source: postlfs/config/profile.xml@ f3429309

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="postlfs-config-profile" xreflabel="The Bash Shell Startup Files">
9 <?dbhtml filename="profile.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info>
12 <othername>$LastChangedBy$</othername>
13 <date>$Date$</date>
14 </sect1info>
15
16 <title>The Bash Shell Startup Files</title>
17
18 <para>The shell program <filename>/bin/bash</filename> (hereafter
19 referred to as just "the shell") uses a collection of startup files to
20 help create an environment. Each file has a specific use and
21 may affect login and interactive environments differently. The files in
22 the <filename class="directory">/etc</filename> directory generally provide
23 global settings. If an equivalent file exists in your home directory it may
24 override the global settings.</para>
25
26 <para>An interactive login shell is started after a successful login, using
27 <filename>/bin/login</filename>, by reading the <filename>/etc/passwd</filename>
28 file. This shell invocation normally reads <filename>/etc/profile</filename>
29 and its private equivalent <filename>~/.bash_profile</filename> upon
30 startup.</para>
31
32 <para>An interactive non-login shell is normally started at the command-line
33 using a shell program (e.g.,
34 <prompt>[prompt]$</prompt><command>/bin/bash</command>) or by the
35 <command>/bin/su</command> command. An interactive non-login shell is also
36 started with a terminal program such as <command>xterm</command> or
37 <command>konsole</command> from within a graphical environment. This type of
38 shell invocation normally copies the parent environment and then reads the
39 user's <filename>~/.bashrc</filename> file for additional startup configuration
40 instructions.</para>
41
42 <para>A non-interactive shell is usually present when a shell script is
43 running. It is non-interactive because it is processing a script and not
44 waiting for user input between commands. For these shell invocations, only
45 the environment inherited from the parent shell is used.</para>
46
47 <para> The file <filename>~/.bash_logout</filename> is not used for an
48 invocation of the shell. It is read and executed when a user exits from an
49 interactive login shell.</para>
50
51 <para>Many distributions use <filename>/etc/bashrc</filename> for system wide
52 initialization of non-login shells. This file is usually called from the
53 user's <filename>~/.bashrc</filename> file and is not built directly into
54 <command>bash</command> itself. This convention is followed in this
55 section.</para>
56
57 <para>For more information see <command>info bash</command> --
58 <emphasis role="strong">Nodes: Bash Startup Files and Interactive
59 Shells</emphasis>.</para>
60
61 <note>
62 <para>Most of the instructions below are used to create files located in
63 the <filename class='directory'>/etc</filename> directory structure which
64 requires you to execute the commands as the
65 <systemitem class='username'>root</systemitem> user. If you elect to create
66 the files in user's home directories instead, you should run the commands
67 as an unprivileged user.</para>
68 </note>
69
70 <sect2 id="etc-profile-profile">
71 <title>/etc/profile</title>
72
73 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile etc-profile-profile">
74 <primary sortas="e-etc-profile">/etc/profile</primary>
75 </indexterm>
76
77 <para>Here is a base <filename>/etc/profile</filename>. This file starts by
78 setting up some helper functions and some basic parameters. It specifies some
79 <command>bash</command> history parameters and, for security purposes,
80 disables keeping a permanent history file for the <systemitem
81 class="username">root</systemitem> user. It also sets a
82 default user prompt. It then calls small, single purpose scripts in the
83 <filename class='directory'>/etc/profile.d</filename> directory to provide most
84 of the initialization.</para>
85
86 <para>For more information on the escape sequences you can use for your prompt
87 (i.e., the <envar>PS1</envar> environment variable) see <command>info
88 bash</command> -- <emphasis role="strong">Node: Printing a
89 Prompt</emphasis>.</para>
90
91<screen role="root"><?dbfo keep-together="auto"?><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/profile &lt;&lt; "EOF"
92<literal># Begin /etc/profile
93# Written for Beyond Linux From Scratch
94# by James Robertson &lt;jameswrobertson@earthlink.net&gt;
95# modifications by Dagmar d'Surreal &lt;rivyqntzne@pbzpnfg.arg&gt;
96
97# System wide environment variables and startup programs.
98
99# System wide aliases and functions should go in /etc/bashrc. Personal
100# environment variables and startup programs should go into
101# ~/.bash_profile. Personal aliases and functions should go into
102# ~/.bashrc.
103
104# Functions to help us manage paths. Second argument is the name of the
105# path variable to be modified (default: PATH)
106pathremove () {
107 local IFS=':'
108 local NEWPATH
109 local DIR
110 local PATHVARIABLE=${2:-PATH}
111 for DIR in ${!PATHVARIABLE} ; do
112 if [ "$DIR" != "$1" ] ; then
113 NEWPATH=${NEWPATH:+$NEWPATH:}$DIR
114 fi
115 done
116 export $PATHVARIABLE="$NEWPATH"
117}
118
119pathprepend () {
120 pathremove $1 $2
121 local PATHVARIABLE=${2:-PATH}
122 export $PATHVARIABLE="$1${!PATHVARIABLE:+:${!PATHVARIABLE}}"
123}
124
125pathappend () {
126 pathremove $1 $2
127 local PATHVARIABLE=${2:-PATH}
128 export $PATHVARIABLE="${!PATHVARIABLE:+${!PATHVARIABLE}:}$1"
129}
130
131export -f pathremove pathprepend pathappend
132
133# Set the initial path
134export PATH=/bin:/usr/bin
135
136if [ $EUID -eq 0 ] ; then
137 pathappend /sbin:/usr/sbin
138 unset HISTFILE
139fi
140
141# Setup some environment variables.
142export HISTSIZE=1000
143export HISTIGNORE="&amp;:[bf]g:exit"
144
145# Set some defaults for graphical systems
146export XDG_DATA_DIRS=/usr/share/
147export XDG_CONFIG_DIRS=/etc/xdg/
148
149# Setup a red prompt for root and a green one for users.
150NORMAL="\[\e[0m\]"
151RED="\[\e[1;31m\]"
152GREEN="\[\e[1;32m\]"
153if [[ $EUID == 0 ]] ; then
154 PS1="$RED\u [ $NORMAL\w$RED ]# $NORMAL"
155else
156 PS1="$GREEN\u [ $NORMAL\w$GREEN ]\$ $NORMAL"
157fi
158
159for script in /etc/profile.d/*.sh ; do
160 if [ -r $script ] ; then
161 . $script
162 fi
163done
164
165unset script RED GREEN NORMAL
166
167# End /etc/profile</literal>
168EOF</userinput></screen>
169
170 <sect3 id="etc-profile.d">
171 <title>The /etc/profile.d Directory</title>
172
173 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile etc-profile.d">
174 <primary sortas="e-etc-profile.d">/etc/profile.d</primary>
175 </indexterm>
176
177 <para>Now create the <filename class='directory'>/etc/profile.d</filename>
178 directory, where the individual initialization scripts are placed:</para>
179
180<screen role="root"><userinput>install --directory --mode=0755 --owner=root --group=root /etc/profile.d</userinput></screen>
181
182 </sect3>
183
184 <sect3 id="etc-profile.d-dircolors.sh">
185 <title>/etc/profile.d/dircolors.sh</title>
186
187 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile etc-profile.d-dircolors.sh">
188 <primary sortas="e-etc-profile.d-dircolors.sh">/etc/profile.d/dircolors.sh</primary>
189 </indexterm>
190
191 <para>This script uses the <filename>~/.dircolors</filename> and
192 <filename>/etc/dircolors</filename> files to control the colors of file names in a
193 directory listing. They control colorized output of things like <command>ls
194 --color</command>. The explanation of how to initialize these files is at the
195 end of this section.</para>
196
197<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/profile.d/dircolors.sh &lt;&lt; "EOF"
198<literal># Setup for /bin/ls and /bin/grep to support color, the alias is in /etc/bashrc.
199if [ -f "/etc/dircolors" ] ; then
200 eval $(dircolors -b /etc/dircolors)
201fi
202
203if [ -f "$HOME/.dircolors" ] ; then
204 eval $(dircolors -b $HOME/.dircolors)
205fi
206
207alias ls='ls --color=auto'
208alias grep='grep --color=auto'</literal>
209EOF</userinput></screen>
210
211 </sect3>
212
213 <sect3 id="extrapaths.sh">
214 <title>/etc/profile.d/extrapaths.sh</title>
215
216 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile extrapaths.sh">
217 <primary sortas="e-etc-profile.d-extrapaths.sh">/etc/profile.d/extrapaths.sh</primary>
218 </indexterm>
219
220 <para>This script adds some useful paths to the <envar>PATH</envar> and
221 can be used to customize other PATH related environment variables
222 (e.g. LD_LIBRARY_PATH, etc) that may be needed for all users.</para>
223
224<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/profile.d/extrapaths.sh &lt;&lt; "EOF"
225<literal>if [ -d /usr/local/lib/pkgconfig ] ; then
226 pathappend /usr/local/lib/pkgconfig PKG_CONFIG_PATH
227fi
228if [ -d /usr/local/bin ]; then
229 pathprepend /usr/local/bin
230fi
231if [ -d /usr/local/sbin -a $EUID -eq 0 ]; then
232 pathprepend /usr/local/sbin
233fi
234
235# Set some defaults before other applications add to these paths.
236pathappend /usr/share/man MANPATH
237pathappend /usr/share/info INFOPATH</literal>
238EOF</userinput></screen>
239
240 </sect3>
241
242 <sect3 id="readline.sh">
243 <title>/etc/profile.d/readline.sh</title>
244
245 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile readline.sh">
246 <primary sortas="e-etc-profile.d-readline.sh">/etc/profile.d/readline.sh</primary>
247 </indexterm>
248
249 <para>This script sets up the default <filename>inputrc</filename>
250 configuration file. If the user does not have individual settings, it uses the
251 global file.</para>
252
253<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/profile.d/readline.sh &lt;&lt; "EOF"
254<literal># Setup the INPUTRC environment variable.
255if [ -z "$INPUTRC" -a ! -f "$HOME/.inputrc" ] ; then
256 INPUTRC=/etc/inputrc
257fi
258export INPUTRC</literal>
259EOF</userinput></screen>
260
261 </sect3>
262
263 <sect3 id="umask.sh">
264 <title>/etc/profile.d/umask.sh</title>
265
266 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile umask.sh">
267 <primary sortas="e-etc-profile.d-umask.sh">/etc/profile.d/umask.sh</primary>
268 </indexterm>
269
270 <para>Setting the <command>umask</command> value is important for security.
271 Here the default group write permissions are turned off for system users and when
272 the user name and group name are not the same.</para>
273
274<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/profile.d/umask.sh &lt;&lt; "EOF"
275<literal># By default, the umask should be set.
276if [ "$(id -gn)" = "$(id -un)" -a $EUID -gt 99 ] ; then
277 umask 002
278else
279 umask 022
280fi</literal>
281EOF</userinput></screen>
282
283 </sect3>
284
285<!-- This is handled in the Xorg section of the book
286 <sect3 id="X.sh">
287 <title>/etc/profile.d/X.sh</title>
288
289 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile X.sh">
290 <primary sortas="e-etc-profile.d-X.sh">/etc/profile.d/X.sh</primary>
291 </indexterm>
292
293 <para>If <application>X</application> is installed, the <envar>PATH</envar>
294 and <envar>PKG_CONFIG_PATH</envar> variables are also updated.</para>
295
296<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/profile.d/X.sh &lt;&lt; "EOF"
297<literal>if [ -x /usr/X11R6/bin/X ]; then
298 pathappend /usr/X11R6/bin
299fi
300if [ -d /usr/X11R6/lib/pkgconfig ] ; then
301 pathappend /usr/X11R6/lib/pkgconfig PKG_CONFIG_PATH
302fi</literal>
303EOF</userinput></screen>
304
305 </sect3>
306-->
307 <sect3 id="i18n.sh">
308 <title>/etc/profile.d/i18n.sh</title>
309
310 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile i18n.sh">
311 <primary sortas="e-etc-profile.d-i18n.sh">/etc/profile.d/i18n.sh</primary>
312 </indexterm>
313
314 <para>This script sets an environment variable necessary for
315 native language support. A full discussion on determining this
316 variable can be found on the <ulink
317 url="&lfs-root;/chapter07/profile.html">LFS Bash Shell
318 Startup Files</ulink> page.</para>
319
320<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/profile.d/i18n.sh &lt;&lt; "EOF"
321<literal># Set up i18n variables
322export LANG=<replaceable>&lt;ll&gt;</replaceable>_<replaceable>&lt;CC&gt;</replaceable>.<replaceable>&lt;charmap&gt;</replaceable><replaceable>&lt;@modifiers&gt;</replaceable></literal>
323EOF</userinput></screen>
324
325 </sect3>
326
327 <sect3>
328 <title>Other Initialization Values</title>
329
330 <para>Other initialization can easily be added to the
331 <filename>profile</filename> by adding additional scripts to the
332 <filename class='directory'>/etc/profile.d</filename> directory.</para>
333
334 </sect3>
335
336 </sect2>
337
338 <sect2 id="etc-bashrc-profile">
339 <title>/etc/bashrc</title>
340
341 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile etc-bashrc-profile">
342 <primary sortas="e-etc-bashrc">/etc/bashrc</primary>
343 </indexterm>
344
345 <para>Here is a base <filename>/etc/bashrc</filename>. Comments in the
346 file should explain everything you need.</para>
347
348<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/bashrc &lt;&lt; "EOF"
349<literal># Begin /etc/bashrc
350# Written for Beyond Linux From Scratch
351# by James Robertson &lt;jameswrobertson@earthlink.net&gt;
352# updated by Bruce Dubbs &lt;bdubbs@&lfs-domainname;&gt;
353
354# System wide aliases and functions.
355
356# System wide environment variables and startup programs should go into
357# /etc/profile. Personal environment variables and startup programs
358# should go into ~/.bash_profile. Personal aliases and functions should
359# go into ~/.bashrc
360
361# Provides colored /bin/ls and /bin/grep commands. Used in conjunction
362# with code in /etc/profile.
363
364alias ls='ls --color=auto'
365alias grep='grep --color=auto'
366
367# Provides prompt for non-login shells, specifically shells started
368# in the X environment. [Review the LFS archive thread titled
369# PS1 Environment Variable for a great case study behind this script
370# addendum.]
371
372NORMAL="\[\e[0m\]"
373RED="\[\e[1;31m\]"
374GREEN="\[\e[1;32m\]"
375if [[ $EUID == 0 ]] ; then
376 PS1="$RED\u [ $NORMAL\w$RED ]# $NORMAL"
377else
378 PS1="$GREEN\u [ $NORMAL\w$GREEN ]\$ $NORMAL"
379fi
380
381unset RED GREEN NORMAL
382
383# End /etc/bashrc</literal>
384EOF</userinput></screen>
385
386 </sect2>
387
388 <sect2 id="bash_profile-profile">
389 <title>~/.bash_profile</title>
390
391 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile bash_profile-profile">
392 <primary sortas="e-AA.bash_profile">~/.bash_profile</primary>
393 </indexterm>
394
395 <para>Here is a base <filename>~/.bash_profile</filename>. If you want each
396 new user to have this file automatically, just change the output of
397 the command to <filename>/etc/skel/.bash_profile</filename> and check the
398 permissions after the command is run. You can then copy
399 <filename>/etc/skel/.bash_profile</filename> to the home directories of already
400 existing users, including <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>,
401 and set the owner and group appropriately.</para>
402
403<screen><userinput>cat &gt; ~/.bash_profile &lt;&lt; "EOF"
404<literal># Begin ~/.bash_profile
405# Written for Beyond Linux From Scratch
406# by James Robertson &lt;jameswrobertson@earthlink.net&gt;
407# updated by Bruce Dubbs &lt;bdubbs@&lfs-domainname;&gt;
408
409# Personal environment variables and startup programs.
410
411# Personal aliases and functions should go in ~/.bashrc. System wide
412# environment variables and startup programs are in /etc/profile.
413# System wide aliases and functions are in /etc/bashrc.
414
415if [ -f "$HOME/.bashrc" ] ; then
416 source $HOME/.bashrc
417fi
418
419if [ -d "$HOME/bin" ] ; then
420 pathprepend $HOME/bin
421fi
422
423# Having . in the PATH is dangerous
424#if [ $EUID -gt 99 ]; then
425# pathappend .
426#fi
427
428# End ~/.bash_profile</literal>
429EOF</userinput></screen>
430
431 </sect2>
432
433 <sect2 id="bashrc-profile">
434 <title>~/.bashrc</title>
435
436 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile bashrc-profile">
437 <primary sortas="e-AA.bashrc">~/.bashrc</primary>
438 </indexterm>
439
440 <para>Here is a base <filename>~/.bashrc</filename>. The comments and
441 instructions for using <filename class="directory">/etc/skel</filename> for
442 <filename>.bash_profile</filename> above also apply here. Only the target file
443 names are different.</para>
444
445<screen><userinput>cat &gt; ~/.bashrc &lt;&lt; "EOF"
446<literal># Begin ~/.bashrc
447# Written for Beyond Linux From Scratch
448# by James Robertson &lt;jameswrobertson@earthlink.net&gt;
449
450# Personal aliases and functions.
451
452# Personal environment variables and startup programs should go in
453# ~/.bash_profile. System wide environment variables and startup
454# programs are in /etc/profile. System wide aliases and functions are
455# in /etc/bashrc.
456
457if [ -f "/etc/bashrc" ] ; then
458 source /etc/bashrc
459fi
460
461# End ~/.bashrc</literal>
462EOF</userinput></screen>
463
464 </sect2>
465
466
467 <sect2 id="bash_logout-profile">
468 <title>~/.bash_logout</title>
469
470 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile bash_logout-profile">
471 <primary sortas="e-AA.bash_logout">~/.bash_logout</primary>
472 </indexterm>
473
474 <para>This is an empty <filename>~/.bash_logout</filename> that can be used as
475 a template. You will notice that the base <filename>~/.bash_logout</filename>
476 does not include a <userinput>clear</userinput> command. This is because the
477 clear is handled in the <filename>/etc/issue</filename> file.</para>
478
479<screen><userinput>cat &gt; ~/.bash_logout &lt;&lt; "EOF"
480<literal># Begin ~/.bash_logout
481# Written for Beyond Linux From Scratch
482# by James Robertson &lt;jameswrobertson@earthlink.net&gt;
483
484# Personal items to perform on logout.
485
486# End ~/.bash_logout</literal>
487EOF</userinput></screen>
488
489 </sect2>
490
491
492 <sect2 id="etc-dircolors-profile">
493 <title>/etc/dircolors</title>
494
495 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile etc-dircolors-profile">
496 <primary sortas="e-etc-dircolors">/etc/dircolors</primary>
497 </indexterm>
498
499 <indexterm zone="postlfs-config-profile etc-dircolors-profile">
500 <primary sortas="e-AA.dircolors">~/.dircolors</primary>
501 </indexterm>
502
503 <para> If you want to use the <filename>dircolors</filename> capability, then
504 run the following command. The <filename class="directory">/etc/skel</filename>
505 setup steps shown above also can be used here to provide a
506 <filename>~/.dircolors</filename> file when a new user is set up. As before,
507 just change the output file name on the following command and assure the
508 permissions, owner, and group are correct on the files created and/or
509 copied.</para>
510
511<screen role="root"><userinput>dircolors -p > /etc/dircolors</userinput></screen>
512
513 <para>If you wish to customize the colors used for different file types, you can
514 edit the <filename>/etc/dircolors</filename> file. The instructions for setting
515 the colors are embedded in the file.</para>
516
517
518 <para>Finally, Ian Macdonald has written an excellent collection of tips and
519 tricks to enhance your shell environment. You can read it online at
520 <ulink url="http://www.caliban.org/bash/index.shtml"/>.</para>
521
522 </sect2>
523
524</sect1>
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