source: x/installing/TTF-and-OTF-fonts.xml@ d9951ba

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Last change on this file since d9951ba was d9951ba, checked in by Ken Moffat <ken@…>, 2 years ago

Fonts: mention Source Code Pro now that it is the default for monospace in gsettings-desktop-schemas.

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="TTF-and-OTF-fonts">
9 <?dbhtml filename="TTF-and-OTF-fonts.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info>
12 <othername>$LastChangedBy$</othername>
13 <date>$Date$</date>
14 </sect1info>
15
16 <title>TTF and OTF fonts</title>
17
18 <indexterm zone="TTF-and-OTF-fonts">
19 <primary sortas="a-TTF-and-OTF-fonts">TTF and OTF fonts</primary>
20 </indexterm>
21
22 <!-- although indexterm entries can be added for the individual fonts, and
23 will link to the correct part of the page, that seems unnecessary unless
24 the font is linked from other pages -->
25
26 <sect2 role="configuration">
27 <title>About TTF and OTF fonts</title>
28
29 <para>
30 Originally, Xorg provided only bitmap fonts. Later, some scalable
31 Type1 fonts were added, but the desktop world moved on to using TrueType
32 and Open Type fonts. To support these, Xorg uses Xft, the X FreeType
33 interface library.
34 </para>
35
36 <para>
37 These fonts can provide hints, which <application>fontconfig</application>
38 uses to adjust them for maximum readability on computer monitors. On linux
39 you should always prefer the hinted versions, if available (in general the
40 latin, cyrillic and greek alphabets can use hints, most other writing
41 systems do not use hinting).
42 </para>
43
44 <para>
45 A few fonts are provided as collections (TTC or OTC) where font data
46 is shared between different fonts, thus saving disk space. Treat these in
47 exactly the same way as individual TTF or OTF files.
48 </para>
49
50 <para>
51 If a font provides both TTF and OTF forms, prefer the OTF form in
52 linux, it may provide more features for programs which know how to use them
53 (such as xelatex).
54 </para>
55
56 <para>
57 For some scripts <application>pango</application> is required to
58 render things correctly, either by selecting different glyph forms, or by
59 combining glyphs - in both cases, according to the context. This applies
60 particularly to arabic and indic scripts.
61 </para>
62
63 <para>
64 Standard scalable fonts that come with <application>X</application>
65 provide very poor Unicode coverage. You may notice in applications that
66 use <application>Xft</application> that some characters appear as a box
67 with four binary digits inside. In this case, a font with the
68 required glyphs has not been found. Other times, applications that
69 don't use other font families by default and don't accept substitutions
70 from <application>Fontconfig</application> will display blank lines when
71 the default font doesn't cover the orthography of the user's language.
72 </para>
73
74 <para>
75 The fonts available to a program are those which were present when
76 it was started, so if you add an extra font and wish to use it in a program
77 which is currently running, then you will have to close and restart that
78 program.
79 </para>
80
81 <para>
82 Some people are happy to have dozens, or even hundreds, of font files
83 available, but if you ever wish to select a specific font in a desktop
84 application (for example in a word processor) then scrolling through a lot of
85 fonts to find the right one is slow and awkward - fewer is better. So, for
86 some font packages you might decide to install only one of the fonts - but
87 nevertheless install the different variants (italic, bold, etc) as these are
88 all variations for the same font name.
89 </para>
90
91 <para>
92 In the past, everybody recommended running <command>fc-cache</command>
93 as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user after installing
94 or removing fonts, but this is no-longer necessary on linux,
95 <application>fontconfig</application> will do it automatically if needed and
96 if its caches are more than 30 seconds old. But if you add a font and want to
97 immediately use it then you can run that command (as a normal user).
98 </para>
99
100 <para>
101 There are several references below to CJK characters. This stands for
102 Chinese, Japanese and Korean, although modern Korean is now almost all
103 written using the phonetic Hangul glyphs (it used to sometimes use Hanja
104 glyphs which are similar to Chinese and Japanese). Unicode decided to go
105 for <ulink
106 url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Han_unification">Han Unification</ulink>
107 and to map some Chinese and Japanese glyphs to the same codepoints. This
108 was very unpopular in Japan, and the result is that different fonts will
109 render some codepoints in quite different shapes. In addition, Simplified
110 Chinese will sometimes use the same codepoint as Traditional Chinese but
111 will show it differently, somewhat analogous to the different shapes used
112 for the letters 'a' and 'g' in English (single-storey and two-storey),
113 except that in a language context one will look "wrong" rather than just
114 "different".
115 </para>
116
117 <para>
118 Unlike most other packages in this book, the BLFS editors do not
119 monitor the versions of the fonts on this page - once a font is good enough
120 for general use, the typical additions in a new version are minor (e.g. new
121 currency symbols, or glyphs not for a modern language, such as emojis or
122 playing cards). Therefore, none of these fonts show version or md5
123 information.
124 </para>
125
126 <para>
127 The list below will not provide complete Unicode coverage.
128 Unicode is updated every year, and most additions are now for historic
129 writing systems. For almost-complete coverage you can install <xref
130 linkend="noto-fonts"/> (about 180 fonts when last checked) but that
131 number of fonts makes it <emphasis>much</emphasis> less convenient to
132 select a specific font in a document, and most people will regard many
133 of them as a waste of space. We used to recommend the <ulink
134 url="http://unifont.org/fontguide/">Unicode Font Guide</ulink>, but that
135 has not been updated since 2008 and many of its links are dead.
136 </para>
137
138 <para>
139 Rendered examples of most of these fonts, and many others, with
140 details of what languages they cover, some examples of latin fonts with
141 the same metrics (listed as "Substitute latin fonts") and various files
142 of dummy text to compare fonts of similar types, can be found at this
143 <ulink url="http://zarniwhoop.uk/ttf-otf-notes.html#examples">
144 font comparison</ulink> page. That site also covers other current
145 writing systems.
146 </para>
147
148 <para>
149 Fonts are often supplied in zip files, requiring <xref linkend="unzip"/>
150 to list and extract them, but even if the current release is a tarball
151 you should still check to see if it will create a directory (scatterring
152 the contents of a zipfile or tarball across the current directory can be
153 very messy, and a few fonts create odd __MACOSX/ directories. In addition,
154 many fonts are supplied with permissions which do not let 'other' read
155 them - if a font is to be installed for system-wide use, any directories
156 must be mode 755 and all the files mode 644, so change them if necessary.
157 If you forget, the root user may be able to see a particular font in
158 <command>fc-list</command> but a normal user will not.
159 </para>
160
161 <para>
162 As a font installation example, consider the installation of the
163 <xref linkend="dejavu-fonts"/>. In this particular package, the TTF files
164 are in a subdirectory. From the unpacked source directory, run the
165 following commands as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>
166 user:
167 </para>
168
169<screen role="root"><userinput>install -v -d -m755 /usr/share/fonts/dejavu &amp;&amp;
170install -v -m644 ttf/*.ttf /usr/share/fonts/dejavu &amp;&amp;
171fc-cache -v /usr/share/fonts/dejavu</userinput></screen>
172
173 <para>
174 If you wish, you can also install any licenses or other documentation,
175 either alongside the font or in a corresponding directory under
176 <filename class="directory">/usr/share/doc/</filename>.
177 </para>
178
179 <para>
180 A few fonts ship with source as well as with the completed TTF or OTF
181 file(s). Unless you intend to modify the font, and have the correct tools
182 (sometimes <xref linkend="fontforge"/>, but often commercial tools), the
183 source will provide no benefit, so do not install it. One or two fonts even
184 ship with Web Open Font Format (WOFF) files - useful if you run a webserver
185 and want to use that font on it, but not useful for desktops.
186 </para>
187
188 <para>
189 To provide greater Unicode coverage, you are recommended to install
190 some of the following fonts, depending on what webistes and languages you
191 wish to read. The next part of this page details some fonts which cover
192 at least latin alphabets, the final part deals with come CJK issues.
193 </para>
194
195 <note>
196 <para>
197 You are strongly recommended to install the <xref
198 linkend="dejavu-fonts"/>.
199 </para>
200 </note>
201
202 <!-- fonts covering at least latin languages, order alphabetically
203 NB the xreflabel in the bridgehead is used in any link names, the
204 associated text is embiggened for the heading, the text for the
205 sortas appears as the key in the longindex -->
206
207 <bridgehead renderas="sect3" id="Caladea"
208 xreflabel="Caladea">Caladea</bridgehead>
209
210 <para><ulink
211 url="http://gsdview.appspot.com/chromeos-localmirror/distfiles/crosextrafonts-20130214.tar.gz">Caladea</ulink>
212 (created as a Chrome OS extra font, hence the 'crosextrafonts' tarball
213 name) is metrically compatible with MS Cambria and can be used if you have
214 to edit a document which somebody started in Microsoft Office using
215 Cambria and then return it to them.</para>
216
217 <bridgehead renderas="sect3" id="cantarell-fonts"
218 xreflabel="Cantarell fonts">Cantarell fonts</bridgehead>
219
220 <indexterm zone="TTF-and-OTF-fonts cantarell-fonts">
221 <primary sortas="a-cantarell-fonts">Cantarell fonts</primary>
222 </indexterm>
223
224 <para><ulink
225 url="&gnome-download-http;/cantarell-fonts/0.0/">Cantarell fonts</ulink>
226 - The Cantarell typeface family provides a contemporary Humanist sans
227 serif. It is particularly optimised for legibility at small sizes and is
228 the preferred font family for the <application>GNOME-3</application> user
229 interface.</para>
230
231 <bridgehead renderas="sect3" id="Carlito"
232 xreflabel="Carlito">Carlito</bridgehead>
233
234 <para><ulink
235 url="http://gsdview.appspot.com/chromeos-localmirror/distfiles/crosextrafonts-carlito-20130920.tar.gz">Carlito</ulink>
236 (created as another Chrome OS extra font, again the 'crosextrafonts-'
237 prefix in the tarball name) is metrically compatible with MS Calibri and
238 can be used if you have to edit a document which somebody started in
239 Microsoft Office using Calibri and then return it to them.</para>
240
241 <bridgehead renderas="sect3" id="dejavu-fonts"
242 xreflabel="Dejavu fonts">DejaVu fonts</bridgehead>
243
244 <indexterm zone="TTF-and-OTF-fonts dejavu-fonts">
245 <primary sortas="a-dejavu-fonts">DejaVu fonts</primary>
246 </indexterm>
247
248 <para>
249 <ulink
250 url="https://sourceforge.net/projects/dejavu/files/dejavu/">DejaVu
251 fonts</ulink> - These fonts are an extension of, and replacement for, the
252 Bitstream Vera fonts and provide Latin-based scripts with accents and
253 punctuation such as "smart-quotes" and variant spacing characters, as well
254 as Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Armenian, Georgian and some other
255 glyphs. In the absence of the Bitstream Vera fonts (which had much less
256 coverage), these are the default fallback fonts.
257 </para>
258
259 <bridgehead renderas="sect3" id="freefont"
260 xreflabel="freefont">GNU FreeFont</bridgehead>
261
262 <para>
263 <ulink url="https://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/freefont/">GNU
264 FreeFont</ulink> - This set of fonts covers many non-CJK characters, in
265 particular some of the variants of latin and cyrillic letters used in
266 minority languages, but the glyphs are comparatively small (unlike DejaVu
267 fonts which are comparatively large) and rather light weight ("less black"
268 when black on white is used) which means that in some contexts such as
269 terminals they are not visually pleasing, for example when most other
270 glyphs are provided by another font. On the other hand, some fonts used
271 primarily for printed output, and many CJK fonts, are also light weight.
272 </para>
273
274 <bridgehead renderas="sect3" id="Gelasio"
275 xreflabel="Gelasio">Gelasio</bridgehead>
276
277 <para>
278 <ulink url="https://fontlibrary.org/ru/font/gelasio">Gelasio</ulink> is
279 metrically compatible with MS Georgia and
280 <application>fontconfig</application> will use it if ever Georgia is
281 requested but not installed.
282 </para>
283
284 <bridgehead renderas="sect3" id="liberation-fonts"
285 xreflabel="Liberation fonts">Liberation fonts</bridgehead>
286
287 <indexterm zone="TTF-and-OTF-fonts liberation-fonts">
288 <primary sortas="a-liberation-fonts">Liberation fonts</primary>
289 </indexterm>
290
291 <para>
292 The <ulink url="https://pagure.io/liberation-fonts/">
293 Liberation
294 fonts</ulink> provide libre substitutes for Arial, Courier New, and Times
295 New Roman. <application>Fontconfig</application> will use them as
296 substitutes for those fonts, and also for the similar Helvetica, Courier,
297 Times Roman although for these latter it can prefer a different font (see
298 the examples in the 'Substitutes' PDFs at <ulink
299 url="http://zarniwhoop.uk/files/PDF-substitutes/"> zarniwhoop.uk).</ulink>
300 </para>
301
302 <para>
303 Many people will find the Liberation fonts useful for pages where one of
304 those fonts is requested.
305 </para>
306
307 <bridgehead renderas="sect3" id="corefonts"
308 xreflabel="corefonts">Microsoft Core Fonts</bridgehead>
309
310 <para>The <ulink url="http://corefonts.sourceforge.net/">Microsoft Core
311 fonts</ulink> date from 2002. They were supplied with old versions of
312 Microsoft Windows and were apparently made available for general use.
313 You can extract them from the 'exe' files using
314 <application>bsd-tar</application> from <xref linkend="libarchive"/>.
315 Be sure to read the license before using them. At one time some of
316 these fonts (particularly Arial, Times New Roman, and to a lesser
317 extent Courier New) were widely specified on web pages. The full set
318 contains Andale Mono, Arial, Arial Black, Comic Sans MS, Courier
319 New, Georgia, Impact, Times New Roman, Trebuchet MS, Verdana and
320 Webdings.
321 </para>
322
323 <para>
324 Please note that if you only want to use a font with the same metrics
325 (character size, etc) as Arial, Courier New, or Times New Roman you can
326 use the libre Liberation Fonts (above), and similarly you can replace
327 Georgia with Gelasio.
328 </para>
329
330 <para>
331 Although many old posts recommend installing these fonts for
332 better-looking output, there are more recent posts that these are ugly
333 or 'broken'. One suggestion is that they do not support anti-aliasing.
334 </para>
335
336 <para>
337 The newer fonts which Microsoft made their defaults in later releases of
338 MS Windows or MS Office (Calibri and Cambria) have never been freely
339 available. But if you do not have them installed you can find metric
340 equivalents (Carlito, Caladea) above.
341 </para>
342
343 <bridgehead renderas="sect3" id="noto-fonts"
344 xreflabel="Noto fonts">Noto fonts</bridgehead>
345
346 <indexterm zone="TTF-and-OTF-fonts noto-fonts">
347 <primary sortas="a-noto-fonts">Noto fonts</primary>
348 </indexterm>
349
350 <para>
351 The <ulink
352 url="https://www.google.com/get/noto/">Noto fonts</ulink> ('No Tofu', i.e.
353 avoiding boxes with dots [hex digits] when a glyph cannot be found) is a
354 set of fonts which aim to cover <emphasis>every glyph in unicode, no
355 matter how obscure</emphasis>. These fonts, or at least the Sans Serif
356 fonts, are used by KF5 (initially only for gtk applications). If you want
357 to cover historic languages, you can download all the fonts by clicking
358 on the link at the top of that page.
359 </para>
360
361 <para>
362 People using languages written in Latin, Greek or Cyrillic alphabets need
363 only install Noto Sans itself, and perhaps Noto Sans Symbols for currency
364 symbols. For more details on the CJK fonts see <xref
365 linkend="NotoSansCJK"/> below. There are also separate fonts for every
366 other current writing system, but these too will also require Noto Sans
367 (or Noto Serif) and perhaps Noto Symbols.
368 </para>
369
370 <para>
371 However, you should be aware that <application>fontconfig</application>
372 knows nothing about Noto fonts. The 'Noto Sans Something' fonts are each
373 treated as separate fonts (and for Arabic there is not a specifically Sans
374 name), so if you have other fonts installed then the choice of which font
375 to use for missing glyphs where 'Noto Sans' is specified will be random,
376 except that Sans fonts will be preferred over <emphasis>known</emphasis>
377 Serif and Monospace fonts because Sans is the fallback for unknown fonts.
378 </para>
379
380
381 <bridgehead renderas="sect3" id="oxygen-fonts"
382 xreflabel="Oxygen fonts">Oxygen fonts</bridgehead>
383
384 <indexterm zone="TTF-and-OTF-fonts oxygen-fonts">
385 <primary sortas="a-oxygen-fonts">Oxygen fonts</primary>
386 </indexterm>
387
388 <para>
389 When KDE Frameworks 5 was first released, it used the <ulink
390 url="http://download.kde.org/stable/plasma/5.4.3/oxygen-fonts-5.4.3.tar.xz">Oxygen fonts</ulink>
391 which were designed for integrated use with the KDE desktop. Those fonts
392 are no-longer actively maintained, so KDE made a decision to switch to
393 <xref linkend="noto-fonts"/>, but for the moment they are still
394 <emphasis>required</emphasis> by 'startkde'.
395 </para>
396
397 <para>
398 Originally these fonts were only supplied as source, needing <xref
399 linkend="cmake"/> and <xref linkend="fontforge"/> to create the TTF
400 files. But for a while the source has also included the prepared TTF.
401 The only unusual feature is that each TTF file is in its own subdirectory
402 (<filename class="directory">oxygen-fonts/{*-?00}/</filename>) with the
403 source in further subdirectories. You could just install the whole
404 tarball if you prefer, although that will waste space.
405 </para>
406
407
408 <bridgehead renderas="sect3" id="source-code-pro"
409 xreflabel="Source Code Pro">Source Code Pro</bridgehead>
410
411 <indexterm zone="TTF-and-OTF-fonts source-code-pro">
412 <primary sortas="a-source-code-pro">Source Code Pro</primary>
413 </indexterm>
414
415 <para>
416 This set of fonts from Adobe (seven different weights) includes what is
417 now the preferred monospace font for those applications which use
418 <xref linkend="gsettings-desktop-schemas"/>. Either download the full set of
419 source, OTF, TTF, WOFF fonts from <ulink
420 url="https://github.com/adobe-fonts/source-code-pro.git#release">Source Code
421 Pro</ulink> or just the TTF fonts from <ulink
422 url="https://fonts.google.com/specimen/Source+Code+Pro?selection.family=Source+Code+Pro">Google
423 fonts</ulink>
424 </para>
425
426
427 <bridgehead renderas="sect3" id="CJKfonts"
428 xreflabel="CJKfonts">CJK fonts:</bridgehead>
429
430 <para>
431 As indicated earlier, usage of a combination of Chinese, Japanese
432 and Korean can be tricky - each font only covers a subset of the available
433 codepoints, the preferred shapes of the glyphs can differ between the
434 languages, and many of the CJK fonts do not actually support modern
435 Korean.
436 </para>
437
438 <para>
439 Also, by default <application>fontconfig</application> prefers Chinese to
440 Japanese. Tuning that is covered at <xref
441 linkend="prefer-chosen-CJK-fonts"/>.
442 </para>
443
444 <para>
445 Although Unicode has been extended to allow a very large number of CJK
446 codepoints, those outside the Base Plane (greater than U+0xFFFF) are not
447 commonly used in Mandarin (the normal form of written Chinese, whether
448 Simplified (PRC) or Traditional (Taiwan)), or Japanese.
449 </para>
450
451 <para>
452 For Hong Kong, which uses Traditional Chinese and where Cantonese is the
453 dominant language, the Hong Kong Supplementary Character Set was added to
454 Unicode in 2005 and revised in 2009 (it is part of CJK Extension B and
455 contains more than 1900 characters). Earlier fonts will not be able to
456 support either Cantonese or use of these characters where local names are
457 written in Mandarin. The UMing HK, Noto Sans CJK HK and WenQuanYi Zen Hei
458 fonts all seem to cover Hong Kong usage
459 (<application>fontconfig</application> disagrees about Noto Sans CJK HK).
460 </para>
461
462 <para>
463 The Han glyphs are double-width, other glyphs in the same font may be
464 narrower. For their CJK content, all of these fonts can be regarded as
465 monospaced (i.e. fixed width).
466 </para>
467
468 <para>
469 If all you wish to do is to be able to render CJK glyphs, installing
470 <xref linkend="wenquanyi-zenhei"/> may be a good place to start if you do
471 not already have a preference.
472 </para>
473
474 <bridgehead renderas="sect3" id="Chinese-fonts"
475 xreflabel="Chinese fonts">Chinese fonts:</bridgehead>
476
477 <para>
478 In Chinese, there are three font styles in common use: Sung (also
479 known as Song or Ming) which is the most-common ornamented ("serif")
480 form, Kai ("brush strokes") which is an earlier ornamented style that
481 looks quite different, and modern Hei ("sans"). Unless you appreciate the
482 differences, you probably do not want to install Kai fonts.
483 </para>
484
485<!-- prefer the less-old Opendesktop-fonts to fireflysung
486 <bridgehead renderas="sect4" id="fireflysung"
487 xreflabel="fireflysung">Fireflysung</bridgehead>
488
489 <para>
490 <ulink
491 url="http://ftp.osuosl.org/pub/blfs/conglomeration/Xorg//fireflysung-1.3.0.tar.gz">fireflysung</ulink>
492 - This font ('AR PL New Sung') was one of the first libre fonts to
493 provides Chinese coverage. <application>fontconfig</application> knows
494 it is to be treated as a Serif font.
495 </para> -->
496
497 <bridgehead renderas="sect4" id="NotoSansCJK"
498 xreflabel="Noto Sans CJK">Noto Sans CJK</bridgehead>
499
500 <!-- indexterm entry retained for future linkage from kde -->
501 <indexterm zone="TTF-and-OTF-fonts NotoSansCJK">
502 <primary sortas="a-noto-sans-cjk">Noto Sans CJK</primary>
503 </indexterm>
504
505 <para><ulink
506 url="https://www.google.com/get/noto/help/cjk/">Noto Sans CJK</ulink>
507 - Sans-Serif sets of all CJK fonts in a ttc - as the link says, you can
508 choose to install the TTC and cover all the languages in all weights in
509 a 110MB file, or you can download subsets. There are also Monospace
510 versions.
511 </para>
512
513 <bridgehead renderas="sect4" id="Opendesktop-fonts"
514 xreflabel="Opendesktop-fonts">Opendesktop fonts</bridgehead>
515
516 <para>A copy of version 1.4.2 of the <ulink
517 url="https://sources.archlinux.org/other/opendesktop-fonts/">opendesktop-fonts</ulink>
518 is preserved at Arch. This was a later development of fireflysung which
519 BLFS used to recommend, adding Kai and Mono fonts. The name of the Sung
520 font remains 'AR PL New Sung' so they cannot both be installed together.
521 </para>
522
523 <para>
524 At one time there was a 1.6 release, and more recently some versions at
525 github, which also included a Sans font (Odohei), but those have dropped
526 off the web and it is unclear if there was a problem.
527 <application>Fontconfig</application> does not know anything about the
528 later fonts (AR PL New Kai, AR PL New Sung Mono) and will default to
529 treating them as Sans.
530 </para>
531
532<!-- comment, because not recommended
533 <bridgehead renderas="sect4" id="UKai"
534 xreflabel="UKai">UKai</bridgehead>
535
536 <para>
537 <ulink
538 url="http://packages.debian.org/sid/fonts-arphic-ukai">UKai fonts</ulink>
539 - sets of Chinese Kai fonts in a ttc which contain variations of
540 Simplified and Traditional (Taiwanese, second variant for different
541 <ulink url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bopomofo">bopomofo</ulink>,
542 and Cantonese). This ships with old-syntax files which can install to
543 <filename class="directory">/etc/fonts/conf.d/</filename> but see <xref
544 linkend="editing-old-style-conf-files"/>.
545 </para>
546-->
547
548 <bridgehead renderas="sect4" id="UMing"
549 xreflabel="UMing">UMing</bridgehead>
550
551 <para>
552 <ulink
553 url="http://packages.debian.org/sid/fonts-arphic-uming">UMing fonts</ulink>
554 - sets of Chinese Ming fonts (from Debian, use the '.orig' tarball) in
555 a ttc which contain variations of Simplified and Traditional Chinese
556 (Taiwanese, with second variant for different
557 <ulink url="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bopomofo">bopomofo</ulink>,
558 and Cantonese for Hong Kong). This ships with old-syntax files which you
559 can install to
560 <filename class="directory">/etc/fonts/conf.d/</filename> but see <xref
561 linkend="editing-old-style-conf-files"/>.
562 </para>
563
564 <bridgehead renderas="sect4" id="wenquanyi-zenhei"
565 xreflabel="WenQuanYi ZenHei">WenQuanYi Zen Hei</bridgehead>
566
567 <indexterm zone="TTF-and-OTF-fonts wenquanyi-zenhei">
568 <primary sortas="a-wenquanyi-zenhei">WenQuanYi Zen Hei</primary>
569 </indexterm>
570
571 <para>
572 <ulink
573 url="https://sourceforge.net/projects/wqy/files/wqy-zenhei/">WenQuanYi
574 Zen Hei</ulink> provides a Sans-Serif font which covers all CJK scripts
575 including Korean. Although it includes old-style conf files, these are
576 not required: <application>fontconfig</application> will already treat
577 these fonts (the 'sharp' contains bitmaps, the monospace appears not
578 to be Mono in its ASCII part) as Sans, Serif, and Monospace. If all
579 you wish to do is to be able to render Han and Korean text without
580 worrying about the niceties of the shapes used, the main font from
581 this package is a good font to use.
582 </para>
583
584
585 <bridgehead renderas="sect3" id="Japanese-fonts"
586 xreflabel="Japanese fonts">Japanese fonts:</bridgehead>
587
588 <para>
589 In Japanese, Gothic fonts are Sans, Mincho are Serif. BLFS used to
590 only mention the Kochi fonts, but those appear to now be the
591 least-preferred of the Japanese fonts.
592 </para>
593
594 <para>
595 Apart from the fonts detailed below, also consider <xref
596 linkend="NotoSansCJK"/>.
597 </para>
598
599 <bridgehead renderas="sect4" id="IPAex"
600 xreflabel="IPAex fonts">IPAex fonts</bridgehead>
601
602 <!-- indexterm retained for expected link from tuning fontconfig -->
603 <indexterm zone="TTF-and-OTF-fonts IPAex">
604 <primary sortas="a-ipaex-fonts">IPAex fonts</primary>
605 </indexterm>
606
607 <para>
608 The <ulink url="http://ipafont.ipa.go.jp/">IPAex fonts</ulink> are
609 the current version of the IPA fonts. Click on 'English' at the link and
610 then click on the Download icon to find IPAex Font Ver.003.01.
611 Unfortunately, <application>fontconfig</application> only knows about
612 the older IPAfonts and the forked IPA Mona font (which is not easily
613 available and which apparently does not meet Debian's Free Software
614 guidelines). Therefore if you install the IPAex fonts you may wish
615 to make it known to fontconfig, see <xref
616 linkend="prefer-chosen-CJK-fonts"/> for one possible way to do this.
617 </para>
618
619 <bridgehead renderas="sect4" id="Kochi"
620 xreflabel="Kochi">Kochi fonts</bridgehead>
621
622 <para>
623 The <ulink url="https://osdn.net/projects/efont/releases/p1357">Kochi
624 Substitute fonts</ulink> were the first truly libre Japanese fonts (the
625 earlier Kochi fonts were allegedly plagiarized from a commercial font).
626 </para>
627
628 <bridgehead renderas="sect4" id="VLGothic"
629 xreflabel="VL Gothic">VL Gothic</bridgehead>
630
631 <indexterm zone="TTF-and-OTF-fonts VLGothic">
632 <primary sortas="a-vlgothic-fonts">VL Gothic</primary>
633 </indexterm>
634
635 <para>
636 The <ulink url="https://osdn.net/projects/vlgothic/releases/">VL
637 Gothic</ulink> font is a modern Japanese font in two variants with
638 monotonic or proportional spacing for the non-Japanese characters.
639 </para>
640
641
642 <bridgehead renderas="sect3" id="Korean-fonts"
643 xreflabel="Korean fonts">Korean fonts:</bridgehead>
644
645 <para>
646 In Korean, Batang or Myeongjo (the older name) are Serif, Dotum or
647 Gothic are the main Sans fonts. BLFS previously recommended the Baekmuk
648 fonts, but the Nanum and Un fonts are now preferred to Baekmuk by
649 <application>fontconfig</application> because of user requests.
650 </para>
651
652 <!-- when testing, my previous Nanum link gave permission errors, so
653 link to a general page, at the cost of making it more complicated to
654 download -->
655
656 <para>
657 A convenient place to see examples of these and many other Korean
658 fonts is <ulink url="http://www.freekoreanfont.com/">Free Korean
659 Fonts</ulink>. Click on 'Gothic Fonts' or 'All Categories -> Myeongjo
660 Fonts', then click on the font example to see more details including the
661 License, and click on the link to download it. For Nanum, you will need
662 to be able to read Korean to find the download link on the page you get
663 to. For Un there are direct links and you can find the un-fonts-core
664 tarball in the <filename class="directory">releases/</filename>
665 directory.
666 </para>
667
668 <para>Alternatively, consider <xref linkend="NotoSansCJK"/> (all of the
669 variants cover Hangul) or <xref linkend="wenquanyi-zenhei"/>.
670 </para>
671
672 </sect2>
673
674</sect1>
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