space-like surface sigma. What is that determines the surface sigma on which the measurement prepares the state It is considered either a mechanism proper to the measuring process (apparatus) or a universal property of space-time. In the former case, problems arise, concerning causality or conservation of probability due to that the velocity of reduction of wave-packet is considered to exceed the light velocity. The theory of finite degree of freedom proposed previously belongs to the latter case. In this theory, the surface sigma is restricted to the hyper-plane perpendicular to a universal time-like vector governing causal relations. We propose an experiment to discriminate between the above-mentioned two cases and to test the existence of the universal time-like vector. (auth.)
Braid group, knot theory and statistical mechanics II
Yang Chen Ning
1994-01-01
The present volume is an updated version of the book edited by C N Yang and M L Ge on the topics of braid groups and knot theory, which are related to statistical mechanics. This book is based on the 1989 volume but has new material included and new contributors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmutzer, E.
1979-01-01
Issued on the occasion of Albert Einstein's 100th birthday the book deals topically with the special and general relativity theory. The latest experiments to confirm the relativity theory are described and the historical development of the theory is presented in detail. Emphasis is given to the disclosure of deep insights into the nature of matter. Of interest to experts in physical and natural sciences and to mathematicians
On the physical origin for the geometric theory of continuum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenther, H.
1984-01-01
It is explained, that the basic notion for a geometric picture of the continuum mechanics is a four dimensional material manifold. The four dimensional mechanical affinity is then the unified field for any defect distribution in the general time dependent case. The minimal number of geometric relations being valid for any continuum is formulated as a set of pure affine relations. The state variables of the theory are additional tensor fields as e.g. deformation defining a metric. A material with a well defined deformation has a Newton-Cartan structure. Only if defects are included into the dynamical determination by additional equilibrium conditions, the theory has a pseudo relativistic structure. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rovelli, C.
1996-01-01
I suggest that the common unease with taking quantum mechanics as a fundamental description of nature (the open-quotes measurement problemclose quotes) could derive from the use of an incorrect notion, as the unease with the Lorentz transformations before Einstein derived from the notion of observer-independent time. I suggest that this incorrect notion that generates the unease with quantum mechanics is the notion of open-quotes observer-independent stateclose quotes of a system, or open-quotes observer-independent values of physical quantities.close quotes I reformulate the problem of the open-quotes interpretation of quantum mechanicsclose quotes as the problem of deriving the formalism from a set of simple physical postulates. I consider a reformulation of quantum mechanics in terms of information theory. All systems are assumed to be equivalent, there is no observer-observed distinction, and the theory describes only the information that systems have about each other; nevertheless, the theory is complete
Kilmister, Clive William
1970-01-01
Special Theory of Relativity provides a discussion of the special theory of relativity. Special relativity is not, like other scientific theories, a statement about the matter that forms the physical world, but has the form of a condition that the explicit physical theories must satisfy. It is thus a form of description, playing to some extent the role of the grammar of physics, prescribing which combinations of theoretical statements are admissible as descriptions of the physical world. Thus, to describe it, one needs also to describe those specific theories and to say how much they are limit
On the relation of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kober, Martin
2010-01-01
The specific content of the present thesis is presented in the following way. First the most important contents of quantum theory and general relativity theory are presented. In connection with the general relativity theory the mathematical property of the diffeomorphism invariance plays the deciding role, while concerning the quantum theory starting from the Copenhagen interpretation first the measurement problem is treated, before basing on the analysis of concrete phenomena and the mathematical apparatus of quantum theory the nonlocality is brought into focus as an important property. This means that both theories suggest a relationalistic view of the nature of the space. This analysis of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory in relation to the nature of the space obtains only under inclusion of Kant's philosophy and his analysis of the terms space and time as fundamental forms of perception its full persuasive power. Then von Weizsaeckers quantum theory of the ur-alternatives is presented. Finally attempts are made to apply the obtained knowledge to the question of the quantum-theoretical formulation of general relativity theory.
Applications of Jarzynski's relation in lattice gauge theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nada, Alessandro; Caselle, Michele; Costagliola, Gianluca
2016-01-01
Jarzynski's equality is a well-known result in statistical mechanics, relating free-energy differences between equilibrium ensembles with fluctuations in the work performed during non-equilibrium transformations from one ensemble to the other. In this work, an extension of this relation to lattice...... gauge theory will be presented, along with numerical results for the ℤ2 gauge model in three dimensions and for the equation of state in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. Then, further applications will be discussed, in particular for the Schrödinger functional and for the study of QCD...
How to recover Newtonian mechanics from non-relative quantum mechanics in limit ℎ→0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mei Shizhong
2001-01-01
It is assumed that when ℎ→0, correct non-relative quantum mechanics should be equivalent to Newtonian mechanics. Starting from this point, the authors slightly revised the widely accepted non-relative quantum mechanics such that the mechanics after modification is strictly equivalent to that before the modification when ℎ≠0, and equivalent to Newtonian mechanics in the limit ℎ→0. The significance lies in the possibility that if authors further postulate that corrected relative quantum mechanics is equivalent to Einstein's theory of relativity in the case ℎ→0, then authors may obtain different predictions from what produced by the former that will help to verify or improve it
The special theory of relativity
Devanathan, V
2015-01-01
THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY, designed as a text book for undergraduate and postgraduate students, deals with the Michelson-Morley experiment, the concept of unified space and time, the Lorentz transformation of physical quantities, length contraction, time dilation, the Minkowski space, the mass-energy relation, the concept of four-vectors, the relativistic mechanics, the laws of transformation between centre of momentum and laboratory systems, the relativistic kinematics, the unification of laws of electricity and magnetism into laws of electromagnetism, the invariance of Maxwell's equations under Lorentz transformation and the Lorentz transformation of electromagnetic quantities. KEY FEATURES: * Review Questions * Problems * Solutions to Problems * Multiple Choice Questions
Special Relativity, Causality and Quantum Mechanics - 1
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
postulate of the special theory of relativity (STR) stipulating the ... STR may be a more general principle to orga- nize our ... keep the laws of mechanics invariant in all inertial frames. .... cording to a different set of transformation equations.
Violations of Einstein's Relativity: Motivations, Theory, and Phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, Ralf
2011-01-01
One of the most difficult questions in present-day physics concerns a fundamental theory of space, time, and matter that incorporates a consistent quantum description of gravity. There are various theoretical approaches to such a quantum-gravity theory. Nevertheless, experimental progress is hampered in this research field because many models predict deviations from established physics that are suppressed by some power of the Planck scale, which currently appears to be immeasurably small. However, tests of relativity theory provide one promising avenue to overcome this phenomeno-logical obstacle: many models for underlying physics can accommodate a small breakdown of Lorentz symmetry, and numerous feasible Lorentz-symmetry tests have Planck reach. Such mild violations of Einstein's relativity have therefore become the focus of recent research efforts. This mini course provides a brief survey of the key ideas in this research field and is geared at both experimentalists and theorists. In particular, several theoretical mechanisms leading to deviations from relativity theory are presented; the standard theoretical framework for relativity violations at currently accessible energy scales (i.e., the SME) is reviewed, and various present and near-future experimental efforts within this field are discussed.
Uncertainty relations for information entropy in wave mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bialynicki-Birula, I.; Pittsburgh Univ., Pa.; Mycielski, J.
1975-01-01
New uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics are derived. They express restrictions imposed by quantum theory on probability distributions of canonically conjugate variables in terms of corresponding information entropies. The Heisenberg uncertainty relation follows from those inequalities and so does the Gross-Nelson inequality. (orig.) [de
Ofer H. Azar
2005-01-01
The article presents a theory that I denote “Relative Thinking Theory,” which claims that people consider relative differences and not only absolute differences when making various economics decisions, even in those cases where the rational model dictates that people should consider only absolute differences. The article reviews experimental evidence for this behavior, summarizing briefly several experiments I conducted, as well as some earlier related literature. It then discusses how we can...
Interacting bosons model and relation with BCS theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diniz, R.
1990-01-01
The Nambu mechanism for BCS theory is extended with inclusion of quadrupole pairing in addition to the usual monopole pairing. An effective Hamiltonian is constructed and its relation to the IBM is discussed. The faced difficulties and a possible generalization of this model are discussed. (author)
The relative entropy in the quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lecomte Montes, A.
1983-06-01
Relative Entropy is a generalization of entropy which substitutes the Liouville measure from classical mechanics or the trace from quantum mechanics by an arbitrary state. There are many different defintions of it in quantum mechanics because the algebra of observables is not commutative. In this work, three known defintions of the quantum relative entropy are studied and compared but specifically their common properties are presented. The best known defintion was proposed many years ago by Umegaki and later on by Lindblad. This defintion can be realized through a functional calculus for quadratic forms introduced by Pusz and Woronowicz, for two arbitrary states on a Csup(*)-algebra. The two other definitions investigated are the Naudt's entropy and the inference function of Marchand and Wyss. The first one can be expressed through the functional calculus too, it has then almost the same properties as the Umegaki-Lindblad defintion. The inference function can be considered only as some kind of 1/2-relative entropy. The function is nevertheless very important because it can be expressed as the logarithm of the transition probability between the basis state and the actual state. A general theory which includes the three defintions is not found yet, but it is shown that the functional calculus provides a great family of relative entropies. This is important for a unified theory of all defintions and their properties. (Author)
Dynamical mechanism of symmetry breaking and particle mass generation in gauge field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miranskij, V.A.; Fomin, P.I.
1985-01-01
The dynamics of the spotaneous symmetry breaking and the particle mass generation in gauge theories with no fundamental scalar fields is considered. The emphasis is on the consideration of the symmetry breaking mechanism connected with the dynamics of the supercritical Coulomb-like forces caused by the gauge boson exchange between fermions. This mechanism is applied to different gauge theories, in particular, to the description of the spontaneous chira symmetry breaking in quantum chromodynamics. The mass relations for pseudoscalar meson nonet are obtained and it is shown that this mechanism resuls in the dynamical realisation of the hypothesis of the partial conservation of the axial-vector currents. The qualitative description of scalar mesons is given. The nature of the ultraviolet divergencies in quantum electrodynamics (QED) is investigated from the viewpoint of the dynamics of the fermion mass generation. The mechanism of the appearance of the additional (in comparison with perturbation theory) ultraviolet divergencies in QED with large bare coupling constant is indicated. The physical phenomenon underlying this mechanism is identified as the field theory analogue of the quantum mechanical ''fall into the centre'' (collapse) phenomenon. The similr phenomenon is shown to take place in some two-dimensional quantum field models. The dynamics of the bifermion condensates formation in tumblin gauge theories is briefly discussed
Bohmian mechanics. The physics and mathematics of quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duerr, Detlef; Teufel, Stefan
2009-01-01
Bohmian Mechanics was formulated in 1952 by David Bohm as a complete theory of quantum phenomena based on a particle picture. It was promoted some decades later by John S. Bell, who, intrigued by the manifestly nonlocal structure of the theory, was led to his famous Bell's inequalities. Experimental tests of the inequalities verified that nature is indeed nonlocal. Bohmian mechanics has since then prospered as the straightforward completion of quantum mechanics. This book provides a systematic introduction to Bohmian mechanics and to the mathematical abstractions of quantum mechanics, which range from the self-adjointness of the Schroedinger operator to scattering theory. It explains how the quantum formalism emerges when Boltzmann's ideas about statistical mechanics are applied to Bohmian mechanics. The book is self-contained, mathematically rigorous and an ideal starting point for a fundamental approach to quantum mechanics. It will appeal to students and newcomers to the field, as well as to established scientists seeking a clear exposition of the theory. (orig.)
Bohmian mechanics. The physics and mathematics of quantum theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duerr, Detlef [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet Mathematik; Teufel, Stefan [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Mathematisches Inst.
2009-07-01
Bohmian Mechanics was formulated in 1952 by David Bohm as a complete theory of quantum phenomena based on a particle picture. It was promoted some decades later by John S. Bell, who, intrigued by the manifestly nonlocal structure of the theory, was led to his famous Bell's inequalities. Experimental tests of the inequalities verified that nature is indeed nonlocal. Bohmian mechanics has since then prospered as the straightforward completion of quantum mechanics. This book provides a systematic introduction to Bohmian mechanics and to the mathematical abstractions of quantum mechanics, which range from the self-adjointness of the Schroedinger operator to scattering theory. It explains how the quantum formalism emerges when Boltzmann's ideas about statistical mechanics are applied to Bohmian mechanics. The book is self-contained, mathematically rigorous and an ideal starting point for a fundamental approach to quantum mechanics. It will appeal to students and newcomers to the field, as well as to established scientists seeking a clear exposition of the theory. (orig.)
Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 2. Macroscopic quantum-type mechanics.
Nottale, Laurent; Auffray, Charles
2008-05-01
In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, which aims at describing the effects of a non-differentiable and fractal (i.e., explicitly scale dependent) geometry of space-time. The first paper of this series was devoted, in this new framework, to the construction from first principles of scale laws of increasing complexity, and to the discussion of some tentative applications of these laws to biological systems. In this second review and perspective paper, we describe the effects induced by the internal fractal structures of trajectories on motion in standard space. Their main consequence is the transformation of classical dynamics into a generalized, quantum-like self-organized dynamics. A Schrödinger-type equation is derived as an integral of the geodesic equation in a fractal space. We then indicate how gauge fields can be constructed from a geometric re-interpretation of gauge transformations as scale transformations in fractal space-time. Finally, we introduce a new tentative development of the theory, in which quantum laws would hold also in scale space, introducing complexergy as a measure of organizational complexity. Initial possible applications of this extended framework to the processes of morphogenesis and the emergence of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular structures are discussed. Having founded elements of the evolutionary, developmental, biochemical and cellular theories on the first principles of scale relativity theory, we introduce proposals for the construction of an integrative theory of life and for the design and implementation of novel macroscopic quantum-type experiments and devices, and discuss their potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harder, M.
2005-01-01
The chase after a world formula is presently the most iridescent task for natural science. By the development of a radical new scientistic theory, unifying not only relativity and quantum theory as also astrophysics and string theory to a common view, the author lances the first serious candidate for a TOE (Theory of Everything) in the scientific discussion. The General Theory of Duality (GDT) offers not only surprising answers to fundamental questions of physics, but also discovers the smallest component of our universe, which is still known since a longer time, which we ignored: Planck's Constant. May be possible that by this book a new world view in physics can be created. (GL)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pordt, A.
1985-10-01
The author describes the Mayer expansion in Euclidean lattice field theory by comparing it with the statistical mechanics of polymer systems. In this connection he discusses the Borel summability and the analyticity of the activities on the lattice. Furthermore the relations between renormalization and the Mayer expansion are considered. (HSI)
Closing in on chemical bonds by opening up relativity theory.
Whitney, Cynthia K
2008-03-01
This paper develops a connection between the phenomenology of chemical bonding and the theory of relativity. Empirical correlations between electron numbers in atoms and chemical bond stabilities in molecules are first reviewed and extended. Quantitative chemical bond strengths are then related to ionization potentials in elements. Striking patterns in ionization potentials are revealed when the data are viewed in an element-independent way, where element-specific details are removed via an appropriate scaling law. The scale factor involved is not explained by quantum mechanics; it is revealed only when one goes back further, to the development of Einstein's special relativity theory.
Celestial mechanics and astrodynamics theory and practice
Gurfil, Pini
2016-01-01
This volume is designed as an introductory text and reference book for graduate students, researchers and practitioners in the fields of astronomy, astrodynamics, satellite systems, space sciences and astrophysics. The purpose of the book is to emphasize the similarities between celestial mechanics and astrodynamics, and to present recent advances in these two fields so that the reader can understand the inter-relations and mutual influences. The juxtaposition of celestial mechanics and astrodynamics is a unique approach that is expected to be a refreshing attempt to discuss both the mechanics of space flight and the dynamics of celestial objects. “Celestial Mechanics and Astrodynamics: Theory and Practice” also presents the main challenges and future prospects for the two fields in an elaborate, comprehensive and rigorous manner. The book presents homogenous and fluent discussions of the key problems, rendering a portrayal of recent advances in the field together with some basic concepts and essential in...
Unifying quanta and relativity. Schroedinger`s attitude to relativistic quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kragh, H. [Roskilde Universitetscenter (Denmark)
1992-12-31
A considerable part of Schroedinger`s scientific work focused on the relationship between quantum theory and the theory of relativity. This paper provides a historical analysis of his occupation on this subject in the period 1925-1934. The first section surveys the role played by relativity in Schroedinger`s formation of wave mechanics in 1925-1926; the second section analyzes his attempt to make sense of Dirac`s theory of the electron by proposing a relativistic wave equation with positive energies only. In this work, which took place in 1930-1931, Schroedinger discovered the Zitterbewegung that Dirac electrons will exhibit even in a field-free case. Schroedinger`s failed attempt to introduce an alternative to the Dirac theory was part of his general dissatisfaction with the current state of quantum mechanics. It is argued that, to a large extent, his work on the Dirac theory was philosophically motivated and that it contributed to his alienation from mainstream quantum physics in the 1930s. (author). 54 refs.
On Palacios-Gordon's theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulati, P.S.
1981-01-01
Since the early days of Einstein's special theory of relativity (1905), it is known that this theory suffers from some epistemological problems. Over the years, many theoreticians have endeavored to overcome these problems, rejecting either the 'Principle of Relativity' or the 'Light Principle'. Palacios and Gordon rejected the former and advanced an alternative theory governed by Voigt's transformation equations (1887). In the present paper, Palacios-Gordon's theory has been critically examined and some of its drawbacks are discovered. It becomes obvious that neither Einstein's special theory of relativity nor Palacios-Gordon's theory of relativity provides a flawless fit to the real world. It is speculated that suitable synthesis of these two theories might resolve all the controversial issues of special theory of relativity. (author)
Gravity, general relativity theory and alternative theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zel'dovich, Ya.B.; Grishchuk, L.P.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.
1986-01-01
The main steps in plotting the current gravitation theory and some prospects of its subsequent development are reviewed. The attention is concentrated on a comparison of the relativistic gravitational field with other physical fields. Two equivalent formulations of the general relativity (GR) - geometrical and field-theoretical - are considered in detail. It is shown that some theories of gravity constructed as the field theories at a flat background space-time are in fact just different formulations of GR and not alternative theories
Generalized string theory mapping relations between gravity and gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.
2003-01-01
A previous study of the Kawai, Lewellen and Tye (KLT) relations between gravity and gauge theories, imposed by the relationship of closed and open strings, are here extended in the light of general relativity and Yang-Mills theory as effective field theories. We discuss the possibility of generalizing the traditional KLT mapping in this effective setting. A generalized mapping between the effective Lagrangians of gravity and Yang-Mills theory is presented, and the corresponding operator relations between gauge and gravity theories at the tree level are further explored. From this generalized mapping remarkable diagrammatic relations are found, linking diagrams in gravity and Yang-Mills theory, as well as diagrams in pure effective Yang-Mills theory. Also the possibility of a gravitational coupling to an antisymmetric field in the gravity scattering amplitude is considered, and shown to allow for mixed open-closed string solutions, i.e., closed heterotic strings
Double Exponential Relativity Theory Coupled Theoretically with Quantum Theory?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco
2007-01-01
Here the problem of special relativity is analyzed into the context of a new theoretical formulation: the Double Exponential Theory of Special Relativity with respect to which the current Special or Restricted Theory of Relativity (STR) turns to be a particular case only
[Scale Relativity Theory in living beings morphogenesis: fratal, determinism and chance].
Chaline, J
2012-10-01
The Scale Relativity Theory has many biological applications from linear to non-linear and, from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics. Self-similar laws have been used as model for the description of a huge number of biological systems. Theses laws may explain the origin of basal life structures. Log-periodic behaviors of acceleration or deceleration can be applied to branching macroevolution, to the time sequences of major evolutionary leaps. The existence of such a law does not mean that the role of chance in evolution is reduced, but instead that randomness and contingency may occur within a framework which may itself be structured in a partly statistical way. The scale relativity theory can open new perspectives in evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Quantum Theory finally reconciled with Special Relativity
Tommasini, Daniele
2001-01-01
In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) pointed out that Quantum Mechanics apparently implied some mysterious, instantaneous action at a distance. This paradox is supposed to be related to the probabilistic nature of the theory, but since deterministic alternatives involving "Hidden Variables" hardly agree with the experiments, the scientific community is now accepting this ``quantum nonlocality" as if it were a reality. However, I have argued recently that Quantum Electrodynamics is free ...
The special theory of relativity bound with relativity
Dingle, Herbert
2014-01-01
The Special Theory of Relativity:Based on a short course of lectures delivered in the late 1930s, this short book presents the theory of Special Relativity by formulating a redefinition of the measurement of length, and thus will appeal to students of physics who wish to think through Einstein's thought without the encumbrance of quasi-scientific concepts and language. Relativity: A Very Elementary Exposition:This brief lecture, delivered in October 1921 and published for the first time in 1925, offers an explanation of Einstein's theory of Special Relativity for the non-scientist, giving a ge
Tissue Acoustoelectric Effect Modeling From Solid Mechanics Theory.
Song, Xizi; Qin, Yexian; Xu, Yanbin; Ingram, Pier; Witte, Russell S; Dong, Feng
2017-10-01
The acoustoelectric (AE) effect is a basic physical phenomenon, which underlies the changes made in the conductivity of a medium by the application of focused ultrasound. Recently, based on the AE effect, several biomedical imaging techniques have been widely studied, such as ultrasound-modulated electrical impedance tomography and ultrasound current source density imaging. To further investigate the mechanism of the AE effect in tissue and to provide guidance for such techniques, we have modeled the tissue AE effect using the theory of solid mechanics. Both bulk compression and thermal expansion of tissue are considered and discussed. Computation simulation shows that the muscle AE effect result, conductivity change rate, is 3.26×10 -3 with 4.3-MPa peak pressure, satisfying the theoretical value. Bulk compression plays the main role for muscle AE effect, while thermal expansion makes almost no contribution to it. In addition, the AE signals of porcine muscle are measured at different focal positions. With the same magnitude order and the same change trend, the experiment result confirms that the simulation result is effective. Both simulation and experimental results validate that tissue AE effect modeling using solid mechanics theory is feasible, which is of significance for the further development of related biomedical imaging techniques.
Quantum mechanics from general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sachs, M.
1986-01-01
A generalization of quantum mechanics is demonstrated in the context of general relativity, following from a generally covariant field theory of inertia. Nonrelativistically, the formalism corresponds with linear quantum mechanics. In the limit of special relativity, nonlinearity remains and several new features are derived: (1) Particle-antiparticle pairs do not annihilate; an exact bound state solution is derived corresponding with all experimental facts about annihilation/creation - which, in approximation, gives the blackbody radiation spectrum for a sea of such pairs. (2) A result is proven, without approximation, that is physically equivalent to the Pauli exclusion principle - which, in linear approximation, gives the totally antisymmetrised many-body wave function and Fermi-Dirac statistics. (3) The hydrogen spectrum is derived, including the Lamb shifts, in agreement with experiment; new results are found for high energy electron-proton scattering. (4) Finally, several applications to the elementary particle domain are demonstrated, in agreement with results from experimental high energy physics. (Auth.)
A new approach to teaching the foundamentals of the relativity mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tyapkin, A.A.
1985-01-01
A new approach to teaching the fundamentals of relativistic mechanics is discussed. The aim is to achieve deeper understanding of the special theory of relativity. The methodic innovation is that the Galilean coordinates are used to describe rates of the physical processes represented under equivalent physical conditions in inertial systems which move regarding one another. Such consideration reveals general features in deviations of physical laws from the invariance in respect of the Galilean transformations. Those deviations manifest themselves in general relative changes of the rates of all physical processes, occuring with preservation of kinematic likelihood. Those changes of rates of processes in the direction of relative movement of a reference system are related to the difference of eigensimultaneities in different inertial systems of reference, as established in the relativity theory. This interpretation of the relativity theory is shown to be related to ideas of Poincare and Lorentz who developed the fundamentals of the relativity theory
Fraïssé, R
2011-01-01
The first part of this book concerns the present state of the theory of chains (= total or linear orderings), in connection with some refinements of Ramsey's theorem, due to Galvin and Nash-Williams. This leads to the fundamental Laver's embeddability theorem for scattered chains, using Nash-Williams' better quasi-orderings, barriers and forerunning.The second part (chapters 9 to 12) extends to general relations the main notions and results from order-type theory. An important connection appears with permutation theory (Cameron, Pouzet, Livingstone and Wagner) and with logics (existence criter
Scattering theory in quantum mechanics and asymptotic completeness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Combes, J.M.
1977-07-01
A trial for describing the status of the scattering theory in quantum mechanics is given. The S matrix being defined, its unitarity is a consequence of the asymptotic completeness relation which is one of the mean problems discussed. It is shown that the multichannel scattering theory can be reformulated in the two Hilbert space formalism with a suitable choice of H 0 and J (one-body problem and N-body systems). Time-dependent methods try to solve directly the existence problem for wave-operators without recourse to resolvent methods. Emphasis is put on the fact that the success of such a method can be traced to its semi-classical aspect in the sense that the stationary phase method is a special way to single-out from the quantum dynamics the contribution of classical orbits
Classical mechanics including an introduction to the theory of elasticity
Hentschke, Reinhard
2017-01-01
This textbook teaches classical mechanics as one of the foundations of physics. It describes the mechanical stability and motion in physical systems ranging from the molecular to the galactic scale. Aside from the standard topics of mechanics in the physics curriculum, this book includes an introduction to the theory of elasticity and its use in selected modern engineering applications, e.g. dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic materials. The text also covers many aspects of numerical mechanics, ranging from the solution of ordinary differential equations, including molecular dynamics simulation of many particle systems, to the finite element method. Attendant Mathematica programs or parts thereof are provided in conjunction with selected examples. Numerous links allow the reader to connect to related subjects and research topics. Among others this includes statistical mechanics (separate chapter), quantum mechanics, space flight, galactic dynamics, friction, and vibration spectroscopy. An introductory...
Noether's theorems applications in mechanics and field theory
Sardanashvily, Gennadi
2016-01-01
The book provides a detailed exposition of the calculus of variations on fibre bundles and graded manifolds. It presents applications in such area's as non-relativistic mechanics, gauge theory, gravitation theory and topological field theory with emphasis on energy and energy-momentum conservation laws. Within this general context the first and second Noether theorems are treated in the very general setting of reducible degenerate graded Lagrangian theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Huanwu
2005-01-01
Taking Dirac's large number hypothesis as true, we have shown [Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703] the inconsistency of applying Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant G to cosmology, and a modified theory for varying G is found, which reduces to Einstein's theory outside the gravitating body for phenomena of short duration in small distances, thereby agrees with all the crucial tests formerly supporting Einstein's theory. The modified theory, when applied to the usual homogeneous cosmological model, gives rise to a variable cosmological tensor term determined by the derivatives of G, in place of the cosmological constant term usually introduced ad hoc. Without any free parameter the theoretical Hubble's relation obtained from the modified theory seems not in contradiction to observations, as Dr. Wang's preliminary analysis of the recent data indicates [Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703]. As a complement to Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703 we shall study in this paper the modification of electromagnetism due to Dirac's large number hypothesis in more detail to show that the approximation of geometric optics still leads to null geodesics for the path of light, and that the general relation between the luminosity distance and the proper geometric distance is still valid in our theory as in Einstein's theory, and give the equations for homogeneous cosmological model involving matter plus electromagnetic radiation. Finally we consider the impact of the modification to quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, and arrive at a systematic theory of evolving natural constants including Planck's h-bar as well as Boltzmann's k B by finding out their cosmologically combined counterparts with factors of appropriate powers of G that may remain truly constant to cosmologically long time.
Exponential complexity and ontological theories of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montina, A.
2008-01-01
Ontological theories of quantum mechanics describe a single system by means of well-defined classical variables and attribute the quantum uncertainties to our ignorance about the underlying reality represented by these variables. We consider the general class of ontological theories describing a quantum system by a set of variables with Markovian (either deterministic or stochastic) evolution. We provide proof that the number of continuous variables cannot be smaller than 2N-2, N being the Hilbert-space dimension. Thus, any ontological Markovian theory of quantum mechanics requires a number of variables which grows exponentially with the physical size. This result is relevant also in the framework of quantum Monte Carlo methods
Shell and membrane theories in mechanics and biology from macro- to nanoscale structures
Mikhasev, Gennadi
2015-01-01
This book presents the latest results related to shells characterize and design shells, plates, membranes and other thin-walled structures, a multidisciplinary approach from macro- to nanoscale is required which involves the classical disciplines of mechanical/civil/materials engineering (design, analysis, and properties) and physics/biology/medicine among others. The book contains contributions of a meeting of specialists (mechanical engineers, mathematicians, physicists and others) in such areas as classical and non-classical shell theories. New trends with respect to applications in mechanical, civil and aero-space engineering, as well as in new branches like medicine and biology are presented which demand improvements of the theoretical foundations of these theories and a deeper understanding of the material behavior used in such structures.
Nonlinear structural mechanics theory, dynamical phenomena and modeling
Lacarbonara, Walter
2013-01-01
Nonlinear Structural Mechanics: Theory, Dynamical Phenomena and Modeling offers a concise, coherent presentation of the theoretical framework of nonlinear structural mechanics, computational methods, applications, parametric investigations of nonlinear phenomena and their mechanical interpretation towards design. The theoretical and computational tools that enable the formulation, solution, and interpretation of nonlinear structures are presented in a systematic fashion so as to gradually attain an increasing level of complexity of structural behaviors, under the prevailing assumptions on the geometry of deformation, the constitutive aspects and the loading scenarios. Readers will find a treatment of the foundations of nonlinear structural mechanics towards advanced reduced models, unified with modern computational tools in the framework of the prominent nonlinear structural dynamic phenomena while tackling both the mathematical and applied sciences. Nonlinear Structural Mechanics: Theory, Dynamical Phenomena...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buonomano, V.; Engel, A.
1974-10-01
Some speculations on a causal model that seems to provide a common conceptual foundation for Relativity Gravitation and Quantum Mechanics are presented. The present approach is a unifying of three theories. The first being the repulsive theory of gravitational forces first proposed by Lesage in the eighteenth century. The second of these theories is the Brownian Motion Theory of Quantum Mechanics or Stocastic Mechanics which treats the non-deterministic Nature of Quantum Mechanics as being due to a Brownian motion of all objects. This Brownian motion being caused by the statistical variation in the graviton flux. The above two theories are unified with the Causal Theory of Special Relativity. Within the present context, the time dilations (and other effects) of Relativity are explained by assuming that the rate of a clock is a function of the total number or intensity of gravitons and the average frequency or energy of the gravitons that the clock receives. The Special Theory would then be the special case of the General Theory where the intensity is constant but the average frequency varies. In all the previous it is necessary to assume a particular model of the creation of the universe, namely the Big Bang Theory. This assumption gives us the existence of a preferred reference frame, the frame in which the Big Bang explosion was at rest. The above concepts of graviton distribution and real time dilations become meaningful by assuming the Big Bang Theory along with this preferred frame. An experimental test is proposed
Topological field theories and quantum mechanics on commutative space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lefrancois, M.
2005-12-01
In particle physics, the Standard Model describes the interactions between fundamental particles. However, it was not able till now to unify quantum field theory and general relativity. This thesis focuses on two different unification approaches, though they might show some compatibility: topological field theories and quantum mechanics on non-commutative space. Topological field theories have been introduced some twenty years ago and have a very strong link to mathematics: their observables are topological invariants of the manifold they are defined on. In this thesis, we first give interest to topological Yang-Mills. We develop a superspace formalism and give a systematic method for the determination of the observables. This approach allows, once projected on a particular super gauge (of Wess-Zumino type), to recover the existing results but it also gives a generalisation to the case of an unspecified super-gauge. We have then be able to show that the up-to-now known observables correspond to the most general form of the solutions. This superspace formalism can be applied to more complex models; the case of topological gravity is given here in example. Quantum mechanics on noncommutative space provides an extension of the Heisenberg algebra of ordinary quantum mechanics. What differs here is that the components of the position or momentum operators do not commute with each other anymore. This implies to introduce a fundamental length. The second part of this thesis focuses on the description of the commutation algebra. Applications are made to low-dimensional quantum systems (Landau system, harmonic oscillator...) and to supersymmetric systems. (author)
The end of International Relations theory?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dunne, Tim; Hansen, Lene; Wight, Colin
2013-01-01
With a view to providing contextual background for the Special Issue, this opening article analyses several dimensions of ‘The end of International Relations theory?’ It opens with a consideration of the status of different types of theory. Thereafter, we look at the proliferation of theories...... to the alternatives currently being practised: integrative pluralism. The article ends on a cautiously optimistic note: given the disciplinary competition that now exists in relation to explaining and understanding global social forces, International Relations may find resilience because it has become theory...
The curious relation between theory of mind and sharing in preschool age children.
Cowell, Jason M; Samek, Anya; List, John; Decety, Jean
2015-01-01
Young children have long been known to act selfishly and gradually appear to become more generous across middle childhood. While this apparent change has been well documented, the underlying mechanisms supporting this remain unclear. The current study examined the role of early theory of mind and executive functioning in facilitating sharing in a large sample (N = 98) of preschoolers. Results reveal a curious relation between early false-belief understanding and sharing behavior. Contrary to many commonsense notions and predominant theories, competence in this ability is actually related to less sharing. Thus, the relation between developing theory of mind and sharing may not be as straightforward as it seems in preschool age children. It is precisely the children who can engage in theory of mind that decide to share less with others.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martini, Luiz Cesar
2014-01-01
This article results from Introducing the Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory that was published in reference 1. The Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory shows a series of facts relative to matter, energy, space and concludes that empty space is inelastic, absolutely stationary, motionless, perpetual, without possibility of deformation neither can it be destroyed or created. A elementary cell of empty space or a certain amount of empty space can be occupied by any quantity of energy or matter without any alteration or deformation. As a consequence of these properties and being a integral part of the theory, the principles of Relativity Theory must be changed to become simple and intuitive.
M(atrix) theory: matrix quantum mechanics as a fundamental theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, Washington
2001-01-01
This article reviews the matrix model of M theory. M theory is an 11-dimensional quantum theory of gravity that is believed to underlie all superstring theories. M theory is currently the most plausible candidate for a theory of fundamental physics which reconciles gravity and quantum field theory in a realistic fashion. Evidence for M theory is still only circumstantial -- no complete background-independent formulation of the theory exists as yet. Matrix theory was first developed as a regularized theory of a supersymmetric quantum membrane. More recently, it has appeared in a different guise as the discrete light-cone quantization of M theory in flat space. These two approaches to matrix theory are described in detail and compared. It is shown that matrix theory is a well-defined quantum theory that reduces to a supersymmetric theory of gravity at low energies. Although its fundamental degrees of freedom are essentially pointlike, higher-dimensional fluctuating objects (branes) arise through the non-Abelian structure of the matrix degrees of freedom. The problem of formulating matrix theory in a general space-time background is discussed, and the connections between matrix theory and other related models are reviewed
The curious history of relativity how Einstein's theory of gravity was lost and found again
Eisenstaedt, Jean
2006-01-01
Black holes may obliterate most things that come near them, but they saved the theory of general relativity. Einstein's theory was quickly accepted as the true theory of gravity after its publication in 1915, but soon took a back seat in physics to quantum mechanics and languished for decades on the blackboards of mathematicians. Not until the existence of black holes by Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose in the 1960s, after Einstein's death, was the theory revived. Almost one hundred years after general relativity replaced Newton's theory of gravitation, The Curious History of Relativity tells the story of both events surrounding general relativity and the techniques employed by Einstein and the relativists to construct, develop, and understand his almost impenetrable theory. Jean Eisenstaedt, one of the world's leading experts on the subject, also discusses the theory's place in the evolution of twentieth-century physics. He describes the main stages in the development of general relativity: its beginnings,...
Lectures in nonlinear mechanics and chaos theory
Stetz, Albert W
2016-01-01
This elegant book presents a rigorous introduction to the theory of nonlinear mechanics and chaos. It turns out that many simple mechanical systems suffer from a peculiar malady. They are deterministic in the sense that their motion can be described with partial differential equations, but these equations have no proper solutions and the behavior they describe can be wildly unpredictable. This is implicit in Newtonian physics, and although it was analyzed in the pioneering work of Poincaré in the 19th century, its full significance has only been realized since the advent of modern computing. This book follows this development in the context of classical mechanics as it is usually taught in most graduate programs in physics. It starts with the seminal work of Laplace, Hamilton, and Liouville in the early 19th century and shows how their formulation of mechanics inevitably leads to systems that cannot be 'solved' in the usual sense of the word. It then discusses perturbation theory which, rather than providing...
Bradford, Elisabeth E F; Jentzsch, Ines; Gomez, Juan-Carlos
2015-05-01
'Theory of Mind' refers to the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and other people (Premack & Woodruff, 1978). This study examined the extent to which 'Self' and 'Other' belief-attribution processes within the Theory of Mind (ToM) mechanism could be distinguished behaviourally, and whether these separable components differentially related to Executive Functioning (EF) abilities. A computerized false-belief task, utilizing a matched-design to allow direct comparison of self-oriented vs. other-oriented belief-attribution, was used to assess ToM, and a face-image Stroop task was employed to assess EF, within a population of typically-developed adults. Results revealed significantly longer reaction times when attributing beliefs to other people as opposed to recognizing and attributing beliefs to oneself. Intriguingly, results revealed that 'perspective-shift' requirements (i.e. changing from adoption of the 'self' perspective to the perspective of the 'other', or vice versa) across false-belief trials influenced reaction times. Reaction times were significantly longer when the perspective shift was from self-to-other than from other-to-self. It is suggested that the 'self' forms the stem of understanding the 'other', and is therefore processed regardless of ultimate task demands; in contrast, the 'other' perspective is only processed when explicitly required. We conclude that adopting another person's perspective, even when their belief state is matched to one's own, requires more cognitive effort than recalling and reflecting on self-oriented belief-states. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Adler, Stephen L
2004-01-01
Quantum mechanics is our most successful physical theory. However, it raises conceptual issues that have perplexed physicists and philosophers of science for decades. This 2004 book develops an approach, based on the proposal that quantum theory is not a complete, final theory, but is in fact an emergent phenomenon arising from a deeper level of dynamics. The dynamics at this deeper level are taken to be an extension of classical dynamics to non-commuting matrix variables, with cyclic permutation inside a trace used as the basic calculational tool. With plausible assumptions, quantum theory is shown to emerge as the statistical thermodynamics of this underlying theory, with the canonical commutation/anticommutation relations derived from a generalized equipartition theorem. Brownian motion corrections to this thermodynamics are argued to lead to state vector reduction and to the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, making contact with phenomenological proposals for stochastic modifications to Schr�...
Fundamental link between system theory and statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atmanspacher, H.; Scheingraber, H.
1987-01-01
A fundamental link between system theory and statistical mechanics has been found to be established by the Kolmogorov entropy. By this quantity the temporal evolution of dynamical systems can be classified into regular, chaotic, and stochastic processes. Since K represents a measure for the internal information creation rate of dynamical systems, it provides an approach to irreversibility. The formal relationship to statistical mechanics is derived by means of an operator formalism originally introduced by Prigogine. For a Liouville operator L and an information operator M tilde acting on a distribution in phase space, it is shown that i[L, M tilde] = KI (I = identity operator). As a first consequence of this equivalence, a relation is obtained between the chaotic correlation time of a system and Prigogine's concept of a finite duration of presence. Finally, the existence of chaos in quantum systems is discussed with respect to the existence of a quantum mechanical time operator
Nonlocal quantum field theory and stochastic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Namsrai, K.
1986-01-01
This volume presents a systematic development of the implications to both quantum mechanics and quantum field theory of the hypothesis of a stochastic structure of space-time. Some applications to elementary particle physics are also considered. Part 1 is concerned with nonlocal quantum field theory and, among other topics, deals with quantized fields, electromagnetic and weak processes, the Schroedinger equation, and functional methods and their applications. Part 2 presents an introduction to stochastic mechanics and many specific problems of interest are discussed. (Auth.)
Quantum mechanics as total physical theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slavnov, D.A.
2002-01-01
It is shown that the principles of the total physical theory and conclusions of the standard quantum mechanics are not at such an antagonistic variance as it is usually accepted. The axioms, which make it possible to plot the renewed mathematical scheme of the quantum mechanics are formulated within the frames of the algebraic approach. The above scheme includes the standard mathematical apparatus of the quantum mechanics. Simultaneously there exists the mathematical object, which adequately describes the individual experiment. The examples of applying the proposed scheme is presented [ru
Relativity theory and gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondi, H.
1986-01-01
The paper on relativity theory and gravitation is presented as a preface to the first of the articles submitted to the Journal on general relativity. Newtonian gravitation and and observation, relativity, and the sources of the gravitational field, are all discussed. (UK)
Perturbation theory via Feynman diagrams in classical mechanics
Penco, R.; Mauro, D.
2006-01-01
In this paper we show how Feynman diagrams, which are used as a tool to implement perturbation theory in quantum field theory, can be very useful also in classical mechanics, provided we introduce also at the classical level concepts like path integrals and generating functionals.
The relation between classical and quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, Peter.
1984-01-01
The thesis examines the relationship between classical and quantum mechanics from philosophical, mathematical and physical standpoints. Arguments are presented in favour of 'conjectural realism' in scientific theories, distinguished by explicit contextual structure and empirical testability. The formulations of classical and quantum mechanics, based on a general theory of mechanics is investigated, as well as the mathematical treatments of these subjects. Finally the thesis questions the validity of 'classical limits' and 'quantisations' in intertheoretic reduction. (UK)
Metastability in Field Theory and Statistical Mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carvalho, C.A. de.
1984-01-01
After a phase transition analysis which can occur in the framework of a scalar field theory, at finite temperature and in presence of a external field, possibles metastable situations are studied and also how is their relationship with the transitions. In both cases it is used a semiclassical approximation to the theory which, in Statistical Mechanics, corresponds to the droplet-bubble model. (L.C.) [pt
On the theory of behavioral mechanics.
Dzendolet, E
1999-12-01
The Theory of Behavioral Mechanics is the behavioral analogue of Newton's laws of motion, with the rate of responding in operant conditioning corresponding to physical velocity. In an earlier work, the basic relation between rate of responding and sessions under two FI schedules and over a range of commonly used session values had been shown to be a power function. Using that basic relation, functions for behavioral acceleration, mass, and momentum are derived here. Data from other laboratories also support the applicability of a power function to VI schedules. A particular numerical value is introduced here to be the standard reference value for the behavioral force under the VI-60-s schedule. This reference allows numerical values to be calculated for the behavioral mass and momentum of individual animals. A comparison of the numerical values of the momenta of two animals can be used to evaluate their relative resistances to change, e.g., to extinction, which is itself viewed as a continuously changing behavioral force being imposed on the animal. This overall numerical approach allows behavioral force-values to be assigned to various experimental conditions such as the evaluation of the behavioral force of a medication dosage.
Capillarity theory for the fly-casting mechanism
Trizac, Emmanuel; Levy, Yaakov; Wolynes, Peter G.
2010-01-01
Biomolecular folding and function are often coupled. During molecular recognition events, one of the binding partners may transiently or partially unfold, allowing more rapid access to a binding site. We describe a simple model for this fly-casting mechanism based on the capillarity approximation and polymer chain statistics. The model shows that fly casting is most effective when the protein unfolding barrier is small and the part of the chain which extends toward the target is relatively rigid. These features are often seen in known examples of fly casting in protein–DNA binding. Simulations of protein–DNA binding based on well-funneled native-topology models with electrostatic forces confirm the trends of the analytical theory. PMID:20133683
Why are predictions of general relativity theory for gravitational effects non-unique?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loskutov, Yu.M.
1990-01-01
Reasons of non-uniqueness of predictions of the general relativity theory (GRT) for gravitational effects are analyzed in detail. To authors' opinion, the absence of comparison mechanism of curved and plane metrics is the reason of non-uniqueness
Finsler geometry, relativity and gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asanov, G.S.
1985-01-01
This book provides a self-contained account of the Finslerian techniques which aim to synthesize the ideas of Finslerian metrical generalization of Riemannian geometry to merge with the primary physical concepts of general relativity and gauge field theories. The geometrization of internal symmetries in terms of Finslerian geometry, as well as the formulation of Finslerian generalization of gravitational field equations and equations of motion of matter, are two key points used to expound the techniques. The Clebsch representation of the canonical momentum field is used to formulate the Hamilton-Jacobi theory for homogeneous Lagrangians of classical mechanics. As an auxillary mathematical apparatus, the author uses invariance identities which systematically reflect the covariant properties of geometrical objects. The results of recent studies of special Finsler spaces are also applied. The book adds substantially to the mathematical monographs by Rund (1959) and Rund and Bear (1972), all basic results of the latter being reflected. It is the author's hope that thorough exploration of the materrial presented will tempt the reader to revise the habitual physical concepts supported conventionally by Riemannian geometry. (Auth.)
Relativity the theory and its philosophy
Angel, Roger B
1980-01-01
Relativity: The Theory and its Philosophy provides a completely self-contained treatment of the philosophical foundations of the theory of relativity. It also surveys the most essential mathematical techniques and concepts that are indispensable to an understanding of the foundations of both the special and general theories of relativity. In short, the book includes a crash course in applied mathematics, ranging from elementary trigonometry to the classical tensor calculus.Comprised of 11 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to fundamental mathematical concepts such as sets, relatio
Iz ''general relativity'' necessary for the Einstein gravitation theory gravitation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondi, G.
1982-01-01
Main principles of relativity and gravitation theories are deeply analyzed. Problems of boundaries of applicability for these theories and possible ways of their change and generalization are discussed. It is shown that the notion of general relativity does not introduce any post-newton physics - it only deals with coordinate transformations. It is supposed that ''general relativity'' is a physically senseless phrase which can be considered only as a historical remainder of an interesting philosophic discourse. The paper reveals that there exists appropriate physical substantiation of the Einstein gravitation theory not including a physically senseless concept of general relativity and promoting its fundamental relations with the experiment
Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics in the general theory of relativity. I. A general formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Israel, W.; Kandrup, H.E.
1984-01-01
This is the first in a series of papers, the overall objective of which is the formulation of a new covariant approach to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics in classical general relativity. The objecct here is the development of a tractable theory for self-gravitating systems. It is argued that the ''state'' of an N-particle system may be characterized by an N-particle distribution function, defined in an 8N-dimensional phase space, which satisfies a collection of N conservation equations. By mapping the true physics onto a fictitious ''background'' spacetime, which may be chosen to satisfy some ''average'' field equations, one then obtains a useful covariant notion of ''evolution'' in response to a fluctuating ''gravitational force.'' For many cases of practical interest, one may suppose (i) that these fluctuating forces satisfy linear field equations and (ii) that they may be modeled by a direct interaction. In this case, one can use a relativistic projection operator formalism to derive exact closed equations for the evolution of such objects as an appropriately defined reduced one-particle distribution function. By capturing, in a natural way, the notion of a dilute gas, or impulse, approximation, one is then led to a comparatively simple equation for the one-particle distribution. If, furthermore, one treats the effects of the fluctuating forces as ''localized'' in space and time, one obtains a tractable kinetic equation which reduces, in the Newtonian limit, to the stardard Landau equation
Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buchmann, Johannes; Stichtenoth, Henning; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio
Proceedings of anInternational Conference on Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas, held in Guanajuato, Mexico. in april 1998......Proceedings of anInternational Conference on Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas, held in Guanajuato, Mexico. in april 1998...
Mechanism design: theory and application to welfare-to-work programs
Onderstal, S.
2008-01-01
In October 2007, Leonid Hurwicz , Eric Maskin, and Roger Myerson won the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences "for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory". My aim is to give you a flavor of what mechanism design theory is and how we can apply it in practice. More in particular, I will
Kinematical Test Theories for Special Relativity
Lämmerzahl, Claus; Braxmaier, Claus; Dittus, Hansjörg; Müller, Holger; Peters, Achim; Schiller, Stephan
A comparison of certain kinematical test theories for Special Relativity including the Robertson and Mansouri-Sext test theories is presented and the accuracy of the experimental results testing Special Relativity are expressed in terms of the parameters appearing in these test theories. The theoretical results are applied to the most precise experimental results obtained recently for the isotropy of light propagation and the constancy of the speed of light.
A possible realization of Einstein's causal theory underlying quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yussouff, M.
1979-06-01
It is shown that a new microscopic mechanics formulated earlier can be looked upon as a possible causal theory underlying quantum mechanics, which removes Einstein's famous objections against quantum theory. This approach is free from objections raised against Bohm's hidden variable theory and leads to a clear physical picture in terms of familiar concepts, if self interactions are held responsible for deviations from classical behaviour. The new level of physics unfolded by this approach may reveal novel frontiers in high-energy physics. (author)
Simple recursion relations for general field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, Clifford; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Trnka, Jaroslav
2015-01-01
On-shell methods offer an alternative definition of quantum field theory at tree-level, replacing Feynman diagrams with recursion relations and interaction vertices with a handful of seed scattering amplitudes. In this paper we determine the simplest recursion relations needed to construct a general four-dimensional quantum field theory of massless particles. For this purpose we define a covering space of recursion relations which naturally generalizes all existing constructions, including those of BCFW and Risager. The validity of each recursion relation hinges on the large momentum behavior of an n-point scattering amplitude under an m-line momentum shift, which we determine solely from dimensional analysis, Lorentz invariance, and locality. We show that all amplitudes in a renormalizable theory are 5-line constructible. Amplitudes are 3-line constructible if an external particle carries spin or if the scalars in the theory carry equal charge under a global or gauge symmetry. Remarkably, this implies the 3-line constructibility of all gauge theories with fermions and complex scalars in arbitrary representations, all supersymmetric theories, and the standard model. Moreover, all amplitudes in non-renormalizable theories without derivative interactions are constructible; with derivative interactions, a subset of amplitudes is constructible. We illustrate our results with examples from both renormalizable and non-renormalizable theories. Our study demonstrates both the power and limitations of recursion relations as a self-contained formulation of quantum field theory.
Fundamentals of machine theory and mechanisms
Simón Mata, Antonio; Cabrera Carrillo, Juan Antonio; Ezquerro Juanco, Francisco; Guerra Fernández, Antonio Jesús; Nadal Martínez, Fernando; Ortiz Fernández, Antonio
2016-01-01
This book covers the basic contents for an introductory course in Mechanism and Machine Theory. The topics dealt with are: kinematic and dynamic analysis of machines, introduction to vibratory behaviour, rotor and piston balance, kinematics of gears, ordinary and planetary gear trains and synthesis of planar mechanisms. A new approach to dimensional synthesis of mechanisms based on turning functions has been added for closed and open path generation using an optimization method based on evolutionary algorithms. The text, developed by a group of experts in kinematics and dynamics of mechanisms at the University of Málaga, Spain, is clear and is supported by more than 350 images. More than 60 outlined and explained problems have been included to clarify the theoretical concepts. .
Incompatibility of the quantum and relativity theories and a possible resolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sachs, M.
1982-01-01
This paper presents a comparison of the conceptual bases of the quantum theory and the theory of relativity, each considered as fundamental theories of elementary matter. From a study of the irreducible axiomatic bases of these respective approaches to elementary matter, it is concluded that they cannot peacefully co-exist because of logical incompatibility. Among the reasons discussed for this conclusion, one is the implication of the Hamiltonian form of quantum mechanics yielding an irreducible absolute frame of reference - that of the measuring apparatus - in the basic expression for the laws of elementary particles. This difficulty leads to logical inconsistency as well as a formulation of relativistic quantum field theory that is not demonstrably mathematically consistent. In spite of their logical incompatiability, it is argued that each of these theories logically requires the other, within its own framework. The conclusion is reached that, to make further progress in our understanding of elementary matter, it is necessary to abandon the axiomatic basis of one of these theories for the other, while keeping the formal structure of the abandoned theory as an accurate mathematical approximation (under special physical conditions) for a generalized form of the retained theory. An argument is presented for the author's retention of the theory of relativity as an authentic basis of elementary matter, and how its generalization is achieved by incorporating a fully (generally) covariant expression of the inertial manifestations of matter with its force manifestations
Is quantum theory a form of statistical mechanics?
Adler, S. L.
2007-05-01
We give a review of the basic themes of my recent book: Adler S L 2004 Quantum Theory as an Emergent Phenomenon (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). We first give motivations for considering the possibility that quantum mechanics is not exact, but is instead an accurate asymptotic approximation to a deeper level theory. For this deeper level, we propose a non-commutative generalization of classical mechanics, that we call "trace dynamics", and we give a brief survey of how it works, considering for simplicity only the bosonic case. We then discuss the statistical mechanics of trace dynamics and give our argument that with suitable approximations, the Ward identities for trace dynamics imply that ensemble averages in the canonical ensemble correspond to Wightman functions in quantum field theory. Thus, quantum theory emerges as the statistical thermodynamics of trace dynamics. Finally, we argue that Brownian motion corrections to this thermodynamics lead to stochastic corrections to the Schrödinger equation, of the type that have been much studied in the "continuous spontaneous localization" model of objective state vector reduction. In appendices to the talk, we give details of the existence of a conserved operator in trace dynamics that encodes the structure of the canonical algebra, of the derivation of the Ward identities, and of the proof that the stochastically-modified Schrödinger equation leads to state vector reduction with Born rule probabilities.
Statistical mechanics of lattice Boson field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-01-01
A lattice approximation to Euclidean, boson quantum field theory is expressed in terms of the thermodynamic properties of a classical statistical mechanical system near its critical point in a sufficiently general way to permit the inclusion of an anomalous dimension of the vacuum. Using the thermodynamic properties of the Ising model, one can begin to construct nontrivial (containing scattering) field theories in 2, 3 and 4 dimensions. It is argued that, depending on the choice of the bare coupling constant, there are three types of behavior to be expected: the perturbation theory region, the renormalization group fixed point region, and the Ising model region
Statistical mechanics of lattice boson field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, G.A. Jr.
1977-01-01
A lattice approximation to Euclidean, boson quantum field theory is expressed in terms of the thermodynamic properties of a classical statistical mechanical system near its critical point in a sufficiently general way to permit the inclusion of an anomalous dimension of the vacuum. Using the thermodynamic properties of the Ising model, one can begin to construct nontrivial (containing scattering) field theories in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. It is argued that, depending on the choice of the bare coupling constant, there are three types of behavior to be expected: the perturbation theory region, the renormalization group fixed point region, and the Ising model region. 24 references
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in local gauge quantum field theory; the Higgs mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strocchi, F.
1977-01-01
Spontaneous symmetry breakings in indefinite metric quantum field theories are analyzed and a generalization of the Goldstone theorem is proved. The case of local gauge quantum field theories is discussed in detail and a characterization is given of the occurrence of the Higgs mechanism versus the Goldstone mechanism. The Higgs phenomenon is explained on general grounds without the introduction of the so-called Higgs fields. The basic property is the relation between the local internal symmetry group and the local group of gauge transformations of the second kind. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of c-number gauge transformations of the second kind is shown to always occur if there are charged local fields. The implications about the absence of mass gap in the Wightman functions and the occurrence of massless particles associated with the unbroken generators in the Higgs phenomenon are discussed. (orig.) [de
Stochastic theories of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De la Pena, L.; Cetto, A.M.
1991-01-01
The material of this article is organized into five sections. In Sect. I the basic characteristics of quantum systems are briefly discussed, with emphasis on their stochastic properties. In Sect. II a version of stochastic quantum mechanics is presented, to conclude that the quantum formalism admits an interpretation in terms of stochastic processes. In Sect. III the elements of stochastic electrodynamics are described, and its possibilities and limitations as a fundamental theory of quantum systems are discussed. Section IV contains a recent reformulation that overcomes the limitations of the theory discussed in the foregoing section. Finally, in Sect. V the theorems of EPR, Von Neumann and Bell are discussed briefly. The material is pedagogically presented and includes an ample list of references, but the details of the derivations are generally omitted. (Author)
Econophysics: from Game Theory and Information Theory to Quantum Mechanics
Jimenez, Edward; Moya, Douglas
2005-03-01
Rationality is the universal invariant among human behavior, universe physical laws and ordered and complex biological systems. Econophysics isboth the use of physical concepts in Finance and Economics, and the use of Information Economics in Physics. In special, we will show that it is possible to obtain the Quantum Mechanics principles using Information and Game Theory.
Anti-hydrogen: The cusp between quantum mechanics and general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noyes, H.P.
1992-09-01
We argue that the crossing (CPT) symmetry of relativistic quantum mechanics requires that both the coulombic and the Newtonian force between pairs of particles will reverse when one is replaced by its anti-particle. For consistency, this requires a theory in which both the equivalence principles and gauge invariance are abandoned. thus whether anti-hydrogen ''falls'' up or down will provide an experiment crusis separating general relativity and gauge invariance from this version of quantum mechanics
Canonical perturbation theory in linearized general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzales, R.; Pavlenko, Yu.G.
1986-01-01
Canonical perturbation theory in linearized general relativity theory is developed. It is shown that the evolution of arbitrary dynamic value, conditioned by the interaction of particles, gravitation and electromagnetic fields, can be presented in the form of a series, each member of it corresponding to the contribution of certain spontaneous or induced process. The main concepts of the approach are presented in the approximation of a weak gravitational field
Statistical mechanics view of quantum chromodynamics: Lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kogut, J.B.
1984-01-01
Recent developments in lattice gauge theory are discussed from a statistial mechanics viewpoint. The basic physics problems of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are reviewed for an audience of critical phenomena theorists. The idea of local gauge symmetry and color, the connection between statistical mechanics and field theory, asymptotic freedom and the continuum limit of lattice gauge theories, and the order parameters (confinement and chiral symmetry) of QCD are reviewed. Then recent developments in the field are discussed. These include the proof of confinement in the lattice theory, numerical evidence for confinement in the continuum limit of lattice gauge theory, and perturbative improvement programs for lattice actions. Next, we turn to the new challenges facing the subject. These include the need for a better understanding of the lattice Dirac equation and recent progress in the development of numerical methods for fermions (the pseudofermion stochastic algorithm and the microcanonical, molecular dynamics equation of motion approach). Finally, some of the applications of lattice gauge theory to QCD spectrum calculations and the thermodynamics of QCD will be discussed and a few remarks concerning future directions of the field will be made
XII International Conference on the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms
Bílek, Martin; Žabka, Petr
2017-01-01
This book presents the most recent advances in the research of machines and mechanisms. It collects 54 reviewed papers presented at the XII International Conference on the Theory of Machines and mechanisms (TMM 2016) held in Liberec, Czech Republic, September 6-8, 2016. This volume offers an international selection of the most important new results and developments, grouped in six different parts, representing a well-balanced overview, and spanning the general theory of machines and mechanisms, through analysis and synthesis of planar and spatial mechanisms, linkages and cams, robots and manipulators, dynamics of machines and mechanisms, rotor dynamics, computational mechanics, vibration and noise in machines, optimization of mechanisms and machines, mechanisms of textile machines, mechatronics to the control and monitoring systems of machines. This conference is traditionally organised every four year under the auspices of the international organisation IFToMM and the Czech Society for Mechanics.
Antieigenvalue analysis for continuum mechanics, economics, and number theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gustafson Karl
2016-01-01
Full Text Available My recent book Antieigenvalue Analysis, World-Scientific, 2012, presented the theory of antieigenvalues from its inception in 1966 up to 2010, and its applications within those forty-five years to Numerical Analysis, Wavelets, Statistics, Quantum Mechanics, Finance, and Optimization. Here I am able to offer three further areas of application: Continuum Mechanics, Economics, and Number Theory. In particular, the critical angle of repose in a continuum model of granular materials is shown to be exactly my matrix maximum turning angle of the stress tensor of the material. The important Sharpe ratio of the Capital Asset Pricing Model is now seen in terms of my antieigenvalue theory. Euclid’s Formula for Pythagorean triples becomes a special case of my operator trigonometry.
Topics of differential geometry in hamiltonian and lagrangian mechanics and relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues, P.R.
1982-01-01
A little introduction to the tensor and exterior algebra just as to the differential geometry is made. Such a geometry is used in order to study the hamiltonian and lagrangian mechanics stressing their geometrical aspects. Some applications are done in relativity theory. (L.C.) [pt
Hispanic Culture and Relational Cultural Theory
Ruiz, Elizabeth
2005-01-01
Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…
Special relativity of non-inertial motions: A complementary theory to Einstein's SR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mocanu, C.I.
1999-01-01
In order to describe physical reality a special (gravity-free) relativity is needed that is founded upon general non-uniform motions as they occur in our environment and hold for the non-inertial reference frame of our laboratory. Such a generalized form of special relativity can be build upon an extension, at relativistic velocities, of Maxwell-Hertz electrodynamics (MHE), which is valid for non-uniform motions, but at small velocities only. The new electromagnetic theory called (in honor to Hertz) Hertz's Relativistic Electrodynamics (HRE), is completely independent and built-up in a completely different way as regards Einstein's Special Relativity (ESR). HRE, a coordinate-free formulation does not need postulates, but confirms the constancy principle of speed of light in vacuum. All experiments of first and second order in v/c are correctly interpreted. To this theory a Hertzian kinematics and dynamics are associated. HRE with its corresponding mechanics forms Hertz's Special Relativity (HSR), as a complementary theory to ESR. According to the principle of complementarity and neglecting the gravitational effects, the Extended Special Relativity (ExSR) is a double faced theory which becomes either ESR, when the motion is inertial or HSR when the motion is non-inertial. The complementarity of both theories assumes that the two descriptions cannot be employed for the same motion, being mutually exclusive. Consequently, to every statement of one of the ExSR corresponds a complementary statement of the other ExSR. The completeness of ESR with HSR ensures an extended view over the relativity in our physical world. (author)
Angularly Deformed Special Relativity and its Results for Quantum Mechanics
Glinka, Lukasz Andrzej
2015-01-01
In this paper, the deformed Special Relativity, which leads to an essentially new theoretical context of quantum mechanics, is presented. The formulation of the theory arises from a straightforward analogy with the Special Relativity, but its foundations are laid through the hypothesis on breakdown of the velocity-momentum parallelism which affects onto the Einstein equivalence principle between mass and energy of a relativistic particle. Furthermore, the derivation is based on the technique ...
Learning quantum field theory from elementary quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gosdzinsky, P.; Tarrach, R.
1991-01-01
The study of the Dirac delta potentials in more than one dimension allows the introduction within the framework of elementary quantum mechanics of many of the basic concepts of modern quantum field theory: regularization, renormalization group, asymptotic freedom, dimensional transmutation, triviality, etc. It is also interesting, by itself, as a nonstandard quantum mechanical problem
Some relations of parameters in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, K.
1986-01-01
Two schemes of parameter relations, linear relation and non-linear relation are discussed. The linear relation of coupling constants is derived directly from an underlying symmetry of the classical theory and is preserved usually in the quantum theory. The non-linear relation is not derived by a same manner but is derived by more involved way which is intrinsically connected with quantum theory. An underlying symmetry which leads the linear relation is shown to be essential in the non-linear relation too. Some extension is also discussed
Item response theory analysis of the mechanics baseline test
Cardamone, Caroline N.; Abbott, Jonathan E.; Rayyan, Saif; Seaton, Daniel T.; Pawl, Andrew; Pritchard, David E.
2012-02-01
Item response theory is useful in both the development and evaluation of assessments and in computing standardized measures of student performance. In item response theory, individual parameters (difficulty, discrimination) for each item or question are fit by item response models. These parameters provide a means for evaluating a test and offer a better measure of student skill than a raw test score, because each skill calculation considers not only the number of questions answered correctly, but the individual properties of all questions answered. Here, we present the results from an analysis of the Mechanics Baseline Test given at MIT during 2005-2010. Using the item parameters, we identify questions on the Mechanics Baseline Test that are not effective in discriminating between MIT students of different abilities. We show that a limited subset of the highest quality questions on the Mechanics Baseline Test returns accurate measures of student skill. We compare student skills as determined by item response theory to the more traditional measurement of the raw score and show that a comparable measure of learning gain can be computed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ansel' m, A A; D' yakonov, D I [AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki
1975-01-01
The mechanism of dynamic spontaneous breaking of the Coleman-Weinberg gauge invariance is discussed in which scalar fields assume nonzero mean values owing to quantum effects in higher orders of the perturbation theory. Group renormalization methods are used to study scalar electrodynamics and gauge theories similar to that of Yang and Mills; for these gauge theories it is established that by choosing proper constants it is possible to combine the acquisition of a mass by particles, owing to a dynamic violation of symmetry, with the asymptotic freedom of the theory. The symmetry violation is found to be closely related to infrared poles observed in effective charge for asymptotically free theories. The emerging masses of particles automatically cover these poles. It is proved that physical results due to symmetry violation do not depend, at least in the first non-trivial order of the perturbation theory, on the initial gauging of vector fields.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed
2016-01-01
There are various theories in physics, but nature is unique. This is not nature's problem that we have various theories; nature obeys simple and unique law. We should improve our theories. Universal constancy of the speed of light undergoes the question whether the limit on the light speed...... is the mechanism of increasing in the photon energy that causes increase in its frequency growth? So, in CPH theory (Creative particles of Higgs Theory), it has been attempted to scrutinize the interface between classical mechanics, relativity and quantum mechanics through a novel approach to the established...... physical events. Emphasizing on these phenomena and presenting the relation between photon's energy and frequency, CPH Theory is to draw attention on the importance of constancy of speed in relation to the mass structure which will be scrutinized in reviewing relativistic Newton's second law. The results...
Possible Experiments to test Einstein's Special Relativity Theory
de Haan, Victor Otto
2011-01-01
All of the experiments supporting Einstein's Special Relativity Theory are also supportive of the Lorentz ether theory, or many other ether theories. However, a growing number of experiments show deviations from Einstein's Special Relativity Theory, but are supporting more extended theories. Some of these experiments are reviewed and analyzed. Unfortunately, many experiments are not of high quality, never repeated and mostly both. It is proposed that the most promising experiments should be r...
Mitchell, Daniel Jon
This re-examination of the earliest version of Maxwell's most important argument for the electromagnetic theory of light-the equality between the speed of wave propagation in the electromagnetic ether and the ratio of electrostatic to electromagnetic measures of electrical quantity-establishes unforeseen connections between Maxwell's theoretical electrical metrology and his mechanical theory of the electromagnetic field. Electrical metrology was not neutral with respect to field-theoretic versus action-at-a-distance conceptions of electro-magnetic interaction. Mutual accommodation between these conceptions was reached by Maxwell on the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) Committee on Electrical Standards by exploiting the measurement of the medium parameters-electric inductive capacity and magnetic permeability-on an arbitrary scale. While he always worked within this constraint in developing the 'ratio-of-units' argument mathematically, I maintain that Maxwell came to conceive of the ratio 'as a velocity' by treating the medium parameters as physical quantities that could be measured absolutely, which was only possible via the correspondences between electrical and mechanical quantities established in the mechanical theory. I thereby correct two closely-related misconceptions of the ratio-of-units argument-the counterintuitive but widespread notion that the ratio is naturally a speed, and the supposition that Maxwell either inferred or proved this from its dimensional formula. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jizba, Petr; Dunningham, Jacob A.; Joo, Jaewoo
2015-01-01
Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed
Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jizba, Petr, E-mail: p.jizba@fjfi.cvut.cz [FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); ITP, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Dunningham, Jacob A., E-mail: J.Dunningham@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Joo, Jaewoo, E-mail: j.joo@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)
2015-04-15
Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed.
The Lorentz Theory of Electrons and Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Goldberg, Stanley
1969-01-01
Traces the development of Lorentz's theory of electrons as applied to the problem of the electrodynamics of moving bodies. Presents evidence that the principle of relativity did not play an important role in Lorentz's theory, and that though Lorentz eventually acknowledged Einstein's work, he was unwilling to completely embrace the Einstein…
Magnetic fields, special relativity and potential theory elementary electromagnetic theory
Chirgwin, B H; Kilmister, C W
1972-01-01
Magnetic Fields, Special Relativity and Potential Theory is an introduction to electromagnetism, special relativity, and potential theory, with emphasis on the magnetic field of steady currents (magnetostatics). Topics covered range from the origin of the magnetic field and the magnetostatic scalar potential to magnetization, electromagnetic induction and magnetic energy, and the displacement current and Maxwell's equations. This volume is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of magnetostatics, followed by a chapter on the methods of solving potential problems drawn from elec
Principles of physics from quantum field theory to classical mechanics
Jun, Ni
2014-01-01
This book starts from a set of common basic principles to establish the formalisms in all areas of fundamental physics, including quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, general relativity, electromagnetic field, and classical mechanics. Instead of the traditional pedagogic way, the author arranges the subjects and formalisms in a logical-sequential way, i.e. all the formulas are derived from the formulas before them. The formalisms are also kept self-contained. Most of the required mathematical tools are also given in the appendices. Although this book covers all the disciplines of fundamental physics, the book is concise and can be treated as an integrated entity. This is consistent with the aphorism that simplicity is beauty, unification is beauty, and thus physics is beauty. The book may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students. It is also suitable for physicists who wish to have an overview of fundamental physics. Readership: This is an advanced gradua...
Theory of “Weak Value" and Quantum Mechanical Measurements
Shikano, Yutaka
2012-01-01
Comment: to be published from "Measurements in Quantum Mechanics", edited by M. R. Pahlavani (InTech, 2012) Chapter 4 page 75. Yutaka Shikano (2012). ISBN: 978-953-51-0058-4 Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/theory-of-weak-value-and-quantum-mechanical-measurement
Quantum mechanics, group theory, and C60
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rioux, F.
1994-01-01
The recent discovery of a new allotropic form of carbon and its production in macroscopic amounts has generated a tremendous amount of research activity in chemistry, physics, and material science. It has also provided educators with an exciting new vehicle for breathing fresh life into some old, well-established methods and principles. Recently, for example, Boo demonstrated the power of group theory in classifying existing and hypothetical fullerenes by their symmetries. In a similar spirit this note describes a model for the electronic structure of C 60 based on the most elementary principles of quantum mechanics and group theory
SEACAS Theory Manuals: Part II. Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Attaway, S.W.; Laursen, T.A.; Zadoks, R.I.
1998-09-01
This report summarizes the key continuum mechanics concepts required for the systematic prescription and numerical solution of finite deformation solid mechanics problems. Topics surveyed include measures of deformation appropriate for media undergoing large deformations, stress measures appropriate for such problems, balance laws and their role in nonlinear continuum mechanics, the role of frame indifference in description of large deformation response, and the extension of these theories to encompass two dimensional idealizations, structural idealizations, and rigid body behavior. There are three companion reports that describe the problem formulation, constitutive modeling, and finite element technology for nonlinear continuum mechanics systems.
Creep mechanisms and constitutive relations in pure metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nix, W.D.
1979-01-01
The mechanisms of creep of pure metals is briefly reviewed and divided into two parts: steady state flow mechanisms, and non-steady state flow mechanisms and constitutive relations. Creep by diffusional flow is now reasonably well understood, with theory and experiment in good agreement. The closely related phenomenon of Harper--Dorn creep can also be understood in terms of diffusion between dislocations. Power law creep involves the climb of edge disloctions controlled by lattice self diffusion. Theoretical treatments of this process invariably give a power law exponent of 3. This natural creep law is compared with the data for FCC and BCC metals. It is suggested that diffusion controlled climb is the controlling process in BCC metals at very high temperatures. Stacking fault energy effects may preclude the possibility that creep is controlled entirely by lattice self diffusion in some FCC metals. The subject of power law breakdown is presented as a natural consequence of the transition to low temperature flow phenomena. The role of core diffusion in this transition is briefly discussed. The mechanisms are presented by which pure metals creep at elevated temperatures. While most of this review deals with the mechanisms of steady state flow, some discussion is devoted to creep flow under non-steady state conditions. This topic is discussed in connection with the development of constitutive equations for describing plastic flow in metals
Statistical mechanics in the context of special relativity. II.
Kaniadakis, G
2005-09-01
The special relativity laws emerge as one-parameter (light speed) generalizations of the corresponding laws of classical physics. These generalizations, imposed by the Lorentz transformations, affect both the definition of the various physical observables (e.g., momentum, energy, etc.), as well as the mathematical apparatus of the theory. Here, following the general lines of [Phys. Rev. E 66, 056125 (2002)], we show that the Lorentz transformations impose also a proper one-parameter generalization of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. The obtained relativistic entropy permits us to construct a coherent and self-consistent relativistic statistical theory, preserving the main features of the ordinary statistical theory, which is recovered in the classical limit. The predicted distribution function is a one-parameter continuous deformation of the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and has a simple analytic form, showing power law tails in accordance with the experimental evidence. Furthermore, this statistical mechanics can be obtained as the stationary case of a generalized kinetic theory governed by an evolution equation obeying the H theorem and reproducing the Boltzmann equation of the ordinary kinetics in the classical limit.
Resconi, Germano; Klir, George J.; Pessa, Eliano
Recognizing that syntactic and semantic structures of classical logic are not sufficient to understand the meaning of quantum phenomena, we propose in this paper a new interpretation of quantum mechanics based on evidence theory. The connection between these two theories is obtained through a new language, quantum set theory, built on a suggestion by J. Bell. Further, we give a modal logic interpretation of quantum mechanics and quantum set theory by using Kripke's semantics of modal logic based on the concept of possible worlds. This is grounded on previous work of a number of researchers (Resconi, Klir, Harmanec) who showed how to represent evidence theory and other uncertainty theories in terms of modal logic. Moreover, we also propose a reformulation of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics in terms of Kripke's semantics. We thus show how three different theories — quantum mechanics, evidence theory, and modal logic — are interrelated. This opens, on one hand, the way to new applications of quantum mechanics within domains different from the traditional ones, and, on the other hand, the possibility of building new generalizations of quantum mechanics itself.
Investigations into quantum theory and relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cox, I.D.
1982-03-01
This thesis falls into two parts. The first is concerned with damping theory as a particular approach to the description of the dynamical evolution of non-closed systems. Appealing ultimately to the Liouville/Von-Neuman equation in the weak coupling regime, the current-voltage characteristics of both the normal and Josephson tunnelling junctions, treated as open systems are obtained. It is then shown that the same results may be obtained via the combined scattering and density matrix formalism (which does not appeal to the Liouville/Von-Neuman equation), and that this method has certain advantages over the conventional formalism. In the second part an extended (non-quantum) theory of relativity in a five dimensional space is developed and a number of interesting consequences thereof obtained. In particular a generalised set of Maxwell equations for electro-dynamics is derived, and some of the implications of the new set of equations are described. Furthermore a treatment of the five-dimensional analogue of the Schwarzschild problem in general relativity is given, together with the resulting implications for planetary motion. (author)
70 years of the general theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro Diaz-Balart, F.; Cabezas Solorzano, R.
1986-06-01
In view of the 70th anniversary of the discovery of the General Theory of Relativity, an analysis was made of the special and general theories. The basic postulates, their consequences in the formulation of the theories, the main results, some aspects related to the experimental verification and its applications are presented, as are some elements of the mathematical formalism of the theories, to facilitate the logical interrelationships between its results and consequences. (author)
The mechanical and thermodynamical theory of plasticity
Negahban, Mehrdad
2012-01-01
""an excellent text for a graduate-level course in plasticity…the approach and selection of topics are appropriate for the audience. ... Professor Negahban has done an excellent job in presenting a unified approach to include thermal effects in the theory of finite deformation of plastic solids. The simple thermo-mechanical analog presented at the beginning of the chapter is also very instructive to the reader. {presented figures are] particularly helpful in understanding the mechanisms in a simple (one-dimensional) setting … The learning features included in this chapter are excellent (the fi
The problem of time quantum mechanics versus general relativity
Anderson, Edward
2017-01-01
This book is a treatise on time and on background independence in physics. It first considers how time is conceived of in each accepted paradigm of physics: Newtonian, special relativity, quantum mechanics (QM) and general relativity (GR). Substantial differences are moreover uncovered between what is meant by time in QM and in GR. These differences jointly source the Problem of Time: Nine interlinked facets which arise upon attempting concurrent treatment of the QM and GR paradigms, as is required in particular for a background independent theory of quantum gravity. A sizeable proportion of current quantum gravity programs - e.g. geometrodynamical and loop quantum gravity approaches to quantum GR, quantum cosmology, supergravity and M-theory - are background independent in this sense. This book's foundational topic is thus furthermore of practical relevance in the ongoing development of quantum gravity programs. This book shows moreover that eight of the nine facets of the Problem of Time already occur upon ...
Modeling and Performing Relational Theories in the Classroom
Suter, Elizabeth A.; West, Carrie L.
2011-01-01
Although directly related to students' everyday lives, the abstract and even intimidating nature of relational theories often bars students from recognizing the immediate relevance to their relationships. The theories of symbolic interactionism, social exchange, relational dialectics, social penetration, and uncertainty reduction offer students…
Some relations between twisted K-theory and E8 gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathai, Varghese; Sati, Hisham
2004-01-01
Recently, Diaconescu, Moore and Witten provided a nontrivial link between K-theory and M-theory, by deriving the partition function of the Ramond-Ramond fields of Type IIA string theory from an E8 gauge theory in eleven dimensions. We give some relations between twisted K-theory and M-theory by adapting the method of Diaconescu-Moore-Witten and Moore-Saulina. In particular, we construct the twisted K-theory torus which defines the partition function, and also discuss the problem from the E8 loop group picture, in which the Dixmier-Douady class is the Neveu-Schwarz field. In the process of doing this, we encounter some mathematics that is new to the physics literature. In particular, the eta differential form, which is the generalization of the eta invariant, arises naturally in this context. We conclude with several open problems in mathematics and string theory. (author)
Consistency relations in effective field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munshi, Dipak; Regan, Donough, E-mail: D.Munshi@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: D.Regan@sussex.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)
2017-06-01
The consistency relations in large scale structure relate the lower-order correlation functions with their higher-order counterparts. They are direct outcome of the underlying symmetries of a dynamical system and can be tested using data from future surveys such as Euclid. Using techniques from standard perturbation theory (SPT), previous studies of consistency relation have concentrated on continuity-momentum (Euler)-Poisson system of an ideal fluid. We investigate the consistency relations in effective field theory (EFT) which adjusts the SPT predictions to account for the departure from the ideal fluid description on small scales. We provide detailed results for the 3D density contrast δ as well as the scaled divergence of velocity θ-bar . Assuming a ΛCDM background cosmology, we find the correction to SPT results becomes important at k ∼> 0.05 h/Mpc and that the suppression from EFT to SPT results that scales as square of the wave number k , can reach 40% of the total at k ≈ 0.25 h/Mpc at z = 0. We have also investigated whether effective field theory corrections to models of primordial non-Gaussianity can alter the squeezed limit behaviour, finding the results to be rather insensitive to these counterterms. In addition, we present the EFT corrections to the squeezed limit of the bispectrum in redshift space which may be of interest for tests of theories of modified gravity.
On unifying concepts in plasticity theory and related matters in numerical analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Havner, K.S.
1977-01-01
This paper reviews a rate-independent theory (or class of theories) of multiple-mode plastic straining which unifies various constitutive equations of macroscopic solids and single crystals. Some consideration is given to the relationship between the multiple-mode theory and thermodynamic concepts; including physical aspects of finite distortion of metal crystals. Uniqueness criteria and related minimum principles in incremental (or 'rate-type') boundary value problems are presented for the general class at finite strain. Special circumstances (one being infinitesimal strain) are defined under which the uniqueness criteria assure convergence of a form of finite element approximation in the boundary value problem. Extensive reference is made to recently published work of Hill, Rice, Sewell and Havner. A symmetry postulate pertaining to the 'effective hardening moduli' plays a key role in the general theory. This postulate permits the adoption of Sewell's multiple-mode saddle function as a potential for stress and plastic mechanism rates and leads to the connection between uniqueness and (rate-type) minimum principles. The postulate has a remarkable consequence for application of a simple form of the theory to single crystals in the tensile test. At small strain this theory reduces to the classical Taylor hardening of crystals, which has had wide application in micromechanical calculations of crystalline aggregate models. At infinitesimal strain, and at finite strain when the two dominant principal stresses are everywhere tensile, additional minimum principles are given for the 'self-straining problem' which permit the independent variation of displacement and plastic mechanism rates
Relativity and equivalence principles in the gauge theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanenko, D.; Sardanashvili, G.
1981-01-01
Roles of relativity (RP) and equivalence principles (EP) in the gauge theory of gravity are shown. RP in the gravitational theory in formalism of laminations can be formulated as requirement of covariance of equations relative to the GL + (4, R)(X) gauge group. In such case RP turns out to be identical to the gauge principle in the gauge theory of a group of outer symmetries, and the gravitational theory can be directly constructed as the gauge theory. In general relativity theory the equivalence theory adds RP and is intended for description of transition to a special relativity theory in some system of reference. The approach described takes into account that in the gauge theory, besides gauge fields under conditions of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Goldstone and Higgs fields can also arise, to which the gravitational metric field is related, what is the sequence of taking account of RP in the gauge theory of gravitation [ru
Statistical mechanics in the context of special relativity.
Kaniadakis, G
2002-11-01
In Ref. [Physica A 296, 405 (2001)], starting from the one parameter deformation of the exponential function exp(kappa)(x)=(sqrt[1+kappa(2)x(2)]+kappax)(1/kappa), a statistical mechanics has been constructed which reduces to the ordinary Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics as the deformation parameter kappa approaches to zero. The distribution f=exp(kappa)(-beta E+betamu) obtained within this statistical mechanics shows a power law tail and depends on the nonspecified parameter beta, containing all the information about the temperature of the system. On the other hand, the entropic form S(kappa)= integral d(3)p(c(kappa) f(1+kappa)+c(-kappa) f(1-kappa)), which after maximization produces the distribution f and reduces to the standard Boltzmann-Shannon entropy S0 as kappa-->0, contains the coefficient c(kappa) whose expression involves, beside the Boltzmann constant, another nonspecified parameter alpha. In the present effort we show that S(kappa) is the unique existing entropy obtained by a continuous deformation of S0 and preserving unaltered its fundamental properties of concavity, additivity, and extensivity. These properties of S(kappa) permit to determine unequivocally the values of the above mentioned parameters beta and alpha. Subsequently, we explain the origin of the deformation mechanism introduced by kappa and show that this deformation emerges naturally within the Einstein special relativity. Furthermore, we extend the theory in order to treat statistical systems in a time dependent and relativistic context. Then, we show that it is possible to determine in a self consistent scheme within the special relativity the values of the free parameter kappa which results to depend on the light speed c and reduces to zero as c--> infinity recovering in this way the ordinary statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. The statistical mechanics here presented, does not contain free parameters, preserves unaltered the mathematical and epistemological structure of
Metabolic activation and carcinogenicity of polycyclic hydrocarbons: A new quantum mechanical theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammad, S.N.
1986-01-01
This investigation aims to describe a quantum mechanical theory of cancer, which, on the basis of certain electronic indices calculated for the parent compound, would give prediction of its P-450 mediated metabolic activation and would provide better representation of its relative carcinogenic potency when activated to its PUM. The author's theory is based on the assumption that electronic charge distribution of activated species resembles at least qualitatively the charge distribution of the parent compound, and a careful analysis of electronic characteristics of the parent compound would suffice to give reasonable estimation of the carcinogenic activities of the metabolic products. The details of the theoretical method is given and the results for some alternant and non-alternant PAHs are presented
Reality, Causality, and Probability, from Quantum Mechanics to Quantum Field Theory
Plotnitsky, Arkady
2015-10-01
These three lectures consider the questions of reality, causality, and probability in quantum theory, from quantum mechanics to quantum field theory. They do so in part by exploring the ideas of the key founding figures of the theory, such N. Bohr, W. Heisenberg, E. Schrödinger, or P. A. M. Dirac. However, while my discussion of these figures aims to be faithful to their thinking and writings, and while these lectures are motivated by my belief in the helpfulness of their thinking for understanding and advancing quantum theory, this project is not driven by loyalty to their ideas. In part for that reason, these lectures also present different and even conflicting ways of thinking in quantum theory, such as that of Bohr or Heisenberg vs. that of Schrödinger. The lectures, most especially the third one, also consider new physical, mathematical, and philosophical complexities brought in by quantum field theory vis-à-vis quantum mechanics. I close by briefly addressing some of the implications of the argument presented here for the current state of fundamental physics.
Derivation of Einstein-Cartan theory from general relativity
Petti, Richard
2015-04-01
General relativity cannot describe exchange of classical intrinsic angular momentum and orbital angular momentum. Einstein-Cartan theory fixes this problem in the least invasive way. In the late 20th century, the consensus view was that Einstein-Cartan theory requires inclusion of torsion without adequate justification, it has no empirical support (though it doesn't conflict with any known evidence), it solves no important problem, and it complicates gravitational theory with no compensating benefit. In 1986 the author published a derivation of Einstein-Cartan theory from general relativity, with no additional assumptions or parameters. Starting without torsion, Poincaré symmetry, classical or quantum spin, or spinors, it derives torsion and its relation to spin from a continuum limit of general relativistic solutions. The present work makes the case that this computation, combined with supporting arguments, constitutes a derivation of Einstein-Cartan theory from general relativity, not just a plausibility argument. This paper adds more and simpler explanations, more computational details, correction of a factor of 2, discussion of limitations of the derivation, and discussion of some areas of gravitational research where Einstein-Cartan theory is relevant.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Agostino, S.
1992-01-01
In the 50s, Schroedinger proposed a new conception of a continuous theory of Quantum Mechanics, which remarkably modified his 1926 ideas on ondulatory mechanics. The lack of individuality of the atomic particles presented in the new statistics, and in Heisenberg's Indeterminacy Relations, was by him considered as an aspect of a more general crisis in the anthology itself of classical atomism. Unlike his 1926 ideas, he proposed now to represent the wave equation in an n-dimensional space and he considered second-quantization technique as the proper mathematical tool for his new physical conception. Although he accepted that space-time discontinuities and casual gaps may appear here and there on the observational level (e.g. in the Indeterminacy Relations), he was convinced that they could be made compatible with a continuous pure theory, provided one accepted a suitable conception of the theory's epistemiological status. For him, only a continuous theory satisfied the conditions for a complete theory. On these matters, he thought he was somehow orthodox to the ideas of Hertz and Boltzmann, which were also reflected in the teaching of Exner. (author). 69 refs
Relativity the special and the general theory
Einstein, Albert
2015-01-01
After completing the final version of his general theory of relativity in November 1915, Albert Einstein wrote a book about relativity for a popular audience. His intention was "to give an exact insight into the theory of relativity to those readers who, from a general scientific and philosophical point of view, are interested in the theory, but who are not conversant with the mathematical apparatus of theoretical physics." The book remains one of the most lucid explanations of the special and general theories ever written. In the early 1920s alone, it was translated into ten languages, and fifteen editions in the original German appeared over the course of Einstein's lifetime. This new edition of Einstein's celebrated book features an authoritative English translation of the text along with an introduction and a reading companion by Hanoch Gutfreund and Jürgen Renn that examines the evolution of Einstein's thinking and casts his ideas in a broader present-day context. A special chapter explores the history...
New relations for gauge-theory amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J. J. M.; Johansson, H.
2008-01-01
We present an identity satisfied by the kinematic factors of diagrams describing the tree amplitudes of massless gauge theories. This identity is a kinematic analog of the Jacobi identity for color factors. Using this we find new relations between color-ordered partial amplitudes. We discuss applications to multiloop calculations via the unitarity method. In particular, we illustrate the relations between different contributions to a two-loop four-point QCD amplitude. We also use this identity to reorganize gravity tree amplitudes diagram by diagram, offering new insight into the structure of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations between gauge and gravity tree amplitudes. This insight leads to similar but novel relations. We expect this to be helpful in higher-loop studies of the ultraviolet properties of gravity theories.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D`Agostino, S. [Rome Univ. (Italy)
1992-12-31
In the 50s, Schroedinger proposed a new conception of a continuous theory of Quantum Mechanics, which remarkably modified his 1926 ideas on ondulatory mechanics. The lack of individuality of the atomic particles presented in the new statistics, and in Heisenberg`s Indeterminacy Relations, was by him considered as an aspect of a more general crisis in the anthology itself of classical atomism. Unlike his 1926 ideas, he proposed now to represent the wave equation in an n-dimensional space and he considered second-quantization technique as the proper mathematical tool for his new physical conception. Although he accepted that space-time discontinuities and casual gaps may appear here and there on the observational level (e.g. in the Indeterminacy Relations), he was convinced that they could be made compatible with a continuous pure theory, provided one accepted a suitable conception of the theory`s epistemiological status. For him, only a continuous theory satisfied the conditions for a complete theory. On these matters, he thought he was somehow orthodox to the ideas of Hertz and Boltzmann, which were also reflected in the teaching of Exner. (author). 69 refs.
A mathematical theory for deterministic quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hooft, Gerard ' t [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University (Netherlands); Spinoza Institute, Postbox 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)
2007-05-15
Classical, i.e. deterministic theories underlying quantum mechanics are considered, and it is shown how an apparent quantum mechanical Hamiltonian can be defined in such theories, being the operator that generates evolution in time. It includes various types of interactions. An explanation must be found for the fact that, in the real world, this Hamiltonian is bounded from below. The mechanism that can produce exactly such a constraint is identified in this paper. It is the fact that not all classical data are registered in the quantum description. Large sets of values of these data are assumed to be indistinguishable, forming equivalence classes. It is argued that this should be attributed to information loss, such as what one might suspect to happen during the formation and annihilation of virtual black holes. The nature of the equivalence classes follows from the positivity of the Hamiltonian. Our world is assumed to consist of a very large number of subsystems that may be regarded as approximately independent, or weakly interacting with one another. As long as two (or more) sectors of our world are treated as being independent, they all must be demanded to be restricted to positive energy states only. What follows from these considerations is a unique definition of energy in the quantum system in terms of the periodicity of the limit cycles of the deterministic model.
The birth and growth of quantum theory. From quantum hypothesis to quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Huanwu
2001-01-01
The short history covers the birth and early growth of quantum theory from 1900 to 1928, beginning with Planck's formula and the quantum hypothesis for the black-body radiation. After a description of the rise and decline of the old quantum theory in connection with its application in spectroscopy, two paths based on the rigorous formulation of the correspondence principle leading to matrix mechanics (1925) and Dirac's non-commuting q-numbers (1925) are explained. Another path based on the generalization of the wave-particle aspect of light quanta is then shown to lead to wave mechanics (1926). Among the works during the early growth of quantum mechanics in 1927-1928, representation theory, the uncertainty principle, two-electron problems, and Dirac's relativistic theory of electrons are discussed
Extension of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics to quantum field theory with cubic interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bender, Carl M.; Brody, Dorje C.; Jones, Hugh F.
2004-01-01
It has recently been shown that a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian H possessing an unbroken PT symmetry (i) has a real spectrum that is bounded below, and (ii) defines a unitary theory of quantum mechanics with positive norm. The proof of unitarity requires a linear operator C, which was originally defined as a sum over the eigenfunctions of H. However, using this definition to calculate C is cumbersome in quantum mechanics and impossible in quantum field theory. An alternative method is devised here for calculating C directly in terms of the operator dynamical variables of the quantum theory. This method is general and applies to a variety of quantum mechanical systems having several degrees of freedom. More importantly, this method is used to calculate the C operator in quantum field theory. The C operator is a time-independent observable in PT-symmetric quantum field theory
Quantum mechanics and field theory with fractional spin and statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forte, S.
1992-01-01
Planar systems admit quantum states that are neither bosons nor fermions, i.e., whose angular momentum is neither integer nor half-integer. After a discussion of some examples of familiar models in which fractional spin may arise, the relevant (nonrelativistic) quantum mechanics is developed from first principles. The appropriate generalization of statistics is also discussed. Some physical effects of fractional spin and statistics are worked out explicitly. The group theory underlying relativistic models with fractional spin and statistics is then introduced and applied to relativistic particle mechanics and field theory. Field-theoretical models in 2+1 dimensions are presented which admit solitons that carry fractional statistics, and are discussed in a semiclassical approach, in the functional integral approach, and in the canonical approach. Finally, fundamental field theories whose Fock states carry fractional spin and statistics are discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lefrancois, M
2005-12-15
In particle physics, the Standard Model describes the interactions between fundamental particles. However, it was not able till now to unify quantum field theory and general relativity. This thesis focuses on two different unification approaches, though they might show some compatibility: topological field theories and quantum mechanics on non-commutative space. Topological field theories have been introduced some twenty years ago and have a very strong link to mathematics: their observables are topological invariants of the manifold they are defined on. In this thesis, we first give interest to topological Yang-Mills. We develop a superspace formalism and give a systematic method for the determination of the observables. This approach allows, once projected on a particular super gauge (of Wess-Zumino type), to recover the existing results but it also gives a generalisation to the case of an unspecified super-gauge. We have then be able to show that the up-to-now known observables correspond to the most general form of the solutions. This superspace formalism can be applied to more complex models; the case of topological gravity is given here in example. Quantum mechanics on noncommutative space provides an extension of the Heisenberg algebra of ordinary quantum mechanics. What differs here is that the components of the position or momentum operators do not commute with each other anymore. This implies to introduce a fundamental length. The second part of this thesis focuses on the description of the commutation algebra. Applications are made to low-dimensional quantum systems (Landau system, harmonic oscillator...) and to supersymmetric systems. (author)
Spring School on Superstring Theory and Related Topics
2017-01-01
ICTP's annual Spring School on Superstring Theory and Related Topics provides pedagogical treatment of these subjects through lectures by some of the world's top string theorists. The activity is intended for theoretical physicists or mathematicians with knowledge of quantum field theory, general relativity and string theory. It is organized in collaboration with the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) and the Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN).
BMN gauge theory as a quantum mechanical system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beisert, N.; Kristjansen, C.; Plefka, J.
2003-01-01
We rigorously derive an effective quantum mechanical Hamiltonian from N = 4 gauge theory in the BMN limit. Its eigenvalues yield the exact one-loop anomalous dimensions of scalar two-impurity BMN operators for all genera. It is demonstrated that this reformulation vastly simplifies computations. ...
Maxwell's electromagnetic theory and special relativity.
Hall, Graham
2008-05-28
This paper presents a brief history of electromagnetic theory from ancient times up to the work of Maxwell and the advent of Einstein's special theory of relativity. It is divided into five convenient periods and the intention is to describe these developments for the benefit of a lay scientific audience and with the minimum of technical detail.
A relation between deformed superspace and Lee-Wick higher-derivative theories
Dias, M.; Ferrari, A. F.; Palechor, C. A.; Senise, C. R., Jr.
2015-07-01
We propose a non-anticommutative superspace that relates to the Lee-Wick type of higher-derivative theories, which are known for their interesting properties and have led to proposals of phenomenologically viable higher-derivative extensions of the Standard Model. The deformation of superspace we consider does not preserve supersymmetry or associativity in general, but, we show that a non-anticommutative version of the Wess-Zumino model can be properly defined. In fact, the definition of chiral and antichiral superfields turns out to be simpler in our case than in the well known N=1/2 supersymmetric case. We show that when the theory is truncated at the first nontrivial order in the deformation parameter, supersymmetry is restored, and we end up with a well-known Lee-Wick type of higher-derivative extension of the Wess-Zumino model. Thus, we show how non-anticommutativity could provide an alternative mechanism for generating these higher-derivative theories.
Symmetry, Contingency, Complexity: Accommodating Uncertainty in Public Relations Theory.
Murphy, Priscilla
2000-01-01
Explores the potential of complexity theory as a unifying theory in public relations, where scholars have recently raised problems involving flux, uncertainty, adaptiveness, and loss of control. Describes specific complexity-based methodologies and their potential for public relations studies. Offers an account of complexity theory, its…
A Comparison of Kinetic Energy and Momentum in Special Relativity and Classical Mechanics
Riggs, Peter J.
2016-01-01
Kinetic energy and momentum are indispensable dynamical quantities in both the special theory of relativity and in classical mechanics. Although momentum and kinetic energy are central to understanding dynamics, the differences between their relativistic and classical notions have not always received adequate treatment in undergraduate teaching.…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
戴天民
2003-01-01
The purpose is to reestablish the balance laws of momentum, angular momentumand energy and to derive the corresponding local and nonlocal balance equations formicromorphic continuum mechanics and couple stress theory. The desired results formicromorphic continuum mechanics and couple stress theory are naturally obtained via directtransitions and reductions from the coupled conservation law of energy for micropolarcontinuum theory, respectively. The basic balance laws and equation s for micromorphiccontinuum mechanics and couple stress theory are constituted by combining these resultsderived here and the traditional conservation laws and equations of mass and microinertiaand the entropy inequality. The incomplete degrees of the former related continuum theoriesare clarified. Finally, some special cases are conveniently derived.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulati, S.P.; Gulati, S.
1979-01-01
An attempt has been made to replace the principle of relativity with the principle of covariance. This amounts to modification of the theory of relativity based on the two postulates (i) the principle of covariance and (ii) the light principle. Some of the fundamental results and the laws of relativistic mechanics, electromagnetodynamics and quantum mechanics are re-examined. The principle of invariance is questioned. (A.K.)
Stochastic theory for classical and quantum mechanical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pena, L. de la; Cetto, A.M.
1975-01-01
From first principles a theory of stochastic processes in configuration space is formulated. The fundamental equations of the theory are an equation of motion which generalizes Newton's second law and an equation which expresses the condition of conservation of matter. Two types of stochastic motion are possible, both described by the same general equations, but leading in one case to classical Brownian motion behavior and in the other to quantum mechanical behavior. The Schroedinger equation, which is derived with no further assumption, is thus shown to describe a specific stochastic process. It is explicitly shown that only in the quantum mechanical process does the superposition of probability amplitudes give rise to interference phenomena; moreover, the presence of dissipative forces in the Brownian motion equations invalidates the superposition principle. At no point are any special assumptions made concerning the physical nature of the underlying stochastic medium, although some suggestions are discussed in the last section
Possible violations of the relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tiomno, J.
1985-01-01
A review of previous works of the author and collaborators on possible violations of the Theory of Relativity (SR) is made. It is shown that there is no contradiction of the predictions of the Lorentz Aether Theory, in the form presented in these papers, with existing experiments. Further experiments to detect these violations (or to confirm SR) are indicated. (Author) [pt
One interpretation for both Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halewijn, Ewoud
2014-07-01
In reconciling General Relativity with Quantum Mechanics, it is challenging to resolve the combined mathematical equations and to find an interpretation that makes sense ontologically. Such an interpretation has been developed by quantizing descriptive components in both the theories and other views. The resulting micro-components have been re-integrated within the scope of known gaps between science and 'the real world'. The odd peculiarities in these theories have been made look 'normal' by fully untraditionally answering fundamental questions. The interpretation is suggesting that we define time as a discrete operator and its eigenvalues as constraints on space-time manifolds, in order to reconcile the mathematical equations. Outside the mathematical arena we suggest reconsidering the concepts of Black Holes, the Big Bang, the epistemological problem of perception in philosophy and the supposed clash between scientific and the spiritual worldviews. It is concluded that developing one consistent ontological interpretation for both theorie is possible. It is a weird story, but it is making powerful suggestions for reviewing some of our fundamental convictions.
Perturbative Gravity and Gauge Theory Relations: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Søndergaard
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the amazing Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations, connecting perturbative gravity and gauge theories at tree level. The main focus is on n-point derivations and general properties both from a string theory and pure field theory point of view. In particular, the field theory part is based on some very recent developments.
Development of Einstein's general theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datta, B.K.
1980-01-01
Starting from Poincare's Lorentz-invariant theory of gravity formulated in 1906, development of Einstein's general theory of relativity during 1906-1916 is discussed. Three stages in this development are recognised. In the first stage during 1907-1914, Einstein tried to extend the relativity principle of uniform motion to the frames in non-uniform motion. For this purpose, he introduced the principle of equivalence which made it possible to calculate the effect of homogeneous gravitational field on arbitrary physical processes. During the second stage comprising years 1912-1914 overlapping the first stage, Einstein and Grossmann were struggling to translate physical postulates into the language of the absolute differential calculus. In the period 1915-1916, Einstein formulated the field equations of general relativity. While discussing these developmental stages, theories of gravitation formulated by Abraham, Nordstroem and Mie are also discussed. (M.G.B.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kober, Martin
2010-07-01
The specific content of the present thesis is presented in the following way. First the most important contents of quantum theory and general relativity theory are presented. In connection with the general relativity theory the mathematical property of the diffeomorphism invariance plays the deciding role, while concerning the quantum theory starting from the Copenhagen interpretation first the measurement problem is treated, before basing on the analysis of concrete phenomena and the mathematical apparatus of quantum theory the nonlocality is brought into focus as an important property. This means that both theories suggest a relationalistic view of the nature of the space. This analysis of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory in relation to the nature of the space obtains only under inclusion of Kant's philosophy and his analysis of the terms space and time as fundamental forms of perception its full persuasive power. Then von Weizsaeckers quantum theory of the ur-alternatives is presented. Finally attempts are made to apply the obtained knowledge to the question of the quantum-theoretical formulation of general relativity theory.
Reasonable fermionic quantum information theories require relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friis, Nicolai
2016-01-01
We show that any quantum information theory based on anticommuting operators must be supplemented by a superselection rule deeply rooted in relativity to establish a reasonable notion of entanglement. While quantum information may be encoded in the fermionic Fock space, the unrestricted theory has a peculiar feature: the marginals of bipartite pure states need not have identical entropies, which leads to an ambiguous definition of entanglement. We solve this problem, by proving that it is removed by relativity, i.e., by the parity superselection rule that arises from Lorentz invariance via the spin-statistics connection. Our results hence unveil a fundamental conceptual inseparability of quantum information and the causal structure of relativistic field theory. (paper)
A succession of theories: purging redundancy from disturbance theory.
Pulsford, Stephanie A; Lindenmayer, David B; Driscoll, Don A
2016-02-01
The topics of succession and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery have a long and convoluted history. There is extensive redundancy within this body of theory, which has resulted in confusion, and the links among theories have not been adequately drawn. This review aims to distil the unique ideas from the array of theory related to ecosystem change in response to disturbance. This will help to reduce redundancy, and improve communication and understanding between researchers. We first outline the broad range of concepts that have developed over the past century to describe community change in response to disturbance. The body of work spans overlapping succession concepts presented by Clements in 1916, Egler in 1954, and Connell and Slatyer in 1977. Other theories describing community change include state and transition models, biological legacy theory, and the application of functional traits to predict responses to disturbance. Second, we identify areas of overlap of these theories, in addition to highlighting the conceptual and taxonomic limitations of each. In aligning each of these theories with one another, the limited scope and relative inflexibility of some theories becomes apparent, and redundancy becomes explicit. We identify a set of unique concepts to describe the range of mechanisms driving ecosystem responses to disturbance. We present a schematic model of our proposed synthesis which brings together the range of unique mechanisms that were identified in our review. The model describes five main mechanisms of transition away from a post-disturbance community: (i) pulse events with rapid state shifts; (ii) stochastic community drift; (iii) facilitation; (iv) competition; and (v) the influence of the initial composition of a post-disturbance community. In addition, stabilising processes such as biological legacies, inhibition or continuing disturbance may prevent a transition between community types. Integrating these six mechanisms with the functional
Basic statements of relativity theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wolfgang Muschik
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Some basic statements of relativity theory, starting out with geometry and observers up to Einstein's field equations, are collected in a systematical order without any proof, to serve as a short survey of tools and results.
Prytz, Kjell
2015-01-01
This book is intended as an undergraduate textbook in electrodynamics at basic or advanced level. The objective is to attain a general understanding of the electrodynamic theory and its basic experiments and phenomena in order to form a foundation for further studies in the engineering sciences as well as in modern quantum physics. The outline of the book is obtained from the following principles: • Base the theory on the concept of force and mutual interaction • Connect the theory to experiments and observations accessible to the student • Treat the electric, magnetic and inductive phenomena cohesively with respect to force, energy, dipoles and material • Present electrodynamics using the same principles as in the preceding mechanics course • Aim at explaining that theory of relativity is based on the magnetic effect • Introduce field theory after the basic phenomena have been explored in terms of forc...
Contraint's theory and relativistic dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longhi, G.; Lusanna, L.
1987-01-01
The purpose of this Workshop was to examine the current situation of relativistic dynamics. In particular, Dirac-Bergmann's theory of constraints, which lies at the heart of gauge theories, general relativity, relativistic mechanics and string theories, was chosen as the unifying theoretical framework best suited to investigate such a field. The papers discussed were on general relativity; relativistic mechanics; particle physics and mathematical physics. Also discussed were the problems of classical and quantum level, namely the identification of the classical observables of constrained systems, the equivalence of the nonequivalence of the various ways to quantize such systems; the problem of the anomalies; the best geometrical approach to the theory of constraints; the possibility of unifying all the treatments of relativistic mechanics. This book compiles the papers presented at proceedings of relativistic dynamics and constraints theory
Theory and experiments in general relativity and other metric theories of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciufolini, I.
1984-01-01
In Chapter I, after an introduction to theories of gravity alternative to general relativity, metric theories, and the post-Newtonian parameterized (PNN) formalism, a new class of metric theories of gravity is defined. As a result the post-Newtonian approximation of the new theories is not described by the PPN formalism. In fact under the weak field and slow motion hypothesis, the post-Newtonian expression of the metric tensor contains an infinite set of new terms and correspondingly an infinite set of new PPN parameters. Chapter II, III, and IV are devoted to new experiments to test general relativity and other metric theories of gravity. In particular, in chapter IV, it is shown that two general relativistics effects, the Lense-Thirring and De Sitter-Fokker precessions of the nodal lines of an Earth artificial satellite are today detectable using high altitude laser ranged artificial satellites such as Lageos. The orbit of this satellite is known with unprecedented accuracy. The author then describes a method of measuring these relativistic precessions using Lageos together with another high altitude laser ranged similar satellite with appropriately chosen orbital parameters
Between general relativity and quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rayski, J.
1982-01-01
Some possibilities of reconciling general relativity with quantum theory are discussed. The procedure of quantization is certainly not unique, but depends upon the choice of the coordinate conditions. Most versions of quantization predict the existence of gravitons, but it is also possible to formulate a quantum theory with a classical gravity whereby the expectation values of Tsub(μν) constitute the sources of the classical metric field. (author)
Special relativity and quantum theory: a collection of papers on the Poincari Group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noz, M.E.; Kim, Y.S.
1988-01-01
When the present form of quantum mechanics was formulated in 1927, the most pressing problem was how to make it consistent with special relativity. This still remains a most important and urgent theoretical problem in physics. The underlying language for both disciplines is group theory, and E.P. Wigner's 1939 paper on the Poincari group laid the foundation for unifying the concepts and algorithms of quantum mechanics and special relativity. This volume comprises forty-five papers, including those by P.A.M. Dirac, R.P. Feynman, S. Weinberg, E.P. Wigner and H. Yukawa, covering representations of the Poincari group, time-energy uncertainty relation, covariant pictures of quantum bound states, Lorentz-Dirac deformation in high-enery physics, gauge degrees of freedom for massless particles, group contractions applied to the large-momentum/zero-mass limit, localization problems, and physical applications of the Lorentz group
Stochastic mechanics and the Ehrenfest relations. Memorandum no. 628
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beumee, J.G.B.; Rabitz, H.; Princeton Univ., NJ
1987-05-01
The Ehrenfest relations in quantum mechanics maintain that the acceleration of the mean position of a particle in configuration space equals the expectation of the force acting on the particle. The proof of this equality depends on the form of the position and momentum operators. It is assumed that the position of this particle can be represented as a stochastic process and using a symmetric definition of the derivative within the expectation, it is demonstrated that the acceleration of the mean equals the expectation of the mean acceleration operator commonly found in stochastic mechanics. The subsequent requirement that this mean acceleration equals the force for every possible position of the particle reproduces the stochastic analog of the Newton equation introduced by Nelson in the theory of stochastic quantization. 12 refs.; 13 schemes
Mapping the frontier of theory in industrial relations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tapia, Maite; Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Kochan, Thomas A.
2015-01-01
well industrial relations meta-theories, when combined with efforts to build middle-range theories, provide distinctive explanations and different predictions for the alternatives that have emerged to date to fill the void. We propose new directions for theory and research that expand the range...... of actors or institutions that shape employment relations and include social identities outside of the employment relationship as the basis for mobilizing collective actions and voice. Finally, we suggest using these theoretical arguments to test among alternatives as a means of revitalizing and reshaping...
Two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koberle, R.
1980-01-01
Several features of two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and Field theory, such as, lattice quantum chromodynamics, Z(N), Gross-Neveu and CP N-1 are discussed. The problems of confinement and dynamical mass generation are also analyzed. (L.C.) [pt
The Misapplication of Probability Theory in Quantum Mechanics
Racicot, Ronald
2014-03-01
This article is a revision of two papers submitted to the APS in the past two and a half years. In these papers, arguments and proofs are summarized for the following: (1) The wrong conclusion by EPR that Quantum Mechanics is incomplete, perhaps requiring the addition of ``hidden variables'' for completion. Theorems that assume such ``hidden variables,'' such as Bell's theorem, are also wrong. (2) Quantum entanglement is not a realizable physical phenomenon and is based entirely on assuming a probability superposition model for quantum spin. Such a model directly violates conservation of angular momentum. (3) Simultaneous multiple-paths followed by a quantum particle traveling through space also cannot possibly exist. Besides violating Noether's theorem, the multiple-paths theory is based solely on probability calculations. Probability calculations by themselves cannot possibly represent simultaneous physically real events. None of the reviews of the submitted papers actually refuted the arguments and evidence that was presented. These analyses should therefore be carefully evaluated since the conclusions reached have such important impact in quantum mechanics and quantum information theory.
On skein relations in class S theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tachikawa, Yuji; Watanabe, Noriaki
2015-01-01
Loop operators of a class S theory arise from networks on the corresponding Riemann surface, and their operator product expansions are given in terms of the skein relations, that we describe in detail in the case of class S theories of type A. As two applications, we explicitly determine networks corresponding to dyonic loops of N=4SU(3) super Yang-Mills, and compute the superconformal index of a nontrivial network operator of the T 3 theory.
Equivalence relations between deterministic and quantum mechanical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hooft, G.
1988-01-01
Several quantum mechanical models are shown to be equivalent to certain deterministic systems because a basis can be found in terms of which the wave function does not spread. This suggests that apparently indeterministic behavior typical for a quantum mechanical world can be the result of locally deterministic laws of physics. We show how certain deterministic systems allow the construction of a Hilbert space and a Hamiltonian so that at long distance scales they may appear to behave as quantum field theories, including interactions but as yet no mass term. These observations are suggested to be useful for building theories at the Planck scale
Models, theory structure and mechanisms in biochemistry: The case of allosterism.
Alleva, Karina; Díez, José; Federico, Lucia
2017-06-01
From the perspective of the new mechanistic philosophy, it has been argued that explanatory causal mechanisms in some special sciences such as biochemistry and neurobiology cannot be captured by any useful notion of theory, or at least by any standard notion. The goal of this paper is to show that a model-theoretic notion of theory, and in particular the structuralist notion of a theory-net already applied to other unified explanatory theories, adequately suits the MWC allosteric mechanism explanatory set-up. We also argue, contra some mechanistic claims questioning the use of laws in biological explanations, that the theory reconstructed in this way essentially contains non-accidental regularities that qualify as laws, and that taking into account these lawful components, it is possible to explicate the unified character of the theory. Finally, we argue that, contrary to what some mechanists also claim, functional explanations that do not fully specify the mechanistic structure are not defective or incomplete in any relevant sense, and that functional components are perfectly explanatory. The conclusion is that, as some authors have emphasized in other fields (Walmsley 2008), particular elements of traditional approaches do not contradict but rather complement the new mechanist philosophy, and taken together they may offer a more complete understanding of special sciences and the variety of explanations they provide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Research on Evolutionary Mechanism of Agile Supply Chain Network via Complex Network Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nai-Ru Xu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper establishes the evolutionary mechanism model of agile supply chain network by means of complex network theory which can be used to describe the growth process of the agile supply chain network and analyze the complexity of the agile supply chain network. After introducing the process and the suitability of taking complex network theory into supply chain network research, the paper applies complex network theory into the agile supply chain network research, analyzes the complexity of agile supply chain network, presents the evolutionary mechanism of agile supply chain network based on complex network theory, and uses Matlab to simulate degree distribution, average path length, clustering coefficient, and node betweenness. Simulation results show that the evolution result displays the scale-free property. It lays the foundations of further research on agile supply chain network based on complex network theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kinnebrock, Werner [Fachhochschule Rheinland-Pfalz (Germany)
2011-07-01
The past century changed the classical, scientific way of view enormously. The quantum theory broke with the imagination of continuity of all dynamical processes and gave space to completely new, nearly revolutionary approaches of thinking. Einstein's relativity theory put the absoluteness of time and space as well as the general validity of the Euclidean geometry in question. The absolute calculability, as it was formulated by Laplace, was by the influence of chaos theory proven as illusion. Computers made by the Mandelbrot set the presentation of new esthetic and never seen structures. Hilbert's century program of a complete formalization of mathematics failed because of the famous law of Goedel. It is the demand of this book to present all these theories and conclusions easily understandably and entertainingly.
General relativity and gauge gravity theories of higher order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopleva, N.P.
1998-01-01
It is a short review of today's gauge gravity theories and their relations with Einstein General Relativity. The conceptions of construction of the gauge gravity theories with higher derivatives are analyzed. GR is regarded as the gauge gravity theory corresponding to the choice of G ∞4 as the local gauge symmetry group and the symmetrical tensor of rank two g μν as the field variable. Using the mathematical technique, single for all fundamental interactions (namely variational formalism for infinite Lie groups), we can obtain Einstein's theory as the gauge theory without any changes. All other gauge approaches lead to non-Einstein theories of gravity. But above-mentioned mathematical technique permits us to construct the gauge gravity theory of higher order (for instance SO (3,1)-gravity) so that all vacuum solutions of Einstein equations are the solutions of the SO (3,1)-gravity theory. The structure of equations of SO(3,1)-gravity becomes analogous to Weeler-Misner geometrodynamics one
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhitnikov, V.V.; Ponomarev, V.N.
1986-01-01
An attempt is made to compare the solution of field equations, corresponding to quadratic equations for the fields (g μν , Γ μν α ) in gauge gravitation theory (GGT) with general relativity theory solutions. Without restrictions for a concrete type of metrics only solutions of equations, for which torsion turns to zero, are considered. Equivalence of vacuum equations of gauge quadratic theory of gravity and general relativity theory is proved using the Newman-Penrose formalism
Analogies between classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uehara, M.
1986-01-01
Some analogies between nonequilibrium classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, at the level of the Liouville equation and at the kinetic level, are commented on. A theorem, related to the Vlasov equation applied to a plasma, is proved. The theorem presents an analogy with Ehrenfest's theorem of quantum mechanics. An analogy between the plasma kinetic theory and Bohm's quantum theory with 'hidden variables' is also shown. (Author) [pt
Introduction to quantum field theory
Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís
1994-01-01
The purpose of this lecture is to review some elementary aspects of Quantum Field Theory. From the necessity to introduce quantum fields once quantum mechanics and special relativity are put together, to some of the basic practical computational tools in the subject, including the canonical quantization of simple field theories, the derivation of Feynman rules, computation of cross sections and decay rates, some introductory remarks on the treatment of unstable states and the possible realization of symmetries in a general field theory. The audience is required to have a working knowledge of quantum mechanics and special relativity and it would also be desirable to know the rudiments of relativistic quantum mechanics.
Mechanical system reliability analysis using a combination of graph theory and Boolean function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, J.
2001-01-01
A new method based on graph theory and Boolean function for assessing reliability of mechanical systems is proposed. The procedure for this approach consists of two parts. By using the graph theory, the formula for the reliability of a mechanical system that considers the interrelations of subsystems or components is generated. Use of the Boolean function to examine the failure interactions of two particular elements of the system, followed with demonstrations of how to incorporate such failure dependencies into the analysis of larger systems, a constructive algorithm for quantifying the genuine interconnections between the subsystems or components is provided. The combination of graph theory and Boolean function provides an effective way to evaluate the reliability of a large, complex mechanical system. A numerical example demonstrates that this method an effective approaches in system reliability analysis
Verifying the Theory of Relativity
Chandrasekhar, S.
1975-01-01
This article, based on a talk the author gave to the 'Innominates', an interdisciplinary faculty group at the University of Chicago, focuses on events of the years surrounding the British Expeditions to Brazil and West Africa in 1919 that led to the confirmation of Einstein's theory of relativity. (BT)
Shell-like structures advanced theories and applications
Eremeyev, Victor
2017-01-01
The book presents mathematical and mechanical aspects of the theory of plates and shells, applications in civil, aero-space and mechanical engineering, as well in other areas. The focus relates to the following problems: • comprehensive review of the most popular theories of plates and shells, • relations between three-dimensional theories and two-dimensional ones, • presentation of recently developed new refined plates and shells theories (for example, the micropolar theory or gradient-type theories), • modeling of coupled effects in shells and plates related to electromagnetic and temperature fields, phase transitions, diffusion, etc., • applications in modeling of non-classical objects like, for example, nanostructures, • presentation of actual numerical tools based on the finite element approach.
Mechanisms of Mindfulness Training: Monitor and Acceptance Theory (MAT)1
Lindsay, Emily K.; Creswell, J. David
2016-01-01
Despite evidence linking trait mindfulness and mindfulness training with a broad range of effects, still little is known about its underlying active mechanisms. Mindfulness is commonly defined as (1) the ongoing monitoring of present-moment experience (2) with an orientation of acceptance. Building on conceptual, clinical, and empirical work, we describe a testable theoretical account to help explain mindfulness effects on cognition, affect, stress, and health outcomes. Specifically, Monitor and Acceptance Theory (MAT) posits that (1), by enhancing awareness of one’s experiences, the skill of attention monitoring explains how mindfulness improves cognitive functioning outcomes, yet this same skill can increase affective reactivity. Second (2), by modifying one’s relation to monitored experience, acceptance is necessary for reducing affective reactivity, such that attention monitoring and acceptance skills together explain how mindfulness improves negative affectivity, stress, and stress-related health outcomes. We discuss how MAT contributes to mindfulness science, suggest plausible alternatives to the account, and offer specific predictions for future research. PMID:27835764
Topics in the Foundations of General Relativity and Newtonian Gravitation Theory
Malament, David B
2012-01-01
In Topics in the Foundations of General Relativity and Newtonian Gravitation Theory, David B. Malament presents the basic logical-mathematical structure of general relativity and considers a number of special topics concerning the foundations of general relativity and its relation to Newtonian gravitation theory. These special topics include the geometrized formulation of Newtonian theory (also known as Newton-Cartan theory), the concept of rotation in general relativity, and Gödel spacetime. One of the highlights of the book is a no-go theorem that can be understood to show that there is
Genetic theory – a suggested cupping therapy mechanism of action
Shaban , Tamer; Ravalia , Munir
2017-01-01
The Cupping Therapy mechanism of action is not clear. Cupping may increase local blood circulation, and may have an immunomodulation effect. Local and systemic effects of Cupping Therapy were reported. Genetic expression is a physiological process that regulates body functions. Genetic modulation is a reported acupuncture effect. In this article, the authors suggest genetic modulation theory as one of the possible mechanisms of action of cupping therapy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rebhan, E.
2005-01-01
The present second volume treats quantum mechanics, relativistic quantum mechanics, the foundations of quantum-field and elementary-particle theory as well as thermodynamics and statistics. Both volumes comprehend all fields, which are usually offered in a course about theoretical physics. In all treated fields a very careful introduction to the basic natural laws forms the starting point, whereby it is thoroughly analysed, which of them is based on empirics, which is logically deducible, and which role play basic definitions. Extendingly the matter extend of the corresponding courses starting from the relativistic quantum theory an introduction to the elementary particles is developed. All problems are very thoroughly and such extensively studied, that each step is singularly reproducible. On motivation and good understandability is cared much about. The mixing of mathematical difficulties with problems of physical nature often obstructive in the learning is so circumvented, that important mathematical methods are presented in own chapters (for instance Hilbert spaces, Lie groups). By means of many examples and problems (for a large part with solutions) the matter worked out is deepened and exercised. Developments, which are indeed important, but seem for the first approach abandonable, are pursued in excurses. This book starts from courses, which the author has held at the Heinrich-Heine university in Duesseldorf, and was in many repetitions fitted to the requirements of the students. It is conceived in such a way, that it is also after the study suited as dictionary or for the regeneration
The relativity theory and the nature of time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selleri, F.
1997-01-01
In this paper and its continuation, old and recent ideas concerning the nature of time are reviewed by starting from March's refusal of Newton's absolute time. Modern experimental evidence shows that the slowing down of moving clocks is a real phenomenon, Such is also the so-called twin paradox owing its name to its evident incompatibility with the philosophy of relativism (which should not be confused with the theory of relativity). Lorentz reformulation of relativity theory started by postulating physical effects of the ether, but adopted Einstein's clock synchronization: more than anything else this stopped Lorentz from understanding the advantages of different synchronization procedures. One of the problems of the usual approach is the necessity of a superdeterministic universe, as stressed by Popper. Recent results obtained by the author show that a theory is possible, based on relative time but on absolute simultaneity, in which all the conceptual difficulties of relativity are avoided. (Author) 21 refs
The relativity theory and the nature of time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selleri, F.
1997-01-01
In this paper and its continuation, old and recent ideas concerning the nature of time are reviewed by starting from Mach's refusal of Newton's absolute time. Modern experimental evidence shows that the slowing down of moving clocks is a real phenomenon. Such is also the so-called twin paradox owing its name to its evident incompatibility with the philosophy of relativism (which should not be confused with the theory of relativity). Lorentz' reformulation of relativity theory started by postulating physical effects of the ether, but adopted Einstein's clock synchronization: more than anything else this stopped Lorentz from understanding the advantages of different synchronization procedures. One of the problems of the usual approach is the necessity of a super deterministic universe, as stressed by Popper. Recent results obtained by the author show that a theory is possible, based on relative time but on absolute simultaneity, in which all the conceptual difficulties of relativity are avoided. (Author) 21 refs
The Special Theory of Relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
cial theory of relativity were published in the journal. Annalen der Physik, and were titled 'On the electro- dynamics of ... Historical Background. In order to set Einstein's work in proper perspective, re- call that, in ... ideas of absolute space and time firmly entrenched, most physicists thought that this speed was correct only in.
Emergence of classical theories from quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hájícek, P
2012-01-01
Three problems stand in the way of deriving classical theories from quantum mechanics: those of realist interpretation, of classical properties and of quantum measurement. Recently, we have identified some tacit assumptions that lie at the roots of these problems. Thus, a realist interpretation is hindered by the assumption that the only properties of quantum systems are values of observables. If one simply postulates the properties to be objective that are uniquely defined by preparation then all difficulties disappear. As for classical properties, the wrong assumption is that there are arbitrarily sharp classical trajectories. It turns out that fuzzy classical trajectories can be obtained from quantum mechanics by taking the limit of high entropy. Finally, standard quantum mechanics implies that any registration on a quantum system is disturbed by all quantum systems of the same kind existing somewhere in the universe. If one works out systematically how quantum mechanics must be corrected so that there is no such disturbance, one finds a new interpretation of von Neumann's 'first kind of dynamics', and so a new way to a solution of the quantum measurement problem. The present paper gives a very short review of this work.
Relativistic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ollitrault, J.Y.
1998-12-01
These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.)
Theory of the mechanical response of focal adhesions to shear flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biton, Y Y; Safran, S A
2010-01-01
The response of cells to shear flow is primarily determined by the asymmetry of the external forces and moments that are sensed by each member of a focal adhesion pair connected by a contractile stress fiber. In the theory presented here, we suggest a physical model in which each member of such a pair of focal adhesions is treated as an elastic body subject to both a myosin-activated contractile force and the shear stress induced by the external flow. The elastic response of a focal adhesion complex is much faster than the active cellular processes that determine the size of the associated focal adhesions and the direction of the complex relative to the imposed flow. Therefore, the complex attains its mechanical equilibrium configuration which may change because of the cellular activity. Our theory is based on the experimental observation that focal adhesions modulate their cross-sectional area in order to attain an optimal shear. Using this assumption, our elastic model shows that such a complex can passively change its orientation to align parallel to the direction of the flow.
A theory of strong interactions ''from'' general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldirola, P.; Recami, E.
1979-01-01
In this paper a previous letter (where, among other things, a classical ''quark confinement'' was derived from general relativity plus dilatation-covariance), is completed by showing that the theory is compatible also with quarks ''asymptotic freedom''. Then -within a bi-scale theory of gravitational and strong interactions- a classical field theory is proposed for the (strong) interactions between hadrons. Various consequences are briefly analysed
Africa and the Principles and Theories of International Relations ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
To what extent have the principles and theories of international relations (as formulated) accommodated the specific needs and circumstances of Africa? In other words, how can the circumstances and peculiarities of Africa be made to shape and influence the established principles and theories of international relations as ...
Superstrings: a theory of everything
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anthony, S.
1985-01-01
The paper concerns the ''superstrings'' theory, a theory which may be capable of describing all physical phenomena. Superstring theories and its consequences are discussed, as well as quantum mechanics, general relativity and supergravity. (U.K.)
Algebraic methods in statistical mechanics and quantum field theory
Emch, Dr Gérard G
2009-01-01
This systematic algebraic approach concerns problems involving a large number of degrees of freedom. It extends the traditional formalism of quantum mechanics, and it eliminates conceptual and mathematical difficulties common to the development of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. Further, the approach is linked to research in applied and pure mathematics, offering a reflection of the interplay between formulation of physical motivations and self-contained descriptions of the mathematical methods.The four-part treatment begins with a survey of algebraic approaches to certain phys
Ideal related K-theory with coefficients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eilers, Soren; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren
2017-01-01
In this paper, we define an invariant, which we believe should be the substitute for total K-theory in the case when there is one distinguished ideal. Moreover, some diagrams relating the new groups to the ordinary K-groups with coefficients are constructed. These diagrams will in most cases help...... to determine the new groups, and will in a companion paper be used to prove a universal multi-coefficient theorem for the one distinguished ideal case for a large class of algebras......In this paper, we define an invariant, which we believe should be the substitute for total K-theory in the case when there is one distinguished ideal. Moreover, some diagrams relating the new groups to the ordinary K-groups with coefficients are constructed. These diagrams will in most cases help...
Michie, Susan; Carey, Rachel N; Johnston, Marie; Rothman, Alexander J; de Bruin, Marijn; Kelly, Michael P; Connell, Lauren E
2018-05-18
Understanding links between behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and mechanisms of action (the processes through which they affect behaviour) helps inform the systematic development of behaviour change interventions. This research aims to develop and test a methodology for linking BCTs to their mechanisms of action. Study 1 (published explicit links): Hypothesised links between 93 BCTs (from the 93-item BCT taxonomy, BCTTv1) and mechanisms of action will be identified from published interventions and their frequency, explicitness and precision documented. Study 2 (expert-agreed explicit links): Behaviour change experts will identify links between 61 BCTs and 26 mechanisms of action in a formal consensus study. Study 3 (integrated matrix of explicit links): Agreement between studies 1 and 2 will be evaluated and a new group of experts will discuss discrepancies. An integrated matrix of BCT-mechanism of action links, annotated to indicate strength of evidence, will be generated. Study 4 (published implicit links): To determine whether groups of co-occurring BCTs can be linked to theories, we will identify groups of BCTs that are used together from the study 1 literature. A consensus exercise will be used to rate strength of links between groups of BCT and theories. A formal methodology for linking BCTs to their hypothesised mechanisms of action can contribute to the development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions. This research is a step towards developing a behaviour change 'ontology', specifying relations between BCTs, mechanisms of action, modes of delivery, populations, settings and types of behaviour.
How I Created the Theory of Relativity.
Ono, Yoshimasa A.
1982-01-01
This translation of a lecture given in Kyoto (Japan) on 14 December l922 sheds light on Einstein's path to the theory of relativity and offers insights into many other aspects of his work on relativity. (Author/JN)
Hendriks, A.; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; McEnteggart, Ciara; de Mey, H.; Witteman, C.; Janssen, G.; Egger, J.
2016-01-01
Objective: Perspective-taking difficulties have been demonstrated in autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, among other clinical presentations, and are traditionally examined from a Theory of Mind (ToM) point of view. Relational Frame Theory (RFT) offers a behavioural and contextual interpretation of perspective-taking, proposing that this ability can be studied in more detail by examining specific perspective-taking relations. To implement relational perspective-taking measures in clin...
Fluid Mechanics and Complex Variable Theory: Getting Past the 19th Century
Newton, Paul K.
2017-01-01
The subject of fluid mechanics is a rich, vibrant, and rapidly developing branch of applied mathematics. Historically, it has developed hand-in-hand with the elegant subject of complex variable theory. The Westmont College NSF-sponsored workshop on the revitalization of complex variable theory in the undergraduate curriculum focused partly on…
Generalization of the test theory of relativity to noninertial frames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abolghasem, G.H.; Khajehpour, M.R.H.; Mansouri, R.
1988-08-01
We present a generalized test theory of special relativity, using a noninertial frame. Within the framework of the special theory of relativity the transport- and Einstein-synchronizations are equivalent on a rigidly rotating disk. But in any theory with a preferred frame such an equivalence does not hold. The time difference resulting from the two synchronization procedures is a measurable quantity within the reach of existing clock systems on the earth. The final result contains a term which depends on the angular velocity of the rotating system, and hence measures an absolute effect. This term is of crucial importance in our test theory of the special relativity. (author). 13 refs
How to test the special theory of relativity on rotating earth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abolghasem, H.; Khadjehpoor, M.R.; Mansouri, R.
1988-02-01
In the framework of a one parameter test theory of special relativity, the difference between Transport- and Einstein synchronization on the rotating earth is calculated. For the special theory of relativity this difference vanishes. Therefore, experiments in which these synchronization procedures are compared, test the special theory of relativity. (author). 8 refs
Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride
2016-02-01
Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.
Conceptual strategies and inter-theory relations: The case of nanoscale cracks
Bursten, Julia R.
2018-05-01
This paper introduces a new account of inter-theory relations in physics, which I call the conceptual strategies account. Using the example of a multiscale computer simulation model of nanoscale crack propagation in silicon, I illustrate this account and contrast it with existing reductive, emergent, and handshaking approaches. The conceptual strategies account develops the notion that relations among physical theories, and among their models, are constrained but not dictated by limitations from physics, mathematics, and computation, and that conceptual reasoning within those limits is required both to generate and to understand the relations between theories. Conceptual strategies result in a variety of types of relations between theories and models. These relations are themselves epistemic objects, like theories and models, and as such are an under-recognized part of the epistemic landscape of science.
Constructing a chinese international relations theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, P.M.; Nielsen, R.T.
2013-01-01
Chinese scholars are debating whether, and how, to innovate a Chinese theory of International Relations (IR). This article examines the driving forces behind this theoretical debate. It challenges the commonsensical link between external events in the subject matter (i.r.) and theorizing (IR......), which suggests that the innovation of a Chinese IR theory is a natural product of China's geopolitical rise, its growing political ambitions, and discontent with Western hegemony. We propose instead a sociological approach to intellectual innovation which opens the black box of knowledge production...... attention from their peers-theorizing a Chinese IR theory being one important way of doing this. The external layer-which ranges from power politics to sociopolitical developments-affects this process indirectly by providing more research funds and autonomy to the more immediate institutional environment...
Strobach, Tilo; Torsten, Schubert
2017-01-01
In dual-task situations, interference between two simultaneous tasks impairs performance. With practice, however, this impairment can be reduced. To identify mechanisms leading to a practice-related improvement in sensorimotor dual tasks, the present review applied the following general hypothesis: Sources that impair dual-task performance at the beginning of practice are associated with mechanisms for the reduction of dual-task impairment at the end of practice. The following types of processes provide sources for the occurrence of this impairment: (a) capacity-limited processes within the component tasks, such as response-selection or motor response stages, and (b) cognitive control processes independent of these tasks and thus operating outside of component-task performance. Dual-task practice studies show that, under very specific conditions, capacity-limited processes within the component tasks are automatized with practice, reducing the interference between two simultaneous tasks. Further, there is evidence that response-selection stages are shortened with practice. Thus, capacity limitations at these stages are sources for dual-task costs at the beginning of practice and are overcome with practice. However, there is no evidence demonstrating the existence of practice-related mechanisms associated with capacity-limited motor-response stages. Further, during practice, there is an acquisition of executive control skills for an improved allocation of limited attention resources to two tasks as well as some evidence supporting the assumption of improved task coordination. These latter mechanisms are associated with sources of dual-task interference operating outside of component task performance at the beginning of practice and also contribute to the reduction of dual-task interference at its end. PMID:28439319
Relational Frame Theory and Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.
2006-01-01
The current paper argues that a Relational Frame Theory account of complex human behavior including an analysis of relational frames, relational networks, rules and the concept of self can provide a potentially powerful new perspective on phenomena in the applied science of industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology. In this article, we first…
Victories and defeats in general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moeller, C.
1977-01-01
Only within the last 20 years has it been possible to conduct far-reaching experimental tests of the validity of Einstein's General Relativity Theory. Experimental confirmation in some fields is embarrassed by considerable difficulties in applying the theory to cosmic systems, which indicate that such major systems lie at the limit of the theory's applicability. The lecture here reproduced discusses both the successes and the limitations of the theory, starting with its replacement of the absolute space-time theory of Newton and its historical replacement by the relativistic gravitational postulates of Einstein which, in spite of its more complicated postulates, nevertheless introduced a great simplicity and comprehensiveness into the overall conception of nature. This theoretical 'beauty', however, can only be trusted if vindicated experimentally, which has to a considerable extent proved to be the case. For weak fields Newtonian and Einsteinian concepts coincide, while for stronger fields, and velocities not far from that of light, Einstein's theory is superior, giving,for example, an excellent correspondence with the precession of the perehelion of Mercury. On a larger scale, however, the theory appears to lead to conclusions which would invalidate the very concepts of space and time, even within a finite time-interval. A more generalized theory seems to be required. (A.D.N.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zinn-Justin, J.; Freie Univ. Berlin
1981-01-01
In this review I present a method to estimate the large order behavior of perturbation theory in quantum mechanics and field theory. The basic idea, due to Lipatov, is to relate the large order behavior to (in general complex) instanton contributions to the path integral representation of Green's functions. I explain the method first in the case of a simple integral and of the anharmonic oscillator and recover the results of Bender and Wu. I apply it then to the PHI 4 field theory. I study general potentials and boson field theories. I show, following Parisi, how the method can be generalized to theories with fermions. Finally I outline the implications of these results for the summability of the series. In particular I explain a method to sum divergent series based on a Borel transformation. In a last section I compare the larger order behavior predictions to actual series calculation. I present also some numerical examples of series summation. (orig.)
A new interpretation of the special theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buonomano, V.
1975-01-01
Assuming the 'Big Bang' theory as well as the usual axioms in the Special Theory of Relativity, the time dilations and length contractions are treated as real physical effects. This becomes possible by relating everything to the hypothetical frame, Ssub(a), at rest relative to the 'Big Bang' event. This frame in many senses plays the role of the classical aether frame. A clock's real rhythm, as opposed to its rhythm observed by restricted methods, is then a function of its velocity relative to Ssub(a) (assuming a uniform gravitational field). It is further assumed that gravitational radiation is composed of 'electromagnetic-like' waves. Therefore when a clock changes its velocity in a uniform gravitational field it must receive a a different total energy due to the average frequency shift (Doppler effect), the time dilations are then caused by the change in energy due to this frequency shift. That is, no two clocks can be in the 'same' gravitational field unless they have no relative velocity, and therefore the Special Theory of Relativity is a special case of the General Theory from this viewpoint. Two feasible experimental tests, using the Moessbauer effect, are described that would decide on these viewpoints. The principle of equivalence and the 'twin paradox' are also discussed. (author)
Diffusion in the special theory of relativity.
Herrmann, Joachim
2009-11-01
The Markovian diffusion theory is generalized within the framework of the special theory of relativity. Since the velocity space in relativity is a hyperboloid, the mathematical stochastic calculus on Riemanian manifolds can be applied but adopted here to the velocity space. A generalized Langevin equation in the fiber space of position, velocity, and orthonormal velocity frames is defined from which the generalized relativistic Kramers equation in the phase space in external force fields is derived. The obtained diffusion equation is invariant under Lorentz transformations and its stationary solution is given by the Jüttner distribution. Besides, a nonstationary analytical solution is derived for the example of force-free relativistic diffusion.
Teaching Reform of Course Group Regarding Theory and Design of Mechanisms Based on MATLAB Technology
Shen, Yi; Yuan, Mingxin; Wang, Mingqiang
2013-01-01
Considering that the course group regarding theory and design of mechanisms is characterized by strong engineering application background and the students generally feel very boring and tedious during the learning process, some teaching reforms for the theory and design of mechanisms are carried out to improve the teaching effectiveness in this…
Critical Race Theory and the Limits of Relational Theory in Social Work with Women.
Quinn, Camille R; Grumbach, Giesela
2015-01-01
The authors present a conceptual framework for expanding the use of relational theory with African-American women. Relational theory (RT) informs practice with women but is inadequate in addressing all aspects of culture and identity. RT presumes that all women desire or are able to make therapeutic connections, yet race, gender, and cultural experiences influence their ability to do so. Successful practice with minority women must address racism and its impact. Critical race theory (CRT) that incorporates a solution-focused (SF) approach is well-suited to address the limits of RT. This overview of a CRT/SF approach describes treatment for diverse women that extends RT and enhances effective social work practice to provide culturally sensitive treatment to women.
Moretti, Valter
2017-01-01
This book discusses the mathematical foundations of quantum theories. It offers an introductory text on linear functional analysis with a focus on Hilbert spaces, highlighting the spectral theory features that are relevant in physics. After exploring physical phenomenology, it then turns its attention to the formal and logical aspects of the theory. Further, this Second Edition collects in one volume a number of useful rigorous results on the mathematical structure of quantum mechanics focusing in particular on von Neumann algebras, Superselection rules, the various notions of Quantum Symmetry and Symmetry Groups, and including a number of fundamental results on the algebraic formulation of quantum theories. Intended for Master's and PhD students, both in physics and mathematics, the material is designed to be self-contained: it includes a summary of point-set topology and abstract measure theory, together with an appendix on differential geometry. The book also benefits established researchers by organizing ...
Statistical mechanics and stability of random lattice field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baskaran, G.
1984-01-01
The averaging procedure in the random lattice field theory is studied by viewing it as a statistical mechanics of a system of classical particles. The corresponding thermodynamic phase is shown to determine the random lattice configuration which contributes dominantly to the generating function. The non-abelian gauge theory in four (space plus time) dimensions in the annealed and quenched averaging versions is shown to exist as an ideal classical gas, implying that macroscopically homogeneous configurations dominate the configurational averaging. For the free massless scalar field theory with O(n) global symmetry, in the annealed average, the pressure becomes negative for dimensions greater than two when n exceeds a critical number. This implies that macroscopically inhomogeneous collapsed configurations contribute dominantly. In the quenched averaging, the collapse of the massless scalar field theory is prevented and the system becomes an ideal gas which is at infinite temperature. Our results are obtained using exact scaling analysis. We also show approximately that SU(N) gauge theory collapses for dimensions greater than four in the annealed average. Within the same approximation, the collapse is prevented in the quenched average. We also obtain exact scaling differential equations satisfied by the generating function and physical quantities. (orig.)
Grassmann methods in lattice field theory and statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilgici, E.; Gattringer, C.; Huber, P.
2006-01-01
Full text: In two dimensions models of loops can be represented as simple Grassmann integrals. In our work we explore the generalization of these techniques to lattice field theories and statistical mechanic systems in three and four dimensions. We discuss possible strategies and applications for representations of loop and surface models as Grassmann integrals. (author)
Extended Nambu models: Their relation to gauge theories
Escobar, C. A.; Urrutia, L. F.
2017-05-01
Yang-Mills theories supplemented by an additional coordinate constraint, which is solved and substituted in the original Lagrangian, provide examples of the so-called Nambu models, in the case where such constraints arise from spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking. Some explicit calculations have shown that, after additional conditions are imposed, Nambu models are capable of reproducing the original gauge theories, thus making Lorentz violation unobservable and allowing the interpretation of the corresponding massless gauge bosons as the Goldstone bosons arising from the spontaneous symmetry breaking. A natural question posed by this approach in the realm of gauge theories is to determine under which conditions the recovery of an arbitrary gauge theory from the corresponding Nambu model, defined by a general constraint over the coordinates, becomes possible. We refer to these theories as extended Nambu models (ENM) and emphasize the fact that the defining coordinate constraint is not treated as a standard gauge fixing term. At this level, the mechanism for generating the constraint is irrelevant and the case of spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking is taken only as a motivation, which naturally bring this problem under consideration. Using a nonperturbative Hamiltonian analysis we prove that the ENM yields the original gauge theory after we demand current conservation for all time, together with the imposition of the Gauss laws constraints as initial conditions upon the dynamics of the ENM. The Nambu models yielding electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theories and linearized gravity are particular examples of our general approach.
Progress on study of nuclear data theory and related fields at the Theory Group of CNDC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhigang, Ge [China Nuclear Data Center, CIAE (China)
1996-06-01
The Theory Group of CNDC (China Nuclear Data Center) has made a lot of progress in nuclear reaction theory and its application as well as many other related fields in 1995. The recent progress in nuclear reaction theory study and its applications, the recent progress in the nuclear data calculation and related code development are introduced. The production rate of radioactive nuclear beam induced by 70 MeV protons on {sup 72}Ge target were calculated. The calculated results are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doering, C.R.
1985-01-01
Applications of nonlinear parabolic stochastic differential equations with additive colored noise in equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and quantum field theory are developed in detail, providing a new unified mathematical approach to many problems. The existence and uniqueness of solutions to these equations is established, and some of the properties of the solutions are investigated. In particular, asymptotic expansions for the correlation functions of the solutions are introduced and compared to rigorous nonperturbative bounds on the moments. It is found that the perturbative analysis is in qualitative disagreement with the exact result in models corresponding to cut-off self-interacting nonperturbatively renormalizable scalar quantum field theories. For these theories the nonlinearities cannot be considered as perturbations of the linearized theory
Testing special relativity theory using Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contreras S, H.; Hernandez A, L.; Baltazar R, A.; Escareno J, E.; Mares E, C. A.; Hernandez V, C.; Vega C, H. R.
2010-10-01
The validity of the special relativity theory has been tested using the Compton scattering. Since 1905 several experiments has been carried out to show that time, mass, and length change with the velocity, in this work the Compton scattering has been utilized as a simple way to show the validity to relativity. The work was carried out through Monte Carlo calculations and experiments with different gamma-ray sources and a gamma-ray spectrometer with a 3 x 3 NaI (Tl) detector. The pulse-height spectra were collected and the Compton edge was observed. This information was utilized to determine the relationship between the electron's mass and energy using the Compton -knee- position, the obtained results were contrasted with two collision models between photon and electron, one model was built using the classical physics and another using the special relativity theory. It was found that calculations and experiments results fit to collision model made using the special relativity. (Author)
Hundres Years of Theory of Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaroslav Franek
2005-01-01
Full Text Available In 2005, all civilised worl will remind the 100 years anniversary of Publishing the original work on special theory of relativity by Albert Einstein. This contribution is a brief review of its principial ideas in the field of electrodynamics.
Relationalism or why diplomats find international relations theory strange
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adler-Nissen, Rebecca
2015-01-01
In this conclusion, which reflects critically on the relational approach to diplomacy and its wider consequences, I argue that diplomats are estranged from IR theory and vice versa - because International Relations scholars generally subscribe to substantialism, whereas diplomats tend to think...... by diplomatic scholars). Relationalism takes as its point of departure the idea that social phenomena making up world politics always develop in relation to other social phenomena. Thus, for example, states are not born into' this world as fully developed states that then "exist"; states are made in continuous...... scholarship and diplomatic knowledge and practice are important for how we understand (and construct) world politics, including war, international cooperation, and responses to human and natural catastrophes....
Reply to the "Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity" and Related Questions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rabounski D.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available This paper answers twelve most common questions on the basics of Einstein’s theory of relativity. The answers remove most key problems with a real, solid understanding of the theory.
BOOK REVIEW: Advanced Mechanics and General Relativity Advanced Mechanics and General Relativity
Louko, Jorma
2011-04-01
Joel Franklin's textbook `Advanced Mechanics and General Relativity' comprises two partially overlapping, partially complementary introductory paths into general relativity at advanced undergraduate level. Path I starts with the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of Newtonian point particle motion, emphasising the action principle and the connection between symmetries and conservation laws. The concepts are then adapted to point particle motion in Minkowski space, introducing Lorentz transformations as symmetries of the action. There follows a focused development of tensor calculus, parallel transport and curvature, using examples from Newtonian mechanics and special relativity, culminating in the field equations of general relativity. The Schwarzschild solution is analysed, including a detailed discussion of the tidal forces on a radially infalling observer. Basics of gravitational radiation are examined, highlighting the similarities to and differences from electromagnetic radiation. The final topics in Path I are equatorial geodesics in Kerr and the motion of a relativistic string in Minkowski space. Path II starts by introducing scalar field theory on Minkowski space as a limit of point masses connected by springs, emphasising the action principle, conservation laws and the energy-momentum tensor. The action principle for electromagnetism is introduced, and the coupling of electromagnetism to a complex scalar field is developed in a detailed and pedagogical fashion. A free symmetric second-rank tensor field on Minkowski space is introduced, and the action principle of general relativity is recovered from coupling the second-rank tensor to its own energy-momentum tensor. Path II then merges with Path I and, supplanted with judicious early selections from Path I, can proceed to the Schwarzschild solution. The choice of material in each path is logical and focused. A notable example in Path I is that Lorentz transformations in Minkowki space are introduced
Indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakanishi, Noboru
1978-01-01
Quantum field theory of Einstein's general relativity is formulated in the indefinitemetric Hilbert space in such a way that asymptotic fields are manifestly Lorentz covariant and the physical S-matrix is unitary. The general coordinate transformation is transcribed into a q-number transformation, called the BRS transformation. Its abstract definition is presented on the basis of the BRS transformation for the Yang-Mills theory. The BRS transformation for general relativity is then explicitly constructed. The gauge-fixing Lagrangian density and the Faddeev-Popov one are introduced in such a way that their sum behaves like a scalar density under the BRS transformation. One can then proceed in the same way as in the Kugo-Ojima formalism of the Yang-Mills theory to establish the unitarity of the physical S-matrix. (author)
DSR Theories, Conformal Group and Generalized Commutation Relation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leiva, Carlos
2006-01-01
In this paper the relationship of DSR theories and Conformal Group is reviewed. On the other hand, the relation between DSR Magueijo Smolin generators and generalized commutation relations is also shown
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hategan, Cornel
2002-01-01
Theory of Threshold Phenomena in Quantum Scattering is developed in terms of Reduced Scattering Matrix. Relationships of different types of threshold anomalies both to nuclear reaction mechanisms and to nuclear reaction models are established. Magnitude of threshold effect is related to spectroscopic factor of zero-energy neutron state. The Theory of Threshold Phenomena, based on Reduced Scattering Matrix, does establish relationships between different types of threshold effects and nuclear reaction mechanisms: the cusp and non-resonant potential scattering, s-wave threshold anomaly and compound nucleus resonant scattering, p-wave anomaly and quasi-resonant scattering. A threshold anomaly related to resonant or quasi resonant scattering is enhanced provided the neutron threshold state has large spectroscopic amplitude. The Theory contains, as limit cases, Cusp Theories and also results of different nuclear reactions models as Charge Exchange, Weak Coupling, Bohr and Hauser-Feshbach models. (author)
Introduction to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics with quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kita, Takafumi
2010-01-01
In this article, we present a concise and self-contained introduction to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics with quantum field theory by considering an ensemble of interacting identical bosons or fermions as an example. Readers are assumed to be familiar with the Matsubara formalism of equilibrium statistical mechanics such as Feynman diagrams, the proper self-energy, and Dyson's equation. The aims are threefold: (1) to explain the fundamentals of nonequilibrium quantum field theory as simple as possible on the basis of the knowledge of the equilibrium counterpart; (2) to elucidate the hierarchy in describing nonequilibrium systems from Dyson's equation on the Keldysh contour to the Navier-Stokes equation in fluid mechanics via quantum transport equations and the Boltzmann equation; (3) to derive an expression of nonequilibrium entropy that evolves with time. In stage (1), we introduce nonequilibrium Green's function and the self-energy uniquely on the round-trip Keldysh contour, thereby avoiding possible confusions that may arise from defining multiple Green's functions at the very beginning. We try to present the Feynman rules for the perturbation expansion as simple as possible. In particular, we focus on the self-consistent perturbation expansion with the Luttinger-Ward thermodynamic functional, i.e., Baym's Φ-derivable approximation, which has a crucial property for nonequilibrium systems of obeying various conservation laws automatically. We also show how the two-particle correlations can be calculated within the Φ-derivable approximation, i.e., an issue of how to handle the 'Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvons (BBGKY) hierarchy'. Aim (2) is performed through successive reductions of relevant variables with the Wigner transformation, the gradient expansion based on the Groenewold-Moyal product, and Enskog's expansion from local equilibrium. This part may be helpful for convincing readers that nonequilibrium systems can be handled microscopically with
Mezzasalma, Stefano A
2007-03-15
The theoretical basis of a recent theory of Brownian relativity for polymer solutions is deepened and reexamined. After the problem of relative diffusion in polymer solutions is addressed, its two postulates are formulated in all generality. The former builds a statistical equivalence between (uncorrelated) timelike and shapelike reference frames, that is, among dynamical trajectories of liquid molecules and static configurations of polymer chains. The latter defines the "diffusive horizon" as the invariant quantity to work with in the special version of the theory. Particularly, the concept of universality in polymer physics corresponds in Brownian relativity to that of covariance in the Einstein formulation. Here, a "universal" law consists of a privileged observation, performed from the laboratory rest frame and agreeing with any diffusive reference system. From the joint lack of covariance and simultaneity implied by the Brownian Lorentz-Poincaré transforms, a relative uncertainty arises, in a certain analogy with quantum mechanics. It is driven by the difference between local diffusion coefficients in the liquid solution. The same transformation class can be used to infer Fick's second law of diffusion, playing here the role of a gauge invariance preserving covariance of the spacetime increments. An overall, noteworthy conclusion emerging from this view concerns the statistics of (i) static macromolecular configurations and (ii) the motion of liquid molecules, which would be much more related than expected.
F-theory Yukawa couplings and supersymmetric quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oikonomou, V.K.
2012-01-01
The localized fermions on the intersection curve Σ of D7-branes, are connected to a N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics algebra. Due to this algebra the fields obey a global U(1) symmetry. This symmetry restricts the proton decay operators and the neutrino mass terms. Particularly, we find that several proton decay operators are forbidden and the Majorana mass term is the only one allowed in the theory. A special SUSY QM algebra is studied at the end of the paper. In addition we study the impact of a non-trivial holomorphic metric perturbation on the localized solutions along each matter curve. Moreover, we study the connection of the localized solutions to an N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics algebra when background fluxes are turned on.
Relativistic theory of gravitation and nonuniqueness of the predictions of general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Loskutov, Yu.M.
1986-01-01
It is shown that while the predictions of relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) for the gravitational effects are unique and consistent with the experimental data available, the relevant predictions of general relativity theory are not unique. Therewith the above nonuniqueness manifests itself in some effects in the first order in the gravitational interaction constant in others in the second one. The absence in GRT of the energy-momentum and angular momentum conservation laws for the matter and gravitational field taken together and its inapplicability to give uniquely determined predictions for the gravitational phenomena compel to reject GRT as a physical theory
Reciprocal relativity of noninertial frames: quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Low, Stephen G [4301 Avenue D, Austin, Texas, 78751 (United States)
2007-04-06
Noninertial transformations on time-position-momentum-energy space {l_brace}t, q, p, e{r_brace} with invariant Born-Green metric ds{sup 2} = -dt{sup 2} + 1/c{sup 2} dq{sup 2} + 1/b{sup 2} (dp{sup 2} = 1/c{sup 2} de{sup 2}) and the symplectic metric -de and dt + dp and dq are studied. This U 1,3) group of transformations contains the Lorentz group as the inertial special case and, in the limit of small forces and velocities, reduces to the expected Hamilton transformations leaving invariant the symplectic metric and the nonrelativistic line element ds{sup 2} -dt{sup 2}. The U(1,3) transformations bound relative velocities by c and relative forces by b. Spacetime is no longer an invariant subspace but is relative to noninertial observer frames. In the limit of b {yields} {infinity}, spacetime is invariant. Born was lead to the metric by a concept of reciprocity between position and momentum degrees of freedom and for this reason we call this reciprocal relativity. For large b, such effects will almost certainly only manifest in a quantum regime. Wigner showed that special relativistic quantum mechanics follows from the projective representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group. Projective representations of a Lie group are equivalent to the unitary representations of its central extension. The same method of projective representations for the inhomogeneous U(1,3) group is used to define the quantum theory in the noninertial case. The central extension of the inhomogeneous U(1,3) group is the cover of the quaplectic group Q(1,3) U(1,3) x{sub s} H(4), H(4) is the Weyl-Heisenberg group. The H(4) group, and the associated Heisenberg commutation relations central to quantum mechanics, results directly from requiring projective representations. A set of second-order wave equations result from the representations of the Casimir operators.
On possibility of agreement of quantum mechanics with classical probability theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slavnov, D.A.
2006-01-01
Paper describes a scheme to carry out a construction of the quantum mechanics where the quantum system is assumed to be a pattern of the open classical subsystems. It enables to make use both of the formal classical logic and the classical probability theory in the quantum mechanics. On the other hand, in terms of the mentioned approach one manages to ensure complete reconstruction of the quantum mechanics standard mathematical tool specifying its application limits. The problem dealing with the quantum state reduction is scrutinized [ru
Axiomatic electrodynamics and microscopic mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yussouff, M.
1981-04-01
A new approach to theoretical physics, along with the basic formulation of a new MICROSCOPIC MECHANICS for the motion of small charged particles is described in this set of lecture notes. Starting with the classical (Newtonian) mechanics and classical fields, the important but well known properties of Classical Electromagnetic field are discussed up to section 4. The next nection describes the usual radiation damping theory and its difficulties. It is argued that the usual treatment of radiation damping is not valid for small space and time intervals and the true description of motion requires a new type of mechanics - the MICROSCOPIC MECHANICS: Section 6 and 7 are devoted to showing that not only the new microscopic mechanics goes over to Newtonian mechanics in the proper limit, but also it is closely connected with Quantum Mechanics. All the known results of the Schroedinger theory can be reproduced by microscopic mechanics which also gives a clear physical picture. It removes Einstein's famous objections against Quantum Theory and provides a clear distinction between classical and Quantum behavior. Seven Axioms (three on Classical Mechanics, two for Maxwell's theory, one for Relativity and a new Axiom on Radiation damping) are shown to combine Classical Mechanics, Maxwellian Electrodynamics, Relativity and Schroedinger's Quantum Theory within a single theoretical framework under Microscopic Mechanics which awaits further development at the present time. (orig.)
Ether formulations of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duffy, M.C.
1980-01-01
Contemporary ether theories are surveyed and criticised, especially those formally identical to orthodox Relativity. The historical development of Relativity, Special and General, in terms of an ether, is briefly indicated. Classical interpretations of Generalized Relativity using ether are compared to Euclidean formulations using a background space. The history of a sub-group of theories, formulating a 'new' Relativity involving modified transforms, is outlined. According to the theory with which they agree, recent supposed detections of drift are classified and criticised. Cosmological evidence suggesting an ether is mentioned. Only ether theories formally identical to Relativity have been published in depth. They stand criticised as being contrary to the positivist spirit. The history of mechanical analogues is traced, from Hartley's representing gravitating matter as spherical standing waves, to recent suggestions that vortex-sponge might model electromagnetic, quantum, uncertainty and faster-than-light phenomena. Contemporary theories are particular physical theories, themselves 'second interpretations' of a primary mathematical model. Mechanical analogues are auxiliary, not necessary, to other theory, disclosing relationships between classical and non-classical descriptions of assemblies charging state. The ether-relativity polemic, part of a broader dispute about relativity, is founded on mistaken conceptions of the roles of mathematical and physical models, mechanical analogues; and a distored view of history, which indicates that ether theories have become relativistic. (author)
Equivalence of the theories of reciprocity and general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qadir, A.
1976-01-01
Khan's theory (Nuovo Cimento; 57B:321 (1968) and Int. J. Theor. Phys.; 6:383 (1972)) of reciprocity has been shown to be equivalent to the theory of general relativity (in a conformally flat space-time) in that the same predictions are made physically. It is is proved that, since 'centrifugal forces' are used by Khan, gravitational phenomena are being considered equal in status to electromagnetic phenomena, and hence the difference claimed to exist between Milne's theory and Khan's theory disappears. (author)
Schrodinger's mechanics interpretation
Cook, David B
2018-01-01
The interpretation of quantum mechanics has been in dispute for nearly a century with no sign of a resolution. Using a careful examination of the relationship between the final form of classical particle mechanics (the HamiltonJacobi Equation) and Schrödinger's mechanics, this book presents a coherent way of addressing the problems and paradoxes that emerge through conventional interpretations.Schrödinger's Mechanics critiques the popular way of giving physical interpretation to the various terms in perturbation theory and other technologies and places an emphasis on development of the theory and not on an axiomatic approach. When this interpretation is made, the extension of Schrödinger's mechanics in relation to other areas, including spin, relativity and fields, is investigated and new conclusions are reached.
Hendriks, A.L.; Barnes-Holmes, Y.; McEnteggart, C.; Mey, H.R.A. De; Witteman, C.L.M.; Janssen, G.T.L.; Egger, J.I.M.
2016-01-01
Objective: Perspective-taking difficulties have been demonstrated in autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, among other clinical presentations, and are traditionally examined from a Theory of Mind (ToM) point of view. Relational Frame Theory (RFT) offers a behavioural and contextual
Mechanism of Strain Rate Effect Based on Dislocation Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kun, Qin; Shi-Sheng, Hu; Li-Ming, Yang
2009-01-01
Based on dislocation theory, we investigate the mechanism of strain rate effect. Strain rate effect and dislocation motion are bridged by Orowan's relationship, and the stress dependence of dislocation velocity is considered as the dynamics relationship of dislocation motion. The mechanism of strain rate effect is then investigated qualitatively by using these two relationships although the kinematics relationship of dislocation motion is absent due to complicated styles of dislocation motion. The process of strain rate effect is interpreted and some details of strain rate effect are adequately discussed. The present analyses agree with the existing experimental results. Based on the analyses, we propose that strain rate criteria rather than stress criteria should be satisfied when a metal is fully yielded at a given strain rate. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konrad Graf
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Action-based legal theory is a discrete branch of praxeology and the basis of an emerging school of jurisprudence related to, but distinct from, natural law. Legal theory and economic theory share content that is part of praxeology itself: the action axiom, the a priori of argumentation, universalizable property theory, and counterfactual-deductive methodology. Praxeological property-norm justification is separate from the strictly ethical “ought” question of selecting ends in an action context. Examples of action-based jurisprudence are found in existing “Austro-libertarian” literature. Legal theory and legal practice must remain distinct and work closely together if justice is to be found in real cases. Legal theorizing was shaped in religious ethical contexts, which contributed to confused field boundaries between law and ethics. The carrot and stick influence of rulers on theorists has distorted conventional economics and jurisprudence in particular directions over the course of centuries. An action-based approach is relatively immune to such sources of distortion in its methods and conclusions, but has tended historically to be marginalized from conventional institutions for this same reason.
Relating the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutzig, Thomas; Ridout, David
2013-01-01
Logarithmic conformal field theory is a rich and vibrant area of modern mathematical physics with well-known applications to both condensed matter theory and string theory. Our limited understanding of these theories is based upon detailed studies of various examples that one may regard as archetypal. These include the c=−2 triplet model, the Wess–Zumino–Witten model on SL(2;R) at level k=−1/2 , and its supergroup analogue on GL(1|1). Here, the latter model is studied algebraically through representation theory, fusion and modular invariance, facilitating a subsequent investigation of its cosets and extended algebras. The results show that the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory are in fact all very closely related, as are many other examples including, in particular, the SL(2|1) models at levels 1 and −1/2 . The conclusion is then that the archetypal examples of logarithmic conformal field theory are practically all the same, so we should not expect that their features are in any way generic. Further archetypal examples must be sought
Relating the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Creutzig, Thomas, E-mail: tcreutzig@mathematik.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Phillips Hall, CB 3255, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Fachbereich Mathematik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstraße 7, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Ridout, David, E-mail: david.ridout@anu.edu.au [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)
2013-07-21
Logarithmic conformal field theory is a rich and vibrant area of modern mathematical physics with well-known applications to both condensed matter theory and string theory. Our limited understanding of these theories is based upon detailed studies of various examples that one may regard as archetypal. These include the c=−2 triplet model, the Wess–Zumino–Witten model on SL(2;R) at level k=−1/2 , and its supergroup analogue on GL(1|1). Here, the latter model is studied algebraically through representation theory, fusion and modular invariance, facilitating a subsequent investigation of its cosets and extended algebras. The results show that the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory are in fact all very closely related, as are many other examples including, in particular, the SL(2|1) models at levels 1 and −1/2 . The conclusion is then that the archetypal examples of logarithmic conformal field theory are practically all the same, so we should not expect that their features are in any way generic. Further archetypal examples must be sought.
Special relativity and classical field theory
Susskind, Leonard
2017-01-01
Physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman are back. This time, they introduce readers to Einstein's special relativity and Maxwell's classical field theory. Using their typical brand of real math, enlightening drawings, and humor, Susskind and Friedman walk us through the complexities of waves, forces, and particles by exploring special relativity and electromagnetism. It's a must-read for both devotees of the series and any armchair physicist who wants to improve their knowledge of physics' deepest truths.
Density functional theory study of the concerted pyrolysis mechanism for lignin models
Thomas Elder; Ariana Beste
2014-01-01
ABSTRACT: Studies on the pyrolysis mechanisms of lignin model compounds have largely focused on initial homolytic cleavage reactions. It has been noted, however, that concerted mechanisms may also account for observed product formation. In the current work, the latter processes are examined and compared to the former, by the application of density functional theory...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alves, C.N.; Camilo, F.F.; Gruber, J.; Silva, A.B.F. da
2004-01-01
The molecular mechanism of the Diels-Alder reaction between (E)-methyl cinnamate and cyclopentadiene has been characterized by means of density functional theory method at the B3LYP/6-31G* theory level. Stationary points for two reactive channels, endo-cis and exo-cis, on potential energy surfaces, have been characterized. Three Lewis acids, boron trifluoride (BF 3 ), aluminum trichloride (AlCl 3 ) and catechol boron bromide (CBB), have been used as catalysts taking into account the formation of a complex between the boron or aluminum atom and the carbonyl oxygen of (E)-methyl cinnamate. The molecular mechanism of the uncatalyzed reaction corresponds to a concerted process. In the presence of BF 3 and AlCl 3 , enhancement of both the asynchronicity and charge transfer between diene and the dienophile, with small decreased energy barriers, were obtained. With CBB, the molecular mechanism changes and the reaction takes place along a stepwise mechanism. The inclusion of the CBB catalyst drastically decreases the energy barrier associated with the carbon-carbon bond formation of the first step relative to the concerted process. The results obtained in this work are compared with experimental data and AM1 semiempirical calculation
The theory of relativity and super-light-speeds-I: Kinematical part
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Shenglin.
1987-05-01
According to some local properties of Lorentz transformation, Einstein stated: ''Velocities greater than that of light have no possibility of existence''. He neglected to point out the applicable range of the special theory of relativity. In fact, it could only be applied to the sub-light-speed. This paper shows that if we think of the possibility of the existence of the super-light-speed and redescribe the special theory of relativity following Einstein's way, a new kinematical theory would be founded. The new theory would retain all kinematical meaning of the special theory of relativity when matters move with sub-light-speed and would give new content when matters move with super-light-speed. The paper also discusses the observation principle for the motions with the super-light-speed. (author). 2 refs, 1 fig
The Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation
Freundlich, Erwin; Brose, Translated by Henry L.; Einstein, Preface by Albert; Turner, Introduction by H. H.
2011-06-01
Introduction; 1. The special theory of relativity as a stepping-stone to the general theory of relativity; 2. Two fundamental postulates in the mathematical formulation of physical laws; 3. Concerning the fulfilment of the two postulates; 4. The difficulties in the principles of classical mechanics; 5. Einstein's theory of gravitation; 6. The verification of the new theory by actual experience; Appendix; Index.
Albert Einstein and the relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlickova, E.
1975-01-01
A bibliography is presented of Albert Einstein's works, listing his correspondence, biographical literature, articles on A. Einstein published in Czech journals, principal relativity theory monographs and popular, historical and philosophical publications. The bibliographical records are listed alphabetically. Most references give the abbreviations of libraries where the publications are available. (J.P.)
A Cross-Layer Cooperation Mechanism of Wireless Networks Based on Game Theory
Chunsheng, Cui; Yongjian, Yang; Liping, Huang
2014-01-01
To meet the wireless network congestion control problem, we give a definition of congestion degree classification and propose a mechanism of directed cooperative path net, guided by the wireless network’s cross-layer design methods and node cooperation principles. Considering the virtual collision and “starved” phenomenon in congested networks, the QRD mechanism and channel competition mechanism QPCG are proposed, with introducing the game theory into the cross-layer design. Simulation result...
On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Crothers S. J.
2008-01-01
There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein’s theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein’s field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, R = 0 , violates his Principle of Equiv- alence, and is therefore ...
Explore the reaction mechanism of the Maillard reaction: a density functional theory study.
Ren, Ge-Rui; Zhao, Li-Jiang; Sun, Qiang; Xie, Hu-Jun; Lei, Qun-Fang; Fang, Wen-Jun
2015-05-01
The mechanism of Maillard reaction has been investigated by means of density functional theory calculations in the gaseous phase and aqueous solution. The Maillard reaction is a cascade of consecutive and parallel reaction. In the present model system study, glucose and glycine were taken as the initial reactants. On the basis of previous experimental results, the mechanisms of Maillard reaction have been proposed, and the possibility for the formation of different compounds have been evaluated through calculating the relative energy changes for different steps of reaction under different pH conditions. Our calculations reveal that the TS3 in Amadori rearrangement reaction is the rate-determining step of Maillard reaction with the activation barriers of about 66.7 and 68.8 kcal mol(-1) in the gaseous phase and aqueous solution, respectively. The calculation results are in good agreement with previous studies and could provide insights into the reaction mechanism of Maillard reaction, since experimental evaluation of the role of intermediates in the Maillard reaction is quite complicated.
Generalized Poisson processes in quantum mechanics and field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Combe, P.; Rodriguez, R.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille; Hoegh-Krohn, R.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille; Sirugue, M.; Sirugue-Collin, M.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille
1981-01-01
In section 2 we describe more carefully the generalized Poisson processes, giving a realization of the underlying probability space, and we characterize these processes by their characteristic functionals. Section 3 is devoted to the proof of the previous formula for quantum mechanical systems, with possibly velocity dependent potentials and in section 4 we give an application of the previous theory to some relativistic Bose field models. (orig.)
Quantum theory and Einstein's general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borzeszkowski, H.H.v.; Treder, H.J.
1984-01-01
The paper concerns Einstein's general relativity, wave mechanics and the quantization of Einstein's gravitation equations. The principle of equivalence and its association with both wave mechanics and quantum gravity, is discussed. (U.K.)
Scalar mass relations and flavor violations in supersymmetric theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, Hsin-Chia; California Univ., Berkeley, CA
1996-01-01
Supersymmetry provides the most promising solution to the gauge hierarchy problem. For supersymmetry to stablize the hierarchy, it must be broken at the weak scale. The combination of weak scale supersymmetry and grand unification leads to a successful prediction of the weak mixing angle to within 1% accuracy. If supersymmetry is a symmetry of nature, the mass spectrum and the flavor mixing pattern of the scalar superpartners of all the quarks and leptons will provide important information about a more fundamental theory at higher energies. We studied the scalar mass relations which follow from the assumption that at high energies there is a grand unified theory which leads to a significant prediction of the weak mixing angle; these will serve as important tests of grand unified theories. Two intragenerational mass relations for each of the light generations are derived. A third relation is also found which relates the Higgs masses and the masses of all three generation scalars. In a realistic supersymmetric grand unified theory, nontrivial flavor mixings are expected to exist at all gaugino vertices. This could lead to important contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment, the decay mode p → K 0 μ + , weak scale radiative corrections to the up-type quark masses, and lepton flavor violating signals such as μ → eγ. These also provide important probes of physics at high energy scales. Supersymmetric theories involving a spontaneously broken flavor symmetry can provide a solution to the supersymmetric flavor-changing problem and an understanding of the fermion masses and mixings. We studied the possibilities and the general conditions under which some fermion masses and mixings can be obtained radiatively. We also constructed theories of flavor in which the first generation fermion masses arise from radiative corrections while flavor-changing constraints are satisfied. 69 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs
Quadratic mass relations in topological bootstrap theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, C.E.; Uschersohn, J.
1980-01-01
From the requirement of reality of discontinuities of scattering amplitudes at the spherical level of the topological bootstrap theory, a large number of mass relations for hadrons is derived. Quadratic mass formulas for the symmetry-breaking pattern of both mesons and baryon is obtained and their relation to conventional models of symmetry breaking is briefly discussed
Moral Judgment and Its Relation to Second-Order Theory of Mind
Fu, Genyue; Xiao, Wen S.; Killen, Melanie; Lee, Kang
2014-01-01
Recent research indicates that moral judgment and 1st-order theory of mind abilities are related. What is not known, however, is how 2nd-order theory of mind is related to moral judgment. In the present study, we extended previous findings by administering a morally relevant theory of mind task (an accidental transgressor) to 4- to 7-year-old…
Security-Based Mechanism for Proactive Routing Schema Using Game Theory Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hicham Amraoui
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Game theory may offer a useful mechanism to address many problems in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. One of the key concepts in the research field of such networks with Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR is the security problem. Relying on applying game theory to study this problem, we consider two strategies during this suggested model: cooperate and not-cooperate. However, in such networks, it is not easy to identify different actions of players. In this paper, we have essentially been inspired from recent advances provided in game theory to propose a new model for security in MANETs. Our proposal presents a powerful tool with a large number of players where interactions are played multiple times. Moreover, each node keeps a cooperation rate (CR record of other nodes to cope with the behaviors and mitigate aggregate effect of other malicious devices. Additionally, our suggested security mechanism does not only take into consideration security requirements, but also take into account system resources and network performances. The simulation results using Network Simulator 3 are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposal.
Mechanics and analysis of beams, columns and cables. A modern introduction to the classic theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
The book illustrates the use of simple mathematical analysis techniques within the area of basic structural mechanics, in particular the elementary theories of beams, columns and cables. The focus is on: i) Identification of the physical background of the theories and their particular mathematical...... properties. ii) Demonstration of mathematical techniques for analysis of simple problems in structural mechanics, and identification of the relevant parameters and properties of the solution. iii) Derivation of the solutions to a number of basic problems of structural mechanics in a form suitable for later...
The special theory of relativity foundations, theory, verification, applications
Christodoulides, Costas
2016-01-01
This book offers a comprehensive, university-level introduction to Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. In addition to the purely theoretical aspect, emphasis is also given to its historical development as well as to the experiments that preceded the theory and those performed in order to test its validity. The main body of the book consists of chapters on Relativistic Kinematics and Dynamics and their applications, Optics and Electromagnetism. These could be covered in a one-semester course. A more advanced course might include the subjects examined in the other chapters of the book and its appendices. As a textbook, it has some unique characteristics: It provides detailed proofs of the theorems, offers abundant figures and discusses numerous examples. It also includes a number of problems for readers to solve, the complete solutions of which are given at the end of the book. It is primarily intended for use by university students of physics, mathematics and engineering. However, as the mathematics nee...
Relation of a unified quantum field theory of spinors to the structure of general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kober, Martin
2009-01-01
Based on a unified quantum field theory of spinors assumed to describe all matter fields and their interactions we construct the space-time structure of general relativity according to a general connection within the corresponding spinor space. The tetrad field and the corresponding metric field are composed from a space-time dependent basis of spinors within the internal space of the fundamental matter field. Similar to twistor theory the Minkowski signature of the space-time metric is related to this spinor nature of elementary matter, if we assume the spinor space to be endowed with a symplectic structure. The equivalence principle and the property of background independence arise from the fact that all elementary fields are composed from the fundamental spinor field. This means that the structure of space-time according to general relativity seems to be a consequence of a fundamental theory of matter fields and not a presupposition as in the usual setting of relativistic quantum field theories.
Macroscopic quantum mechanics: theory and experimental concepts of optomechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yanbei
2013-01-01
Rapid experimental progress has recently allowed the use of light to prepare macroscopic mechanical objects into nearly pure quantum states. This research field of quantum optomechanics opens new doors towards testing quantum mechanics, and possibly other laws of physics, in new regimes. In the first part of this article, I will review a set of techniques of quantum measurement theory that are often used to analyse quantum optomechanical systems. Some of these techniques were originally designed to analyse how a classical driving force passes through a quantum system, and can eventually be detected with an optimal signal-to-noise ratio—while others focus more on the quantum-state evolution of a mechanical object under continuous monitoring. In the second part of this article, I will review a set of experimental concepts that will demonstrate quantum mechanical behaviour of macroscopic objects—quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation and the quantum Zeno effect. Taking the interplay between gravity and quantum mechanics as an example, I will review a set of speculations on how quantum mechanics can be modified for macroscopic objects, and how these speculations—and their generalizations—might be tested by optomechanics. (invited review)
Di Giulio, Massimo
2016-06-21
I analyze the mechanism on which are based the majority of theories that put to the center of the origin of the genetic code the physico-chemical properties of amino acids. As this mechanism is based on excessive mutational steps, I conclude that it could not have been operative or if operative it would not have allowed a full realization of predictions of these theories, because this mechanism contained, evidently, a high indeterminacy. I make that disapproving the four-column theory of the origin of the genetic code (Higgs, 2009) and reply to the criticism that was directed towards the coevolution theory of the origin of the genetic code. In this context, I suggest a new hypothesis that clarifies the mechanism by which the domains of codons of the precursor amino acids would have evolved, as predicted by the coevolution theory. This mechanism would have used particular elongation factors that would have constrained the evolution of all amino acids belonging to a given biosynthetic family to the progenitor pre-tRNA, that for first recognized, the first codons that evolved in a certain codon domain of a determined precursor amino acid. This happened because the elongation factors recognized two characteristics of the progenitor pre-tRNAs of precursor amino acids, which prevented the elongation factors from recognizing the pre-tRNAs belonging to biosynthetic families of different precursor amino acids. Finally, I analyze by means of Fisher's exact test, the distribution, within the genetic code, of the biosynthetic classes of amino acids and the ones of polarity values of amino acids. This analysis would seem to support the biosynthetic classes of amino acids over the ones of polarity values, as the main factor that led to the structuring of the genetic code, with the physico-chemical properties of amino acids playing only a subsidiary role in this evolution. As a whole, the full analysis brings to the conclusion that the coevolution theory of the origin of the
Modern approach to relativity theory (radar formulation)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1991-01-01
The main peculiarities of the radar formulation of the relativity theory are presented. This formulation operates with the retarded (light) distances and relativistic or radar length introduced on their basis. 21 refs.; 1 tab
Interpreting doubly special relativity as a modified theory of measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano; Visser, Matt
2005-01-01
In this article we develop a physical interpretation for the deformed (doubly) special relativity theories (DSRs), based on a modification of the theory of measurement in special relativity. We suggest that it is useful to regard the DSRs as reflecting the manner in which quantum gravity effects induce Planck-suppressed distortions in the measurement of the 'true' energy and momentum. This interpretation provides a framework for the DSRs that is manifestly consistent, nontrivial, and in principle falsifiable. However, it does so at the cost of demoting such theories from the level of fundamental physics to the level of phenomenological models - models that should in principle be derivable from whatever theory of quantum gravity one ultimately chooses to adopt
Stefanoni, Matteo; Angst, Ueli M; Elsener, Bernhard
2018-05-09
Corrosion in carbonated concrete is an example of corrosion in dense porous media of tremendous socio-economic and scientific relevance. The widespread research endeavors to develop novel, environmentally friendly cements raise questions regarding their ability to protect the embedded steel from corrosion. Here, we propose a fundamentally new approach to explain the scientific mechanism of corrosion kinetics in dense porous media. The main strength of our model lies in its simplicity and in combining the capillary condensation theory with electrochemistry. This reveals that capillary condensation in the pore structure defines the electrochemically active steel surface, whose variability upon changes in exposure relative humidity is accountable for the wide variability in measured corrosion rates. We performed experiments that quantify this effect and find good agreement with the theory. Our findings are essential to devise predictive models for the corrosion performance, needed to guarantee the safety and sustainability of traditional and future cements.
Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S
2015-01-01
We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seung-Lark eLim
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.
Higgs mechanism in light-front quantized field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Srivastava, P P
1993-12-31
The spontaneous symmetry breaking of continuous symmetry in light-front quantized scalar field theory is studied following the standard Dirac procedure for constrained dynamical systems. A non-local constraint is found to follow. The values of the constant backgrounds fields (zero modes) at the tree level, as a consequence, are shown to given by minimizing the light-front energy. The zero modes are shown to commute with the non-zero ones and the isovector built from them is seen to characterize a (non-perturbative) vacuum state and the corresponding physical sector. The infinite degeneracy of the vacuum is described by the continuum of the allowed orientations of this background isovector in the isospin space. The symmetry generators in the quantized field theory annihilate the vacuum is contrast to the case of equal-time quantization. Not all of them are conserved and the conserved ones determine the surviving symmetry of the quantum theory Lagrangian. The criteria for determining the background isovector and the counting of the number of Goldstone bosons goes as in the equal-time case. A demonstration in favour of the absence of Goldstone bosons in two dimensions is also found. Finally, is extended to an understanding of the Higgs mechanism in light-front frame. (author). 13 refs.
Higgs mechanism in light-front quantized field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, P.P.
1992-01-01
The spontaneous symmetry breaking of continuous symmetry in light-front quantized scalar field theory is studied following the standard Dirac procedure for constrained dynamical systems. A non-local constraint is found to follow. The values of the constant backgrounds fields (zero modes) at the tree level, as a consequence, are shown to given by minimizing the light-front energy. The zero modes are shown to commute with the non-zero ones and the isovector built from them is seen to characterize a (non-perturbative) vacuum state and the corresponding physical sector. The infinite degeneracy of the vacuum is described by the continuum of the allowed orientations of this background isovector in the isospin space. The symmetry generators in the quantized field theory annihilate the vacuum is contrast to the case of equal-time quantization. Not all of them are conserved and the conserved ones determine the surviving symmetry of the quantum theory Lagrangian. The criteria for determining the background isovector and the counting of the number of Goldstone bosons goes as in the equal-time case. A demonstration in favour of the absence of Goldstone bosons in two dimensions is also found. Finally, is extended to an understanding of the Higgs mechanism in light-front frame. (author). 13 refs
Ergodic theory, interpretations of probability and the foundations of statistical mechanics
van Lith, J.H.
2001-01-01
The traditional use of ergodic theory in the foundations of equilibrium statistical mechanics is that it provides a link between thermodynamic observables and microcanonical probabilities. First of all, the ergodic theorem demonstrates the equality of microcanonical phase averages and infinite time
Lee, Kyungtae; Gu, Geun Ho; Mullen, Charles A; Boateng, Akwasi A; Vlachos, Dionisios G
2015-01-01
Density functional theory is used to study the adsorption of guaiacol and its initial hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions on Pt(111). Previous Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) correlations for small open-chain molecules are inadequate in estimating the reaction barriers of phenolic compounds except for the side group (methoxy) carbon-dehydrogenation. New BEP relations are established using a select group of phenolic compounds. These relations are applied to construct a potential-energy surface of guaiacol-HDO to catechol. Analysis shows that catechol is mainly produced via dehydrogenation of the methoxy functional group followed by the CHx (x<3) removal of the functional group and hydrogenation of the ring carbon, in contrast to a hypothesis of a direct demethylation path. Dehydroxylation and demethoxylation are slow, implying that phenol is likely produced from catechol but not through its direct dehydroxylation followed by aromatic carbon-ring hydrogenation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryder, L.H.
1985-01-01
This introduction to the ideas and techniques of quantum field theory presents the material as simply as possible and is designed for graduate research students. After a brief survey of particle physics, the quantum theory of scalar and spinor fields and then of gauge fields, is developed. The emphasis throughout is on functional methods, which have played a large part in modern field theory. The book concludes with a bridge survey of ''topological'' objects in field theory and assumes a knowledge of quantum mechanics and special relativity
A test theory of special relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansouri, R.; Sexl, R.U.
1977-01-01
Various second-order optical tests of special relativity are discussed within the framework of a test theory developed previously. Owing to the low accuracy of the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment, the Lorentz contraction is known by direct experiments only to an accuracy of a few percent. To improve this accuracy several experiments are suggested. (author)
Constitutive relations in plasticity, damage and fracture mechanics based on a work property
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marigo, J.J.
1989-01-01
This paper is devoted to restrictions imposed by a work property of Drucker-Iliushin's type on the general class of mechanical systems with an elastic range which contains plastic, damaged and cracked media. The analysis is purely mechanical and quasi-static. Starting from very weak assumptions relative to this constitutive class, we obtain a fundamental inequality which generalizes Hill's maximal work principle. So we can justify, for instance: the convexity of the elastic domain and the normality rule of the plastic strain rate in stress space for the infinitesimal and some finite plasticity theories, Griffith's criterion in brittle fracture mechanics, and we obtain some original results for elastic and elastic plastic damaged materials. It must be noted that the procedure is purely deductive, the assumptions are explicit and the results are implications
Probability and logical structure of statistical theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, M.J.W.
1988-01-01
A characterization of statistical theories is given which incorporates both classical and quantum mechanics. It is shown that each statistical theory induces an associated logic and joint probability structure, and simple conditions are given for the structure to be of a classical or quantum type. This provides an alternative for the quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum mechanics. The Bell inequalities may be derived for those statistical theories that have a classical structure and satisfy a locality condition weaker than factorizability. The relation of these inequalities to the issue of hidden variable theories for quantum mechanics is discussed and clarified
The Concept of Security in International Relations Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel Orozco
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The end of the Cold War and the emergence of globalisation have transformed the reality of International Relations, which has meant a change in the theories which this reality had assumed. The concept of security reveals itself as an organisational idea on the different phenomena of globalisation, carrying out a programme of research that goes beyond the realistic presumptions of military power or of the idealistic principles of research for peace. This article explores the new meanings of security for International Relations theory and discusses the theoretical models that influence policy design and that aim to confront the problems and challenges of security in globalisation.
Mechanics of deformable bodies
Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm
1950-01-01
Mechanics of Deformable Bodies: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume II covers topics on the mechanics of deformable bodies. The book discusses the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of deformable bodies; the vortex theory; as well as the theory of waves. The text also describes the flow with given boundaries. Supplementary notes on selected hydrodynamic problems and supplements to the theory of elasticity are provided. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking related courses will find the book useful.
A quantum-mechanical perspective on linear response theory within polarizable embedding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
List, Nanna Holmgaard; Norman, Patrick; Kongsted, Jacob
2017-01-01
We present a derivation of linear response theory within polarizable embedding starting from a rigorous quantum-mechanical treatment of a composite system. To this aim, two different subsystem decompositions (symmetric and nonsymmetric) of the linear response function are introduced and the pole...
Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon
2008-01-01
The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…
Quantum mechanics versus relativity: an experimental test of the structure of spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emelyanov, S A
2012-01-01
We have performed an experimental test under the conditions in which quantum mechanics predicts spatially discontinuous single-particle transport. The transport is beyond the relativistic paradigm of movement in Cartesian space and therefore may well be nonlocal. Our test has demonstrated that such transport does exist. This fact opens the door for a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics in so far as the requirement of Lorentz invariance appears inapplicable to any version of quantum theory. Moreover, as quantum mechanics proposes a particle dynamics beyond relativity, it automatically requires an adequate ‘quantum’ concept of spacetime, for which the relativistic concept is only a limiting case. The quantum concept allows absolute simultaneity and hence revives the notion of absolute time. It also goes beyond the relativistic curvilinear Cartesian order of space to account for quantum phenomena such as discontinuity and nonlocality in the spirit of Bohm's concept of the implicate order.
Relational Compositions in Fuzzy Class Theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Běhounek, Libor; Daňková, M.
2009-01-01
Roč. 160, č. 8 (2009), s. 1005-1036 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Pro jects: GA AV ČR KJB100300502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : fuzzy relation * sup-T-composition * inf-R-composition * BK- pro duct * fuzzy class theory * formal truth value Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2009
Conformal Field Theory, Automorphic Forms and Related Topics
Weissauer, Rainer; CFT 2011
2014-01-01
This book, part of the series Contributions in Mathematical and Computational Sciences, reviews recent developments in the theory of vertex operator algebras (VOAs) and their applications to mathematics and physics. The mathematical theory of VOAs originated from the famous monstrous moonshine conjectures of J.H. Conway and S.P. Norton, which predicted a deep relationship between the characters of the largest simple finite sporadic group, the Monster, and the theory of modular forms inspired by the observations of J. MacKay and J. Thompson. The contributions are based on lectures delivered at the 2011 conference on Conformal Field Theory, Automorphic Forms and Related Topics, organized by the editors as part of a special program offered at Heidelberg University that summer under the sponsorship of the MAThematics Center Heidelberg (MATCH).
Analysis of fission-fragment mass distribution within the quantum-mechanical fragmentation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Pardeep; Kaur, Harjeet [Guru Nanak Dev University, Department of Physics, Amritsar (India)
2016-11-15
The fission-fragment mass distribution is analysed for the {sup 208}Pb({sup 18}O, f) reaction within the quantum-mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT). The reaction potential has been calculated by taking the binding energies, Coulomb potential and proximity potential of all possible decay channels and a stationary Schroedinger equation has been solved numerically to calculate the fission-fragment yield. The overall results for mass distribution are compared with those obtained in experiment. Fine structure dips in yield, corresponding to fragment shell closures at Z = 50 and N=82, which are observed by Bogachev et al., are reproduced successfully in the present calculations. These calculations will help to estimate the formation probabilities of fission fragments and to understand many related phenomena occurring in the fission process. (orig.)
Comment on a proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, Jr, W A [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil); Buonamano, V [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Instituto de Matematica
1976-08-11
A proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity is analysed and it is shown that it falls into the set of unsatisfactory proposals that attempt to make an experimental distinction between Einstein's special theory of relativity and a ''Lorentzian type'' special theory of relativity.
Non-Abelian gauge field theory in scale relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nottale, Laurent; Celerier, Marie-Noeelle; Lehner, Thierry
2006-01-01
Gauge field theory is developed in the framework of scale relativity. In this theory, space-time is described as a nondifferentiable continuum, which implies it is fractal, i.e., explicitly dependent on internal scale variables. Owing to the principle of relativity that has been extended to scales, these scale variables can themselves become functions of the space-time coordinates. Therefore, a coupling is expected between displacements in the fractal space-time and the transformations of these scale variables. In previous works, an Abelian gauge theory (electromagnetism) has been derived as a consequence of this coupling for global dilations and/or contractions. We consider here more general transformations of the scale variables by taking into account separate dilations for each of them, which yield non-Abelian gauge theories. We identify these transformations with the usual gauge transformations. The gauge fields naturally appear as a new geometric contribution to the total variation of the action involving these scale variables, while the gauge charges emerge as the generators of the scale transformation group. A generalized action is identified with the scale-relativistic invariant. The gauge charges are the conservative quantities, conjugates of the scale variables through the action, which find their origin in the symmetries of the ''scale-space.'' We thus found in a geometric way and recover the expression for the covariant derivative of gauge theory. Adding the requirement that under the scale transformations the fermion multiplets and the boson fields transform such that the derived Lagrangian remains invariant, we obtain gauge theories as a consequence of scale symmetries issued from a geometric space-time description
Proceedings of quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, and quantum optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodonov, V.V.; Man; ko, V.I.
1991-01-01
This book contains papers presented at the XVIII International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics held in Moscow on June 4-9, 1990. Topics covered include; applications of algebraic methods in quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, quantum optics, spectrum generating groups, quantum algebras, symmetries of equations, quantum physics, coherent states, group representations and space groups
On the mathematical theory of classical fields and general relativity
Klainerman, S
1993-01-01
From the perspective of an analyst, like myself, the General Theory of Relativity provides an extrordinary rich and vastly virgin territory. It is the aim of my lecture to provide, ﬁrst, an account of those aspects of the theory which attract me most and second a perspective of what has been accomplished so far in that respect. In trying to state our main objectives it helps to view General Relativity in the broader context of Classical Field Theory. EinsteiniVacuum equations, or shortly E—V, is already sufﬁciently complicated. I will thus restrict my attention to them.
The role of Einstein's general relativity theory in today's physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bicak, J.
The relationships are discussed of the general relativity theory to other fields of today's physics. Recent results are reported of studies into gravitational radiation, relativistic astrophysics, cosmology and the quantum theory. (Z.M.)
Extension of Loop Quantum Gravity to Metric Theories beyond General Relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Yongge
2012-01-01
The successful background-independent quantization of Loop Quantum Gravity relies on the key observation that classical General Relativity can be cast into the connection-dynamical formalism with the structure group of SU(2). Due to this particular formalism, Loop Quantum Gravity was generally considered as a quantization scheme that applies only to General Relativity. However, we will show that the nonperturbative quantization procedure of Loop Quantum Gravity can be extended to a rather general class of metric theories of gravity, which have received increased attention recently due to motivations coming form cosmology and astrophysics. In particular, we will first introduce how to reformulate the 4-dimensional metric f(R) theories of gravity, as well as Brans-Dicke theory, into connection-dynamical formalism with real SU(2) connections as configuration variables. Through these formalisms, we then outline the nonpertubative canonical quantization of the f(R) theories and Brans-Dicke theory by extending the loop quantization scheme of General Relativity.
Moral judgment and its relation to second-order theory of mind.
Fu, Genyue; Xiao, Wen S; Killen, Melanie; Lee, Kang
2014-08-01
Recent research indicates that moral judgment and 1st-order theory of mind abilities are related. What is not known, however, is how 2nd-order theory of mind is related to moral judgment. In the present study, we extended previous findings by administering a morally relevant theory of mind task (an accidental transgressor) to 4- to 7-year-old Chinese children (N = 79) and analyzing connections with 2nd-order theory of mind understanding. Using hierarchical multiple regression analyses, we found that above and beyond age, children's 1st-order theory of mind and 2nd-order theory of mind each significantly and uniquely contributed to children's moral evaluations of the intention in the accidental transgression. These findings highlight the important roles that 1st- and 2nd-order theory of mind play in leading children to make appropriate moral judgments based on an actor's intention in a social situation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Liu, Peng; Zhang, Jingxue; Wang, Dunyou
2017-06-07
A double-inversion mechanism of the F - + CH 3 I reaction was discovered in aqueous solution using combined multi-level quantum mechanics theories and molecular mechanics. The stationary points along the reaction path show very different structures to the ones in the gas phase due to the interactions between the solvent and solute, especially strong hydrogen bonds. An intermediate complex, a minimum on the potential of mean force, was found to serve as a connecting-link between the abstraction-induced inversion transition state and the Walden-inversion transition state. The potentials of mean force were calculated with both the DFT/MM and CCSD(T)/MM levels of theory. Our calculated free energy barrier of the abstraction-induced inversion is 69.5 kcal mol -1 at the CCSD(T)/MM level of theory, which agrees with the one at 72.9 kcal mol -1 calculated using the Born solvation model and gas-phase data; and our calculated free energy barrier of the Walden inversion is 24.2 kcal mol -1 , which agrees very well with the experimental value at 25.2 kcal mol -1 in aqueous solution. The calculations show that the aqueous solution makes significant contributions to the potentials of mean force and exerts a big impact on the molecular-level evolution along the reaction pathway.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yue Hou
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Fundamental understanding of micro-mechanical behaviors in bitumen, including phase separation, micro-friction, micro-abrasion, etc., can help the pavement engineers better understand the bitumen mechanical performances at macroscale. Recent researches show that the microstructure evolution in bitumen will directly affect its surface structure and micro-mechanical performance. In this study, the bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behaviors are studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM experiments, Phase Dynamics Theory and Molecular Dynamics (MD Simulation. The AFM experiment results show that different phase-structure will occur at the surface of the bitumen samples under certain thermodynamic conditions at microscale. The phenomenon can be explained using the phase dynamics theory, where the effects of stability parameter and temperature on bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behavior are studied combined with MD Simulation. Simulation results show that the saturates phase, in contrast to the naphthene aromatics phase, plays a major role in bitumen micro-mechanical behavior. A high stress zone occurs at the interface between the saturates phase and the naphthene aromatics phase, which may form discontinuities that further affect the bitumen frictional performance.
Hou, Yue; Wang, Linbing; Wang, Dawei; Guo, Meng; Liu, Pengfei; Yu, Jianxin
2017-02-21
Fundamental understanding of micro-mechanical behaviors in bitumen, including phase separation, micro-friction, micro-abrasion, etc., can help the pavement engineers better understand the bitumen mechanical performances at macroscale. Recent researches show that the microstructure evolution in bitumen will directly affect its surface structure and micro-mechanical performance. In this study, the bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behaviors are studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments, Phase Dynamics Theory and Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulation. The AFM experiment results show that different phase-structure will occur at the surface of the bitumen samples under certain thermodynamic conditions at microscale. The phenomenon can be explained using the phase dynamics theory, where the effects of stability parameter and temperature on bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behavior are studied combined with MD Simulation. Simulation results show that the saturates phase, in contrast to the naphthene aromatics phase, plays a major role in bitumen micro-mechanical behavior. A high stress zone occurs at the interface between the saturates phase and the naphthene aromatics phase, which may form discontinuities that further affect the bitumen frictional performance.
Misconceptions in recent papers on special relativity and absolute space theories
Torr, D. G.; Kolen, P.
1982-01-01
Several recent papers which purport to substantiate or negate arguments in favor of certain theories of absolute space have been based on fallacious principles. This paper discusses three related instances, indicating where misconceptions have arisen. It is established, contrary to popular belief, that the classical Lorentz ether theory accounts for all the experimental evidence which supports the special theory of relativity. It is demonstrated that the ether theory predicts the null results obtained from pulsar timing and Moessbauer experiments. It is concluded that a measurement of the one-way velocity of light has physical meaning within the context of the Lorentz theory, and it is argued that an adequately designed experiment to measure the one-way velocity of light should be attempted.
Galbraith, David A; Yi, Soojin V; Grozinger, Christina M
2016-12-01
Kinship theory provides a universal framework in which to understand the evolution of altruism, but there are many molecular and genetic mechanisms that can generate altruistic behaviors. Interestingly, kinship theory specifically predicts intragenomic conflict between maternally-derived alleles (matrigenes) and paternally-derived alleles (patrigenes) over the generation of altruistic behavior in cases where the interests of the matrigenes and patrigenes are not aligned. Under these conditions, individual differences in selfish versus altruistic behavior are predicted to arise from differential expression of the matrigenes and patrigenes (parent-specific gene expression or PSGE) that regulate selfish versus altruistic behaviors. As one of the leading theories to describe PSGE and genomic imprinting, kinship theory has been used to generate predictions to describe the reproductive division of labor in social insect colonies, which represents an excellent model system to test the hypotheses of kinship theory and examine the underlying mechanisms driving it. Recent studies have confirmed the predicted differences in the influence of matrigenes and patrigenes on reproductive division of labor in social insects, and demonstrated that these differences are associated with differences in PSGE of key genes involved in regulating reproductive physiology, providing further support for kinship theory. However, the mechanisms mediating PSGE in social insects, and how PSGE leads to differences in selfish versus altruistic behavior, remain to be determined. Here, we review the available supporting evidence for three possible epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation, piRNAs, and histone modification) that may generate PSGE in social insects, and discuss how these may lead to variation in social behavior. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email
A generalized DEMATEL theory with a shrinkage coefficient for an indirect relation matrix
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Hsiang-Chuan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL theory with a shrinkage coefficient of indirect relation matrix is proposed, and a useful validity index, called Liu’s validity index, is also proposed for evaluating the performance of any DEMATEL model. If the shrinkage coefficient of an indirect relation matrix is equal to 1, then this new theory is identical to the traditional theory; in other words, it is a generalization of the traditional theory. Furthermore, the indirect relation is always considerably greater than the direct one in traditional DEMATEL theory, which is unreasonable and unfair because it overemphasizes the influence of the indirect relation. We prove in this paper that if the shrinkage coefficient is equal to 0.5, then the indirect relation is less than its direct relation. Because the shrinkage coefficient belongs to [0.5, 1], according to Liu’s validity index, we can find a more appropriate shrinkage coefficient to obtain a more efficient DEMATEL method. Some crucial properties of this new theory are discussed, and a simple example is provided to illustrate the advantages of the proposed theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eloranta, E.
2003-11-01
The geophysical field theory includes the basic principles of electromagnetism, continuum mechanics, and potential theory upon which the computational modelling of geophysical phenomena is based on. Vector analysis is the main mathematical tool in the field analyses. Electrostatics, stationary electric current, magnetostatics, and electrodynamics form a central part of electromagnetism in geophysical field theory. Potential theory concerns especially gravity, but also electrostatics and magnetostatics. Solid state mechanics and fluid mechanics are central parts in continuum mechanics. Also the theories of elastic waves and rock mechanics belong to geophysical solid state mechanics. The theories of geohydrology and mass transport form one central field theory in geophysical fluid mechanics. Also heat transfer is included in continuum mechanics. (orig.)
Einstein and the Special Theory of Relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
some detail how Einstein evolved this theory and get a glimpse of his unique ... The Principle of Relativity: The laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames. .... ing on the railway platform will see them occur at different places. However ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sukhanov, A.D.
2004-01-01
Generalized correlations of the Schroedinger indefinitenesses are shown to have the meaning of the fundamental restrictions as to characteristics of space of states in any probability-like theory. Quantum mechanics, as well as, theory of the brownian movement at arbitrary space of time fall in the category of the mentioned theories. One compared correlations of coordinates-pulse indefinitenesses within the mentioned theory with the similar correlation of indefinitenesses for microparticle under the Gaussian wave packet state. One determined that in case of profound distinction in mathematical tools of two theories one observes their conceptual resemblance. It manifests itself under the alternative conditions - short times in one theory correspond to long ones in another theory and vice versa, while in any of the mentioned theories uncontrollable effect of either quantum or thermal type is of crucial importance [ru
Digestible quantum field theory
Smilga, Andrei
2017-01-01
This book gives an intermediate level treatment of quantum field theory, appropriate to a reader with a first degree in physics and a working knowledge of special relativity and quantum mechanics. It aims to give the reader some understanding of what QFT is all about, without delving deep into actual calculations of Feynman diagrams or similar. The author serves up a seven‐course menu, which begins with a brief introductory Aperitif. This is followed by the Hors d'oeuvres, which set the scene with a broad survey of the Universe, its theoretical description, and how the ideas of QFT developed during the last century. In the next course, the Art of Cooking, the author recaps on some basic facts of analytical mechanics, relativity, quantum mechanics and also presents some nutritious “extras” in mathematics (group theory at the elementary level) and in physics (theory of scattering). After these preparations, the reader should have a good appetite for the Entrées ‐ the central par t of the book where the...
Survival units as the point of departure for a relational social theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaspersen, Lars Bo; Gabriel, Norman
Relational social theory can be found in the works of Hegel, Marx, Simmel, Mannheim, Mead, Saussure, Lévi-Strauss, Althusser, Foucault and Bourdieu. However, one of the most consistent relational thinkers is Norbert Elias. In order to develop his figurational and relational social theory Elias...
McAdoo, Ryan M; Gronlund, Scott D
2016-01-01
Many in the eyewitness identification community believe that sequential lineups are superior to simultaneous lineups because simultaneous lineups encourage inappropriate choosing due to promoting comparisons among choices (a relative judgment strategy), but sequential lineups reduce this propensity by inducing comparisons of lineup members directly to memory rather than to each other (an absolute judgment strategy). Different versions of the relative judgment theory have implicated both discrete-state and continuous mediation of eyewitness decisions. The theory has never been formally specified, but (Yonelinas, J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 20:1341-1354, 1994) dual-process models provide one possible specification, thereby allowing us to evaluate how eyewitness decisions are mediated. We utilized a ranking task (Kellen and Klauer, J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 40:1795-1804, 2014) and found evidence for continuous mediation when facial stimuli match from study to test (Experiment 1) and when they mismatch (Experiment 2). This evidence, which is contrary to a version of relative judgment theory that has gained a lot of traction in the legal community, compels reassessment of the role that guessing plays in eyewitness identification. Future research should continue to test formal explanations in order to advance theory, expedite the development of new procedures that can enhance the reliability of eyewitness evidence, and to facilitate the exploration of task factors and emergent strategies that might influence when recognition is continuously or discretely mediated.
Scanning tunneling microscopy III theory of STM and related scanning probe methods
Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim
1993-01-01
While the first two volumes on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and its related scanning probe (SXM) methods have mainly concentrated on intro ducing the experimental techniques, as well as their various applications in different research fields, this third volume is exclusively devoted to the theory of STM and related SXM methods. As the experimental techniques including the reproducibility of the experimental results have advanced, more and more theorists have become attracted to focus on issues related to STM and SXM. The increasing effort in the development of theoretical concepts for STM/SXM has led to considerable improvements in understanding the contrast mechanism as well as the experimental conditions necessary to obtain reliable data. Therefore, this third volume on STM/SXM is not written by theorists for theorists, but rather for every scientist who is not satisfied by just obtaining real space images of surface structures by STM/SXM. After a brief introduction (Chap. 1), N. D. Lang first co...
Generalisation of the test theory of special relativity to non-inertial frames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abolghasem, G.H.; Khajehpour, M.R.H.; Mansouri, R.
1989-01-01
We present a generalised test theory of special relativity, using a non-inertial frame. Within the framework of the special theory of relativity the transport and Einstein synchronisations are equivalent on a rigidly rotating disc. But in any theory with a preferred frame, such an equivalence does not hold. The time difference resulting from the two synchronisation procedures is a measurable quantity within the reach of existing clock systems on the Earth. The final result contains a term which depends on the angular velocity of the rotating system, and hence measures an absolute effect. This term is of crucial importance in our test theory of special relativity. (Author)
An Exact Relation for N=1 Orientifold Field Theories with Arbitrary Superpotential
Armoni, Adi; Shifman, M
2004-01-01
We discuss a nonperturbative relation for orientifold parent/daughter pairs of supersymmetric theories with an arbitrary tree-level superpotential. We show that super-Yang-Mills (SYM) theory with matter in the adjoint representation at N-->infinity, is equivalent to a SYM theory with matter in the antisymmetric representation and a related superpotential. The gauge symmetry breaking patterns match in these theories too. The moduli spaces in the limiting case of a vanishing superpotential are also discussed. Finally we argue that there is an exact mapping between the effective superpotentials of two finite-N theories belonging to an orientifold pair.
Can one tell Einstein's unimodular theory from Einstein's general relativity?
Alvarez, Enrique
2005-01-01
The so called unimodular theory of gravitation is compared with general relativity in the quadratic (Fierz-Pauli) regime, using a quite broad framework, and it is argued that quantum effects allow in principle to discriminate between both theories.
Molecular Theory of the Living Cell Concepts, Molecular Mechanisms, and Biomedical Applications
Ji, Sungchul
2012-01-01
This book presents a comprehensive molecular theory of the living cell based on over thirty concepts, principles and laws imported from thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, chemical kinetics, informatics, computer science, linguistics, semiotics, and philosophy. The author formulates physically, chemically and enzymologically realistic molecular mechanisms to account for the basic living processes such as ligand-receptor interactions, protein folding, single-molecule enzymic catalysis, force-generating mechanisms in molecular motors, signal transduction, regulation of the genome-wide RNA metabolism, morphogenesis, the micro-macro coupling in coordination dynamics, the origin of life, and the mechanisms of biological evolution itself. Possible solutions to basic and practical problems facing contemporary biology and biomedical sciences have been suggested, including pharmacotheragnostics and personalized medicine.
Assessing Cognitive Load Theory to Improve Student Learning for Mechanical Engineers
Impelluso, Thomas J.
2009-01-01
A computer programming class for students of mechanical engineering was redesigned and assessed: Cognitive Load Theory was used to redesign the content; online technologies were used to redesign the delivery. Student learning improved and the dropout rate was reduced. This article reports on both attitudinal and objective assessment: comparing…
Aiyoshi, Eitaro; Masuda, Kazuaki
On the basis of market fundamentalism, new types of social systems with the market mechanism such as electricity trading markets and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission trading markets have been developed. However, there are few textbooks in science and technology which present the explanation that Lagrange multipliers can be interpreted as market prices. This tutorial paper explains that (1) the steepest descent method for dual problems in optimization, and (2) Gauss-Seidel method for solving the stationary conditions of Lagrange problems with market principles, can formulate the mechanism of market pricing, which works even in the information-oriented modern society. The authors expect readers to acquire basic knowledge on optimization theory and algorithms related to economics and to utilize them for designing the mechanism of more complicated markets.
Holographic applications of logarithmic conformal field theories
Grumiller, D.; Riedler, W.; Rosseel, J.; Zojer, T.
2013-01-01
We review the relations between Jordan cells in various branches of physics, ranging from quantum mechanics to massive gravity theories. Our main focus is on holographic correspondences between critically tuned gravity theories in anti-de Sitter space and logarithmic conformal field theories in
[Ortega and the theory of relativity].
González de Posada, Francisco
2006-01-01
Ortega y Gasset's thinking on Einstein and relativity, set out in the course of his extensive works, is constructed in the light of three of his fundamental ideas: 1) science, a special form of belief; 2) physics, a science par excellence; and 3) relativity, the intellectual fact of the highest order of its time; dedicating special attention to the essay: "The historical meaning of Einstein's theory". And it is completed with his critical attitude to the so-called "fundamental crisis" and his diagnosis of the grave problems suffered by physics in the wake of the relativistic and quantum revolutions.
Relativistic quantum mechanics; Mecanique quantique relativiste
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ollitrault, J.Y. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)
1998-12-01
These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.) 2 refs.
The Theory about didactical situations used to analyze practice related teaching and learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarkrog, Vibe
2018-01-01
Based on research showing that the students’ challenges in practice based learning can be located to the transitions between theory and practice, this study focuses on how teachers support the students in these transitions. The theoretical framework is mainly Brousseau’s ‘Theory about didactical...... the results show that the Theory of didactical situations can be a useful framework accomplishing practice related teaching and learning. In the discussion a number of challenges in relation to practice related teaching is highlighted focusing on the relation between the five situations in the theory...... situations’ that defines five situations of practice related teaching. The data includes observations combined with interviews of teachers in relation to various examples of practice related teaching in the social and health care programs. Based on the analysis of three examples of practice related teaching...
Theoretical physics. Field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landau, L.; Lifchitz, E.
2004-01-01
This book is the fifth French edition of the famous course written by Landau/Lifchitz and devoted to both the theory of electromagnetic fields and the gravity theory. The talk of the theory of electromagnetic fields is based on special relativity and relates to only the electrodynamics in vacuum and that of pointwise electric charges. On the basis of the fundamental notions of the principle of relativity and of relativistic mechanics, and by using variational principles, the authors develop the fundamental equations of the electromagnetic field, the wave equation and the processes of emission and propagation of light. The theory of gravitational fields, i.e. the general theory of relativity, is exposed in the last five chapters. The fundamentals of the tensor calculus and all that is related to it are progressively introduced just when needed (electromagnetic field tensor, energy-impulse tensor, or curve tensor...). The worldwide reputation of this book is generally allotted to clearness, to the simplicity and the rigorous logic of the demonstrations. (A.C.)
Statistical mechanics of nonequilibrium liquids
Evans, Denis J; Craig, D P; McWeeny, R
1990-01-01
Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids deals with theoretical rheology. The book discusses nonlinear response of systems and outlines the statistical mechanical theory. In discussing the framework of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, the book explains the derivation of a nonequilibrium analogue of the Gibbsian basis for equilibrium statistical mechanics. The book reviews the linear irreversible thermodynamics, the Liouville equation, and the Irving-Kirkwood procedure. The text then explains the Green-Kubo relations used in linear transport coefficients, the linear response theory,
Failure mechanism and coupled static-dynamic loading theory in deep hard rock mining: A review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xibing Li
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Rock failure phenomena, such as rockburst, slabbing (or spalling and zonal disintegration, related to deep underground excavation of hard rocks are frequently reported and pose a great threat to deep mining. Currently, the explanation for these failure phenomena using existing dynamic or static rock mechanics theory is not straightforward. In this study, new theory and testing method for deep underground rock mass under coupled static-dynamic loading are introduced. Two types of coupled loading modes, i.e. “critical static stress + slight disturbance” and “elastic static stress + impact disturbance”, are proposed, and associated test devices are developed. Rockburst phenomena of hard rocks under coupled static-dynamic loading are successfully reproduced in the laboratory, and the rockburst mechanism and related criteria are demonstrated. The results of true triaxial unloading compression tests on granite and red sandstone indicate that the unloading can induce slabbing when the confining pressure exceeds a certain threshold, and the slabbing failure strength is lower than the shear failure strength according to the conventional Mohr-Column criterion. Numerical results indicate that the rock unloading failure response under different in situ stresses and unloading rates can be characterized by an equivalent strain energy density. In addition, we present a new microseismic source location method without premeasuring the sound wave velocity in rock mass, which can efficiently and accurately locate the rock failure in hard rock mines. Also, a new idea for deep hard rock mining using a non-explosive continuous mining method is briefly introduced.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavel Bona
2000-01-01
The work can be considered as an essay on mathematical and conceptual structure of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics which is related here to some other (more general, but also to more special and 'approximative') theories. Quantum mechanics is here primarily reformulated in an equivalent form of a Poisson system on the phase space consisting of density matrices, where the 'observables', as well as 'symmetry generators' are represented by a specific type of real valued (densely defined) functions, namely the usual quantum expectations of corresponding selfjoint operators. It is shown in this paper that inclusion of additional ('nonlinear') symmetry generators (i. e. 'Hamiltonians') into this reformulation of (linear) quantum mechanics leads to a considerable extension of the theory: two kinds of quantum 'mixed states' should be distinguished, and operator - valued functions of density matrices should be used in the role of 'nonlinear observables'. A general framework for physical theories is obtained in this way: By different choices of the sets of 'nonlinear observables' we obtain, as special cases, e.g. classical mechanics on homogeneous spaces of kinematical symmetry groups, standard (linear) quantum mechanics, or nonlinear extensions of quantum mechanics; also various 'quasiclassical approximations' to quantum mechanics are all sub theories of the presented extension of quantum mechanics - a version of the extended quantum mechanics. A general interpretation scheme of extended quantum mechanics extending the usual statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics is also proposed. Eventually, extended quantum mechanics is shown to be (included into) a C * -algebraic (hence linear) quantum theory. Mathematical formulation of these theories is presented. The presentation includes an analysis of problems connected with differentiation on infinite-dimensional manifolds, as well as a solution of some problems connected with the work with only densely defined unbounded
The criterion for time symmetry of probabilistic theories and the reversibility of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holster, A T
2003-01-01
Physicists routinely claim that the fundamental laws of physics are 'time symmetric' or 'time reversal invariant' or 'reversible'. In particular, it is claimed that the theory of quantum mechanics is time symmetric. But it is shown in this paper that the orthodox analysis suffers from a fatal conceptual error, because the logical criterion for judging the time symmetry of probabilistic theories has been incorrectly formulated. The correct criterion requires symmetry between future-directed laws and past-directed laws. This criterion is formulated and proved in detail. The orthodox claim that quantum mechanics is reversible is re-evaluated. The property demonstrated in the orthodox analysis is shown to be quite distinct from time reversal invariance. The view of Satosi Watanabe that quantum mechanics is time asymmetric is verified, as well as his view that this feature does not merely show a de facto or 'contingent' asymmetry, as commonly supposed, but implies a genuine failure of time reversal invariance of the laws of quantum mechanics. The laws of quantum mechanics would be incompatible with a time-reversed version of our universe
Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations: application in emergency and rural nursing.
Senn, Joanne F
2013-01-01
The author in this column highlights aspects of Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations and its use both in emergency nursing and rural nursing. Long and Weinert identified the concepts of rural nursing. Some differences between Peplau's theory and rural nursing can be identified through definitions of theory and conceptual models. Despite these differences, there are some common themes between both theories that are described and compared.
A Relation Between Topological Quantum Field Theory and the Kodama State
Oda, Ichiro
2003-01-01
We study a relation between topological quantum field theory and the Kodama (Chern-Simons) state. It is shown that the Kodama (Chern-Simons) state describes a topological state with unbroken diffeomorphism invariance in Yang-Mills theory and Einstein's general relativity in four dimensions. We give a clear explanation of "why" such a topological state exists.
Connecting and unmasking relativity and quantum theory
Koning, de W.L.; Willigenburg, van L.G.
2015-01-01
The answer lies right in front of us, but we refuse to see it. Both relativity and quantum theory, the two pillars of fundamental physics, are modified in this paper to make them also explain the physical phenomena they describe. With this explanation, all current inconsistencies between the two
From Newton's laws to Einstein's theory of relativity
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Fang, Li-chih; Chʻu, Yao-chʻüan; Fang, Li Zhi; Fang, L. Z; Li, Zhi Fang; Fang, Lizhi
1987-01-01
...-Morley Experiment Constant New Velocity of Light Speed The of COMPOSITION OF SPEED OF LIGHT The Law of CHAPTER Salviati's Theory of W h o IV TO ship Two Relativity Shot First? CHAPTER V A ROD Space and * T h e Lifetime Moving Lorentz F R O M GALILEO'S PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY THE S P E C I A L T H E O R Y OF RELATIVITY principles of th...
Quantum theory and Einstein's general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borzeszkowski, H. von; Treder, H.
1982-01-01
We dicusss the meaning and prove the accordance of general relativity, wave mechanics, and the quantization of Einstein's gravitation equations themselves. Firstly, we have the problem of the influence of gravitational fields on the de Broglie waves, which influence is in accordance with Einstein's weak principle of equivalence and the limitation of measurements given by Heisenberg's uncertainty relations. Secondly, the quantization of the gravitational fields is a ''quantization of geometry.'' However, classical and quantum gravitation have the same physical meaning according to limitations of measurements given by Einstein's strong principle of equivalence and the Heisenberg uncertainties for the mechanics of test bodies
Neurath's ship: The constitutive relation between normative and descriptive theories of rationality
Waldmann, Michael R.
2011-01-01
I defend the claim that in psychological theories concerned with theoretical or practical rationality there is a constitutive relation between normative and descriptive theories: Normative theories provide idealized descriptive accounts of rational agents. However, we need to resist the temptation to collapse descriptive theories with any specific normative theory. I show how a partial separation is possible. peerReviewed
Ester, Edward F.; Deering, Sean
2014-01-01
Spatial attention has been postulated to facilitate perceptual processing via several different mechanisms. For instance, attention can amplify neural responses in sensory areas (sensory gain), mediate neural variability (noise modulation), or alter the manner in which sensory signals are selectively read out by postsensory decision mechanisms (efficient readout). Even in the context of simple behavioral tasks, it is unclear how well each of these mechanisms can account for the relationship between attention-modulated changes in behavior and neural activity because few studies have systematically mapped changes between stimulus intensity, attentional focus, neural activity, and behavioral performance. Here, we used a combination of psychophysics, event-related potentials (ERPs), and quantitative modeling to explicitly link attention-related changes in perceptual sensitivity with changes in the ERP amplitudes recorded from human observers. Spatial attention led to a multiplicative increase in the amplitude of an early sensory ERP component (the P1, peaking ∼80–130 ms poststimulus) and in the amplitude of the late positive deflection component (peaking ∼230–330 ms poststimulus). A simple model based on signal detection theory demonstrates that these multiplicative gain changes were sufficient to account for attention-related improvements in perceptual sensitivity, without a need to invoke noise modulation. Moreover, combining the observed multiplicative gain with a postsensory readout mechanism resulted in a significantly poorer description of the observed behavioral data. We conclude that, at least in the context of relatively simple visual discrimination tasks, spatial attention modulates perceptual sensitivity primarily by modulating the gain of neural responses during early sensory processing PMID:25274817
Apocrypha of standard scattering theory (SST) and quantum mechanics of the de Broglie wave packet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ignatovich, V.K.
2001-01-01
It is shown that the Standard Scattering Theory (SST) does not correspond to the principles of Standard Quantum Mechanics (SQM). A more consistent theory is formulated. Some new results are obtained. Reflection and transmission of the de Broglie wave packet by thin layers of matter is considered
The many-body content of quantum gauge theories and its connection to mass generation mechanisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Natoli, C.R.; Palumbo, F.
1985-01-01
The aim of the paper is to get more knowledge about many-body systems and their properties, about many-body content of quantum gauge theories and its connection with mass generation mechanisms. The way to achieve this is to perform the galilean limit of the relativistic theory by sending the speed of light c to infinity. This limiting process exposes the low energy behaviour of the relativistic theory
Theory of mind in schizophrenia: exploring neural mechanisms of belief attribution.
Lee, Junghee; Quintana, Javier; Nori, Poorang; Green, Michael F
2011-01-01
Although previous behavioral studies have shown that schizophrenia patients have impaired theory of mind (ToM), the neural mechanisms associated with this impairment are poorly understood. This study aimed to identify the neural mechanisms of ToM in schizophrenia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a belief attribution task. In the scanner, 12 schizophrenia patients and 13 healthy control subjects performed the belief attribution task with three conditions: a false belief condition, a false photograph condition, and a simple reading condition. For the false belief versus simple reading conditions, schizophrenia patients showed reduced neural activation in areas including the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) compared with controls. Further, during the false belief versus false photograph conditions, we observed increased activations in the TPJ and the MPFC in healthy controls, but not in schizophrenia patients. For the false photograph versus simple reading condition, both groups showed comparable neural activations. Schizophrenia patients showed reduced task-related activation in the TPJ and the MPFC during the false belief condition compared with controls, but not for the false photograph condition. This pattern suggests that reduced activation in these regions is associated with, and specific to, impaired ToM in schizophrenia.
Frederiksen, Claus S.
2009-01-01
This paper examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind of common-sense morality? To address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based ...
A comment on a proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues Jr, W.A.; Buonamano, V.
1976-01-01
A proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity is analysed and it is shown that it falls into the set of unsatisfactory proposals that attempt to make an experimental distinction between Einstein's special theory of relativity and a ''Lorentzian type'' special theory of relativity
An introduction to conformal invariance in quantum field theory and statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyanovsky, D.; Naon, C.M.
1990-01-01
The subject of conformal invariance provides an extraordinarly successful and productive symbiosis between statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. The main goal of this paper, which is tailored to a wide audience, is to give an introduction to such vast subject (C.P.)
Reverse Transcriptase Mechanism of Somatic Hypermutation: 60 Years of Clonal Selection Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edward J. Steele
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The evidence for the reverse transcriptase mechanism of somatic hypermutation is substantial and multifactorial. In this 60th anniversary year of the publication of Sir MacFarlane Burnet’s Clonal Selection Theory, the evidence is briefly reviewed and updated.
Surrealism, art, and modern science relativity, quantum mechanics, epistemology
Parkinson, Gavin
2008-01-01
During the same period that Surrealism originated and flourished between the wars, great advances were being made in the field of physics. This book offers the first full history, analysis and interpretation of Surrealism's engagement with the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, and its reception of the philosophical consequences of those two major turning points in our understanding of the physical world. After surveying the revolution in physics in the early twentieth century and the discoveries of Planck, Bohr, Einstein, Schrodinger, and others, Gavin Parkinson explores the diverse uses of physics by individuals in and around the Surrealist group in Paris. In so doing, he offers exciting new readings of the art and writings of such key figures of the Surrealist milieu as André Breton, Georges Bataille, Salvador Dalí, Roger Caillois, Max Ernst, and Tristan Tzara.
Recursive relations for a quiver gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jaemo; Sim, Woojoo
2006-01-01
We study the recursive relations for a quiver gauge theory with the gauge group SU(N 1 ) x SU(N 2 ) with bifundamental fermions transforming as (N 1 , N-bar 2 ). We work out the recursive relation for the amplitudes involving a pair of quark and antiquark and gluons of each gauge group. We realize directly in the recursive relations the invariance under the order preserving permutations of the gluons of the first and the second gauge group. We check the proposed relations for MHV, 6-point and 7-point amplitudes and find the agreements with the known results and the known relations with the single gauge group amplitudes. The proposed recursive relation is much more efficient in calculating the amplitudes than using the known relations with the amplitudes of the single gauge group
Hyperscaling relations in mass-deformed conformal gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Del Debbio, Luigi; Zwicky, Roman
2010-01-01
We present a number of analytical results which should guide the interpretation of lattice data in theories with an infrared fixed point (IRFP) deformed by a mass term δL=-mqq. From renormalization group (RG) arguments we obtain the leading scaling exponent, F∼m η F , for all decay constants of the lowest lying states other than the ones affected by the chiral anomaly and the tensor ones. These scaling relations provide a clear cut way to distinguish a theory with an IRFP from a confining theory with heavy fermions. Moreover, we present a derivation relating the scaling of ∼m η qq to the scaling of the density of eigenvalues of the massless Dirac operator ρ(λ)∼λ η qq . RG arguments yield η qq =(3-γ * )/(1+γ * ) as a function of the mass anomalous dimension γ * at the IRFP. The arguments can be generalized to other condensates such as 2 >∼m 4/(1+γ * ) . We describe a heuristic derivation of the result on the condensates, which provides interesting connections between different approaches. Our results are compared with existing data from numerical studies of SU(2) with two adjoint Dirac fermions.
[Topics in field theory and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1990-01-01
In the past year, I have continued to investigate the relations between conformal field theories and lattice statistical mechanical models, and in particular have been studying two dimensional models coupled to quantum gravity. I have continued as well to consider possible extension of these results to higher dimensions and potential applications in other contexts
Comparison of Predictive Contract Mechanisms from an Information Theory Perspective
Zhang, Xin; Ward, Tomas; McLoone, Seamus
2012-01-01
Inconsistency arises across a Distributed Virtual Environment due to network latency induced by state changes communications. Predictive Contract Mechanisms (PCMs) combat this problem through reducing the amount of messages transmitted in return for perceptually tolerable inconsistency. To date there are no methods to quantify the efficiency of PCMs in communicating this reduced state information. This article presents an approach derived from concepts in information theory for a dee...
The Quantum Mechanics Solver How to Apply Quantum Theory to Modern Physics
Basdevant, Jean-Louis
2006-01-01
The Quantum Mechanics Solver grew from topics which are part of the final examination in quantum theory at the Ecole Polytechnique at Palaiseau near Paris, France. The aim of the text is to guide the student towards applying quantum mechanics to research problems in fields such as atomic and molecular physics, condensed matter physics, and laser physics. Advanced undergraduates and graduate students will find a rich and challenging source for improving their skills in this field.
Amplitude relations in heterotic string theory and Einstein-Yang-Mills
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlotterer, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)
2016-11-11
We present all-multiplicity evidence that the tree-level S-matrix of gluons and gravitons in heterotic string theory can be reduced to color-ordered single-trace amplitudes of the gauge multiplet. Explicit amplitude relations are derived for up to three gravitons, up to two color traces and an arbitrary number of gluons in each case. The results are valid to all orders in the inverse string tension α{sup ′} and generalize to the ten-dimensional superamplitudes which preserve 16 supercharges. Their field-theory limit results in an alternative proof of the recently discovered relations between Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes and those of pure Yang-Mills theory. Similarities and differences between the integrands of the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulae and the heterotic string are investigated.
Presti, Giovambattista; Messina, Concetta; Mongelli, Francesca; Sireci, Maria Josè; Collotta, Mario
2017-11-01
Relational Frame Theory is a post-skinnerian theory of language and cognition based on more than thirty years of basic and applied research. It defines language and cognitive skills as an operant repertoire of responses to arbitrarily related stimuli specific, as far as is now known, of the human species. RFT has been proved useful in addressing cognitive barriers to human action in psychotherapy and also improving children skills in reading, IQ testing, and in metaphoric and categorical repertoires. We present a frame of action where RFT can be used in programming software to help autistic children to develop cognitive skills within a developmental vision.
Reply to the "Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Borissova L.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available This paper answers twelve most common questions on the basics of Einstein's theory of relativity. The answers remove most key problems with a real, solid understanding of the theory.
On complicated continuum models in general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsypkin, A.G.
1987-01-01
A set of Euler's equations is obtained in the framework of the general relativity theory from the variational equation in the supposition that lagrangian of the material depends on additional (in comparison with classical theories) thermodynamic parameters and taking into account possible irreversible processes. Momentum equations for continuous medium of a thermodynamic closed set are shown to be the consequence of field equations. The problem about the type of energy-momentum material tensor in the presence of derivatives from additional thermodynamic parameters in the number of lagrangian arguments is considered
Moessbauer neutrinos in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopp, Joachim
2009-01-01
We demonstrate the correspondence between quantum mechanical and quantum field theoretical descriptions of Moessbauer neutrino oscillations. First, we compute the combined rate Γ of Moessbauer neutrino emission, propagation, and detection in quantum field theory, treating the neutrino as an internal line of a tree level Feynman diagram. We include explicitly the effect of homogeneous line broadening due to fluctuating electromagnetic fields in the source and detector crystals and show that the resulting formula for Γ is identical to the one obtained previously [1] for the case of inhomogeneous line broadening. We then proceed to a quantum mechanical treatment of Moessbauer neutrinos and show that the oscillation, coherence, and resonance terms from the field theoretical result can be reproduced if the neutrino is described as a superposition of Lorentz-shaped wave packet with appropriately chosen energies and widths. On the other hand, the emission rate and the detection cross section, including localization and Lamb-Moessbauer terms, cannot be predicted in quantum mechanics and have to be put in by hand.
Indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity, 6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakanishi, Noboru
1979-01-01
The canonical commutation relations are analyzed in detail in the indefinite-metric quantum field theory of gravity based on the vierbein formalism. It is explicitly verified that the BRS charge, the local-Lorentz-BRS charge and the Poincare generators satisfy the expected commutation relations. (author)
Forgotten and neglected theories of Poincare
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, V.I.
2006-04-01
This paper describes a number of published and unpublished works of Henri Poincare that await continuation by the next generations of mathematicians: works on celestial mechanics, on topology, on the theory of chaos and dynamical systems, and on homology, intersections and links. Also discussed are the history of the theory of relativity and the theory of functions and the connection between the Poincare conjecture and the theory of knot invariants. (author)
A modified Lorentz theory as a test theory of special relativity
Chang, T.; Torr, D. G.; Gagnon, D. R.
1988-01-01
Attention has been given recently to a modified Lorentz theory (MLT) that is based on the generalized Galilean transformation. Some explicit formulas within the framework of MLT, dealing with the one-way velocity of light, slow-clock transport, and the Doppler effect are derived. A number of typical experiments are analyzed on this basis. Results indicate that the empirical equivalence between MLT and special relativity is still maintained to second order terms. The results of previous works that predict that the MLT might be distinguished from special relativity at the third order by Doppler centrifuge tests capable of a fractional frequency detection threshold of 10 to the -15th are confirmed.
Mechanics lectures on theoretical physics
Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm
1952-01-01
Mechanics: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume I covers a general course on theoretical physics. The book discusses the mechanics of a particle; the mechanics of systems; the principle of virtual work; and d'alembert's principle. The text also describes oscillation problems; the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of a rigid body; the theory of relative motion; and the integral variational principles of mechanics. Lagrange's equations for generalized coordinates and the theory of Hamilton are also considered. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking Physics courses will find the book
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marta Kwiatkowska
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction:The paper concerns definition of the level of posttraumatic growth (PTG, the psychological adaptation mechanism occurring after extreme experiences in life, such as being informed of having HIV infection.Aim:The study is experimental, aiming to assess whether correlations between exposure to thoughts of stressful experiences and their psychological consequences are mediated by an efficient mechanism of buffering anxiety.Material/Methods:Fifty-four men and 26 women infected with HIV who underwent manipulated exposure to mortality according to the hypotheses of the terror management theory (TMT were included. Subjects were randomly assigned to the control group (dental anxiety or the experimental group (fear of dying.Results:The results confirmed the assumptions of the terror management theory. The subjects had an efficient mechanism of alleviating the fear of dying, the so-called “anxiety buffer.” The analysis revealed a high level of posttraumatic growth and advantages derived from the disease. The paper additionally characterizes the specific group of HIV-positive people, their functioning in society and the family. It touches on such issues as professional work, relations with relatives and friends, social life, and adherence.Conclusions:The study has shown that the specific group of people infected with HIV managed very well to adapt to the circumstances. One may say that as a consequence of acquiring the infection, the subjects have experienced significant changes of personality, which have ultimately led to an improvement of their lives and offered new possibilities for personal and social development to them. All the recorded changes fit into the TMT paradigm.
[Towards an unified theory of the universe basic forces ("the everything theory")].
Aguilar Peris, José
2004-01-01
Numerous efforts have been made in order to unify all the basic forces in nature. In 1967 the fusion of electromagnetic and weak forces was obtained and in 1973 a theoretical bridge between the electroweak and the strong forces have been constructed. This theory is waiting for experimental proofs in the CERN large hadron collider. The last stage would be "the everything theory", which includes the gravitational force. Only the so called superstring theory is a good candidate to overcome the incompatibility of the quantum mechanics and the general relativity, but this theory is not already achieved.
Liu, Peng; Li, Chen; Wang, Dunyou
2017-10-19
The Cl - + CH 3 I → CH 3 Cl + I - reaction in water was studied using combined multilevel quantum mechanism theories and molecular mechanics with an explicit water solvent model. The study shows a significant influence of aqueous solution on the structures of the stationary points along the reaction pathway. A detailed, atomic-level evolution of the reaction mechanism shows a concerted one-bond-broken and one-bond-formed mechanism, as well as a synchronized charge-transfer process. The potentials of mean force calculated with the CCSD(T) and DFT treatments of the solute produce a free activation barrier at 24.5 and 19.0 kcal/mol, respectively, which agrees with the experimental one at 22.0 kcal/mol. The solvent effects have also been quantitatively analyzed: in total, the solvent effects raise the activation energy by 20.2 kcal/mol, which shows a significant impact on this reaction in water.
Multiscale Monte Carlo algorithms in statistical mechanics and quantum field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lauwers, P G
1990-12-01
Conventional Monte Carlo simulation algorithms for models in statistical mechanics and quantum field theory are afflicted by problems caused by their locality. They become highly inefficient if investigations of critical or nearly-critical systems, i.e., systems with important large scale phenomena, are undertaken. We present two types of multiscale approaches that alleveate problems of this kind: Stochastic cluster algorithms and multigrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. Another formidable computational problem in simulations of phenomenologically relevant field theories with fermions is the need for frequently inverting the Dirac operator. This inversion can be accelerated considerably by means of deterministic multigrid methods, very similar to the ones used for the numerical solution of differential equations. (orig.).
On the presence of lower dimensional confinement mechanisms in 4d SU2 lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hari Dass, N.D.
1983-11-01
The presence of an essentially two-dimensional confinement mechanism in 4d SU 2 gauge theory has been conjectured. The authors present an explicit realization of this conjecture valid up to β = 1.8 based on variational investigations of lattice gauge theories. (Auth.)
Nuclear Quantum Gravitation - The Correct Theory
Kotas, Ronald
2016-03-01
Nuclear Quantum Gravitation provides a clear, definitive Scientific explanation of Gravity and Gravitation. It is harmonious with Newtonian and Quantum Mechanics, and with distinct Scientific Logic. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation has 10 certain, Scientific proofs and 21 more good indications. With this theory the Physical Forces are obviously Unified. See: OBSCURANTISM ON EINSTEIN GRAVITATION? http://www.santilli- Foundation.org/inconsistencies-gravitation.php and Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Classical Mechanics http://www.newtonphysics.on.ca/einstein/
Polymer quantum mechanics and its continuum limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corichi, Alejandro; Vukasinac, Tatjana; Zapata, Jose A.
2007-01-01
A rather nonstandard quantum representation of the canonical commutation relations of quantum mechanics systems, known as the polymer representation, has gained some attention in recent years, due to its possible relation with Planck scale physics. In particular, this approach has been followed in a symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity known as loop quantum cosmology. Here we explore different aspects of the relation between the ordinary Schroedinger theory and the polymer description. The paper has two parts. In the first one, we derive the polymer quantum mechanics starting from the ordinary Schroedinger theory and show that the polymer description arises as an appropriate limit. In the second part we consider the continuum limit of this theory, namely, the reverse process in which one starts from the discrete theory and tries to recover back the ordinary Schroedinger quantum mechanics. We consider several examples of interest, including the harmonic oscillator, the free particle, and a simple cosmological model
Relativity theory (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1970--1976
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grooms, D.W.
1976-03-01
Research studies are presented on special and general relativity. Gravitational theory, field theory, and space--time studies are included as are studies involving the Minkowski space, the Schrodinger equations, the Dirac equations, and the Lorentz transformations. (This updated bibliography contains 136 abstracts, 4 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)
Relativity theory (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1970--Feb 77
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grooms, D.W.
1977-04-01
Research studies are presented on special and general relativity. Gravitational theory, field theory, and space--time studies are included, as are studies involving the Minkowski space, the Schrodinger equations, the Dirac equations, and the Lorentz transformations
A theory with consolidation: Linking everything to explain everything
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gaurav Shantaram Biraris
Full Text Available The paper reports a theory which gives explicit (ontic understanding of the abstract (epistemic mechanisms spanning many branches of physics. It results to most modern physics starting from Newtonian physics by abandoning progress in twentieth century. The theory assumes consolidation of points in 4-balls of specific radius in the universe. Thus the 4-balls are fundamental elements of the universe. Analogue of momentum defined as soul vector is assumed to be induced on the 4-balls at the beginning of the universe. Then with progression of local time, collisions happen leading to different rotations of CNs. For such rotations, the consolidation provides centripetal binding. By using general terminologies of force and work, the mass energy mechanism gets revealed. The theory provides explicit interpretation of intrinsic properties of mass, electric charge, color charge, weak charge, spin etc. It also provides explicit understanding of the wave-particle duality & quantum mechanics. Epistemic study of the universe with the consolidation results to conventional quantum theories. Elementary mechanism of the field interactions is evident due to conservation of the soul vectors, and its epistemic expectation results to the gauge theories. The theory predicts that four types of interaction would exist in the universe along with the acceptable relative strengths; it provides fundamental interpretation of the physical forces. Further, it explains the basic mechanisms which can be identified with dark energy & dark matter. It also results to (or explains entanglement, chirality, excess of matter, 4-component spinor, real-abstract (ontic-epistemic correspondence etc. The theory is beyond standard model and results to the standard model, relativity, dark energy & dark matter, starting by simple assumptions. Keywords: Beyond standard model, Phenomenology, Relativity, Dark matter, Realist theory
On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Crothers S. J.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein's Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein's theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein's field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, $R_{mu u} = 0$, violates his Principle of Equivalence, and is therefore erroneous. This has a direct bearing on the usual concept of conservation of energy for the gravitational field and the conventional formulation for localisation of energy using Einstein's pseudo-tensor. Misconceptions as to the relationship between Minkowski spacetime and Special Relativity are also discussed, along with their relationships to the pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold of Einstein's gravitational field, and their fundamental geometric structures pertaining to spherical symmetry.
Introduction to modern theoretical physics. Volume I. Classical physics and relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harris, E.G.
1975-01-01
The treatment covers vectors, tensors, and the structure of space, Newton's laws of motion and the law of gravitation, analytical mechanics, oscillatory motion, mechanics of a rigid body and of continuous media, classical fields, electromagnetic waves and radiation, the principle of relativity, relativistic electrodynamics and mechanics, general relativity theory and some of its consequences, and unified field theories and other modifications of the general theory of relativity
Discovery Mondays - “Relativity Theory... strange! Did you say strange?”
2005-01-01
We all know that famous equation E=mc2, but do you know its true significance? Relativity theory: what is the meaning of this strange concept which plunged the physics world into turmoil 100 years ago? What effects can be observed today? Did you know that the GPS system would not work if relativity was not taken into account? The next Discovery Monday will take you on a journey into a strange world. You will be able to witness for yourselves the consequences of Einstein's theories. How, for example, can relativity theory be tested by eclipses? What consequences does it have for the accelerators at CERN? How can it be used to measure the mass of enormous black holes? And finally, how is it linked to the puzzle surrounding the missing mass of the Universe? As part of the World Year of Physics, the next Discovery Monday will be dedicated to one of the theories that Einstein published in 1905, his “annus mirabilis”. Join us at the Microcosm (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site), on Monday 5th September ...
Discovery Mondays - “Relativity Theory... strange! Did you say strange?”
2005-01-01
We all know that famous equation E=mc2, but do you know its true significance? Relativity theory: what is the meaning of this strange concept which plunged the physics world into turmoil 100 years ago? What effects can be observed today? Did you know that the GPS system would not work if relativity was not taken into account? The next Discovery Monday will take you on a journey into a strange world. You will be able to witness for yourselves the consequences of Einstein's theories. How, for example, can relativity theory be tested by eclipses? What consequences does it have for the accelerators at CERN? How can it be used to measure the mass of enormous black holes? And finally, how is it linked to the puzzle surrounding the missing mass of the Universe? As part of the World Year of Physics, the next Discovery Monday will be dedicated to one of the theories that Einstein published in 1905, his “annus mirabilis”. Join us at the Microcosm (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site), on Monday 5th Septemb...
Salbreux, Guillaume; Jülicher, Frank
2017-09-01
We derive a fully covariant theory of the mechanics of active surfaces. This theory provides a framework for the study of active biological or chemical processes at surfaces, such as the cell cortex, the mechanics of epithelial tissues, or reconstituted active systems on surfaces. We introduce forces and torques acting on a surface, and derive the associated force balance conditions. We show that surfaces with in-plane rotational symmetry can have broken up-down, chiral, or planar-chiral symmetry. We discuss the rate of entropy production in the surface and write linear constitutive relations that satisfy the Onsager relations. We show that the bending modulus, the spontaneous curvature, and the surface tension of a passive surface are renormalized by active terms. Finally, we identify active terms which are not found in a passive theory and discuss examples of shape instabilities that are related to active processes in the surface.
Chiral trace relations in Ω-deformed N=2 theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beccaria, Matteo; Fachechi, Alberto; Macorini, Guido [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica Ennio De Giorgi,Università del Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN - Sezione di LecceVia Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)
2017-05-04
We consider N=2SU(2) gauge theories in four dimensions (pure or mass deformed) and discuss the properties of the simplest chiral observables in the presence of a generic Ω-deformation. We compute them by equivariant localization and analyze the structure of the exact instanton corrections to the classical chiral ring relations. We predict exact relations valid at all instanton number among the traces 〈Trφ{sup n}〉, where φ is the scalar field in the gauge multiplet. In the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit, such relations may be explained in terms of the available quantized Seiberg-Witten curves. Instead, the full two-parameter deformation enjoys novel features and the ring relations require non trivial additional derivative terms with respect to the modular parameter. Higher rank groups are briefly discussed emphasizing non-factorization of correlators due to the Ω-deformation. Finally, the structure of the deformed ring relations in the N=2{sup ⋆} theory is analyzed from the point of view of the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa correspondence proving consistency as well as some interesting universality properties.
Mechanisms of CP violation in gauge theory and the recent developments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, D.
1990-01-01
Various mechanisms of CP violation in gauge theory are reviewed. We discuss the impact of recent developments associated with electric dipole moment(EDM) of neutron (D n ), EDM of quarks(D q ), chromo-EDM of quarks(D q c ), chromo-EDM of gluon(D G c ), EDM of electron(D e ), and EDM of W boson(D W ). 89 refs., 31 figs
Ayes, R.U.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.
2005-01-01
The nature of energy and material resources in a non-optimizing growth theory framework is clarified. This involves two modifications of the conventional theory. Firstly, multiple feedback mechanisms or "growth engines" are identified, such that the impact of the cost of production through demand on
Testing the Contingency Theory of Accommodation in Public Relations.
Cancel, Amanda E.; Mitrook, Michael A.; Cameron, Glen T.
1999-01-01
Interviews 18 public-relations professionals to provide grounding and refinement of the contingency theory of accommodation in public relations. Supports a continuum from pure accommodation to pure advocacy and a matrix of variables affecting the continuum. Concludes that the practitioners' view of their communication world offers validity to the…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gambini, Rodolfo; Porto, Rafael A; Pullin, Jorge
2004-01-01
The use of a relational time in quantum mechanics is a framework in which one promotes to quantum operators all variables in a system, and later chooses one of the variables to operate like a 'clock'. Conditional probabilities are computed for variables of the system to take certain values when the 'clock' specifies a certain time. This framework is attractive in contexts where the assumption of usual quantum mechanics of the existence of an external, perfectly classical clock, appears unnatural, as in quantum cosmology. Until recently, there were problems with such constructions in ordinary quantum mechanics with additional difficulties in the context of constrained theories like general relativity. A scheme we recently introduced to consistently discretize general relativity removed such obstacles. Since the clock is now an object subject to quantum fluctuations, the resulting evolution in time is not exactly unitary and pure states decohere into mixed states. Here we work out in detail the type of decoherence generated, and we find it to be of Lindblad type. This is attractive since it implies that one can have loss of coherence without violating the conservation of energy. We apply the framework to a simple cosmological model to illustrate how a quantitative estimate of the effect could be computed. For most quantum systems it appears to be too small to be observed, although certain macroscopic quantum systems could in the future provide a testing ground for experimental observation
A universal nonlinear relation among boundary states in closed string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kishimoto, Isao; Matsuo, Yutaka; Watanabe, Eitoku
2004-01-01
We show that the boundary states satisfy a nonlinear relation (the idempotency equation) with respect to the star product of closed string field theory. This relation is universal in the sense that various D-branes, including the infinitesimally deformed ones, satisfy the same equation, including the coefficient. This paper generalizes our analysis [hep-th/0306189] in the following senses. (1) We present a background-independent formulation based on conformal field theory. It illuminates the geometric nature of the relation and allows us to more systematically analyze the variations around the D-brane background. (2) We show that the Witten-type star product satisfies a similar relation but with a more divergent coefficient. (3) We determine the coefficient of the relation analytically. The result shows that the α parameter can be formally factored out, and the relation becomes universal. We present a conjecture on vacuum theory based on this computation. (author)
Forgotten and neglected theories of Poincare
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnol'd, Vladimir I
2006-01-01
This paper describes a number of published and unpublished works of Henri Poincare that await continuation by the next generations of mathematicians: works on celestial mechanics, on topology, on the theory of chaos and dynamical systems, and on homology, intersections and links. Also discussed are the history of the theory of relativity and the theory of generalized functions (distributions) and the connection between the Poincare conjecture and the theory of knot invariants.
Extending quantum mechanics entails extending special relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aravinda, S; Srikanth, R
2016-01-01
The complementarity between signaling and randomness in any communicated resource that can simulate singlet statistics is generalized by relaxing the assumption of free will in the choice of measurement settings. We show how to construct an ontological extension for quantum mechanics (QMs) through the oblivious embedding of a sound simulation protocol in a Newtonian spacetime. Minkowski or other intermediate spacetimes are ruled out as the locus of the embedding by virtue of hidden influence inequalities. The complementarity transferred from a simulation to the extension unifies a number of results about quantum non-locality, and implies that special relativity has a different significance for the ontological model and for the operational theory it reproduces. Only the latter, being experimentally accessible, is required to be Lorentz covariant. There may be certain Lorentz non-covariant elements at the ontological level, but they will be inaccessible at the operational level in a valid extension. Certain arguments against the extendability of QM, due to Conway and Kochen (2009) and Colbeck and Renner (2012), are attributed to their assumption that the spacetime at the ontological level has Minkowski causal structure. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
French, A.P.
1982-01-01
This book is an introduction to special relativity theory. After a discussion of the limits of Newton's mechanics and the pecularities in the propagation of light the Lorentz transformation is introduced. Then the measurement of space and time intervals in the framework of relativity theory is considered. Thereafter the addition of velocities and acceleration are considered in this framework. Then relativistic kinematics of particle interactions are described. Then the four-dimensional calculus in space-time coordinates is introduced. Finally an introduction is given to the treatment of the electromagnetic field in the framework of relativity theory. Every chapter contains exercise problems with solutions. This book is suited for all students who want to get some fundamental knowledge about relativity theory. (HSI) [de
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sönmez, Ümit; Tutum, Cem Celal
2008-01-01
In this work, a new compliant bistable mechanism design is introduced. The combined use of pseudo-rigid-body model (PRBM) and the Elastica buckling theory is presented for the first time to analyze the new design. This mechanism consists of the large deflecting straight beams, buckling beams...... and the buckling Elastica solution for an original compliant mechanism kinematic analysis. New compliant mechanism designs are presented to highlight where such combined kinematic analysis is required....
Exploring Spiritual Beliefs in Relation to Adlerian Theory.
Polanski, Patricia J.
2002-01-01
This article describes one counselor's exploration of her spiritual beliefs in relation to Adler's theory of counseling and human development in an effort to move toward ideological consistency and to enhance competence in addressing spiritual dimensions of clients' development. (Contains 34 references.) (GCP)
Gift Exchange Theory: a critique in relation to organ transplantation.
Sque, M; Payne, S A
1994-01-01
Organ transplantation is becoming more important as a viable method of treatment for certain severe medical conditions. It is a complex and demanding process for all involved. Nursing as a developing science must respond to cultural and economic changes. Therefore, a need exists to develop a body of empirically based knowledge to understand and support the process of organ transplantation. This paper will argue that as trading in organs is unacceptable to the moral standards of western society and outlawed in many countries, an alternative framework must be considered for understanding the mechanisms through which organs are donated and utilized. The donating and receiving of organs may be equated with gift-giving, as there is no barter of commodities involved. Therefore, a useful framework to explore this phenomenon will be one that underpins the process of giving and receiving of gifts. Gift Exchange Theory will be evaluated and critically examined in relation to organ transplantation and the role of nurses in this process.
Unified field theory on the basis of the projective theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lessner, G.
1982-01-01
A unified field theory is developed on the basis of the five-dimensional vacuum equations R/sub munu/ = 0 in the projective theory of relativity. The four-dimensional field equations following from R/sub munu/ = 0 by projection are a generalized Einstein-Maxwell theory, for which the generalization is given by a scalar field. The particle concept based on these equations represents the intrinsic particle properties, which are the rest mass, or the energy in case of photons and neutrinos, the charge and the spin by integrals of the field distribution extended over spacelike hypersurfaces. The energy concept is based on Moller's energy-momentum complex. Moller's argument against his energy-momentum complex is discussed and refuted. The spin concept is derived from the axial symmetry of the field distribution. The stationary axially symmetric field is studied in detail. In the spherically symmetric static case the solutions of the field equations are given and investigated for their particle properties. It is shown that one and only one type of solution yields a good approach to the distribution of charge and rest mass in the proton. However, none of the spherically symmetric solutions represents the electron
The Quantum Mechanics Solver: How to Apply Quantum Theory to Modern Physics, 2nd edition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robbin, J M
2007-01-01
he hallmark of a good book of problems is that it allows you to become acquainted with an unfamiliar topic quickly and efficiently. The Quantum Mechanics Solver fits this description admirably. The book contains 27 problems based mainly on recent experimental developments, including neutrino oscillations, tests of Bell's inequality, Bose-Einstein condensates, and laser cooling and trapping of atoms, to name a few. Unlike many collections, in which problems are designed around a particular mathematical method, here each problem is devoted to a small group of phenomena or experiments. Most problems contain experimental data from the literature, and readers are asked to estimate parameters from the data, or compare theory to experiment, or both. Standard techniques (e.g., degenerate perturbation theory, addition of angular momentum, asymptotics of special functions) are introduced only as they are needed. The style is closer to a non-specialist seminar rather than an undergraduate lecture. The physical models are kept simple; the emphasis is on cultivating conceptual and qualitative understanding (although in many of the problems, the simple models fit the data quite well). Some less familiar theoretical techniques are introduced, e.g. a variational method for lower (not upper) bounds on ground-state energies for many-body systems with two-body interactions, which is then used to derive a surprisingly accurate relation between baryon and meson masses. The exposition is succinct but clear; the solutions can be read as worked examples if you don't want to do the problems yourself. Many problems have additional discussion on limitations and extensions of the theory, or further applications outside physics (e.g., the accuracy of GPS positioning in connection with atomic clocks; proton and ion tumor therapies in connection with the Bethe-Bloch formula for charged particles in solids). The problems use mainly non-relativistic quantum mechanics and are organised into three
Remarks on the relation between different (open) string field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Alwis, S.P.
1987-01-01
It is shown that the different three-string vertices, related by conformal transformations, are in the same BRST cohomology class. We use this result to discuss the relation between different (open) string field theories. (orig.)
Non-splitting in Kirchberg's Ideal-related KK-Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eilers, Søren; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren
2011-01-01
A. Bonkat obtained a universal coefficient theorem in the setting of Kirchberg's ideal-related KK-theory in the fundamental case of a C*-algebra with one specified ideal. The universal coefficient sequence was shown to split, unnaturally, under certain conditions. Employing certain K-theoretical ...
On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Crothers S. J.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein’s theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein’s field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, R = 0 , violates his Principle of Equiv- alence, and is therefore erroneous. This has a direct bearing on the usual concept of conservation of energy for the gravitational field and the conventional formulation for localisation of energy using Einstein’s pseudo-tensor. Misconceptions as to the relationship between Minkowski spacetime and Special Relativity are also discussed, along with their relationships to the pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold of Einstein’s gravitational field, and their fundamental geometric structures pertaining to spherical symmetry.
False vacuum decay in quantum mechanics and four dimensional scalar field theory
Bezuglov, Maxim
2018-04-01
When the Higgs boson was discovered in 2012 it was realized that electroweak vacuum may suffer a possible metastability on the Planck scale and can eventually decay. To understand this problem it is important to have reliable predictions for the vacuum decay rate within the framework of quantum field theory. For now, it can only be done at one loop level, which is apparently is not enough. The aim of this work is to develop a technique for the calculation of two and higher order radiative corrections to the false vacuum decay rate in the framework of four dimensional scalar quantum field theory and then apply it to the case of the Standard Model. To achieve this goal, we first start from the case of d=1 dimensional QFT i.e. quantum mechanics. We show that for some potentials two and three loop corrections can be very important and must be taken into account. Next, we use quantum mechanical example as a template for the general d=4 dimensional theory. In it we are concentrating on the calculations of bounce solution and corresponding Green function in so called thin wall approximation. The obtained Green function is then used as a main ingredient for the calculation of two loop radiative corrections to the false vacuum decay rate.
Direct neutron capture and related mechanisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynn, J.E.; Raman, S.
1990-01-01
We consider the evidence for the role of direct and related mechanisms in neutron capture at low and medium energies. Firstly, we compare the experimental data on the thermal neutron cross sections for El transitions in light nuclei with careful estimates of direct capture. Over the full range of light nuclei with small cross sections direct capture is found to be the predominant mechanism, in some cases being remarkable accurate, but in a few showing evidence for collective effects. When resonance effects become substantial there is evidence for an important contribution from the closely related valence mechanism, but full agreement with the data in such cases appears to require the introduction of a more generalised valence model. The possibility of direct and valence mechanisms playing a role in M1 capture is studied, and it is concluded that in light nuclei at relatively low gamma ray energies, it does indeed play some role. In heavier nuclei it appears that the evidence, especially from the correlations between E1 and M1 transitions to the same final states, favours the hypothesis that the main transition strength is governed by the M1 giant resonance. 31 refs., 2 tabs
General relativity: An introduction to the theory of the gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephani, H.
1985-01-01
The entire treatment presented here is framed by questions which led to and now lead out of the general theory of relativity: can an absolute acceleration be defined meaningfully? Do gravitational effects propagate with infinite velocity as Newton required? Can the general theory correctly reflect the dynamics of the whole universe while consistently describing stellar evolution? Can a theory which presupposes measurement of properties of space through the interaction of matter be made compatible with a theory in which dimensions of the objects measured are so small that location loses meaning? The book gives the mathematics necessary to understand the theory and begins in Riemannian geometry. Contents, abridged: Foundations of Riemannian geometry. Foundations of Einstein's theory of gravitation. Linearised theory of gravitation, far fields and gravitational waves. Invariant characterisation of exact solutions. Gravitational collapse and black holes. Cosmology. Non-Einsteinian theories of gravitation. Index
Kappesser, Judith; de C Williams, Amanda C
2008-08-01
Observer underestimation of others' pain was studied using a concept from evolutionary psychology: a cheater detection mechanism from social contract theory, applied to relatives and friends of chronic pain patients. 127 participants estimated characters' pain intensity and fairness of behaviour after reading four vignettes describing characters suffering from pain. Four cues were systematically varied: the character continuing or stopping liked tasks; continuing or stopping disliked tasks; availability of medical evidence; and pain intensity as rated by characters. Results revealed that pain intensity and the two behavioural variables had an effect on pain estimates: high pain self-reports and stopping all tasks led to high pain estimates; pain was estimated to be lowest when characters stopped disliked but continued with liked tasks. This combination was also rated least fair. Results support the use of social contract theory as a theoretical framework to explore pain judgements.
Fuzzy relational calculus theory, applications and software
Peeva, Ketty
2004-01-01
This book examines fuzzy relational calculus theory with applications in various engineering subjects. The scope of the text covers unified and exact methods with algorithms for direct and inverse problem resolution in fuzzy relational calculus. Extensive engineering applications of fuzzy relation compositions and fuzzy linear systems (linear, relational and intuitionistic) are discussed. Some examples of such applications include solutions of equivalence, reduction and minimization problems in fuzzy machines, pattern recognition in fuzzy languages, optimization and inference engines in textile and chemical engineering, etc. A comprehensive overview of the authors' original work in fuzzy relational calculus is also provided in each chapter. The attached CD-Rom contains a toolbox with many functions for fuzzy calculations, together with an original algorithm for inverse problem resolution in MATLAB. This book is also suitable for use as a textbook in related courses at advanced undergraduate and graduate level...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lingfeng Sang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available For the high carrying capacity of the human-carrying walking chair robot, in this paper, 2-UPS+UP parallel mechanism is selected as the leg mechanism; then kinematics, workspace, control, and experiment of the leg mechanism are researched in detail. Firstly, design of the whole mechanism is described and degrees of freedom of the leg mechanism are analyzed. Second, the forward position, inverse position, and velocity of leg mechanism are studied. Third, based on the kinematics analysis and the structural constraints, the reachable workspace of 2-UPS+UP parallel mechanism is solved, and then the optimal motion workspace is searched in the reachable workspace by choosing the condition number as the evaluation index. Fourth, according to the theory analysis of the parallel leg mechanism, its control system is designed and the compound position control strategy is studied. Finally, in optimal motion workspace, the compound position control strategy is verified by using circular track with the radius 100 mm; the experiment results show that the leg mechanism moves smoothly and does not tremble obviously. Theory analysis and experiment research of the single leg mechanism provide a theoretical foundation for the control of the quadruped human-carrying walking chair robot.
Geometric perturbation theory and plasma physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omohundro, S.M.
1985-01-01
Modern differential geometric techniques are used to unify the physical asymptotics underlying mechanics, wave theory, and statistical mechanics. The approach gives new insights into the structure of physical theories and is suited to the needs of modern large-scale computer simulation and symbol manipulation systems. A coordinate-free formulation of non-singular perturbation theory is given, from which a new Hamiltonian perturbation structure is derived and related to the unperturbed structure in five different ways. The theory of perturbations in the presence of symmetry is developed, and the method of averaging is related to reduction by a circle-group action. The pseudo-forces and magnetic Poisson bracket terms due to reduction are given a natural asymptotic interpretation. Similar terms due to changing reference frames are related to the method of variation of parameters, which is also given a Hamiltonian formulation. These methods are used to answer a long-standing question posed by Kruskal about nearly periodic systems. The answer leads to a new secular perturbation theory that contains no adhoc elements, which is then applied to gyromotion. Eikonal wave theory is given a Hamiltonian formulation that generalizes Whitham's Lagrangian approach. The evolution of wave action density on ray phase space is given a Hamiltonian structure using a Lie-Poisson bracket. The relationship between dissipative and Hamiltonian systems is discussed. A theory motivated by free electron lasers gives new restrictions on the change of area of projected parallelepipeds under canonical transformations
Can quantum theory and special relativity peacefully coexist?
Seevinck, M.P.
This white paper aims to identify an open problem in ‘Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality’—namely whether quantum theory and special relativity are formally compatible—, to indicate what the underlying issues are, and put forward ideas about how the problem might be addressed.
Can quantum theory and special relativity peacefully coexist?
Seevinck, M.P.; Briggs, A.
2010-01-01
This white paper aims to identify an open problem in ‘Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality’—namely whether quantum theory and special relativity are formally compatible—, to indicate what the underlying issues are, and put forward ideas about how the problem might be addressed.
Local realistic theories and quantum mechanics for the two-neutral-kaon system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalitz, R.H.; Garbarino, G.
2001-01-01
The predictions of local realistic theories for the observables concerning the evolution of a K 0 K-bar 0 quantum entangled pair (created in the decay of the phi-meson) are discussed. It is shown, in agreement with Bell's theorem, that the most general local hidden-variable model fails in reproducing the whole set of quantum-mechanical joint probabilities. We achieve these conclusion by employing two different approaches. In the first approach, the local realistic observables are deduced from the most general premises concerning locality and realism, and Bell-like inequalities are not employed. The other approach makes use of Bell's inequalities. In the first approach, under particular conditions for the detection times, the discrepancy between quantum mechanics and local realism for the time-dependent asymmetry turns out to be not less than 20%. A similar incompatibility can be made evident by means of a Bell-type test by employing both Wigner's and (once properly normalized probabilities are used) Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt's inequalities. Because of its relatively low experimental accuracy, the data obtained by the CPLEAR collaboration for the asymmetry parameter do not yet allow a decisive test of local realism. Such a test, both with and without the use of Bell's inequalities, should be feasible in the future at the Frascati PHI-factory
The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Touchette, Hugo
2009-01-01
The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein's theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.
The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics
Touchette, Hugo
2009-07-01
The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein’s theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.
The Bjorken-Paschos relation in the unified gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, S.K.
1980-07-01
We have examined in the unified gauge theory with the integrally-charged quark model the Bjorken-Paschos relation within the impulse approximation of the parton picture. We find that the relation is valid for the forward scattering region and provides a reliable way to test the charge assignment of the quarks and the gluons. (author)
Characterization of particle states in relativistic classical quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horwitz, L.P.; Rabin, Y.
1977-02-01
Classical and quantum relativistic mechanics are studied. The notion of a ''particle'' is defined in the classical case and the interpretation of mechanics in space-time is clarified. These notions are carried over to the quantum theory, as much as possible. The relation between the results of Feyman's path integral approach and the theory of Horwitz and Piron is discussed. The ''particle'' interpretation is shown to imply an asymptotic condition for scattering. A general method of constructing the dynamical mass spectrum of composite ''particle'' states is discussed. An interference experiment is proposed to affirm the interpretation and applicability of Stueckelberg type wave functions for actual physical phenomena. Some discussion of the relation of this relativistic quantum theory to Feynman's approach to quantum field theory is also given
A statistical mechanics approach to Granovetter theory
Barra, Adriano; Agliari, Elena
2012-05-01
In this paper we try to bridge breakthroughs in quantitative sociology/econometrics, pioneered during the last decades by Mac Fadden, Brock-Durlauf, Granovetter and Watts-Strogatz, by introducing a minimal model able to reproduce essentially all the features of social behavior highlighted by these authors. Our model relies on a pairwise Hamiltonian for decision-maker interactions which naturally extends the multi-populations approaches by shifting and biasing the pattern definitions of a Hopfield model of neural networks. Once introduced, the model is investigated through graph theory (to recover Granovetter and Watts-Strogatz results) and statistical mechanics (to recover Mac-Fadden and Brock-Durlauf results). Due to the internal symmetries of our model, the latter is obtained as the relaxation of a proper Markov process, allowing even to study its out-of-equilibrium properties. The method used to solve its equilibrium is an adaptation of the Hamilton-Jacobi technique recently introduced by Guerra in the spin-glass scenario and the picture obtained is the following: shifting the patterns from [-1,+1]→[0.+1] implies that the larger the amount of similarities among decision makers, the stronger their relative influence, and this is enough to explain both the different role of strong and weak ties in the social network as well as its small-world properties. As a result, imitative interaction strengths seem essentially a robust request (enough to break the gauge symmetry in the couplings), furthermore, this naturally leads to a discrete choice modelization when dealing with the external influences and to imitative behavior à la Curie-Weiss as the one introduced by Brock and Durlauf.
Freud's superpotential in general relativity and in Einstein-Cartan theory
Böhmer, Christian G.; Hehl, Friedrich W.
2018-02-01
The identification of a suitable gravitational energy in theories of gravity has a long history, and it is well known that a unique answer cannot be given. In the first part of this paper we present a streamlined version of the derivation of Freud's superpotential in general relativity. It is found if we once integrate the gravitational field equation by parts. This allows us to extend these results directly to the Einstein-Cartan theory. Interestingly, Freud's original expression, first stated in 1939, remains valid even when considering gravitational theories in Riemann-Cartan or, more generally, in metric-affine spacetimes.
Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics.
Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude
2012-01-01
Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyse the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in a population of automobile mechanics. The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos-related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers; who in the case of disagreement discussed until they reached agreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Pleural plaques were observed in five cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in one case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers.
Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics
Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude
2012-01-01
Purpose Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyze the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on HRCT in a population of automobile mechanics. Methods The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos–related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers, with further consensus in the case of disagreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Results Pleural plaques were observed in 5 cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in 1 case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. Conclusions The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers. PMID:21965465
On the reciprocity-like relations in linear neutron transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Modak, R.S.; Sahni, D.C.
1997-01-01
The existence of certain reciprocity-like relations in neutron transport theory was shown earlier under some quite restrictive conditions. Here, these relations are shown to be valid in more general situations by using a different approach based on individual neutron trajectories. (author)
Children's understanding of Aesop's fables: relations to reading comprehension and theory of mind.
Pelletier, Janette; Beatty, Ruth
2015-01-01
Two studies examined children's developing understanding of Aesop's fables in relation to reading comprehension and to theory of mind. Study 1 included 172 children from Junior Kindergarten through Grade 6 in a school-wide examination of the relation between reading comprehension skills and understanding of Aesop's fables told orally. Study 2 examined the relation between theory of mind and fables understanding among 186 Junior (4-year-old) and Senior (5-year-old) Kindergarten children. Study 1 results showed a developmental progression in fables understanding with children's responses becoming increasingly decontextualized as they were able to extract the life lesson. After general vocabulary, passage comprehension predicted fables understanding. Study 2 results showed a relation between young children's theory of mind development and their understanding of fables. After general vocabulary, second-order theory of mind predicted children's fables understanding. Findings point to the importance of developing mental state awareness in children's ability to judge characters' intentions and to understand the deeper message embedded in fables.
The role of theory of international relations in explicating global political events
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mr.Sc. Bardhok Bashota
2011-03-01
Full Text Available It is rather obvious that different developments in the international relations scene are so dynamic that a theory of international relations cannot elaborate alone the ways they begin, develop and eventually end. Therefore, one must underline that using a theoretical framework of wi-der extent becomes almost indispensable. In this sense, one must underli-ne that IR theories are paths or means used by scholars to provide expla-nation on these developments. Among numerous IR theories, those app-lied the most are the three key ones: liberalism, realism and rationalism. These three theories, depending on the manner and logic of approach and effort in trying to elaborate an IR event, they gain labels in a specific form, for instance – positivist theories. They are called positivist, because they aim to pursue the example of natural science to be more accurate in their work, at least in a metaphorical sense. Therefore, the contents of this paper provide an example of physics, to adapt to the nature of theory elaborated herein. The reason and objective of this paper is to argue our thesis that “li-beral theory alone cannot elaborate on all IR developments, and more theories are required”. The two other theories, realism and ratio-nalism help build a more wholesome understanding of IR developments. Also, the two other theories are used to support or counter the arguments of liberals and liberalism in relation to interpretation, explication and forecast of IR developments, which are tasks of an IR theory. This research is realized in a temporal context of post Cold War. This period is more suitable for study, and has attracted our interest. Otherwise, the three theoretical traditions had existed even before, and any effort to elaborate in details would be historical. Also, the focus in only three main IR theories, Liberalism, Realism and Rationalism, narrow down the field of study and make it more tangible. Nevertheless, to have an easier job in
Study on Cooperative Mechanism of Prefabricated Producers Based on Evolutionary Game Theory
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Tongyao Feng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Good cooperation mechanism is an important guarantee for the advancement of industrialization construction. To strengthen the partnership between producers, we analyze the behavior evolution trend of both parties using an evolutionary game theory. Based on the original model, the mechanism of coordination and cooperation between prefabricated producers is explained under the condition of punishment and incentive. The results indicate that stable evolutionary strategies exist under both cooperation and noncooperation, and the evolutionary results are influenced by the initial proportion of both decision-making processes. The government can support the production enterprises to establish a solid partnership through effective punishment and incentive mechanisms to reduce the initial cost in the supply chain of prefabricated construction, resulting in a win-win situation.
Combining relativity and quantum mechanics: Schroedinger's interpretation of ψ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barut, A.O.
1987-07-01
The incongruence between quantum theory and relativity theory is traced to the probability interpretation of the former. The classical continium interpretation of ψ removes the difficulty. How quantum properties of matter and light, and in particular the radiative problems, like spontaneous emission and Lamb shift, may be accounted in a first quantized Maxwell-Dirac system is discussed. (author). 17 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakata, F.; Marumori, T.; Hashimoto, Y.; Tsukuma, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Terasaki, J.; Iwasawa, Y.; Itabashi, H.
1992-01-01
Since the research field of nuclear physics is expanding rapidly, it is becoming more imperative to develop the microscopie theory of nuclear matter physics which provides us with a unified understanding of diverse phenomena exhibited by nuclei. An estabishment of various stable mean-fields in nuclei allows us to develop the microscopie theory of nuclear collective dynamics within the mean-field approximation. The classical-level theory of nuclear collective dynamics is developed by exploiting the symplectic structure of the timedependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF)-manifold. The importance of exploring the single-particle dynamics, e.g. the level-crossing dynamics in connection with the classical order-to-chaos transition mechanism is pointed out. Since the classical-level theory os directly related to the full quantum mechanical boson expansion theory via the symplectic structure of the TDHF-manifold, the quantum theory of nuclear collective dynamics is developed at the dictation of what os developed on the classical-level theory. The quantum theory thus formulated enables us to introduce the quantum integrability and quantum chaoticity for individual eigenstates. The inter-relationship between the classical-level and quantum theories of nuclear collective dynamics might play a decisive role in developing the quantum theory of many-body problems. (orig.)
Categories of relations as models of quantum theory
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Chris Heunen
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Categories of relations over a regular category form a family of models of quantum theory. Using regular logic, many properties of relations over sets lift to these models, including the correspondence between Frobenius structures and internal groupoids. Over compact Hausdorff spaces, this lifting gives continuous symmetric encryption. Over a regular Mal'cev category, this correspondence gives a characterization of categories of completely positive maps, enabling the formulation of quantum features. These models are closer to Hilbert spaces than relations over sets in several respects: Heisenberg uncertainty, impossibility of broadcasting, and behavedness of rank one morphisms.
The conceptual basis of Quantum Field Theory
Hooft, G. 't
2005-01-01
Relativistic Quantum Field Theory is a mathematical scheme to describe the sub-atomic particles and forces. The basic starting point is that the axioms of Special Relativity on the one hand and those of Quantum Mechanics on the other, should be combined into one theory. The fundamental
Indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakanishi, Noboru
1978-01-01
The canonical commutation relations are analyzed in detail in the manifestly covariant quantum field theory of general relativity proposed previously. It is explicitly proved that the BRS charge is indeed the generator of the BRS transformation both in the Landau gauge and in the non-Landau one. The equivalence between the field equations and the Heisenberg equations is confirmed. (author)
Indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity, 5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakanishi, Noboru
1979-01-01
The indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity is extended to the coupled system of the gravitational field and a Dirac field on the basis of the vierbein formalism. The six extra degrees of freedom involved in vierbein are made unobservable by introducing an extra subsidiary condition Q sub(s) + phys> = 0, where Q sub(s) denotes a new BRS charge corresponding to the local Lorentz invariance. It is shown that a manifestly covariant, unitary, canonical theory can be constructed consistently on the basis of the vierbein formalism. (author)
Type synthesis for 4-DOF parallel press mechanism using GF set theory
He, Jun; Gao, Feng; Meng, Xiangdun; Guo, Weizhong
2015-07-01
Parallel mechanisms is used in the large capacity servo press to avoid the over-constraint of the traditional redundant actuation. Currently, the researches mainly focus on the performance analysis for some specific parallel press mechanisms. However, the type synthesis and evaluation of parallel press mechanisms is seldom studied, especially for the four degrees of freedom(DOF) press mechanisms. The type synthesis of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms is carried out based on the generalized function(GF) set theory. Five design criteria of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms are firstly proposed. The general procedure of type synthesis of parallel press mechanisms is obtained, which includes number synthesis, symmetrical synthesis of constraint GF sets, decomposition of motion GF sets and design of limbs. Nine combinations of constraint GF sets of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms, ten combinations of GF sets of active limbs, and eleven combinations of GF sets of passive limbs are synthesized. Thirty-eight kinds of press mechanisms are presented and then different structures of kinematic limbs are designed. Finally, the geometrical constraint complexity( GCC), kinematic pair complexity( KPC), and type complexity( TC) are proposed to evaluate the press types and the optimal press type is achieved. The general methodologies of type synthesis and evaluation for parallel press mechanism are suggested.
Remarks on doubly special relativity theories and gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinterleitner, F
2008-01-01
Modifications of special relativity by the introduction of an invariant energy and/or momentum level (so-called doubly special relativity theories, DSR) or by an energy-momentum dependence of the Planck constant (generalized uncertainty principle, GUP) are compared with classical gravitational effects in an interaction process. For the low-energy limit of the usual formulations of DSR to be equivalent to Newtonian gravity, a restrictive condition is found. GUP yields an effective repulsion, in analogy to gravitational repulsion in loop quantum cosmology
Introduction to the theory of relativity
Bergmann, Peter Gabriel
1976-01-01
Comprehensive coverage of special theory (frames of reference, Lorentz transformation, more), general theory (principle of equivalence, more) and unified theory (Weyl's gauge-invariant geometry, more.) Foreword by Albert Einstein.
Review of Mechanisms and Theories of Aging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gholam Reza Azari
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Several factors have incentive role for study of aging which includes increasing of the average and maximum of human life span, the increase in percentage of elderly in the societies and proportion of the national expenditure utilized by them. The Recent views of aging indicating that aging is extremely a complex multifactorial process despite of earlier views about definite cause aging like gene or decline of a key factor(1. This brief review tries to inspect aging at the molecular, cellular, and systemic levels; and consider interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Evolutionary theories argue that aging results from a decline in the force of natural selection. On the other hand, molecular theories emphasis on the genetically regulation of aging and argue that aging results from changing in genes. There are cellular theories that telomere theory is most famous. Stress induced aging is in this group too. free radical theory is next known way for cellular damages. Finally, we see systemic theories that contain two main groups, neuroendocrine and immunologic theories.
Relating c 0 conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guruswamy, S.; Ludwig, A.W.W.
1998-03-01
A 'canonical mapping' is established between the c = -1 system of bosonic ghosts at the c = 2 complex scalar theory and, a similar mapping between the c = -2 system of fermionic ghosts and the c = 1 Dirac theory. The existence of this mapping is suggested by the identity of the characters of the respective theories. The respective c 0 theories share the same space of states, whereas the spaces of conformal fields are different. Upon this mapping from their c 0) complex scalar and the Dirac theories inherit hidden nonlocal sl(2) symmetries. (author)
Treatise on classical elasticity theory and related problems
Teodorescu, Petre P
2013-01-01
Deformable solids have a particularly complex character; mathematical modeling is not always simple and often leads to inextricable difficulties of computation. One of the simplest mathematical models and, at the same time, the most used model, is that of the elastic body – especially the linear one. But, notwithstanding its simplicity, even this model of a real body may lead to great difficulties of computation. The practical importance of a work about the theory of elasticity, which is also an introduction to the mechanics of deformable solids, consists of the use of scientific methods of computation in a domain in which simplified methods are still used. This treatise takes into account the consideration made above, with special attention to the theoretical study of the state of strain and stress of a deformable solid. The book draws on the known specialized literature, as well as the original results of the author and his 50+ years experience as Professor of Mechanics and Elasticity at the University o...
IS IT NECESSARY TO TEACH THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY IN GENERAL PHYSICS COURSE
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Sergey N. Kolgatin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation is to discuss and study the general structure of the course of Physics at the high school in an extended sense. In a narrower sense, the author wonders about the necessity for inclusion of the section «Theory of Relativity» in the General Physics course, and discusses the possible site of this issue in the order of presentation.Methods. A method for designing Physics course in modern conditions requires certain sophistication from a lecturer. This is due to the strong reduction of Physics course occurred in recent years, and due to a number of objective and subjective reasons. Planning the course structure, one has to make the selection of most significant questions sacrificing minor and less significant issues. This process is particularly exacerbated by severe restrictions on the time allowed for the subject. It is necessary to re-examine the content of the course due to the recent reduction in lecture hours on Physics. In this case, it would be undesirable to neglect the substantial parts of the subject content which are important conceptually or in its applications, e.g. the Relativity Theory. The author discusses two ways of disposition of the relevant material in the course structure, and correlates them with the required level of Physics teaching. In the first approach the Relativity Theory course is considered as a part of Modern Mechanics and is placed in the first semester immediately following Kinematics. In the second approach, Relativistic Physics is presented as a result of deduction, as a generalized theory explaining the unity of the world and the objective existence of physical laws; in this case, the section is better to locate after Optics, immediately before Atomic Physics.Results. As a result of consideration, the author proves the conclusion that the inclusion of the Relativistic Theory course in a number of sections of General Physics is necessary. The author offers a list of
Resolution of a cosmological paradox using concepts from general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silverman, A.N.
1986-01-01
According to the big bang theory, the universe began about 15 billion years ago and has been continually expanding ever since. If certain elementary physical concepts are naively applied to this cosmological theory, it can lead to a paradox in which distant astronomical objects seem to have lain at distances from the Earth larger than the possible size of the universe. The paradox is resolved by using concepts from general relativity theory. These concepts may appear startling to some readers
Limit Formulae and Jump Relations of Potential Theory in Sobolev Spaces
Raskop, Thomas; Grothaus, Martin
2009-01-01
In this article we combine the modern theory of Sobolev spaces with the classical theory of limit formulae and jump relations of potential theory. Also other authors proved the convergence in Lebesgue spaces for integrable functions. The achievement of this paper is the L2 convergence for the weak derivatives of higher orders. Also the layer functions F are elements of Sobolev spaces and a two dimensional suitable smooth submanifold in R3, called regular Cm-surface. We are considering the pot...
Tetenev, F F; Tetenev, K F
2014-01-01
In article the history of creation of the doctrine about respiratory movements of lungs, history of classical mechanics of breathing is stated. Supervision of the paradoxical facts which became a basis for hypothesis creation, then the theory of mechanical activity of lungs are presented. The facts proving mechanical activity of lungs on an inspiration and an expiration are given. Options of interaction of intra pulmonary and extra pulmonary sources of mechanical energy are considered. Theoretical justification for development of the new direction of studying of physiology of mechanical movements of the internal which does not have own skeleton is stated.
From twistor string theory to recursion relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia
2009-01-01
Witten's twistor string theory gives rise to an enigmatic formula 1 known as the 'connected prescription' for tree-level Yang-Mills scattering amplitudes. We derive a link representation for the connected prescription by Fourier transforming it to mixed coordinates in terms of both twistor and dual twistor variables. We show that it can be related to other representations of amplitudes by applying the global residue theorem to deform the contour of integration. For six and seven particles we demonstrate explicitly that certain contour deformations rewrite the connected prescription as the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten representation, thereby establishing a concrete link between Witten's twistor string theory and the dual formulation for the S matrix of the N=4 SYM recently proposed by Arkani-Hamed et al. Other choices of integration contour also give rise to 'intermediate prescriptions'. We expect a similar though more intricate structure for more general amplitudes.
Gray, Heewon Lee; Contento, Isobel R; Koch, Pamela A; Noia, Jennifer Di
2016-10-01
A limited number of school-based intervention studies have explored mediating mechanisms of theory-based psychosocial variables on obesity risk behavior changes. The current study investigated how theory-based psychosocial determinants mediated changes in energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) among urban youth. A secondary analysis study was conducted using data from a cluster randomized controlled trial. Data from students at 10 middle schools in New York City (n = 1136) were used. The intervention, Choice, Control, and Change curriculum, was based on social cognitive and self-determination theories. Theory-based psychosocial determinants (goal intention, cognitive outcome expectations, affective outcome expectations, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, and autonomous motivation) and EBRBs were measured with self-report questionnaires. Mediation mechanisms were examined using structural equation modeling, Results: Mediating mechanisms for daily sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and purposeful stair climbing were identified. Models with best fit indices (root mean square error of approximation = 0.039/0.045, normed fit index = 0.916/0.882; comparative fit index = 0.945/0.932; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.896/0.882, respectively) suggested that goal intention and reduced perceived barriers were significant proximal mediators for reducing SSB consumption among both boys and girls or increasing physical activity by stair climbing among boys. Cognitive outcome expectations, affective outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and autonomous motivation indirectly mediated behavioral changes through goal intention or perceived barriers (p behavioral outcome variances. Theory-based psychosocial determinants targeted in Choice, Control, and Change in fact mediated behavior changes in middle school students. Strategies targeting these mediators might benefit future success of behavioral interventions. Further studies are needed to determine other
Experimental testing of constructivism and related theories.
Fidelman, U
1991-10-01
The purpose of this article is to show that experimental scientific methods can be applied to explain how the analytic mechanism of the left cerebral hemisphere and the synthetic mechanism of the right one create complex cognitive constructions like ontology and mathematics. Nominalism and ordinal mathematical concepts are related to the analytic left hemisphere while Platonism and cardinal mathematical concepts are related to the synthetic right one. Thus persons with a dominant left hemisphere tend to prefer nominalist ontology and have more aptitude for ordinal mathematics than for cardinal mathematics, while persons with a dominant right hemisphere tend to prefer platonist ontology and have more aptitude for cardinal mathematics than for ordinal mathematics. It is further explained how the Kantism temporal mode of perceiving experience can be related to the left hemisphere while the Kantian spatial mode of perceiving experience can be related to the right hemisphere. This relation can be tested experimentally, thus the Kantian source of constructivism, and through it constructivism itself, can be tested experimentally.
The oxygen reduction reaction mechanism on Pt(111) from density functional theory calculations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tripkovic, Vladimir; Skulason, Egill; Siahrostami, Samira
2010-01-01
We study the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) mechanism on a Pt(1 1 1) surface using density functional theory calculations We find that at low overpotentials the surface is covered with a half dissociated water layer We estimate the barrier for proton transfer to this surface and the barrier...
Probabilistic approach to mechanisms
Sandler, BZ
1984-01-01
This book discusses the application of probabilistics to the investigation of mechanical systems. The book shows, for example, how random function theory can be applied directly to the investigation of random processes in the deflection of cam profiles, pitch or gear teeth, pressure in pipes, etc. The author also deals with some other technical applications of probabilistic theory, including, amongst others, those relating to pneumatic and hydraulic mechanisms and roller bearings. Many of the aspects are illustrated by examples of applications of the techniques under discussion.
On uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ignatovich, V.K.
2004-01-01
Uncertainty relations (UR) are shown to have nothing specific for quantum mechanics (QM), being the general property valid for the arbitrary function. A wave function of a particle simultaneously having a precisely defined position and momentum in QM is demonstrated. Interference on two slits in a screen is shown to exist in classical mechanics. A nonlinear classical system of equations replacing the QM Schroedinger equation is suggested. This approach is shown to have nothing in common with the Bohm mechanics
Non-Western International Relations Theory: Myth or Reality?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marina Mikhailovna Lebedeva
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In recent years, Russian and foreign literature increasingly raises the question on national theories of international relations. A special interest is manifested towards non-Western theories of international relations. The article analyzes the reasons for such interest. It is noted that the main motive for scholars to search for national schools is the transformation of the political organization of the world that emerged in the West and was developing largely on the Western model. This transformation encompasses three levels of political organization of the modern world: the Westphalian system, the system of international (interstate relations and the political systems of a state. Three levels of political organization of the world changing at the same time today reinforce each other and generate synergies. With such a large-scale transformation, when all three levels are “moving”, the world is facing for the first time, although the change of the second and especially the third levels were before. As far as the system of political organization of the world undergoes major changes, IR theories, which appeared in the West, are in crisis. Researchers’ attention to non-Western, primarily Asian TMO to find answers due to the following reasons: 1 the rapid economic growth of the region; 2 the development of scientific research in Asia; 3 the crisis of the Western model of political organization in the world that encourages the search for solutions in other civilizational structures. The article substantiates the necessity and possibility of “project activities” for reforming the political organization of the world and include practices that exist in different regions of the world. In order to implement such activities, the work of specialists from different brunches of social sciences is required.
Scalar strong interaction hadron theory
Hoh, Fang Chao
2015-01-01
The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.
Schomerus, Volker
2017-01-01
Since its conception in the 1960s, string theory has been hailed as one of the most promising routes we have to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity. This book provides a concise introduction to string theory explaining central concepts, mathematical tools and covering recent developments in physics including compactifications and gauge/string dualities. With string theory being a multidisciplinary field interfacing with high energy physics, mathematics and quantum field theory, this book is ideal for both students with no previous knowledge of the field and scholars from other disciplines who are looking for an introduction to basic concepts.
Covariant theory of gravitation in the framework of special relativity
Vieira, R. S.; Brentan, H. B.
2018-04-01
In this work, we study the magnetic effects of gravity in the framework of special relativity. Imposing covariance of the gravitational force with respect to the Lorentz transformations, we show from a thought experiment that a magnetic-like force must be present whenever two or more bodies are in motion. The exact expression for this gravitomagnetic force is then derived purely from special relativity and the consequences of such a covariant theory are developed. For instance, we show that the gravitomagnetic fields satisfy a system of differential equations similar to the Maxwell equations of electrodynamics. This implies that the gravitational waves spread out with the speed of light in a flat spacetime, which is in agreement with the recent results concerning the gravitational waves detection. We also propose that the vector potential can be associated with the interaction momentum in the same way as the scalar potential is usually associated with the interaction energy. Other topics are also discussed, for example, the transformation laws for the fields, the energy and momentum stored in the gravitomagnetic fields, the invariance of the gravitational mass and so on. We remark that is not our intention here to propose an alternative theory of gravitation but, rather, only a first approximation for the gravitational phenomena, so that it can be applied whenever the gravitational force can be regarded as an ordinary effective force field and special relativity can be used with safety. To make this point clear we present briefly a comparison between our approach and that based on the (linearized) Einstein's theory. Finally, we remark that although we have assumed nothing from the electromagnetic theory, we found that gravity and electricity share many properties in common -these similarities, in fact, are just a requirement of special relativity that must apply to any physically acceptable force field.
Randomness and locality in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bub, J.
1976-01-01
This paper considers the problem of representing the statistical states of a quantum mechanical system by measures on a classical probability space. The Kochen and Specker theorem proves the impossibility of embedding the possibility structure of a quantum mechanical system into a Boolean algebra. It is shown that a hidden variable theory involves a Boolean representation which is not an embedding, and that such a representation cannot recover the quantum statistics for sequential probabilities without introducing a randomization process for the hidden variables which is assumed to apply only on measurement. It is suggested that the relation of incompatability is to be understood as a type of stochastic independence, and that the indeterminism of a quantum mechanical system is engendered by the existence of independent families of properties. Thus, the statistical relations reflect the possibility structure of the system: the probabilities are logical. The hidden variable thesis is influenced by the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, i.e. by some version of the disturbance theory of measurement. Hence, the significance of the representation problem is missed, and the completeness of quantum mechanics is seen to turn on the possibility of recovering the quantum statistics by a hidden variable scheme which satisfies certain physically motivated conditions, such as locality. Bell's proof that no local hidden variable theory can reproduce the statistical relations of quantum mechanics is considered. (Auth.)
Cohen, Adam S; Sasaki, Joni Y; German, Tamsin C
2015-03-01
Does theory of mind depend on a capacity to reason about representations generally or on mechanisms selective for the processing of mental state representations? In four experiments, participants reasoned about beliefs (mental representations) and notes (non-mental, linguistic representations), which according to two prominent theories are closely matched representations because both are represented propositionally. Reaction times were faster and accuracies higher when participants endorsed or rejected statements about false beliefs than about false notes (Experiment 1), even when statements emphasized representational format (Experiment 2), which should have favored the activation of representation concepts. Experiments 3 and 4 ruled out a counterhypothesis that differences in task demands were responsible for the advantage in belief processing. These results demonstrate for the first time that understanding of mental and linguistic representations can be dissociated even though both may carry propositional content, supporting the theory that mechanisms governing theory of mind reasoning are narrowly specialized to process mental states, not representations more broadly. Extending this theory, we discuss whether less efficient processing of non-mental representations may be a by-product of mechanisms specialized for processing mental states. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Contiguity and quantum theory of measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Green, H.S. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). Dept. of Mathematical Physics]|[Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). Dept. of Physics
1995-12-31
This paper presents a comprehensive treatment of the problem of measurement in microscopic physics, consistent with the indeterministic Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and information theory. It is pointed out that there are serious difficulties in reconciling the deterministic interpretations of quantum mechanics, based on the concepts of a universal wave function or hidden variables, with the principle of contiguity. Quantum mechanics is reformulated entirely in terms of observables, represented by matrices, including the statistical matrix, and the utility of information theory is illustrated by a discussion of the EPR paradox. The principle of contiguity is satisfied by all conserved quantities. A theory of the operation of macroscopic measuring devices is given in the interaction representation, and the attenuation of the indeterminacy of a microscopic observable in the process of measurement is related to observable changes of entropy. 28 refs.
Contiguity and quantum theory of measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, H.S.; Adelaide Univ., SA
1995-01-01
This paper presents a comprehensive treatment of the problem of measurement in microscopic physics, consistent with the indeterministic Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and information theory. It is pointed out that there are serious difficulties in reconciling the deterministic interpretations of quantum mechanics, based on the concepts of a universal wave function or hidden variables, with the principle of contiguity. Quantum mechanics is reformulated entirely in terms of observables, represented by matrices, including the statistical matrix, and the utility of information theory is illustrated by a discussion of the EPR paradox. The principle of contiguity is satisfied by all conserved quantities. A theory of the operation of macroscopic measuring devices is given in the interaction representation, and the attenuation of the indeterminacy of a microscopic observable in the process of measurement is related to observable changes of entropy. 28 refs
Devlin, Michael B; Dillard, Sydney
2016-01-01
An online experiment was conducted to assess the extent gender-salient breast cancer awareness advertisements had on influencing risk perception, encouraging preventative behaviors, and gathering health information. Social identification theory and protection motivation theory postulate gender-salient pink-branded advertisements trigger defense mechanisms, countering desired outcomes. This study concludes gender-salient ads focusing on women, and displaying the Susan G. Komen logo caused aversive behaviors, whereas gender-neutral ads, showing medical providers and logos such as American Medical Association, improve health-related reporting. Results also highlight a disconnect between women who socially identify as breast cancer survivors/supporters, and those with no prior experience with breast cancer.
A rule of the equilibrium of forces in the Hermitian theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoci, S.
1987-01-01
When the behaviour of the singularities, which are used to represent masses, charges or currents in exact solutions to the field equations of the Hermitian theory of relativity, is restricted by a no-jump rule, conditions are obtained, which determine the relative positions of masses, charges and currents. Due to these conditions the Hermitian theory of relativity appears to provide a unified description of gravitational, colour and electromagnetic forces. (author)
Superfield formulation of stochastic quantization for gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Egoryan, Ed.Sh.; Manvelian, R.P.
1990-01-01
Using gauge symmetry localization relative to superspace coordinates an extended stochastic action for the Yang-Mills field possessing supergauge invariance is obtained. This allows to formulate correctly a mechanism of stochastic reduction for gauge theories beyond the framework of perturbation theory. 12 refs
Relative entanglement entropies in 1+1-dimensional conformal field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruggiero, Paola; Calabrese, Pasquale [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN,Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy)
2017-02-08
We study the relative entanglement entropies of one interval between excited states of a 1+1 dimensional conformal field theory (CFT). To compute the relative entropy S(ρ{sub 1}∥ρ{sub 0}) between two given reduced density matrices ρ{sub 1} and ρ{sub 0} of a quantum field theory, we employ the replica trick which relies on the path integral representation of Tr(ρ{sub 1}ρ{sub 0}{sup n−1}) and define a set of Rényi relative entropies S{sub n}(ρ{sub 1}∥ρ{sub 0}). We compute these quantities for integer values of the parameter n and derive via the replica limit the relative entropy between excited states generated by primary fields of a free massless bosonic field. In particular, we provide the relative entanglement entropy of the state described by the primary operator i∂ϕ, both with respect to the ground state and to the state generated by chiral vertex operators. These predictions are tested against exact numerical calculations in the XX spin-chain finding perfect agreement.
Anderson phase-slip theory and loss mechanism of the motion of vortices in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, L.K.; Shan, L.; Tang, Y.L.; Wang, F.; Xu, X.N.; Jin, X.; Nanjing Univ.
2001-01-01
The loss mechanism of the super-current is discussed in the frame of Anderson phase-slip theory and G-L theory. In the discussion we also use vortex conservation equations instead of Maxwell equations. It is found that this method is more reasonable to apply the vortex motion induced energy loss in type II superconductors than the traditional deduction in terms of Maxwell equations. Moreover, we propose a new method to determine the effective pinning energy of vortex lines in type II superconductors. (orig.)
Li, Jingchao; Cao, Yunpeng; Ying, Yulong; Li, Shuying
2016-01-01
Bearing failure is one of the dominant causes of failure and breakdowns in rotating machinery, leading to huge economic loss. Aiming at the nonstationary and nonlinear characteristics of bearing vibration signals as well as the complexity of condition-indicating information distribution in the signals, a novel rolling element bearing fault diagnosis method based on multifractal theory and gray relation theory was proposed in the paper. Firstly, a generalized multifractal dimension algorithm was developed to extract the characteristic vectors of fault features from the bearing vibration signals, which can offer more meaningful and distinguishing information reflecting different bearing health status in comparison with conventional single fractal dimension. After feature extraction by multifractal dimensions, an adaptive gray relation algorithm was applied to implement an automated bearing fault pattern recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed method can identify various bearing fault types as well as severities effectively and accurately.
A theory with consolidation: Linking everything to explain everything
Biraris, Gaurav Shantaram
The paper reports a theory which gives explicit (ontic) understanding of the abstract (epistemic) mechanisms spanning many branches of physics. It results to most modern physics starting from Newtonian physics by abandoning progress in twentieth century. The theory assumes consolidation of points in 4-balls of specific radius in the universe. Thus the 4-balls are fundamental elements of the universe. Analogue of momentum defined as soul vector is assumed to be induced on the 4-balls at the beginning of the universe. Then with progression of local time, collisions happen leading to different rotations of CNs. For such rotations, the consolidation provides centripetal binding. By using general terminologies of force and work, the mass energy mechanism gets revealed. The theory provides explicit interpretation of intrinsic properties of mass, electric charge, color charge, weak charge, spin etc. It also provides explicit understanding of the wave-particle duality & quantum mechanics. Epistemic study of the universe with the consolidation results to conventional quantum theories. Elementary mechanism of the field interactions is evident due to conservation of the soul vectors, and its epistemic expectation results to the gauge theories. The theory predicts that four types of interaction would exist in the universe along with the acceptable relative strengths; it provides fundamental interpretation of the physical forces. Further, it explains the basic mechanisms which can be identified with dark energy & dark matter. It also results to (or explains) entanglement, chirality, excess of matter, 4-component spinor, real-abstract (ontic-epistemic) correspondence etc. The theory is beyond standard model and results to the standard model, relativity, dark energy & dark matter, starting by simple assumptions.
Longitudinal Relations between Theory of Mind and Metacognition and the Impact of Language
Ebert, Susanne
2015-01-01
This study investigated the longitudinal relation between children's theory of mind and their metacognitive knowledge with a special focus on the impact of language on this relation. Measures of theory-of-mind understanding and metamemory knowledge were assessed in 133 3-year-old children at 4 measurement points separated by half-year intervals.…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berthelsen, Connie B.; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Lindhardt Damsgaard, Tove
2014-01-01
Abstract The aim of this study was to generate a grounded theory of older patients’ pattern of behavior in relation to their relatives’ involvement in fast-track programs during total joint replacement. Sixteen patients were recruited in orthopedic wards. Data collection included 11 interviews......, shielding, distancing, and masking. Keywords: Fast-track program, grounded theory, older patients, relatives, total joint replacement.......-governance emerged in the analysis as the core category of our theory and pattern of behavior of the older patients in relation to their relatives. The older patients’ main concern was to complete the fast-track program while maintaining autonomy, which they resolved through four strategies of actions: embracing...
Smalley, L. L.
1983-01-01
The proper framework for testing Rastall's theory and its generalizations is in the case of non-negligible (i.e. discernible) gravitational effects such as gravity gradients. These theories have conserved integral four-momentum and angular momentum. The Nordtvedt effect then provides limits on the parameters which arise as the result of the non-zero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor.
Statistical theory of electron densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pratt, L.R.; Hoffman, G.G.; Harris, R.A.
1988-01-01
An optimized Thomas--Fermi theory is proposed which retains the simplicity of the original theory and is a suitable reference theory for Monte Carlo density functional treatments of condensed materials. The key ingredient of the optimized theory is a neighborhood sampled potential which contains effects of the inhomogeneities in the one-electron potential. In contrast to the traditional Thomas--Fermi approach, the optimized theory predicts a finite electron density in the vicinity of a nucleus. Consideration of the example of an ideal electron gas subject to a central Coulomb field indicates that implementation of the approach is straightforward. The optimized theory is found to fail completely when a classically forbidden region is approached. However, these circumstances are not of primary interest for calculations of interatomic forces. It is shown how the energy functional of the density may be constructed by integration of a generalized Hellmann--Feynman relation. This generalized Hellmann--Feynman relation proves to be equivalent to the variational principle of density functional quantum mechanics, and, therefore, the present density theory can be viewed as a variational consequence of the constructed energy functional
Mukumbang, Ferdinand C; Van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; van Wyk, Brian
2017-05-04
Poor retention in care and non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) continue to undermine the success of HIV treatment and care programmes across the world. There is a growing recognition that multifaceted interventions - application of two or more adherence-enhancing strategies - may be useful to improve ART adherence and retention in care among people living with HIV/AIDS. Empirical evidence shows that multifaceted interventions produce better results than interventions based on a singular perspective. Nevertheless, the bundle of mechanisms by which multifaceted interventions promote ART adherence are poorly understood. In this paper, we reviewed theories on ART adherence to identify candidate/potential mechanisms by which the adherence club intervention works. We searched five electronic databases (PubMed, EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PsycARTICLES and Google Scholar) using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. A manual search of citations from the reference list of the studies identified from the electronic databases was also done. Twenty-six articles that adopted a theory-guided inquiry of antiretroviral adherence behaviour were included for the review. Eleven cognitive and behavioural theories underpinning these studies were explored. We examined each theory for possible 'generative causality' using the realist evaluation heuristic (Context-Mechanism-Outcome) configuration, then, we selected candidate mechanisms thematically. We identified three major sets of theories: Information-Motivation-Behaviour, Social Action Theory and Health Behaviour Model, which explain ART adherence. Although they show potential in explaining adherence bebahiours, they fall short in explaining exactly why and how the various elements they outline combine to explain positive or negative outcomes. Candidate mechanisms indentified were motivation, self-efficacy, perceived social support, empowerment, perceived threat, perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Although these candidate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulyabov, D.S.
2010-01-01
Full text: (author)In the construction of physical theories are several paradigms (according to Vladimirov Yu. S.). Depending on the number of entities are used paradigms include trialist (3 entities), dualist (2 entities) and monistic (1 entity). In trialist paradigm uses the following entities: geometry (G), particle (P) and field (F). Go to the dualist paradigms performed in the following ways: two entities take over the functions of the third, two entities merged into a single synthesis. Is also possible to limit the dualistic theory, which summarized the essence in addition assume the functions of a third. In turn, by way of grouping the entities dualistic theory can be divided into geometric (unification of geometry and field), relational (unification of geometry and particles) and field (unification of fields and particles). For the connection of the two theories should be to go to the common denominator: to trialist or monistic theories. Since the monistic theory at the moment completely unknown, may be used only trialist theory. General relativity is a typical representative of the geometric dualistic paradigm. However geometrized only gravity. Other fields non-geometrized. In turn, the relativistic theory of gravitation is a typical trialist theory. To establish a correspondence between theories should to geometrize material field in the general theory of relativity. It is proposed to implement this on the basis of a multi-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory
Toward an Understanding of the Use of Academic Theories in Public Relations Practice.
Cornelissen, Joep P.
2000-01-01
Discusses a focal issue in the public relations field: the way that practitioners use academic theories. Offers an exploration of the possible modes of use of academic or scientific theory in public relations practice. Notes that the premise of this model is that scientific knowledge is seldom used in an unaltered form in practice. Closes by…
Dynamical parasupersymmetries in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durand, S.; Vinet, L.
1990-01-01
This paper reports on supersymmetric field theories that have the distinctive feature of being invariant under transformations that mix bosonic and fermionic variables. Reduction to 0 + 1 dimensions yields mechanical models with an analogous invariance. In this case, the Grassmannian variables are interpreted as describing (classically) the spin degrees of freedom of the particles involved. After canonical quantization, the corresponding quantities obey the standard anticommutation relations of fermionic creation and annihilation operators. It is known that paraquantitization offers alternative to the usual quantization scheme. In this framework, one can expect that it is possible to construct parasupersymmetric theories, that is, theories which are invariant under transformations between bosonic and parafermionic variables. As a matter of fact, Rubakov and Spiridonov has recently shown how the parasupersymmetric generalization of supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics proceeds. In this case, the fermionic creation and annihilation operators obey paracommutation relations. The applications of supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics are many. One might hope that its parasupersymmetric generalization will be as useful. The elaboration of parasupersymmeric Quantum Mechanics moreover has led to new mathematical constructs; indeed, the symmetry generators realize algebras involving products of degree higher than 2
Improvements in or relating to rotary drive mechanisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lodge, J.A.
1981-01-01
The invention relates to rotary drive mechanisms and relates especially, though not exclusively, to such mechanisms for use in rotating a source of penetrating radiation, such as X-radiation, in steps around a body, in the course of a computerised tomographic (CAT) examination of the body. (author)
Dirac's equation and the nature of quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plotnitsky, Arkady
2012-01-01
This paper re-examines the key aspects of Dirac's derivation of his relativistic equation for the electron in order advance our understanding of the nature of quantum field theory. Dirac's derivation, the paper argues, follows the key principles behind Heisenberg's discovery of quantum mechanics, which, the paper also argues, transformed the nature of both theoretical and experimental physics vis-à-vis classical physics and relativity. However, the limit theory (a crucial consideration for both Dirac and Heisenberg) in the case of Dirac's theory was quantum mechanics, specifically, Schrödinger's equation, while in the case of quantum mechanics, in Heisenberg's version, the limit theory was classical mechanics. Dirac had to find a new equation, Dirac's equation, along with a new type of quantum variables, while Heisenberg, to find new theory, was able to use the equations of classical physics, applied to different, quantum-mechanical variables. In this respect, Dirac's task was more similar to that of Schrödinger in his work on his version of quantum mechanics. Dirac's equation reflects a more complex character of quantum electrodynamics or quantum field theory in general and of the corresponding (high-energy) experimental quantum physics vis-à-vis that of quantum mechanics and the (low-energy) experimental quantum physics. The final section examines this greater complexity and its implications for fundamental physics.
Revised Robertson's test theory of special relativity: space-time structure and dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vargas, J.G.; Torr, D.G.
1986-01-01
The experimental testing of the Lorentz transformations is based on a family of sets of coordinate transformations that do not comply in general with the principle of equivalence of the inertial frames. The Lorentz and Galilean sets of transformations are the only member sets of the family that satisfy this principle. In the neighborhood of regular points of space-time, all members in the family are assumed to comply with local homogeneity of space-time and isotropy of space in at least one free-falling elevator, to be denoted as Robertson's ab initio rest frame (H.P. Robertson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 21, 378 (1949)). Without any further assumptions, it is shown that Robertson's rest frame becomes a preferred frame for all member sets of the Robertson family except for, again, Galilean and Einstein's relativities. If one now assumes the validity of Maxwell-Lorentz electrodynamics in the preferred frame, a different electrodynamics spontaneously emerges for each set of transformations. The flat space-time of relativity retains its relevance, which permits an obvious generalization, in a Robertson context, of Dirac's theory of the electron and Einstein's gravitation. The family of theories thus obtained constitutes a covering theory of relativistic physics. A technique is developed to move back and forth between Einstein's relativity and the different members of the family of theories. It permits great simplifications in the analysis of relativistic experiments with relevant ''Robertson's subfamilies.'' It is shown how to adapt the Clifford algebra version of standard physics for use with the covering theory and, in particular, with the covering Dirac theory
Jorgensen, Palle E T
1987-01-01
Historically, operator theory and representation theory both originated with the advent of quantum mechanics. The interplay between the subjects has been and still is active in a variety of areas.This volume focuses on representations of the universal enveloping algebra, covariant representations in general, and infinite-dimensional Lie algebras in particular. It also provides new applications of recent results on integrability of finite-dimensional Lie algebras. As a central theme, it is shown that a number of recent developments in operator algebras may be handled in a particularly e
Skein relations and Wilson loops in Chern-Simons gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horne, J.H.
1990-01-01
We derive the skein relations for the fundamental representations of SO(N), Sp(2n), SU(mvertical stroken), and OSp(mvertical stroke2n). These relations can be used recursively to calculate the expectation values of Wilson lines in three-dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theory with these gauge groups. A combination of braiding and tying of Wilson lines completely describes the skein relations. (orig.)
Causal fermion systems as a candidate for a unified physical theory
Finster, Felix; Kleiner, Johannes
2015-07-01
The theory of causal fermion systems is an approach to describe fundamental physics. Giving quantum mechanics, general relativity and quantum field theory as limiting cases, it is a candidate for a unified physical theory. We here give a non-technical introduction.
Team management in the 21 st century: A human relations theory ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Team management in the 21 st century: A human relations theory angle. ... a team is about understanding human relation, that is, the manager understanding the ... The problem ranges from membership isolation to lack of communication and ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheck, Florian
2010-01-01
Stringent presentation of field theory, mediates the connection from the classicalelectrodynamics up to modern gauge theories. The compact presentation is ideal for the bachelor study. New chapter on general relativity theory. Deepens the learned by numerous application from laser physic, metamaterials and different more. Theoretical physics 3. Classical field theory. On electrodynamics, non-Abelian, and gravitation is the third of five volumes on theoretical physics by professor Scheck. The cycle theoretical physics comprehends: Volume 1: Mechanics. From Newtons law to the deterministic chaos. Volume 2: Nonrelativistic quantum theory. From the hydrogen atom to the many-particle systems. Volume 3: Classical field theory. From the electrodynamics to the gauge theories. Volume 5: From the laws of thermodynamics to the quantum statistics. This textbook mediates modern theoretical physics in string presentation illustrated by many examples. It contains numerous problems with solution hints ore exemplary, complete solutions. The third edition was revised in many single topics, especially the chapter on general relativity theory was supplemented by an extensive analysis of the Schwarzschild solution. [de
Alterations in theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychotic relatives.
Janssen, I; Krabbendam, L; Jolles, J; van Os, Jim
2003-08-01
It has been proposed that alterations in theory of mind underlie specific symptoms of psychosis. The present study examined whether alterations in theory of mind reflect a trait that can be detected in non-psychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Participants were 43 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 41 first-degree non-psychotic relatives and 43 controls from the general population. Theory of mind was assessed using a hinting task and a false-belief task. There was a significant association between schizophrenia risk and failure on the hinting task (OR linear trend = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22-3.31), with relatives having intermediate values between patients and controls. Adjustment for IQ and neuropsychological factors reduced the association by small amounts. The association between schizophrenia risk and failure on the false-belief tasks was not significant. Changes in theory of mind are associated with schizophrenia liability. General cognitive ability and neuropsychological measures seem to mediate only part of this association.
Nonlinear closure relations theory for transport processes in nonequilibrium systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonnino, Giorgio
2009-01-01
A decade ago, a macroscopic theory for closure relations has been proposed for systems out of Onsager's region. This theory is referred to as the thermodynamic field theory (TFT). The aim of this work was to determine the nonlinear flux-force relations that respect the thermodynamic theorems for systems far from equilibrium. We propose a formulation of the TFT where one of the basic restrictions, namely, the closed-form solution for the skew-symmetric piece of the transport coefficients, has been removed. In addition, the general covariance principle is replaced by the De Donder-Prigogine thermodynamic covariance principle (TCP). The introduction of TCP requires the application of an appropriate mathematical formalism, which is referred to as the entropy-covariant formalism. By geometrical arguments, we prove the validity of the Glansdorff-Prigogine universal criterion of evolution. A new set of closure equations determining the nonlinear corrections to the linear ('Onsager') transport coefficients is also derived. The geometry of the thermodynamic space is non-Riemannian. However, it tends to be Riemannian for high values of the entropy production. In this limit, we recover the transport equations found by the old theory. Applications of our approach to transport in magnetically confined plasmas, materials submitted to temperature, and electric potential gradients or to unimolecular triangular chemical reactions can be found at references cited herein. Transport processes in tokamak plasmas are of particular interest. In this case, even in the absence of turbulence, the state of the plasma remains close to (but, it is not in) a state of local equilibrium. This prevents the transport relations from being linear.
Chronology protection in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dyson, Lisa
2004-01-01
Many solutions of General Relativity appear to allow the possibility of time travel. This was initially a fascinating discovery, but geometries of this type violate causality, a basic physical law which is believed to be fundamental. Although string theory is a proposed fundamental theory of quantum gravity, geometries with closed timelike curves have resurfaced as solutions to its low energy equations of motion. In this paper, we will study the class of solutions to low energy effective supergravity theories related to the BMPV black hole and the rotating wave-D1-D5-brane system. Time travel appears to be possible in these geometries. We will attempt to build the causality violating regions and propose that stringy effects prohibit their construction. The proposed chronology protection agent for these geometries mirrors a mechanism string theory employs to resolve a class of naked singularities. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smalley, L.L.; Alabama Univ., Huntsville
1983-01-01
It is shown that (1) the proper framework for testing Rastall's theory and its generalisations is in the case of non-negligible (i.e. discernible) gravitational effects such as gravity gradients; 2) these theories have conserved integral four-momentum and angular momentum; and (3) the Nordtvedt effect then provides limits on the parameters which arise as the result of the non-zero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tadaki, Kohtaro
2010-01-01
The statistical mechanical interpretation of algorithmic information theory (AIT, for short) was introduced and developed by our former works [K. Tadaki, Local Proceedings of CiE 2008, pp. 425-434, 2008] and [K. Tadaki, Proceedings of LFCS'09, Springer's LNCS, vol. 5407, pp. 422-440, 2009], where we introduced the notion of thermodynamic quantities, such as partition function Z(T), free energy F(T), energy E(T), statistical mechanical entropy S(T), and specific heat C(T), into AIT. We then discovered that, in the interpretation, the temperature T equals to the partial randomness of the values of all these thermodynamic quantities, where the notion of partial randomness is a stronger representation of the compression rate by means of program-size complexity. Furthermore, we showed that this situation holds for the temperature T itself, which is one of the most typical thermodynamic quantities. Namely, we showed that, for each of the thermodynamic quantities Z(T), F(T), E(T), and S(T) above, the computability of its value at temperature T gives a sufficient condition for T is an element of (0,1) to satisfy the condition that the partial randomness of T equals to T. In this paper, based on a physical argument on the same level of mathematical strictness as normal statistical mechanics in physics, we develop a total statistical mechanical interpretation of AIT which actualizes a perfect correspondence to normal statistical mechanics. We do this by identifying a microcanonical ensemble in the framework of AIT. As a result, we clarify the statistical mechanical meaning of the thermodynamic quantities of AIT.
Test theory of special relativity: What it is and why we need it
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansouri, R.
1988-03-01
After a critical overview on the traditional way of expressing the accuracy of experiments testing the postulates of the special theory of relativity, the four-parameter test theory is briefly introduced. The existing experiments are then classified and their accuracies are expressed in terms of the parameter of the test theory. By changing the convention of synchronization of distant clocks, it is shown how different equivalent theories can be formulated. (author). 23 refs
Spectral methods in chemistry and physics applications to kinetic theory and quantum mechanics
Shizgal, Bernard
2015-01-01
This book is a pedagogical presentation of the application of spectral and pseudospectral methods to kinetic theory and quantum mechanics. There are additional applications to astrophysics, engineering, biology and many other fields. The main objective of this book is to provide the basic concepts to enable the use of spectral and pseudospectral methods to solve problems in diverse fields of interest and to a wide audience. While spectral methods are generally based on Fourier Series or Chebychev polynomials, non-classical polynomials and associated quadratures are used for many of the applications presented in the book. Fourier series methods are summarized with a discussion of the resolution of the Gibbs phenomenon. Classical and non-classical quadratures are used for the evaluation of integrals in reaction dynamics including nuclear fusion, radial integrals in density functional theory, in elastic scattering theory and other applications. The subject matter includes the calculation of transport coefficient...
Topological Higgs mechanism with ordinary Higgs mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oda Ichiro; Yahikozawa Shigeaki.
1989-12-01
Topological Higgs mechanism in higher dimensions is analyzed when ordinary Higgs potential exists. It is shown that if one-form B-field becomes massive by the ordinary Higgs mechanism, another D-2 form C-field also becomes massive through topological term in addition to the topological mass generation by the topological Higgs mechanism. Moreover we investigate this mechanism in three dimensional theories, that is to say, Chern-Simons theory and more general theory. (author). 10 refs
Khots, Boris; Khots, Dmitriy
2014-12-01
Certain results that have been predicted by Quantum Mechanics (QM) theory are not always supported by experiments. This defines a deep crisis in contemporary physics and, in particular, quantum mechanics. We believe that, in fact, the mathematical apparatus employed within today's physics is a possible reason. In particular, we consider the concept of infinity that exists in today's mathematics as the root cause of this problem. We have created Observer's Mathematics that offers an alternative to contemporary mathematics. This paper is an attempt to relay how Observer's Mathematics may explain some of the contradictions in QM theory results. We consider the Hamiltonian Mechanics, Newton equation, Schrodinger equation, two slit interference, wave-particle duality for single photons, uncertainty principle, Dirac equations for free electron in a setting of arithmetic, algebra, and topology provided by Observer's Mathematics (see www.mathrelativity.com). Certain results and communications pertaining to solution of these problems are provided.
Causal fermion systems as a candidate for a unified physical theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finster, Felix; Kleiner, Johannes
2015-01-01
The theory of causal fermion systems is an approach to describe fundamental physics. Giving quantum mechanics, general relativity and quantum field theory as limiting cases, it is a candidate for a unified physical theory. We here give a non-technical introduction. (paper)
Uncertainty relation and simultaneous measurements in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Busch, P.
1982-01-01
In this thesis the question for the interpretation of the uncertainty relation is picked up, and a program for the justification of its individualistic interpretation is formulated. By means of quantum mechanical models for the position and momentum measurement a justification of the interpretaton has been tried by reconstruction of the origin of the uncertainties from the conditions of the measuring devices and the determination of the relation of the measured results to the object. By means of a model of the common measurement it could be shown how the uncertainty relation results from the not eliminable mutual disturbance of the devices and the uncertainty relation for the measuring system. So finally the commutation relation is conclusive. For the illustration the split experiment is discussed, first according to Heisenberg with fixed split, then for the quantum mechanical, movable split (Bohr-Einstein). (orig./HSI) [de
Pratt, Cornelius B.
1994-01-01
Links ethical theories to the management of the product recall of the Perrier Group of America. Argues for a nonsituational theory-based eclectic approach to ethics in public relations to enable public relations practitioners, as strategic communication managers, to respond effectively to potentially unethical organizational actions. (SR)
The program ORTOCARTAN for applications in the relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasinski, A.
1985-01-01
A general outline of the program ORTOCARTAN for algebraic computing in the relativity theory is presented. A short history of the program is given. The base-programming language is LISP. The details of the calculation are presented. An example of application of the ORTOCARTAN is given
Justice relations as determinative factor of “human - state” relation in the J.Rawls’s theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. O. Burychko
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The conceptualization of relations “human state” in J. Rawls’s theory is revealed in the article. It is concluded, that this relationship is determineted on value level by justice, which understands as fairness. Justice is the main virtue of social institutions, and in this case, if the institutions are unjust, their activity should be discarded or revised. Based on liberal ideas, justice linked to the notion of freedom, particularly in J. Rawls’s theory are described? That in the faire societies the equal freedom of citizens is regarded as being established beforehand state. The main principles of relations are the principle of participation and paternalism. Participation means the involvement of citizens in the constitutional process, the national process and participation in selfgovernment. Paternalism is understood as the rational intervention of state in society in aim to prevent irrational expressions of relations between people. Conditions intervention: it must be justified by the apparent inability or lack of will; must match the understanding of justice as fairness, and based on sustainable interests. It is concluded, that the theory of J. Rawls resulting from the analytical experiment leaves a lot of questions as to achieve justice as fairness in the activities of individuals and social institutions.
Reconstructing Constructivism: Causal Models, Bayesian Learning Mechanisms, and the Theory Theory
Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M.
2012-01-01
We propose a new version of the "theory theory" grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework…
On experiments to detect possible failures of relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues Junior, W.A.; Tiomno, J.
1985-01-01
Two recently proposed experiments by Kolen and Torr, designed to show failures of Einstein's Special Relativity (SR) are analysed. It is pointed out that these papers contain a number of imprecisions and misconceptions which are cleared out. Also the very spread misconception about anysotropy of propagation of light in vacuum in Lorentz Aether Theory (LAT) is analysed showing that the anysotropy is only a coordinate effect. Comparison of the correct results in LAT theory, leading to violation of SR, with new theoretical and experimental results of Torr et al is made. Some of these new results are shown to be incorrect and/or inconsistent with both SR and LAT. (Author) [pt
Short Cuts and Extended Techniques: Rethinking Relations between Technology and Educational Theory
Thumlert, Kurt; de Castell, Suzanne; Jenson, Jennifer
2015-01-01
Building upon a recent call to renew actor-network theory (ANT) for educational research, this article reconsiders relations between technology and educational theory. Taking cues from actor-network theorists, this discussion considers the technologically-mediated networks in which learning actors are situated, acted upon, and acting, and traces…
Theory of Nonlocal Point Transformations in General Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massimo Tessarotto
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A discussion of the functional setting customarily adopted in General Relativity (GR is proposed. This is based on the introduction of the notion of nonlocal point transformations (NLPTs. While allowing the extension of the traditional concept of GR-reference frame, NLPTs are important because they permit the explicit determination of the map between intrinsically different and generally curved space-times expressed in arbitrary coordinate systems. For this purpose in the paper the mathematical foundations of NLPT-theory are laid down and basic physical implications are considered. In particular, explicit applications of the theory are proposed, which concern (1 a solution to the so-called Einstein teleparallel problem in the framework of NLPT-theory; (2 the determination of the tensor transformation laws holding for the acceleration 4-tensor with respect to the group of NLPTs and the identification of NLPT-acceleration effects, namely, the relationship established via general NLPT between particle 4-acceleration tensors existing in different curved space-times; (3 the construction of the nonlocal transformation law connecting different diagonal metric tensors solution to the Einstein field equations; and (4 the diagonalization of nondiagonal metric tensors.
Relational quadrilateralland II: The Quantum Theory
Anderson, Edward; Kneller, Sophie
2014-04-01
We provide the quantum treatment of the relational quadrilateral. The underlying reduced configuration spaces are ℂℙ2 and the cone over this. We consider exact free and isotropic HO potential cases and perturbations about these. Moreover, our purely relational kinematical quantization is distinct from the usual one for ℂℙ2, which turns out to carry absolutist connotations instead. Thus, this paper is the first to note absolute-versus-relational motion distinctions at the kinematical rather than dynamical level. It is also an example of value to the discussion of kinematical quantization along the lines of Isham, 1984. The relational quadrilateral is the simplest RPM whose mathematics is not standard in atomic physics (the triangle and four particles on a line are both based on 𝕊2 and ℝ3 mathematics). It is far more typical of the general quantum relational N-a-gon than the previously studied case of the relational triangle. We consider useful integrals as regards perturbation theory and the peaking interpretation of quantum cosmology. We subsequently consider problem of time (PoT) applications of this: quantum Kuchař beables, the Machian version of the semiclassical approach and the timeless naïve Schrödinger interpretation. These go toward extending the combined Machian semiclassical-Histories-Timeless Approach of [Int. J. Mod. Phys. D23 (2014) 1450014] to the case of the quadrilateral, which will be treated in subsequent papers.
The Mechanism of Graviton Exchange between Bodies, Part II
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid
2016-01-01
Further to Special Relativity, modern physics includes two great theories which describe universe in a new different way. One of them is Quantum Mechanics which describes elementary particles, atoms and molecules and the other one is General Relativity which has been replaced the Newtonian...... Gravitational Law by space-time curvature. Quantum gravity is a part of quantum mechanics which is expected to combine these two theories, and it describes gravity force according to the principles of quantum mechanics which has not got the desired result, yet. In CPH theory, after reconsidering and analyzing...... the behavior of photon in the gravitational field, a new definition of graviton based on carrying the gravity force is given. By using this definition, graviton exchange mechanism between bodies/objects is described. As the purpose of quantum gravity is describing the force of gravity by using the principles...
The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces
Castro, C
2004-01-01
A brief review of some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces ( $C$-spaces) is presented whose " point" coordinates are noncommuting Clifford-valued quantities and which incoporate the lines, areas, volumes, .... degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane, ... dynamics of the $p$-loop histories (closed p-branes) living in target $D$-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. $C$-space Relativity naturally incoporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale), maximal acceleration, noncommuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, superluminal propagation, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures that allows to study the dynamics of all (closed ) p-branes, for all values of $ p $, in a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT and the problem of time in Cosmology. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows along with the study of the inva...
Anomalous gauge theories revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsui, Kosuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi
2005-01-01
A possible formulation of chiral gauge theories with an anomalous fermion content is re-examined in light of the lattice framework based on the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. It is shown that the fermion sector of a wide class of anomalous non-abelian theories cannot consistently be formulated within this lattice framework. In particular, in 4 dimension, all anomalous non-abelian theories are included in this class. Anomalous abelian chiral gauge theories cannot be formulated with compact U(1) link variables, while a non-compact formulation is possible at least for the vacuum sector in the space of lattice gauge fields. Our conclusion is not applied to effective low-energy theories with an anomalous fermion content which are obtained from an underlying anomaly-free theory by sending the mass of some of fermions to infinity. For theories with an anomalous fermion content in which the anomaly is cancelled by the Green-Schwarz mechanism, a possibility of a consistent lattice formulation is not clear. (author)
Vantage Theory and Linguistic Relativity
Allan, Keith
2010-01-01
Rob MacLaury's Vantage Theory, VT, models the way in which a cognizer constructs, recalls, uses, and modifies a category in terms of point of view or vantage. Alongside of VT, there is place for the kind of semantic specification found in the lexicon. VT2 [Allan, Keith, 2002. "Vantage theory, VT2, and number." "Language Sciences" 24(5-6), 679-703…