source: x/installing/xorg-config.xml@ cc405844

10.0 10.1 11.0 9.0 9.1 ken/refactor-virt lazarus qt5new trunk xry111/git-date xry111/git-date-for-trunk xry111/git-date-test
Last change on this file since cc405844 was cc405844, checked in by Pierre Labastie <pieere@…>, 2 years ago

Two unrelated things:

  • add role="first" to libva dependency in mesa (circular dep)
  • remove the paragraph about permissions to access /dev/dri/card0 in xorg-config, since now elogind and systemd take care of that

git-svn-id: svn://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/BLFS/trunk/BOOK@21986 af4574ff-66df-0310-9fd7-8a98e5e911e0

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 12.4 KB
Line 
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="xorg-config">
9 <?dbhtml filename="xorg-config.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info>
12 <othername>$LastChangedBy$</othername>
13 <date>$Date$</date>
14 </sect1info>
15
16 <title>Xorg-&xorg-version; Testing and Configuration</title>
17
18 <indexterm zone="xorg-config">
19 <primary sortas="g-configuring-xorg">Configuring Xorg</primary>
20 </indexterm>
21
22 <sect2 id='X11-testing' xreflabel="Testing Xorg">
23 <title>Testing Xorg</title>
24
25 <note>
26 <para>
27 Before starting Xorg for the first time, is is useful to
28 rebuild the library cache by running <userinput>ldconfig</userinput>
29 as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user.
30 </para>
31 </note>
32
33 <para>
34 To test the <application>Xorg</application> installation, issue
35 <command>startx</command>. This command brings up a rudimentary window
36 manager called <emphasis>twm</emphasis> with three xterm windows and one
37 xclock window. The xterm window in the upper left is a login terminal and
38 running <emphasis>exit</emphasis> from this terminal will exit the
39 <application>X Window</application> session. The third xterm window may
40 be obscured on your system by the other two xterms.
41 </para>
42
43 <note>
44 <para>
45 When testing <application>Xorg</application> with the
46 <application>twm</application> window manager, there will be several
47 warnings in the Xorg log file, <!--<filename revision="sysv">
48 /var/log/Xorg.0.log</filename><filename revision="systemd">-->
49 $HOME/.local/share/xorg/Xorg.0.log<!--</filename>-->, about missing font
50 files. In addition, there will be several warnings on the text mode
51 terminal (usually tty1) about missing fonts. These warnings do not
52 affect functionality, but can be removed if desired by installing
53 the <xref linkend="xorg7-legacy"/>.
54 </para>
55 </note>
56
57 <para>
58 Generally, there is no specific configuration required for
59 <application>Xorg</application>, but customization is possible. For
60 details, see <xref linkend='xconfig'/> below.
61 </para>
62
63 </sect2>
64
65 <sect2 role="configuration" id="checking-dri" xreflabel="Checking the DRI
66 installation">
67 <title>Checking the Direct Rendering Infrastructure (DRI)
68 Installation</title>
69
70 <para>
71 DRI is a framework for allowing software to access graphics hardware in
72 a safe and efficient manner. It is installed in
73 <application>X</application> by default (using
74 <application>Mesa</application>) if you have a supported video card.
75 </para>
76
77 <para>
78 To check if DRI drivers are installed properly, check the log file
79 <filename revision="sysv">/var/log/Xorg.0.log</filename><filename
80 revision="systemd">$HOME/.local/share/xorg/Xorg.0.log</filename> for
81 statements such as:
82 </para>
83
84<screen><literal>(II) intel(0): direct rendering: DRI2 Enabled</literal></screen>
85
86 <para>or</para>
87
88<screen><literal>(II) NOUVEAU(0): Loaded DRI module</literal></screen>
89
90 <note>
91 <para>
92 DRI configuration may differ if you are using alternate drivers, such
93 as those from
94 <ulink url="http://www.nvidia.com/page/home.html">NVIDIA</ulink> or
95 <ulink url="http://www.amd.com/">AMD</ulink>.
96 </para>
97 </note>
98
99<!-- With elogind, this is not needed anymore
100 <para>
101 Although all users can use software acceleration, any hardware
102 acceleration (DRI2) is only available to <systemitem
103 class="username">root</systemitem> and members of the <systemitem
104 class="groupname">video</systemitem> group, but
105 <phrase revision="sysv"><emphasis>ConsoleKit2</emphasis></phrase>
106 <phrase revision="systemd"><emphasis>systemd-logind</emphasis></phrase>
107 takes care of adding any logged in user to the user ACL's of
108 <filename>/dev/dri/card*</filename>, the special file(s) allowing access
109 to hardware acceleration.<phrase revision="systemd"> So, no further
110 configuration is needed.</phrase>
111 </para>
112
113 <para revision="sysv">
114 If your driver is supported and <emphasis>ConsoleKit2</emphasis> is not
115 installed, add any users that might use X to the <systemitem
116 class="groupname">video</systemitem> group:
117 </para>
118
119<screen role="root" revision="sysv"><userinput>usermod -a -G video <replaceable>&lt;username&gt;</replaceable></userinput></screen>
120-->
121 <para>
122 Another way to determine if DRI is working properly is to use one of the
123 two optionally installed OpenGL demo programs in <xref
124 linkend="mesa"/>. From an X terminal, run <command>glxinfo</command>
125 and look for the phrase:
126 </para>
127
128<screen><computeroutput>name of display: :0
129display: :0 screen: 0
130direct rendering: Yes</computeroutput></screen>
131
132 <para>
133 If direct rendering is enabled, you can add verbosity by running
134 <command>LIBGL_DEBUG=verbose glxinfo</command>. This will show the
135 drivers, device nodes and files used by the DRI system.
136 </para>
137
138 <para>
139 To confirm that DRI2 hardware acceleration is working, you can (still in
140 the X terminal) run the command <command>glxinfo | egrep "(OpenGL
141 vendor|OpenGL renderer|OpenGL version)"</command>.
142 If that reports something <emphasis>other than</emphasis>
143 <literal>Software Rasterizer</literal> then you have working
144 acceleration for the user who ran the command.
145 </para>
146
147 <para>
148 If your hardware does not have any DRI2 driver available, it will use a
149 Software Rasterizer for Direct Rendering. In such cases, you can use a
150 new, LLVM-accelerated, Software Rasterizer called LLVMPipe. In order to
151 build LLVMPipe just make sure that <xref linkend="llvm"/> is present at
152 Mesa build time. Note that all decoding is done on the CPU instead of
153 the GPU, so the display will run slower than with hardware acceleration.
154 To check if you are using LLVMpipe, review the output of the glxinfo
155 command above. An example of the output using the Software Rasterizer
156 is shown below:
157 </para>
158
159<screen><computeroutput>OpenGL vendor string: VMware, Inc.
160OpenGL renderer string: Gallium 0.4 on llvmpipe (LLVM 3.5, 256 bits)
161OpenGL version string: 3.0 Mesa 10.4.5</computeroutput></screen>
162
163 <para>
164 You can also force LLVMPipe by exporting the
165 <envar>LIBGL_ALWAYS_SOFTWARE=1</envar> environment variable when
166 starting Xorg.
167 </para>
168
169 <para>
170 Again, if you have built the Mesa OpenGL demos, you can also run the test
171 program <command>glxgears</command>. This program brings up a window with
172 three gears turning. The X terminal will display how many frames were
173 drawn every five seconds, so this will give a rough benchmark. The window
174 is scalable, and the frames drawn per second is highly dependent on the
175 size of the window. On some hardware, <command>glxgears</command> will
176 run synchronized with the vertical refresh signal and the frame rate will
177 be approximately the same as the monitor refresh rate.
178 </para>
179
180 </sect2>
181
182 <sect2 role="configuration" id="hybrid-graphics" xreflabel="Hybrid Graphics">
183 <title>Hybrid Graphics</title>
184
185 <para>
186 Hybrid Graphics is still in experimental state for Linux. Xorg Developers
187 have developed a technology called PRIME that can be used for switching
188 between integrated and muxless discrete GPU at will. Automatic switching
189 is not possible at the moment.
190 </para>
191
192 <para>
193 In order to use PRIME for GPU switching, make sure that you are using
194 Linux Kernel 3.4 or later (recommended). You will need latest DRI and
195 DDX drivers for your hardware and <application>Xorg Server</application>
196 1.13 or later.
197 </para>
198
199 <para>
200 <application>Xorg Server</application> should load both GPU drivers
201 automaticaly. You can check that by running:
202 </para>
203
204<screen><userinput>xrandr --listproviders</userinput></screen>
205
206 <para>
207 There should be two (or more) providers listed, for example:
208 </para>
209
210<screen><computeroutput>Providers: number : 2
211Provider 0: id: 0x7d cap: 0xb, Source Output, Sink Output, Sink Offload crtcs: 3 outputs: 4 associated providers: 1 name:Intel
212Provider 1: id: 0x56 cap: 0xf, Source Output, Sink Output, Source Offload, Sink Offload crtcs: 6 outputs: 1 associated providers: 1 name:radeon</computeroutput></screen>
213
214 <para>
215 In order to be able to run a GLX application on a discrete GPU, you will
216 need to run the following command, where &lt;provider&gt; is the more
217 powerful discrete card, and &lt;sink&gt; is the card which has a display
218 connected:
219 </para>
220
221<screen><userinput>xrandr --setprovideroffloadsink <replaceable>&lt;provider&gt; &lt;sink&gt;</replaceable></userinput></screen>
222
223 <note>
224 <para>
225 With newer <application>Xorg</application> drivers, such as modesetting
226 or intel, which are DRI3 capable, the above command is no longer
227 necessary. It does no harm however.
228 </para>
229 </note>
230
231 <para>
232 Then, you will need to export the <envar>DRI_PRIME=1</envar> environment
233 variable each time you want the powerful GPU to be used. For example,
234
235<screen><userinput>DRI_PRIME=1 glxinfo | egrep "(OpenGL vendor|OpenGL renderer|OpenGL version)"</userinput></screen>
236
237 will show OpenGL vendor, renderer and version for the discrete GPU.
238 </para>
239
240 <para>
241 If the last command reports same OpenGL renderer with and without
242 <envar>DRI_PRIME=1</envar>, you will need to check your installation.
243 </para>
244
245 </sect2>
246
247 <sect2 role="configuration" id='xconfig'>
248 <title>Setting up Xorg Devices</title>
249
250 <para>
251 For most hardware configurations, modern Xorg will automatically
252 get the server configuration correct without any user intervention. There
253 are, however, some cases where auto-configuration will be incorrect.
254 Following are some example manual configuration items that may be of use
255 in these instances.
256 </para>
257
258 <sect3 id="xinput">
259 <title>Setting up X Input Devices</title>
260 <para>
261 For most input devices, no additional configuration will be
262 necessary. This section is provided for informational purposes only.
263 </para>
264
265 <para>
266 A sample default XKB setup could look like the following (executed as
267 the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user):
268 </para>
269
270<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/xkb-defaults.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
271<literal>Section "InputClass"
272 Identifier "XKB Defaults"
273 MatchIsKeyboard "yes"
274 Option "XkbLayout" "fr"
275 Option "XkbOptions" "terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp"
276EndSection</literal>
277EOF</userinput></screen>
278
279 <para>
280 The <quote>XkbLayout</quote> line is an example for a French (AZERTY)
281 keyboard. Change it to your keyboard model. That line is not needed for
282 a QWERTY (US) keyboard.
283 </para>
284 </sect3>
285
286 <sect3 id="xdisplay">
287 <title>Fine Tuning Display Settings</title>
288
289 <para>
290 Again, with modern Xorg, little or no additional configuration is
291 necessary. If you should need extra options passed to your video driver,
292 for instance, you could use something like the following (again,
293 executed as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user):
294 </para>
295
296<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/videocard-0.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
297<literal>Section "Device"
298 Identifier "Videocard0"
299 Driver "radeon"
300 VendorName "Videocard vendor"
301 BoardName "ATI Radeon 7500"
302 Option "NoAccel" "true"
303EndSection</literal>
304EOF</userinput></screen>
305
306 <para>
307 Another common setup is having multiple server layouts for use in
308 different environments. Though the server will automatically detect the
309 presence of another monitor, it may get the order incorrect:
310 </para>
311
312<screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/server-layout.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
313<literal>Section "ServerLayout"
314 Identifier "DefaultLayout"
315 Screen 0 "Screen0" 0 0
316 Screen 1 "Screen1" LeftOf "Screen0"
317 Option "Xinerama"
318EndSection</literal>
319EOF</userinput></screen>
320
321 </sect3>
322 </sect2>
323</sect1>
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