source: postlfs/config/profile.xml@ caee766

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Last change on this file since caee766 was caee766, checked in by Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs@…>, 4 years ago

Update to libwww-perl-6.27 (perl-module).
Update to ninja-1.8.2.
Update /etc/profile script to accomodate systemd.

git-svn-id: svn://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/BLFS/trunk/BOOK@19282 af4574ff-66df-0310-9fd7-8a98e5e911e0

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="postlfs-config-profile" xreflabel="The Bash Shell Startup Files">
9 <?dbhtml filename="profile.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info>
12 <othername>$LastChangedBy$</othername>
13 <date>$Date$</date>
14 </sect1info>
15
16 <title>The Bash Shell Startup Files</title>
17
18 <para>The shell program <filename>/bin/bash</filename> (hereafter
19 referred to as just "the shell") uses a collection of startup files to
20 help create an environment. Each file has a specific use and
21 may affect login and interactive environments differently. The files in
22 the <filename class="directory">/etc</filename> directory generally provide
23 global settings. If an equivalent file exists in your home directory it may
24 override the global settings.</para>
25
26 <para>An interactive login shell is started after a successful login, using
27 <filename>/bin/login</filename>, by reading the
28 <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> file. This shell invocation normally reads
29 <filename>/etc/profile</filename> and its private equivalent
30 <filename>~/.bash_profile</filename> (or <filename>~/.profile</filename> if
31 called as <command>/bin/sh</command>) upon startup.</para>
32
33 <para>An interactive non-login shell is normally started at the command-line
34 using a shell program (e.g.,
35 <prompt>[prompt]$</prompt><command>/bin/bash</command>) or by the
36 <command>/bin/su</command> command. An interactive non-login shell is also
37 started with a terminal program such as <command>xterm</command> or
38 <command>konsole</command> from within a graphical environment. This type of
39 shell invocation normally copies the parent environment and then reads the
40 user's <filename>~/.bashrc</filename> file for additional startup
41 configuration instructions.</para>
42
43 <para>A non-interactive shell is usually present when a shell script is
44 running. It is non-interactive because it is processing a script and not
45 waiting for user input between commands. For these shell invocations, only
46 the environment inherited from the parent shell is used.</para>
47
48 <para> The file <filename>~/.bash_logout</filename> is not used for an
49 invocation of the shell. It is read and executed when a user exits from an
50 interactive login shell.</para>
51
52 <para>Many distributions use <filename>/etc/bashrc</filename> for system wide
53 initialization of non-login shells. This file is usually called from the
54 user's <filename>~/.bashrc</filename> file and is not built directly into
55 <command>bash</command> itself. This convention is followed in this
56 section.</para>
57
58 <para>For more information see <command>info bash</command> --
59 <emphasis role="strong">Nodes: Bash Startup Files and Interactive
60 Shells</emphasis>.</para>
61
62 <note>
63 <para>Most of the instructions below are used to create files located in
64 the <filename class='directory'>/etc</filename> directory structure which
65 requires you to execute the commands as the
66 <systemitem class='username'>root</systemitem> user. If you elect to create
67 the files in user's home directories instead, you should run the commands
68 as an unprivileged user.</para>
69 </note>
70
71 <sect2 id="etc-profile-profile">
72 <title>/etc/profile</title>
73
74 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile etc-profile-profile">
75 <primary sortas="e-etc-profile">/etc/profile</primary>
76 </indexterm>
77
78 <para>Here is a base <filename>/etc/profile</filename>. This file starts by
79 setting up some helper functions and some basic parameters. It specifies some
80 <command>bash</command> history parameters and, for security purposes,
81 disables keeping a permanent history file for the <systemitem
82 class="username">root</systemitem> user. It also sets a
83 default user prompt. It then calls small, single purpose scripts in the
84 <filename class='directory'>/etc/profile.d</filename> directory to provide most
85 of the initialization.</para>
86
87 <para>For more information on the escape sequences you can use for your prompt
88 (i.e., the <envar>PS1</envar> environment variable) see <command>info
89 bash</command> -- <emphasis role="strong">Node: Printing a
90 Prompt</emphasis>.</para>
91
92<screen role="root"><?dbfo keep-together="auto"?><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/profile &lt;&lt; "EOF"
93<literal># Begin /etc/profile
94# Written for Beyond Linux From Scratch
95# by James Robertson &lt;jameswrobertson@earthlink.net&gt;
96# modifications by Dagmar d'Surreal &lt;rivyqntzne@pbzpnfg.arg&gt;
97
98# System wide environment variables and startup programs.
99
100# System wide aliases and functions should go in /etc/bashrc. Personal
101# environment variables and startup programs should go into
102# ~/.bash_profile. Personal aliases and functions should go into
103# ~/.bashrc.
104
105# Functions to help us manage paths. Second argument is the name of the
106# path variable to be modified (default: PATH)
107pathremove () {
108 local IFS=':'
109 local NEWPATH
110 local DIR
111 local PATHVARIABLE=${2:-PATH}
112 for DIR in ${!PATHVARIABLE} ; do
113 if [ "$DIR" != "$1" ] ; then
114 NEWPATH=${NEWPATH:+$NEWPATH:}$DIR
115 fi
116 done
117 export $PATHVARIABLE="$NEWPATH"
118}
119
120pathprepend () {
121 pathremove $1 $2
122 local PATHVARIABLE=${2:-PATH}
123 export $PATHVARIABLE="$1${!PATHVARIABLE:+:${!PATHVARIABLE}}"
124}
125
126pathappend () {
127 pathremove $1 $2
128 local PATHVARIABLE=${2:-PATH}
129 export $PATHVARIABLE="${!PATHVARIABLE:+${!PATHVARIABLE}:}$1"
130}
131
132export -f pathremove pathprepend pathappend
133
134# Set the initial path
135export PATH=/bin:/usr/bin
136
137if [ $EUID -eq 0 ] ; then
138 pathappend /sbin:/usr/sbin
139 unset HISTFILE
140fi
141
142# Setup some environment variables.
143export HISTSIZE=1000
144export HISTIGNORE="&amp;:[bf]g:exit"
145
146# Set some defaults for graphical systems
147export XDG_DATA_DIRS=${XDG_DATA_DIRS:-/usr/share/}
148export XDG_CONFIG_DIRS=${XDG_CONFIG_DIRS:-/etc/xdg/}
149export XDG_RUNTIME_DIR=${XDG_RUNTIME_DIR:-/tmp/xdg-$USER}
150
151# Setup a red prompt for root and a green one for users.
152NORMAL="\[\e[0m\]"
153RED="\[\e[1;31m\]"
154GREEN="\[\e[1;32m\]"
155if [[ $EUID == 0 ]] ; then
156 PS1="$RED\u [ $NORMAL\w$RED ]# $NORMAL"
157else
158 PS1="$GREEN\u [ $NORMAL\w$GREEN ]\$ $NORMAL"
159fi
160
161for script in /etc/profile.d/*.sh ; do
162 if [ -r $script ] ; then
163 . $script
164 fi
165done
166
167unset script RED GREEN NORMAL
168
169# End /etc/profile</literal>
170EOF</userinput></screen>
171
172 <sect3 id="etc-profile.d">
173 <title>The /etc/profile.d Directory</title>
174
175 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile etc-profile.d">
176 <primary sortas="e-etc-profile.d">/etc/profile.d</primary>
177 </indexterm>
178
179 <para>Now create the <filename class='directory'>/etc/profile.d</filename>
180 directory, where the individual initialization scripts are placed:</para>
181
182<screen role="root"><userinput>install --directory --mode=0755 --owner=root --group=root /etc/profile.d</userinput></screen>
183
184 </sect3>
185
186 <sect3 id="etc-profile.d-bash-completion.sh">
187 <title>/etc/profile.d/bash_completion.sh</title>
188
189 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile etc-profile.d-bash-completion.sh">
190 <primary sortas="e-etc-profile.d-bash-completion.sh">/etc/profile.d/bash_completion.sh</primary>
191 </indexterm>
192
193 <para>This script imports bash completion scripts, installed by many
194 other BLFS packages, to allow TAB command line completion.</para>
195
196<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/profile.d/bash_completion.sh &lt;&lt; "EOF"
197<literal># Begin /etc/profile.d/bash_completion.sh
198# Import bash completion scripts
199
200for script in /etc/bash_completion.d/*.sh ; do
201 if [ -r $script ] ; then
202 . $script
203 fi
204done
205# End /etc/profile.d/bash_completion.sh</literal>
206EOF</userinput></screen>
207
208 <para>Make sure that the directory exists:</para>
209
210<screen role="root"><userinput>install --directory --mode=0755 --owner=root --group=root /etc/bash_completion.d</userinput></screen>
211
212 </sect3>
213
214
215
216 <sect3 id="etc-profile.d-dircolors.sh">
217 <title>/etc/profile.d/dircolors.sh</title>
218
219 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile etc-profile.d-dircolors.sh">
220 <primary sortas="e-etc-profile.d-dircolors.sh">/etc/profile.d/dircolors.sh</primary>
221 </indexterm>
222
223 <para>This script uses the <filename>~/.dircolors</filename> and
224 <filename>/etc/dircolors</filename> files to control the colors of file names in a
225 directory listing. They control colorized output of things like <command>ls
226 --color</command>. The explanation of how to initialize these files is at the
227 end of this section.</para>
228
229<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/profile.d/dircolors.sh &lt;&lt; "EOF"
230<literal># Setup for /bin/ls and /bin/grep to support color, the alias is in /etc/bashrc.
231if [ -f "/etc/dircolors" ] ; then
232 eval $(dircolors -b /etc/dircolors)
233fi
234
235if [ -f "$HOME/.dircolors" ] ; then
236 eval $(dircolors -b $HOME/.dircolors)
237fi
238
239alias ls='ls --color=auto'
240alias grep='grep --color=auto'</literal>
241EOF</userinput></screen>
242
243 </sect3>
244
245 <sect3 id="extrapaths.sh">
246 <title>/etc/profile.d/extrapaths.sh</title>
247
248 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile extrapaths.sh">
249 <primary sortas="e-etc-profile.d-extrapaths.sh">/etc/profile.d/extrapaths.sh</primary>
250 </indexterm>
251
252 <para>This script adds some useful paths to the <envar>PATH</envar> and
253 can be used to customize other PATH related environment variables
254 (e.g. LD_LIBRARY_PATH, etc) that may be needed for all users.</para>
255
256<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/profile.d/extrapaths.sh &lt;&lt; "EOF"
257<literal>if [ -d /usr/local/lib/pkgconfig ] ; then
258 pathappend /usr/local/lib/pkgconfig PKG_CONFIG_PATH
259fi
260if [ -d /usr/local/bin ]; then
261 pathprepend /usr/local/bin
262fi
263if [ -d /usr/local/sbin -a $EUID -eq 0 ]; then
264 pathprepend /usr/local/sbin
265fi
266
267# Set some defaults before other applications add to these paths.
268pathappend /usr/share/man MANPATH
269pathappend /usr/share/info INFOPATH</literal>
270EOF</userinput></screen>
271
272 </sect3>
273
274 <sect3 id="readline.sh">
275 <title>/etc/profile.d/readline.sh</title>
276
277 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile readline.sh">
278 <primary sortas="e-etc-profile.d-readline.sh">/etc/profile.d/readline.sh</primary>
279 </indexterm>
280
281 <para>This script sets up the default <filename>inputrc</filename>
282 configuration file. If the user does not have individual settings, it uses the
283 global file.</para>
284
285<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/profile.d/readline.sh &lt;&lt; "EOF"
286<literal># Setup the INPUTRC environment variable.
287if [ -z "$INPUTRC" -a ! -f "$HOME/.inputrc" ] ; then
288 INPUTRC=/etc/inputrc
289fi
290export INPUTRC</literal>
291EOF</userinput></screen>
292
293 </sect3>
294
295 <sect3 id="umask.sh">
296 <title>/etc/profile.d/umask.sh</title>
297
298 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile umask.sh">
299 <primary sortas="e-etc-profile.d-umask.sh">/etc/profile.d/umask.sh</primary>
300 </indexterm>
301
302 <para>Setting the <command>umask</command> value is important for security.
303 Here the default group write permissions are turned off for system users and when
304 the user name and group name are not the same.</para>
305
306<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/profile.d/umask.sh &lt;&lt; "EOF"
307<literal># By default, the umask should be set.
308if [ "$(id -gn)" = "$(id -un)" -a $EUID -gt 99 ] ; then
309 umask 002
310else
311 umask 022
312fi</literal>
313EOF</userinput></screen>
314
315 </sect3>
316
317<!-- This is handled in the Xorg section of the book
318 <sect3 id="X.sh">
319 <title>/etc/profile.d/X.sh</title>
320
321 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile X.sh">
322 <primary sortas="e-etc-profile.d-X.sh">/etc/profile.d/X.sh</primary>
323 </indexterm>
324
325 <para>If <application>X</application> is installed, the <envar>PATH</envar>
326 and <envar>PKG_CONFIG_PATH</envar> variables are also updated.</para>
327
328<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/profile.d/X.sh &lt;&lt; "EOF"
329<literal>if [ -x /usr/X11R6/bin/X ]; then
330 pathappend /usr/X11R6/bin
331fi
332if [ -d /usr/X11R6/lib/pkgconfig ] ; then
333 pathappend /usr/X11R6/lib/pkgconfig PKG_CONFIG_PATH
334fi</literal>
335EOF</userinput></screen>
336
337 </sect3>
338-->
339 <sect3 id="i18n.sh">
340 <!-- This is handled system wide on systemd but LANG is not exported to
341 the environment, hence it's return...need to add additional text for
342 systemd only -->
343 <title>/etc/profile.d/i18n.sh</title>
344
345 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile i18n.sh">
346 <primary sortas="e-etc-profile.d-i18n.sh">/etc/profile.d/i18n.sh</primary>
347 </indexterm>
348
349 <para>This script sets an environment variable necessary for
350 native language support. A full discussion on determining this
351 variable can be found on the <ulink
352 url="&lfs-root;/chapter07/profile.html">LFS Bash Shell
353 Startup Files</ulink> page.</para>
354
355<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/profile.d/i18n.sh &lt;&lt; "EOF"
356<literal># Set up i18n variables
357export LANG=<replaceable>&lt;ll&gt;</replaceable>_<replaceable>&lt;CC&gt;</replaceable>.<replaceable>&lt;charmap&gt;</replaceable><replaceable>&lt;@modifiers&gt;</replaceable></literal>
358EOF</userinput></screen>
359
360 </sect3>
361
362 <sect3>
363 <title>Other Initialization Values</title>
364
365 <para>Other initialization can easily be added to the
366 <filename>profile</filename> by adding additional scripts to the
367 <filename class='directory'>/etc/profile.d</filename> directory.</para>
368
369 </sect3>
370
371 </sect2>
372
373 <sect2 id="etc-bashrc-profile">
374 <title>/etc/bashrc</title>
375
376 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile etc-bashrc-profile">
377 <primary sortas="e-etc-bashrc">/etc/bashrc</primary>
378 </indexterm>
379
380 <para>Here is a base <filename>/etc/bashrc</filename>. Comments in the
381 file should explain everything you need.</para>
382
383<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/bashrc &lt;&lt; "EOF"
384<literal># Begin /etc/bashrc
385# Written for Beyond Linux From Scratch
386# by James Robertson &lt;jameswrobertson@earthlink.net&gt;
387# updated by Bruce Dubbs &lt;bdubbs@&lfs-domainname;&gt;
388
389# System wide aliases and functions.
390
391# System wide environment variables and startup programs should go into
392# /etc/profile. Personal environment variables and startup programs
393# should go into ~/.bash_profile. Personal aliases and functions should
394# go into ~/.bashrc
395
396# Provides colored /bin/ls and /bin/grep commands. Used in conjunction
397# with code in /etc/profile.
398
399alias ls='ls --color=auto'
400alias grep='grep --color=auto'
401
402# Provides prompt for non-login shells, specifically shells started
403# in the X environment. [Review the LFS archive thread titled
404# PS1 Environment Variable for a great case study behind this script
405# addendum.]
406
407NORMAL="\[\e[0m\]"
408RED="\[\e[1;31m\]"
409GREEN="\[\e[1;32m\]"
410if [[ $EUID == 0 ]] ; then
411 PS1="$RED\u [ $NORMAL\w$RED ]# $NORMAL"
412else
413 PS1="$GREEN\u [ $NORMAL\w$GREEN ]\$ $NORMAL"
414fi
415
416unset RED GREEN NORMAL
417
418# End /etc/bashrc</literal>
419EOF</userinput></screen>
420
421 </sect2>
422
423 <sect2 id="bash_profile-profile">
424 <title>~/.bash_profile</title>
425
426 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile bash_profile-profile">
427 <primary sortas="e-AA.bash_profile">~/.bash_profile</primary>
428 </indexterm>
429
430 <para>Here is a base <filename>~/.bash_profile</filename>. If you want each
431 new user to have this file automatically, just change the output of
432 the command to <filename>/etc/skel/.bash_profile</filename> and check the
433 permissions after the command is run. You can then copy
434 <filename>/etc/skel/.bash_profile</filename> to the home directories of already
435 existing users, including <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>,
436 and set the owner and group appropriately.</para>
437
438<screen><userinput>cat &gt; ~/.bash_profile &lt;&lt; "EOF"
439<literal># Begin ~/.bash_profile
440# Written for Beyond Linux From Scratch
441# by James Robertson &lt;jameswrobertson@earthlink.net&gt;
442# updated by Bruce Dubbs &lt;bdubbs@&lfs-domainname;&gt;
443
444# Personal environment variables and startup programs.
445
446# Personal aliases and functions should go in ~/.bashrc. System wide
447# environment variables and startup programs are in /etc/profile.
448# System wide aliases and functions are in /etc/bashrc.
449
450if [ -f "$HOME/.bashrc" ] ; then
451 source $HOME/.bashrc
452fi
453
454if [ -d "$HOME/bin" ] ; then
455 pathprepend $HOME/bin
456fi
457
458# Having . in the PATH is dangerous
459#if [ $EUID -gt 99 ]; then
460# pathappend .
461#fi
462
463# End ~/.bash_profile</literal>
464EOF</userinput></screen>
465
466 </sect2>
467
468 <sect2 id="dot_profile-profile">
469 <title>~/.profile</title>
470
471 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile dot_profile-profile">
472 <primary sortas="e-AA.dot_profile">~/.profile</primary>
473 </indexterm>
474
475 <para>Here is a base <filename>~/.profile</filename>. The comments and
476 instructions for using <filename class="directory">/etc/skel</filename> for
477 <filename>.bash_profile</filename> above also apply here. Only the target
478 file names are different.</para>
479
480<screen><userinput>cat &gt; ~/.profile &lt;&lt; "EOF"
481<literal># Begin ~/.profile
482# Personal environment variables and startup programs.
483
484if [ -d "$HOME/bin" ] ; then
485 pathprepend $HOME/bin
486fi
487
488# Set up user specific i18n variables
489#export LANG=<replaceable>&lt;ll&gt;</replaceable>_<replaceable>&lt;CC&gt;</replaceable>.<replaceable>&lt;charmap&gt;</replaceable><replaceable>&lt;@modifiers&gt;</replaceable>
490
491# End ~/.profile</literal>
492EOF</userinput></screen>
493
494 </sect2>
495
496 <sect2 id="bashrc-profile">
497 <title>~/.bashrc</title>
498
499 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile bashrc-profile">
500 <primary sortas="e-AA.bashrc">~/.bashrc</primary>
501 </indexterm>
502
503 <para>Here is a base <filename>~/.bashrc</filename>.</para>
504
505<screen><userinput>cat &gt; ~/.bashrc &lt;&lt; "EOF"
506<literal># Begin ~/.bashrc
507# Written for Beyond Linux From Scratch
508# by James Robertson &lt;jameswrobertson@earthlink.net&gt;
509
510# Personal aliases and functions.
511
512# Personal environment variables and startup programs should go in
513# ~/.bash_profile. System wide environment variables and startup
514# programs are in /etc/profile. System wide aliases and functions are
515# in /etc/bashrc.
516
517if [ -f "/etc/bashrc" ] ; then
518 source /etc/bashrc
519fi
520
521# Set up user specific i18n variables
522#export LANG=<replaceable>&lt;ll&gt;</replaceable>_<replaceable>&lt;CC&gt;</replaceable>.<replaceable>&lt;charmap&gt;</replaceable><replaceable>&lt;@modifiers&gt;</replaceable>
523
524# End ~/.bashrc</literal>
525EOF</userinput></screen>
526
527 </sect2>
528
529
530 <sect2 id="bash_logout-profile">
531 <title>~/.bash_logout</title>
532
533 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile bash_logout-profile">
534 <primary sortas="e-AA.bash_logout">~/.bash_logout</primary>
535 </indexterm>
536
537 <para>This is an empty <filename>~/.bash_logout</filename> that can be used as
538 a template. You will notice that the base <filename>~/.bash_logout</filename>
539 does not include a <userinput>clear</userinput> command. This is because the
540 clear is handled in the <filename>/etc/issue</filename> file.</para>
541
542<screen><userinput>cat &gt; ~/.bash_logout &lt;&lt; "EOF"
543<literal># Begin ~/.bash_logout
544# Written for Beyond Linux From Scratch
545# by James Robertson &lt;jameswrobertson@earthlink.net&gt;
546
547# Personal items to perform on logout.
548
549# End ~/.bash_logout</literal>
550EOF</userinput></screen>
551
552 </sect2>
553
554
555 <sect2 id="etc-dircolors-profile">
556 <title>/etc/dircolors</title>
557
558 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile etc-dircolors-profile">
559 <primary sortas="e-etc-dircolors">/etc/dircolors</primary>
560 </indexterm>
561
562 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile etc-dircolors-profile">
563 <primary sortas="e-AA.dircolors">~/.dircolors</primary>
564 </indexterm>
565
566 <para> If you want to use the <filename>dircolors</filename> capability,
567 then run the following command. The
568 <filename class="directory">/etc/skel</filename> setup steps shown above
569 also can be used here to provide a <filename>~/.dircolors</filename> file
570 when a new user is set up. As before, just change the output file name on
571 the following command and assure the permissions, owner, and group are
572 correct on the files created and/or copied.</para>
573
574<screen role="root"><userinput>dircolors -p > /etc/dircolors</userinput></screen>
575
576 <para>If you wish to customize the colors used for different file types,
577 you can edit the <filename>/etc/dircolors</filename> file. The instructions
578 for setting the colors are embedded in the file.</para>
579
580
581 <para>Finally, Ian Macdonald has written an excellent collection of tips and
582 tricks to enhance your shell environment. You can read it online at
583 <ulink url="http://www.caliban.org/bash/index.shtml"/>.</para>
584
585 </sect2>
586
587</sect1>
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