source: postlfs/security/openssh.xml@ 5d2965c

11.0 ken/refactor-virt lazarus qt5new trunk xry111/git-date xry111/git-date-for-trunk xry111/git-date-test
Last change on this file since 5d2965c was 5d2965c, checked in by Douglas R. Reno <renodr@…>, 8 months ago

Update to ModemManager-1.16.2
Update to qpdf-10.2.0
Update to libgxps-0.3.2
Update to babl-0.1.86
Update to libqmi-1.28.2
Update to poppler-21.03.0
Update to URI-5.09 (Perl Module)
Update to gtksourceview4-4.8.1
Update to OpenSSH-8.5p1 (and ssh-askpass-8.5p1)
libwacom: Correct version number
libwacom: Add libwacom-show-stylus
bluez: Drop the patch

git-svn-id: svn://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/BLFS/trunk/BOOK@24333 af4574ff-66df-0310-9fd7-8a98e5e911e0

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 18.0 KB
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6
7 <!ENTITY openssh-download-http
8 "http://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/OpenSSH/portable/openssh-&openssh-version;.tar.gz">
9 <!ENTITY openssh-download-ftp
10 " "> <!-- at the moment, unable to connect via ftp: ken
11 "ftp://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/OpenSSH/portable/openssh-&openssh-version;.tar.gz"> -->
12 <!ENTITY openssh-md5sum "9eb9420cf587edc26f8998ab679ad390">
13 <!ENTITY openssh-size "1.7 MB">
14 <!ENTITY openssh-buildsize "51 MB (add 40 MB for tests)">
15 <!ENTITY openssh-time "0.2 SBU (Using parallelism=4;
16 running the tests takes 20+ minutes,
17 irrespective of processor speed)">
18]>
19
20<sect1 id="openssh" xreflabel="OpenSSH-&openssh-version;">
21 <?dbhtml filename="openssh.html"?>
22
23 <sect1info>
24 <othername>$LastChangedBy$</othername>
25 <date>$Date$</date>
26 </sect1info>
27
28 <title>OpenSSH-&openssh-version;</title>
29
30 <indexterm zone="openssh">
31 <primary sortas="a-OpenSSH">OpenSSH</primary>
32 </indexterm>
33
34 <sect2 role="package">
35 <title>Introduction to OpenSSH</title>
36
37 <para>
38 The <application>OpenSSH</application> package contains
39 <command>ssh</command> clients and the <command>sshd</command> daemon.
40 This is useful for encrypting authentication and subsequent traffic over
41 a network. The <command>ssh</command> and <command>scp</command> commands
42 are secure implementations of <command>telnet</command> and
43 <command>rcp</command> respectively.
44 </para>
45
46 &lfs101_checked;
47
48 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Package Information</bridgehead>
49 <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
50 <listitem>
51 <para>
52 Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&openssh-download-http;"/>
53 </para>
54 </listitem>
55 <listitem>
56 <para>
57 Download (FTP): <ulink url="&openssh-download-ftp;"/>
58 </para>
59 </listitem>
60 <listitem>
61 <para>
62 Download MD5 sum: &openssh-md5sum;
63 </para>
64 </listitem>
65 <listitem>
66 <para>
67 Download size: &openssh-size;
68 </para>
69 </listitem>
70 <listitem>
71 <para>
72 Estimated disk space required: &openssh-buildsize;
73 </para>
74 </listitem>
75 <listitem>
76 <para>
77 Estimated build time: &openssh-time;
78 </para>
79 </listitem>
80 </itemizedlist>
81<!--
82 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Additional Downloads</bridgehead>
83 <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
84 <listitem>
85 <para>
86 Required patch:
87 <ulink url="&patch-root;/openssh-&openssh-version;-glibc_2.31_fix-1.patch"/>
88 </para>
89 </listitem>
90 </itemizedlist>
91-->
92 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">OpenSSH Dependencies</bridgehead>
93
94 <bridgehead renderas="sect4">Optional</bridgehead>
95 <para role="optional">
96 <xref linkend="gdb"/> (for tests),
97 <xref linkend="linux-pam"/>,
98 <xref linkend="x-window-system"/>,
99 <xref linkend="mitkrb"/>,
100 <ulink url="http://www.thrysoee.dk/editline/">libedit</ulink>,
101 <ulink url="http://www.libressl.org/">LibreSSL Portable</ulink>,
102 <ulink url="https://github.com/OpenSC/OpenSC/wiki">OpenSC</ulink>, and
103 <ulink url="http://www.citi.umich.edu/projects/smartcard/sectok.html">libsectok</ulink>
104 </para>
105
106 <bridgehead renderas="sect4">Optional Runtime (Used only to gather entropy)</bridgehead>
107 <para role="optional">
108 <xref role="runtime" linkend="openjdk"/>,
109 <xref role="runtime" linkend="net-tools"/>, and
110 <xref role="runtime" linkend="sysstat"/>
111 </para>
112
113 <para condition="html" role="usernotes">
114 User Notes: <ulink url="&blfs-wiki;/OpenSSH"/>
115 </para>
116 </sect2>
117
118 <sect2 role="installation">
119 <title>Installation of OpenSSH</title>
120
121 <para>
122 <application>OpenSSH</application> runs as two processes when connecting
123 to other computers. The first process is a privileged process and controls
124 the issuance of privileges as necessary. The second process communicates
125 with the network. Additional installation steps are necessary to set up
126 the proper environment, which are performed by issuing the following
127 commands as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
128 </para>
129
130<screen role="root"><userinput>install -v -m700 -d /var/lib/sshd &amp;&amp;
131chown -v root:sys /var/lib/sshd &amp;&amp;
132
133groupadd -g 50 sshd &amp;&amp;
134useradd -c 'sshd PrivSep' \
135 -d /var/lib/sshd \
136 -g sshd \
137 -s /bin/false \
138 -u 50 sshd</userinput></screen>
139<!--
140 <para>
141 Apply a patch to allow OpenSSH to build and function with
142 <application>Glibc-2.31</application> and later:
143 </para>
144
145<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../openssh-&openssh-version;-glibc_2.31_fix-1.patch</userinput></screen>
146-->
147
148<!-- Applied in 8.5p1
149 <para>
150 First, adapt <application>ssh-copy-id</application> to changes
151 in bash-5.1:
152 </para>
153
154<screen><userinput remap="pre">sed -e '/INSTALLKEYS_SH/s/)//' -e '260a\ )' -i contrib/ssh-copy-id</userinput></screen>
155
156 <para>
157 Next, fix an issue on platforms other than x86_64:
158 </para>
159 <screen><userinput remap="pre">if [ "$(uname -m)" != "x86_64" ]; then
160 l1="#ifdef __NR_pselect6_time64"
161 l2=" SC_ALLOW(__NR_pselect6_time64),"
162 l3="#endif"
163 sed -e "/^#ifdef __NR_read$/ i $l1\n$l2\n$l3" \
164 -i sandbox-seccomp-filter.c
165fi</userinput></screen>
166-->
167 <para>
168 Install <application>OpenSSH</application> by running the following
169 commands:
170 </para>
171
172<screen><userinput>./configure --prefix=/usr \
173 --sysconfdir=/etc/ssh \
174 --with-md5-passwords \
175 --with-privsep-path=/var/lib/sshd &amp;&amp;
176make</userinput></screen>
177
178 <para>
179 The testsuite requires an installed copy of <command>scp</command> to
180 complete the multiplexing tests. To run the test suite, first copy the
181 <command>scp</command> program to
182 <filename class="directory">/usr/bin</filename>, making sure that you
183 backup any existing copy first.
184 </para>
185
186 <para>
187 To test the results, issue: <command>make -j1 tests</command>.
188 <!--One test, <filename>key options</filename>, fails when run in chroot.-->
189 </para>
190
191<!-- commenting this, I get "all tests passed" [ ken ]
192 NB tests should be run as _user_ but the role in the comment is root
193
194 commenting [ bruce ]: There are a couple of tests that want root.
195 The log mentions that SUDO is not set. These skipped tests are
196 ignored and the end says 'all tests passed' even when not root
197
198 <para>
199 To run the test suite, issue the following commands:
200 </para>
201
202<screen role="root"><userinput>make tests 2&gt;&amp;1 | tee check.log
203grep FATAL check.log</userinput></screen>
204
205 <para>
206 If the above command produces no 'FATAL' errors, then proceed with the
207 installation, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
208 </para>-->
209 <para>
210 Now, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
211 </para>
212
213<screen role="root"><userinput>make install &amp;&amp;
214install -v -m755 contrib/ssh-copy-id /usr/bin &amp;&amp;
215
216install -v -m644 contrib/ssh-copy-id.1 \
217 /usr/share/man/man1 &amp;&amp;
218install -v -m755 -d /usr/share/doc/openssh-&openssh-version; &amp;&amp;
219install -v -m644 INSTALL LICENCE OVERVIEW README* \
220 /usr/share/doc/openssh-&openssh-version;</userinput></screen>
221 </sect2>
222
223 <sect2 role="commands">
224 <title>Command Explanations</title>
225
226 <para>
227 <parameter>--sysconfdir=/etc/ssh</parameter>: This prevents the
228 configuration files from being installed in
229 <filename class="directory">/usr/etc</filename>.
230 </para>
231
232 <para>
233 <parameter>--with-md5-passwords</parameter>: This enables the use of MD5
234 passwords.
235 </para>
236
237 <para>
238 <option>--with-pam</option>: This parameter enables
239 <application>Linux-PAM</application> support in the build.
240 </para>
241
242 <para>
243 <option>--with-xauth=/usr/bin/xauth</option>: Set the default
244 location for the <command>xauth</command> binary for X authentication.
245 Change the location if <command>xauth</command> will be installed to a
246 different path. This can also be controlled from
247 <filename>sshd_config</filename> with the XAuthLocation keyword. You can
248 omit this switch if <application>Xorg</application> is already installed.
249 </para>
250
251 <para>
252 <option>--with-kerberos5=/usr</option>: This option is used to
253 include Kerberos 5 support in the build.
254 </para>
255
256 <para>
257 <option>--with-libedit</option>: This option enables line editing
258 and history features for <command>sftp</command>.
259 </para>
260
261 </sect2>
262
263 <sect2 role="configuration">
264 <title>Configuring OpenSSH</title>
265
266 <sect3 id="openssh-config">
267 <title>Config Files</title>
268
269 <para>
270 <filename>~/.ssh/*</filename>,
271 <filename>/etc/ssh/ssh_config</filename>, and
272 <filename>/etc/ssh/sshd_config</filename>
273 </para>
274
275 <indexterm zone="openssh openssh-config">
276 <primary sortas="e-AA.ssh">~/.ssh/*</primary>
277 </indexterm>
278
279 <indexterm zone="openssh openssh-config">
280 <primary sortas="e-etc-ssh-ssh_config">/etc/ssh/ssh_config</primary>
281 </indexterm>
282
283 <indexterm zone="openssh openssh-config">
284 <primary sortas="e-etc-ssh-sshd_config">/etc/ssh/sshd_config</primary>
285 </indexterm>
286
287 <para>
288 There are no required changes to any of these files. However,
289 you may wish to view the
290 <filename class='directory'>/etc/ssh/</filename> files and make any
291 changes appropriate for the security of your system. One recommended
292 change is that you disable
293 <systemitem class='username'>root</systemitem> login via
294 <command>ssh</command>. Execute the following command as the
295 <systemitem class='username'>root</systemitem> user to disable
296 <systemitem class='username'>root</systemitem> login via
297 <command>ssh</command>:
298 </para>
299
300<screen role="root"><userinput>echo "PermitRootLogin no" &gt;&gt; /etc/ssh/sshd_config</userinput></screen>
301
302 <para>
303 If you want to be able to log in without typing in your password, first
304 create ~/.ssh/id_rsa and ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub with
305 <command>ssh-keygen</command> and then copy ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub to
306 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys on the remote computer that you want to log into.
307 You'll need to change REMOTE_USERNAME and REMOTE_HOSTNAME for the username and hostname of the remote
308 computer and you'll also need to enter your password for the ssh-copy-id command
309 to succeed:
310 </para>
311
312<screen><userinput>ssh-keygen &amp;&amp;
313ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub <replaceable>REMOTE_USERNAME</replaceable>@<replaceable>REMOTE_HOSTNAME</replaceable></userinput></screen>
314
315 <para>
316 Once you've got passwordless logins working it's actually more secure
317 than logging in with a password (as the private key is much longer than
318 most people's passwords). If you would like to now disable password
319 logins, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
320 </para>
321
322
323<screen role="root"><userinput>echo "PasswordAuthentication no" >> /etc/ssh/sshd_config &amp;&amp;
324echo "ChallengeResponseAuthentication no" >> /etc/ssh/sshd_config</userinput></screen>
325
326 <para>
327 If you added <application>Linux-PAM</application> support and you want
328 ssh to use it then you will need to add a configuration file for
329 <application>sshd</application> and enable use of
330 <application>LinuxPAM</application>. Note, ssh only uses PAM to check
331 passwords, if you've disabled password logins these commands are not
332 needed. If you want to use PAM, issue the following commands as the
333 <systemitem class='username'>root</systemitem> user:
334 </para>
335
336<screen role="root"><userinput>sed 's@d/login@d/sshd@g' /etc/pam.d/login &gt; /etc/pam.d/sshd &amp;&amp;
337chmod 644 /etc/pam.d/sshd &amp;&amp;
338echo "UsePAM yes" &gt;&gt; /etc/ssh/sshd_config</userinput></screen>
339
340 <para>
341 Additional configuration information can be found in the man
342 pages for <command>sshd</command>, <command>ssh</command> and
343 <command>ssh-agent</command>.
344 </para>
345 </sect3>
346
347 <sect3 id="openssh-init">
348 <title><phrase revision="sysv">Boot Script</phrase>
349 <phrase revision="systemd">Systemd Unit</phrase></title>
350
351 <para revision="sysv">
352 To start the SSH server at system boot, install the
353 <filename>/etc/rc.d/init.d/sshd</filename> init script included
354 in the <xref linkend="bootscripts"/> package.
355 </para>
356
357 <para revision="systemd">
358 To start the SSH server at system boot, install the
359 <filename>sshd.service</filename> unit included in the
360 <xref linkend="systemd-units"/> package.
361 </para>
362
363 <indexterm zone="openssh openssh-init">
364 <primary sortas="f-sshd">sshd</primary>
365 </indexterm>
366
367<screen role="root"><userinput>make install-sshd</userinput></screen>
368 </sect3>
369 </sect2>
370
371 <sect2 role="content">
372 <title>Contents</title>
373
374 <segmentedlist>
375 <segtitle>Installed Programs</segtitle>
376 <segtitle>Installed Libraries</segtitle>
377 <segtitle>Installed Directories</segtitle>
378
379 <seglistitem>
380 <seg>
381 scp, sftp, <!--slogin (symlink to ssh),--> ssh, ssh-add, ssh-agent,
382 ssh-copy-id, ssh-keygen, ssh-keyscan, and sshd
383 </seg>
384 <seg>
385 None
386 </seg>
387 <seg>
388 /etc/ssh,
389 /usr/share/doc/openssh-&openssh-version;, and
390 /var/lib/sshd
391 </seg>
392 </seglistitem>
393 </segmentedlist>
394
395 <variablelist>
396 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
397 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
398 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
399
400 <varlistentry id="scp">
401 <term><command>scp</command></term>
402 <listitem>
403 <para>
404 is a file copy program that acts like <command>rcp</command> except
405 it uses an encrypted protocol
406 </para>
407 <indexterm zone="openssh scp">
408 <primary sortas="b-scp">scp</primary>
409 </indexterm>
410 </listitem>
411 </varlistentry>
412
413 <varlistentry id="sftp">
414 <term><command>sftp</command></term>
415 <listitem>
416 <para>
417 is an FTP-like program that works over the SSH1 and SSH2 protocols
418 </para>
419 <indexterm zone="openssh sftp">
420 <primary sortas="b-sftp">sftp</primary>
421 </indexterm>
422 </listitem>
423 </varlistentry>
424<!-- Not installed anymore as of 8.5p1
425 <varlistentry id="slogin">
426 <term><command>slogin</command></term>
427 <listitem>
428 <para>
429 is a symlink to <command>ssh</command>
430 </para>
431 <indexterm zone="openssh slogin">
432 <primary sortas="b-slogin">slogin</primary>
433 </indexterm>
434 </listitem>
435 </varlistentry>
436-->
437 <varlistentry id="ssh">
438 <term><command>ssh</command></term>
439 <listitem>
440 <para>
441 is an <command>rlogin</command>/<command>rsh</command>-like client
442 program except it uses an encrypted protocol
443 </para>
444 <indexterm zone="openssh ssh">
445 <primary sortas="b-ssh">ssh</primary>
446 </indexterm>
447 </listitem>
448 </varlistentry>
449
450 <varlistentry id="sshd">
451 <term><command>sshd</command></term>
452 <listitem>
453 <para>
454 is a daemon that listens for <command>ssh</command> login requests
455 </para>
456 <indexterm zone="openssh sshd">
457 <primary sortas="b-sshd">sshd</primary>
458 </indexterm>
459 </listitem>
460 </varlistentry>
461
462 <varlistentry id="ssh-add">
463 <term><command>ssh-add</command></term>
464 <listitem>
465 <para>
466 is a tool which adds keys to the <command>ssh-agent</command>
467 </para>
468 <indexterm zone="openssh ssh-add">
469 <primary sortas="b-ssh-add">ssh-add</primary>
470 </indexterm>
471 </listitem>
472 </varlistentry>
473
474 <varlistentry id="ssh-agent">
475 <term><command>ssh-agent</command></term>
476 <listitem>
477 <para>
478 is an authentication agent that can store private keys
479 </para>
480 <indexterm zone="openssh ssh-agent">
481 <primary sortas="b-ssh-agent">ssh-agent</primary>
482 </indexterm>
483 </listitem>
484 </varlistentry>
485
486 <varlistentry id="ssh-copy-id">
487 <term><command>ssh-copy-id</command></term>
488 <listitem>
489 <para>
490 is a script that enables logins on remote machines using local keys
491 </para>
492 <indexterm zone="openssh ssh-copy-id">
493 <primary sortas="b-ssh-copy-id">ssh-copy-id</primary>
494 </indexterm>
495 </listitem>
496 </varlistentry>
497
498 <varlistentry id="ssh-keygen">
499 <term><command>ssh-keygen</command></term>
500 <listitem>
501 <para>
502 is a key generation tool
503 </para>
504 <indexterm zone="openssh ssh-keygen">
505 <primary sortas="b-ssh-keygen">ssh-keygen</primary>
506 </indexterm>
507 </listitem>
508 </varlistentry>
509
510 <varlistentry id="ssh-keyscan">
511 <term><command>ssh-keyscan</command></term>
512 <listitem>
513 <para>
514 is a utility for gathering public host keys from a number of hosts
515 </para>
516 <indexterm zone="openssh ssh-keyscan">
517 <primary sortas="b-ssh-keyscan">ssh-keyscan</primary>
518 </indexterm>
519 </listitem>
520 </varlistentry>
521
522 </variablelist>
523 </sect2>
524
525</sect1>
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