source: x/installing/xorg.xml@ 23ced54b

10.0 10.1 11.0 11.1 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.2.0 6.2.0-rc1 6.2.0-rc2 6.3 6.3-rc1 6.3-rc2 6.3-rc3 7.10 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.6-blfs 7.6-systemd 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 9.0 9.1 basic bdubbs/svn elogind gnome kde5-13430 kde5-14269 kde5-14686 krejzi/svn lazarus nosym perl-modules qt5new systemd-11177 systemd-13485 trunk upgradedb xry111/intltool xry111/test-20220226
Last change on this file since 23ced54b was 23ced54b, checked in by Igor Živković <igor@…>, 18 years ago

Grammar corrections by Randy.

git-svn-id: svn://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/BLFS/trunk/BOOK@2806 af4574ff-66df-0310-9fd7-8a98e5e911e0

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 18.1 KB
Line 
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.3//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.3/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6
7 <!ENTITY xorg-download-http "http://freedesktop.org/~xorg/X11R&xorg-version;/src-single/X11R&xorg-version;-src.tar.bz2">
8 <!ENTITY xorg-download-ftp " ">
9 <!ENTITY xorg-size "41 MB">
10 <!ENTITY xorg-buildsize "645 MB">
11 <!ENTITY xorg-time "17.1 SBU">
12]>
13
14<sect1 id="xorg" xreflabel="X.org-&xorg-version;">
15<sect1info>
16<othername>$LastChangedBy$</othername>
17<date>$Date$</date>
18</sect1info>
19<?dbhtml filename="xorg.html"?>
20<title>Xorg-&xorg-version;</title>
21
22
23<sect2>
24<title>Introduction to <application>Xorg</application></title>
25
26<note><para>There are two packages in <acronym>BLFS</acronym> that implement
27the <application>X</application> Window System: <application>Xorg</application>
28and <application>XFree86</application>. These packages are quite similar. In
29fact, the base system of <application>Xorg</application> is
30<application>XFree86</application>-4.4.0RC2. The primary difference as of this
31writing is the license provisions of the packages. For someone building a
32package for their own use, these issues are not significant. Most large
33commercial distributions have decided to use the
34<application>Xorg</application> package, but several still use
35<application>XFree86</application>.</para>
36
37<para>A second reason for the forking of <application>X</application> packages
38is the stated goals of the developers. Some developers were unhappy with the
39administration and progress of <application>XFree86</application>. X.org's
40future plans include significant improvements to the internals of the system
41and more frequent releases.</para>
42
43<para><application>XFree86</application> continues to be a solid, conservative
44application with excellent driver support.</para>
45
46<para>Both <application>Xorg</application> and
47<application>XFree86</application> can be installed in the same way, but this
48section will provide a slightly different and more current variation for
49installation.</para>
50</note>
51
52<para><application>Xorg</application> is a freely redistributable open-source
53implementation of the <application>X</application> Window System. This
54application provides a client/server interface between display hardware (the
55mouse, keyboard, and video displays) and the desktop environment, while also
56providing both the windowing infrastructure and a standardized application
57interface (<acronym>API</acronym>).</para>
58
59<sect3><title>Package information</title>
60<itemizedlist spacing='compact'>
61<listitem><para>Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&xorg-download-http;"/></para></listitem>
62<listitem><para>Download (FTP): <ulink url="&xorg-download-ftp;"/></para></listitem>
63<listitem><para>Download size: &xorg-size;</para></listitem>
64<listitem><para>Estimated Disk space required: &xorg-buildsize;</para></listitem>
65<listitem><para>Estimated build time: &xorg-time;</para></listitem></itemizedlist>
66</sect3>
67
68<sect3><title><application>Xorg</application> Dependencies</title>
69
70<sect4><title>Required</title>
71<para><xref linkend="libpng"/> and <xref linkend="fontconfig"/></para>
72</sect4>
73
74<sect4><title>Optional</title>
75<para><xref linkend="Linux_PAM"/></para>
76</sect4>
77
78</sect3>
79
80<sect3><title>Download Instructions</title>
81
82<para>As an alternative to downloading the entire source tree in a single
83file, there are several files that need to be fetched from the download
84location:</para>
85
86<itemizedlist spacing='compact'>
87<listitem><para><filename>X11R&xorg-version;-src1.tar.gz</filename></para></listitem>
88<listitem><para><filename>X11R&xorg-version;-src2.tar.gz</filename></para></listitem>
89<listitem><para><filename>X11R&xorg-version;-src3.tar.gz</filename></para></listitem>
90<listitem><para><filename>X11R&xorg-version;-src4.tar.gz</filename></para></listitem>
91<listitem><para><filename>X11R&xorg-version;-src5.tar.gz</filename></para></listitem>
92<listitem><para><filename>X11R&xorg-version;-src6.tar.gz</filename></para></listitem>
93<listitem><para><filename>X11R&xorg-version;-src7.tar.gz</filename></para></listitem>
94</itemizedlist>
95
96<para>The first package contains the <application>Xorg</application> libraries
97and support programs, the second contains standard <application>X</application>
98programs, the third contains the <application>X</application> server, the
99fourth and fifth are fonts, the sixth is normal documentation, and the seventh
100is hardcopy documentation.</para>
101
102<para>To check your file for integrity, download the
103<filename>md5sums</filename> file. Then:</para>
104
105<screen><userinput><command>md5sum -c md5sums</command></userinput></screen>
106
107<para>The package (or all seven packages) should give an OK status.</para>
108</sect3>
109</sect2>
110
111<sect2>
112<title>Installation of <application>Xorg</application></title>
113
114<sect3>
115<title>Kernel Compilation Settings</title>
116<para>If you have an Intel P6 (Pentium Pro, Pentium II and later), it is
117recommended that you compile <acronym>MTRR</acronym> (Memory Type Range
118Registers) support into the kernel. The kernel can map Cyrix and AMD
119<acronym>CPU</acronym>s to the <acronym>MTRR</acronym> interface, so selecting
120this option is useful for those processors also. This option is found in the
121"Processor type and features" menu. It can increase performance of
122image write operations 2.5 times or more on <acronym>PCI</acronym> or
123<acronym>AGP</acronym> video cards.</para>
124
125<para>In the "Character Devices" section, enable <acronym>AGP</acronym> Support
126and select the chipset support on your motherboard. If you do not know the
127chipset, you may select all the chip types at the expense of extra kernel size.
128You can usually determine your motherboard's chipset by running the command
129<command>lspci</command>, a program from the <xref linkend="pciutils"/>
130package.</para>
131
132<para>In the "Character Devices" section, <emphasis>disable</emphasis> Direct
133Rendering Manager unless you have a Direct Rendering Infrastructure
134(<acronym>DRI</acronym>) supported video card. A complete list of
135<acronym>DRI</acronym> supported video cards can be found at
136<ulink url="http://dri.sourceforge.net" /> in the "Status" section.
137Currently, supported cards include those from 3dfx (Voodoo, Banshee), 3Dlabs,
138ATI (Rage Pro, Rage 128, Radeon 7X00, Radeon 2), Intel (i810, i815), and
139Matrox (G200, G400, G450).</para>
140
141<para>Additionally NVidia provides their own closed source binary drivers,
142which do not make use of <acronym>DRI</acronym>. If you intend to use these
143drivers, do not enable <acronym>DRI</acronym>.</para>
144
145<para>If you made any changes to the kernel configuration, recompile and
146install the new kernel.</para>
147
148<note><para>If you build <application>Xorg</application> in a
149<command>chroot</command> environment, make sure the kernel version of the base
150system and the target system are the same.</para>
151</note>
152</sect3>
153
154<sect3><title>Setting Up a Shadow Directory</title>
155<para>When building <application>Xorg</application>, you should create a shadow
156directory of symbolic links for the compiled code. To do that, first make
157<command>lndir</command>. Starting from the
158<filename class='directory'>xc</filename> directory:</para>
159
160<screen><userinput><command>pushd config/util &amp;&amp;
161make -f Makefile.ini lndir &amp;&amp;
162cp lndir /usr/bin/ &amp;&amp;
163popd</command></userinput></screen>
164
165<para>Now create the shadow tree:</para>
166
167<screen><userinput><command>mkdir ../xcbuild &amp;&amp;
168cd ../xcbuild &amp;&amp;
169lndir ../xc</command></userinput></screen>
170</sect3>
171
172<sect3><title>Creating <filename>host.def</filename></title>
173<para>The next step is to create the <filename>config/cf/host.def</filename>
174file. The documentation for <application>Xorg</application> indicates that the
175application will build without a <filename>host.def</filename> file, but
176the included libraries for <application>Fontconfig</application> and
177<application>FreeType2</application> do not build properly on a base
178<acronym>LFS</acronym> system. Therefore, you must specify that these
179libraries, as well as others, should be imported from the system.</para>
180
181<note><para><filename>config/cf/host.def</filename> is a C file, not a shell
182script. Ensure the comments delimited by <userinput>/*</userinput> ...
183<userinput>*/</userinput> are balanced when modifying the file.</para></note>
184
185<screen><userinput><command>cat &gt; config/cf/host.def &lt;&lt; "EOF"</command>
186/* Begin Xorg host.def file */
187
188/* System Related Information. If you read and configure only one
189 * section then it should be this one. The Intel architecture defaults are
190 * set for a i686 and higher. Axp is for the Alpha architecture and Ppc is
191 * for the Power PC. AMD64 is for the Opteron processor. Note that there have
192 * been reports that the Ppc optimization line causes segmentation faults during
193 * build. If that happens, try building without the DefaultGcc2PpcOpt line. ***********/
194
195/* #define DefaultGcc2i386Opt -O2 -fno-strength-reduce -fno-strict-aliasing -march=i686 */
196/* #define DefaultGccAMD64Opt -O2 -fno-strength-reduce -fno-strict-aliasing */
197/* #define DefaultGcc2AxpOpt -O2 -mcpu=ev6 */
198/* #define DefaultGcc2PpcOpt -O2 -mcpu=750 */
199
200#define HasFreetype2 YES
201#define HasFontconfig YES
202#define HasExpat YES
203#define HasLibpng YES
204#define HasZlib YES
205
206/*
207 * Which drivers to build. When building a static server, each of these
208 * will be included in it. When building the loadable server each of these
209 * modules will be built.
210 *
211#define XF86CardDrivers mga glint nv tga s3virge sis rendition \
212 neomagic i740 tdfx savage \
213 cirrus vmware tseng trident chips apm \
214 GlideDriver fbdev i128 \
215 ati AgpGartDrivers DevelDrivers ark cyrix \
216 siliconmotion \
217 vesa vga XF86OSCardDrivers XF86ExtraCardDrivers
218*/
219
220/*
221 * Select the XInput devices you want by uncommenting this.
222 *
223#define XInputDrivers mouse keyboard acecad calcomp citron \
224 digitaledge dmc dynapro elographics \
225 microtouch mutouch penmount spaceorb summa \
226 wacom void magictouch aiptek
227 */
228
229/* Most installs will only need this */
230
231#define XInputDrivers mouse keyboard
232
233/* Disable everything Xprint related until we get it figured out. */
234
235#define BuildXprint NO
236
237/* End Xorg host.def file */
238<command>EOF</command></userinput></screen>
239
240<para>There are several other options that you may want to consider. A well
241documented example file is <filename>config/cf/xorgsite.cf</filename>.</para>
242</sect3>
243
244<sect3>
245<title>Build Commands</title>
246<para>Install <application>Xorg</application> by running the following
247commands:</para>
248
249<screen><userinput><command>sed -i -e "s@#include &lt;linux/config.h&gt;@/* &amp; */@" \
250 `grep -lr linux/config.h *` &amp;&amp;
251( make World 2&gt;&amp;1 | tee xorg-compile.log &amp;&amp; exit $PIPESTATUS ) &amp;&amp;
252make install &amp;&amp;
253make install.man &amp;&amp;
254ln -sf ../X11R6/bin /usr/bin/X11 &amp;&amp;
255ln -sf ../X11R6/lib/X11 /usr/lib/X11 &amp;&amp;
256ln -sf ../X11R6/include/X11 /usr/include/X11</command></userinput></screen>
257
258</sect3>
259</sect2>
260
261<sect2>
262<title>Command explanations</title>
263
264<para><command>sed -i -e "s@#include &lt;linux/config.h&gt;@...</command>: The
265<application>Linux-Libc-Headers</application> package installed in
266<acronym>LFS</acronym> installs a
267<filename>/usr/include/linux/config.h</filename> file which is not compatible
268with userspace applications. The recommended fix for applications including
269this file is to remove it (see <ulink
270url="http://ep09.pld-linux.org/~mmazur/linux-libc-headers/doc/FAQ">
271linux-libc-headers FAQ</ulink>). The <command>sed</command> uses
272<command>grep -lr</command> to replace all occurences. If you desire, just
273remove (comment) the line in the appropriate video driver file if you
274customized <filename>host.def</filename>.
275</para>
276
277<para><command>( make World 2&gt;&amp;1 | tee xorg-compile.log
278 &amp;&amp; exit $PIPESTATUS )</command>:
279This command runs multiple <filename>Makefile</filename>s to completely rebuild
280the system. <parameter>2&gt;&amp;1</parameter> redirects error messages
281to the same location as standard output. The <command>tee</command> command
282allows viewing of the output while logging the results to a file. The
283parentheses around the command runs the entire comand in a subshell and finally
284the <command>exit $PIPESTATUS</command> ensures the result of the
285<command>make</command> is returned as the result and not the result of the
286<command>tee</command> command.</para>
287
288<note><para>When rebuilding <application>Xorg</application>, a separate command
289that may be used if only minor changes are made to the sources is
290<command>make Everything</command>. This does not automatically remove generated
291files and only rebuilds those files or programs that are out of date.</para>
292</note>
293
294<para><screen><command>ln -sf ../X11R6/bin /usr/bin/X11
295ln -sf ../X11R6/lib/X11 /usr/lib/X11
296ln -sf ../X11R6/include/X11 /usr/include/X11</command></screen>
297These commands are present to enable other (broken) packages to build against
298<application>Xorg</application>, even though the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
299says: "In general, software must not be installed or managed via the above
300symbolic links. They are intended for utilization by users only."</para>
301
302</sect2>
303
304<sect2>
305<title>Configuring Xorg</title>
306
307<para>Edit <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename> and add
308<filename class="directory">/usr/X11R6/lib</filename>.
309Run:</para>
310<screen><userinput><command>ldconfig</command></userinput></screen>
311
312<para>Ensure <filename class="directory">/usr/X11R6/bin</filename>
313and <filename class="directory">/usr/X11R6/lib/pkgconfig</filename>
314are added to your <envar>PATH</envar> and <envar>PKG_CONFIG_PATH</envar>
315environment variables, respectively. Instructions for doing this are
316described in the section "<xref linkend='postlfs-config-profile'/>."</para>
317
318<para>Create the <filename>xorg.conf</filename> file with:
319<screen><userinput><command>cd ~
320Xorg -configure</command></userinput></screen>
321The screen will go black and you may hear some clicking of the monitor. This
322command will create a file, <filename>xorg.conf.new</filename> in your home
323directory.</para>
324
325<para>Edit <filename>xorg.conf.new</filename> to suit your system. The details
326of the file are located in the xorg.conf man page. Some
327things you may want to do are:</para>
328
329<itemizedlist>
330
331<listitem><para>Section "Files". Change the order of the font paths searched.
332You may want to put 100dpi fonts ahead of 75dpi fonts if your system normally
333comes up closer to 100 dots per inch. You may want to remove some font
334directories completely.</para></listitem>
335
336<listitem><para>Section "Module". If you are going to install NVidia
337drivers, remove the "dri" line.</para></listitem>
338
339<listitem><para>Sections "InputDevice". Specify the
340<parameter>Device</parameter> parameter to "/dev/input/mice" and
341<parameter>Protocol</parameter> to "auto" to set up your mouse. You may
342also want to change the keyboard autorepeat rate by adding
343<parameter>Option "Autorepeat" "250 30"</parameter>.</para></listitem>
344
345<listitem><para>Section "Monitor". Specify the
346<parameter>VertRefresh</parameter> and <parameter>HorizSync</parameter> values
347if the system does not automatically detect the monitor and its values.</para>
348</listitem>
349
350<listitem><para>Section "Device". You may want to set some of the options
351available for your selected video driver. A description of the driver
352parameters is in the man page for your driver.</para></listitem>
353
354<listitem><para>Section "Screen". Add a DefaultDepth statement such as:
355<parameter>DefaultDepth 16</parameter>. In the SubSection for your default
356depth, add a modes line such as:
357<parameter> Modes "1280x1024" "1024x768"</parameter>. The first mode listed
358will normally be the starting resolution.</para></listitem>
359
360</itemizedlist>
361
362<para>Test the system with:
363<screen><userinput><command>X -xf86config ~/xorg.conf.new</command></userinput></screen>
364You will only get a gray background with an X-shaped mouse cursor, but it
365confirms the system is working. Exit with Control-Alt-Backspace. If the
366system does not work, take a look at <filename>/var/log/Xorg.0.log</filename>
367to see what went wrong.</para>
368
369<para>Move the configuration file to its final location:</para>
370<screen><userinput><command>mv ~/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</command></userinput></screen>
371
372<para>Create <filename>.xinitrc</filename>:
373<screen><userinput><command>cat &gt; ~/.xinitrc &lt;&lt; "EOF"</command>
374# Begin .xinitrc file
375xterm -g 80x40+0+0 &amp;
376xclock -g 100x100-0+0 &amp;
377twm
378<command>EOF</command></userinput></screen>
379This provides an initial screen with an xterm and a clock that is managed by a
380simple window manager, Tab Window Manager. For details of
381<command>twm</command>, see the man page.</para>
382
383<note>
384<para>When needed, <application>Xorg</application> creates the directory
385<filename>/tmp/.ICE-unix</filename> if it does not exist. If this directory is
386not owned by root, <application>Xorg</application> delays startup by a few
387seconds and also appends a warning to the logfile. This also affects startup of
388other applications. To improve performance, it is advisable to manually create
389the directory before <application>Xorg</application> uses it. Add the file
390creation to <filename>/etc/sysconfig/createfiles</filename> that is sourced by
391the <filename>/etc/rc.d/init.d/cleanfs</filename> startup script.</para>
392
393<screen><userinput><command>cat &gt;&gt; /etc/sysconfig/createfiles &lt;&lt; "EOF"</command>
394/tmp/.ICE-unix dir 1777 root root
395<command>EOF</command></userinput></screen>
396</note>
397
398<para>Start <application>X</application> with:
399<screen><userinput><command>startx</command></userinput></screen>
400to get a basic functional <application>X</application> Window System.</para>
401
402<para>At this point, you should check out <xref linkend='x-setup'/>.</para>
403
404<para>For a list of the package contents and a description of the commands,
405see the sections in <xref linkend='xfree86'/>.</para>
406
407</sect2>
408
409</sect1>
Note: See TracBrowser for help on using the repository browser.