source: postlfs/security/openssh.xml@ 79eec369

11.0 ken/refactor-virt lazarus qt5new trunk xry111/git-date xry111/git-date-for-trunk xry111/git-date-test
Last change on this file since 79eec369 was 79eec369, checked in by Thomas Trepl <thomas@…>, 8 months ago

Fix a seccomp issue in OpenSSH

git-svn-id: svn://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/BLFS/trunk/BOOK@24325 af4574ff-66df-0310-9fd7-8a98e5e911e0

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 17.9 KB
Line 
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6
7 <!ENTITY openssh-download-http
8 "http://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/OpenSSH/portable/openssh-&openssh-version;.tar.gz">
9 <!ENTITY openssh-download-ftp
10 " "> <!-- at the moment, unable to connect via ftp: ken
11 "ftp://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/OpenSSH/portable/openssh-&openssh-version;.tar.gz"> -->
12 <!ENTITY openssh-md5sum "8f897870404c088e4aa7d1c1c58b526b">
13 <!ENTITY openssh-size "1.7 MB">
14 <!ENTITY openssh-buildsize "48 MB (add 17 MB for tests)">
15 <!ENTITY openssh-time "0.2 SBU (Using parallelism=4;
16 running the tests takes 20+ minutes,
17 irrespective of processor speed)">
18]>
19
20<sect1 id="openssh" xreflabel="OpenSSH-&openssh-version;">
21 <?dbhtml filename="openssh.html"?>
22
23 <sect1info>
24 <othername>$LastChangedBy$</othername>
25 <date>$Date$</date>
26 </sect1info>
27
28 <title>OpenSSH-&openssh-version;</title>
29
30 <indexterm zone="openssh">
31 <primary sortas="a-OpenSSH">OpenSSH</primary>
32 </indexterm>
33
34 <sect2 role="package">
35 <title>Introduction to OpenSSH</title>
36
37 <para>
38 The <application>OpenSSH</application> package contains
39 <command>ssh</command> clients and the <command>sshd</command> daemon.
40 This is useful for encrypting authentication and subsequent traffic over
41 a network. The <command>ssh</command> and <command>scp</command> commands
42 are secure implementations of <command>telnet</command> and
43 <command>rcp</command> respectively.
44 </para>
45
46 &lfs101_checked;
47
48 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Package Information</bridgehead>
49 <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
50 <listitem>
51 <para>
52 Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&openssh-download-http;"/>
53 </para>
54 </listitem>
55 <listitem>
56 <para>
57 Download (FTP): <ulink url="&openssh-download-ftp;"/>
58 </para>
59 </listitem>
60 <listitem>
61 <para>
62 Download MD5 sum: &openssh-md5sum;
63 </para>
64 </listitem>
65 <listitem>
66 <para>
67 Download size: &openssh-size;
68 </para>
69 </listitem>
70 <listitem>
71 <para>
72 Estimated disk space required: &openssh-buildsize;
73 </para>
74 </listitem>
75 <listitem>
76 <para>
77 Estimated build time: &openssh-time;
78 </para>
79 </listitem>
80 </itemizedlist>
81<!--
82 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Additional Downloads</bridgehead>
83 <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
84 <listitem>
85 <para>
86 Required patch:
87 <ulink url="&patch-root;/openssh-&openssh-version;-glibc_2.31_fix-1.patch"/>
88 </para>
89 </listitem>
90 </itemizedlist>
91-->
92 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">OpenSSH Dependencies</bridgehead>
93
94 <bridgehead renderas="sect4">Optional</bridgehead>
95 <para role="optional">
96 <xref linkend="gdb"/> (for tests),
97 <xref linkend="linux-pam"/>,
98 <xref linkend="x-window-system"/>,
99 <xref linkend="mitkrb"/>,
100 <ulink url="http://www.thrysoee.dk/editline/">libedit</ulink>,
101 <ulink url="http://www.libressl.org/">LibreSSL Portable</ulink>,
102 <ulink url="https://github.com/OpenSC/OpenSC/wiki">OpenSC</ulink>, and
103 <ulink url="http://www.citi.umich.edu/projects/smartcard/sectok.html">libsectok</ulink>
104 </para>
105
106 <bridgehead renderas="sect4">Optional Runtime (Used only to gather entropy)</bridgehead>
107 <para role="optional">
108 <xref role="runtime" linkend="openjdk"/>,
109 <xref role="runtime" linkend="net-tools"/>, and
110 <xref role="runtime" linkend="sysstat"/>
111 </para>
112
113 <para condition="html" role="usernotes">
114 User Notes: <ulink url="&blfs-wiki;/OpenSSH"/>
115 </para>
116 </sect2>
117
118 <sect2 role="installation">
119 <title>Installation of OpenSSH</title>
120
121 <para>
122 <application>OpenSSH</application> runs as two processes when connecting
123 to other computers. The first process is a privileged process and controls
124 the issuance of privileges as necessary. The second process communicates
125 with the network. Additional installation steps are necessary to set up
126 the proper environment, which are performed by issuing the following
127 commands as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
128 </para>
129
130<screen role="root"><userinput>install -v -m700 -d /var/lib/sshd &amp;&amp;
131chown -v root:sys /var/lib/sshd &amp;&amp;
132
133groupadd -g 50 sshd &amp;&amp;
134useradd -c 'sshd PrivSep' \
135 -d /var/lib/sshd \
136 -g sshd \
137 -s /bin/false \
138 -u 50 sshd</userinput></screen>
139<!--
140 <para>
141 Apply a patch to allow OpenSSH to build and function with
142 <application>Glibc-2.31</application> and later:
143 </para>
144
145<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../openssh-&openssh-version;-glibc_2.31_fix-1.patch</userinput></screen>
146-->
147 <para>
148 First, adapt <application>ssh-copy-id</application> to changes
149 in bash-5.1:
150 </para>
151
152<screen><userinput remap="pre">sed -e '/INSTALLKEYS_SH/s/)//' -e '260a\ )' -i contrib/ssh-copy-id</userinput></screen>
153
154 <para>
155 Next, fix an issue on platforms other than x86_64:
156 </para>
157 <screen><userinput remap="pre">if [ "$(uname -m)" != "x86_64" ]; then
158 l1="#ifdef __NR_pselect6_time64"
159 l2=" SC_ALLOW(__NR_pselect6_time64),"
160 l3="#endif"
161 sed -e "/^#ifdef __NR_read$/ i $l1\n$l2\n$l3" \
162 -i sandbox-seccomp-filter.c
163fi</userinput></screen>
164
165 <para>
166 Install <application>OpenSSH</application> by running the following
167 commands:
168 </para>
169
170<screen><userinput>./configure --prefix=/usr \
171 --sysconfdir=/etc/ssh \
172 --with-md5-passwords \
173 --with-privsep-path=/var/lib/sshd &amp;&amp;
174make</userinput></screen>
175
176 <para>
177 The testsuite requires an installed copy of <command>scp</command> to
178 complete the multiplexing tests. To run the test suite, first copy the
179 <command>scp</command> program to
180 <filename class="directory">/usr/bin</filename>, making sure that you
181 backup any existing copy first.
182 </para>
183
184 <para>
185 To test the results, issue: <command>make -j1 tests</command>.
186 <!--One test, <filename>key options</filename>, fails when run in chroot.-->
187 </para>
188
189<!-- commenting this, I get "all tests passed" [ ken ]
190 NB tests should be run as _user_ but the role in the comment is root
191
192 commenting [ bruce ]: There are a couple of tests that want root.
193 The log mentions that SUDO is not set. These skipped tests are
194 ignored and the end says 'all tests passed' even when not root
195
196 <para>
197 To run the test suite, issue the following commands:
198 </para>
199
200<screen role="root"><userinput>make tests 2&gt;&amp;1 | tee check.log
201grep FATAL check.log</userinput></screen>
202
203 <para>
204 If the above command produces no 'FATAL' errors, then proceed with the
205 installation, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
206 </para>-->
207 <para>
208 Now, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
209 </para>
210
211<screen role="root"><userinput>make install &amp;&amp;
212install -v -m755 contrib/ssh-copy-id /usr/bin &amp;&amp;
213
214install -v -m644 contrib/ssh-copy-id.1 \
215 /usr/share/man/man1 &amp;&amp;
216install -v -m755 -d /usr/share/doc/openssh-&openssh-version; &amp;&amp;
217install -v -m644 INSTALL LICENCE OVERVIEW README* \
218 /usr/share/doc/openssh-&openssh-version;</userinput></screen>
219 </sect2>
220
221 <sect2 role="commands">
222 <title>Command Explanations</title>
223
224 <para>
225 <parameter>--sysconfdir=/etc/ssh</parameter>: This prevents the
226 configuration files from being installed in
227 <filename class="directory">/usr/etc</filename>.
228 </para>
229
230 <para>
231 <parameter>--with-md5-passwords</parameter>: This enables the use of MD5
232 passwords.
233 </para>
234
235 <para>
236 <option>--with-pam</option>: This parameter enables
237 <application>Linux-PAM</application> support in the build.
238 </para>
239
240 <para>
241 <option>--with-xauth=/usr/bin/xauth</option>: Set the default
242 location for the <command>xauth</command> binary for X authentication.
243 Change the location if <command>xauth</command> will be installed to a
244 different path. This can also be controlled from
245 <filename>sshd_config</filename> with the XAuthLocation keyword. You can
246 omit this switch if <application>Xorg</application> is already installed.
247 </para>
248
249 <para>
250 <option>--with-kerberos5=/usr</option>: This option is used to
251 include Kerberos 5 support in the build.
252 </para>
253
254 <para>
255 <option>--with-libedit</option>: This option enables line editing
256 and history features for <command>sftp</command>.
257 </para>
258
259 </sect2>
260
261 <sect2 role="configuration">
262 <title>Configuring OpenSSH</title>
263
264 <sect3 id="openssh-config">
265 <title>Config Files</title>
266
267 <para>
268 <filename>~/.ssh/*</filename>,
269 <filename>/etc/ssh/ssh_config</filename>, and
270 <filename>/etc/ssh/sshd_config</filename>
271 </para>
272
273 <indexterm zone="openssh openssh-config">
274 <primary sortas="e-AA.ssh">~/.ssh/*</primary>
275 </indexterm>
276
277 <indexterm zone="openssh openssh-config">
278 <primary sortas="e-etc-ssh-ssh_config">/etc/ssh/ssh_config</primary>
279 </indexterm>
280
281 <indexterm zone="openssh openssh-config">
282 <primary sortas="e-etc-ssh-sshd_config">/etc/ssh/sshd_config</primary>
283 </indexterm>
284
285 <para>
286 There are no required changes to any of these files. However,
287 you may wish to view the
288 <filename class='directory'>/etc/ssh/</filename> files and make any
289 changes appropriate for the security of your system. One recommended
290 change is that you disable
291 <systemitem class='username'>root</systemitem> login via
292 <command>ssh</command>. Execute the following command as the
293 <systemitem class='username'>root</systemitem> user to disable
294 <systemitem class='username'>root</systemitem> login via
295 <command>ssh</command>:
296 </para>
297
298<screen role="root"><userinput>echo "PermitRootLogin no" &gt;&gt; /etc/ssh/sshd_config</userinput></screen>
299
300 <para>
301 If you want to be able to log in without typing in your password, first
302 create ~/.ssh/id_rsa and ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub with
303 <command>ssh-keygen</command> and then copy ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub to
304 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys on the remote computer that you want to log into.
305 You'll need to change REMOTE_USERNAME and REMOTE_HOSTNAME for the username and hostname of the remote
306 computer and you'll also need to enter your password for the ssh-copy-id command
307 to succeed:
308 </para>
309
310<screen><userinput>ssh-keygen &amp;&amp;
311ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub <replaceable>REMOTE_USERNAME</replaceable>@<replaceable>REMOTE_HOSTNAME</replaceable></userinput></screen>
312
313 <para>
314 Once you've got passwordless logins working it's actually more secure
315 than logging in with a password (as the private key is much longer than
316 most people's passwords). If you would like to now disable password
317 logins, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
318 </para>
319
320
321<screen role="root"><userinput>echo "PasswordAuthentication no" >> /etc/ssh/sshd_config &amp;&amp;
322echo "ChallengeResponseAuthentication no" >> /etc/ssh/sshd_config</userinput></screen>
323
324 <para>
325 If you added <application>Linux-PAM</application> support and you want
326 ssh to use it then you will need to add a configuration file for
327 <application>sshd</application> and enable use of
328 <application>LinuxPAM</application>. Note, ssh only uses PAM to check
329 passwords, if you've disabled password logins these commands are not
330 needed. If you want to use PAM, issue the following commands as the
331 <systemitem class='username'>root</systemitem> user:
332 </para>
333
334<screen role="root"><userinput>sed 's@d/login@d/sshd@g' /etc/pam.d/login &gt; /etc/pam.d/sshd &amp;&amp;
335chmod 644 /etc/pam.d/sshd &amp;&amp;
336echo "UsePAM yes" &gt;&gt; /etc/ssh/sshd_config</userinput></screen>
337
338 <para>
339 Additional configuration information can be found in the man
340 pages for <command>sshd</command>, <command>ssh</command> and
341 <command>ssh-agent</command>.
342 </para>
343 </sect3>
344
345 <sect3 id="openssh-init">
346 <title><phrase revision="sysv">Boot Script</phrase>
347 <phrase revision="systemd">Systemd Unit</phrase></title>
348
349 <para revision="sysv">
350 To start the SSH server at system boot, install the
351 <filename>/etc/rc.d/init.d/sshd</filename> init script included
352 in the <xref linkend="bootscripts"/> package.
353 </para>
354
355 <para revision="systemd">
356 To start the SSH server at system boot, install the
357 <filename>sshd.service</filename> unit included in the
358 <xref linkend="systemd-units"/> package.
359 </para>
360
361 <indexterm zone="openssh openssh-init">
362 <primary sortas="f-sshd">sshd</primary>
363 </indexterm>
364
365<screen role="root"><userinput>make install-sshd</userinput></screen>
366 </sect3>
367 </sect2>
368
369 <sect2 role="content">
370 <title>Contents</title>
371
372 <segmentedlist>
373 <segtitle>Installed Programs</segtitle>
374 <segtitle>Installed Libraries</segtitle>
375 <segtitle>Installed Directories</segtitle>
376
377 <seglistitem>
378 <seg>
379 scp, sftp, slogin (symlink to ssh), ssh, ssh-add, ssh-agent,
380 ssh-copy-id, ssh-keygen, ssh-keyscan, and sshd
381 </seg>
382 <seg>
383 None
384 </seg>
385 <seg>
386 /etc/ssh,
387 /usr/share/doc/openssh-&openssh-version;, and
388 /var/lib/sshd
389 </seg>
390 </seglistitem>
391 </segmentedlist>
392
393 <variablelist>
394 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
395 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
396 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
397
398 <varlistentry id="scp">
399 <term><command>scp</command></term>
400 <listitem>
401 <para>
402 is a file copy program that acts like <command>rcp</command> except
403 it uses an encrypted protocol
404 </para>
405 <indexterm zone="openssh scp">
406 <primary sortas="b-scp">scp</primary>
407 </indexterm>
408 </listitem>
409 </varlistentry>
410
411 <varlistentry id="sftp">
412 <term><command>sftp</command></term>
413 <listitem>
414 <para>
415 is an FTP-like program that works over the SSH1 and SSH2 protocols
416 </para>
417 <indexterm zone="openssh sftp">
418 <primary sortas="b-sftp">sftp</primary>
419 </indexterm>
420 </listitem>
421 </varlistentry>
422
423 <varlistentry id="slogin">
424 <term><command>slogin</command></term>
425 <listitem>
426 <para>
427 is a symlink to <command>ssh</command>
428 </para>
429 <indexterm zone="openssh slogin">
430 <primary sortas="b-slogin">slogin</primary>
431 </indexterm>
432 </listitem>
433 </varlistentry>
434
435 <varlistentry id="ssh">
436 <term><command>ssh</command></term>
437 <listitem>
438 <para>
439 is an <command>rlogin</command>/<command>rsh</command>-like client
440 program except it uses an encrypted protocol
441 </para>
442 <indexterm zone="openssh ssh">
443 <primary sortas="b-ssh">ssh</primary>
444 </indexterm>
445 </listitem>
446 </varlistentry>
447
448 <varlistentry id="sshd">
449 <term><command>sshd</command></term>
450 <listitem>
451 <para>
452 is a daemon that listens for <command>ssh</command> login requests
453 </para>
454 <indexterm zone="openssh sshd">
455 <primary sortas="b-sshd">sshd</primary>
456 </indexterm>
457 </listitem>
458 </varlistentry>
459
460 <varlistentry id="ssh-add">
461 <term><command>ssh-add</command></term>
462 <listitem>
463 <para>
464 is a tool which adds keys to the <command>ssh-agent</command>
465 </para>
466 <indexterm zone="openssh ssh-add">
467 <primary sortas="b-ssh-add">ssh-add</primary>
468 </indexterm>
469 </listitem>
470 </varlistentry>
471
472 <varlistentry id="ssh-agent">
473 <term><command>ssh-agent</command></term>
474 <listitem>
475 <para>
476 is an authentication agent that can store private keys
477 </para>
478 <indexterm zone="openssh ssh-agent">
479 <primary sortas="b-ssh-agent">ssh-agent</primary>
480 </indexterm>
481 </listitem>
482 </varlistentry>
483
484 <varlistentry id="ssh-copy-id">
485 <term><command>ssh-copy-id</command></term>
486 <listitem>
487 <para>
488 is a script that enables logins on remote machine using local keys
489 </para>
490 <indexterm zone="openssh ssh-copy-id">
491 <primary sortas="b-ssh-copy-id">ssh-copy-id</primary>
492 </indexterm>
493 </listitem>
494 </varlistentry>
495
496 <varlistentry id="ssh-keygen">
497 <term><command>ssh-keygen</command></term>
498 <listitem>
499 <para>
500 is a key generation tool
501 </para>
502 <indexterm zone="openssh ssh-keygen">
503 <primary sortas="b-ssh-keygen">ssh-keygen</primary>
504 </indexterm>
505 </listitem>
506 </varlistentry>
507
508 <varlistentry id="ssh-keyscan">
509 <term><command>ssh-keyscan</command></term>
510 <listitem>
511 <para>
512 is a utility for gathering public host keys from a number of hosts
513 </para>
514 <indexterm zone="openssh ssh-keyscan">
515 <primary sortas="b-ssh-keyscan">ssh-keyscan</primary>
516 </indexterm>
517 </listitem>
518 </varlistentry>
519
520 </variablelist>
521 </sect2>
522
523</sect1>
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