Changeset 29244b7


Ignore:
Timestamp:
03/25/2020 09:46:27 PM (21 months ago)
Author:
Pierre Labastie <pieere@…>
Branches:
10.0, 10.1, 11.0, ken/refactor-virt, lazarus, qt5new, trunk, xry111/git-date, xry111/git-date-for-trunk, xry111/git-date-test
Children:
f716ef4
Parents:
9bd10279
Message:

format filesystems chapter

git-svn-id: svn://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/BLFS/trunk/BOOK@22895 af4574ff-66df-0310-9fd7-8a98e5e911e0

Location:
postlfs/filesystems
Files:
13 edited

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
  • postlfs/filesystems/aboutlvm.xml

    r9bd10279 r29244b7  
    1616  <title>About Logical Volume Management (LVM)</title>
    1717
    18   <para>LVM manages disk drives.  It allows multiple drives and partitions
    19   to be combined into larger <emphasis>volume groups</emphasis>, assists in
    20   making backups through a <emphasis>snapshot</emphasis>, and allows for
    21   dynamic volume resizing. It can also provide mirroring similar to
    22   a RAID 1 array.</para>
     18  <para>
     19    LVM manages disk drives.  It allows multiple drives and partitions
     20    to be combined into larger <emphasis>volume groups</emphasis>, assists in
     21    making backups through a <emphasis>snapshot</emphasis>, and allows for
     22    dynamic volume resizing. It can also provide mirroring similar to
     23    a RAID 1 array.
     24  </para>
    2325
    24   <para>A complete discussion of LVM is beyond the scope of this introduction,
    25   but basic concepts are presented below.</para>
     26  <para>
     27    A complete discussion of LVM is beyond the scope of this introduction,
     28    but basic concepts are presented below.
     29  </para>
    2630
    27   <para>To run any of the commands presented here, the <xref linkend='lvm2'/>
    28   package must be installed.  All commands must be run as the <systemitem
    29   class="username">root</systemitem> user.</para>
     31  <para>
     32    To run any of the commands presented here, the <xref linkend='lvm2'/>
     33    package must be installed.  All commands must be run as the <systemitem
     34    class="username">root</systemitem> user.
     35  </para>
    3036
    31   <para>Management of disks with lvm is accomplished using the following
    32   concepts: </para>
     37  <para>
     38    Management of disks with lvm is accomplished using the following concepts:
     39  </para>
    3340
    3441  <variablelist>
    3542    <varlistentry>
    3643      <term>physical volumes</term>
    37       <listitem><para>These are physical disks or partitions such as
    38       /dev/sda3 or /dev/sdb.</para></listitem>
     44      <listitem>
     45        <para>
     46          These are physical disks or partitions such as
     47          /dev/sda3 or /dev/sdb.
     48        </para>
     49      </listitem>
    3950    </varlistentry>
    4051
    4152    <varlistentry>
    4253      <term>volume groups</term>
    43       <listitem><para>These are named groups of physical volumes that
    44       can be manipulated by the administrator.  The number of physical
    45       volumes that make up a volume group is arbitrary.  Physical volumes
    46       can be dynamically added or removed from a volume group.
    47       </para></listitem>
     54      <listitem>
     55        <para>
     56          These are named groups of physical volumes that
     57          can be manipulated by the administrator.  The number of physical
     58          volumes that make up a volume group is arbitrary.  Physical volumes
     59          can be dynamically added or removed from a volume group.
     60        </para>
     61      </listitem>
    4862    </varlistentry>
    4963
    5064    <varlistentry>
    5165      <term>logical volumes</term>
    52       <listitem><para>Volume groups may be subdivided into logical volumes.
    53       Each logical volume can then be individually formatted as if it were a
    54       regular Linux partition. Logical volumes may be dynamically resized by
    55       the administrator according to need.</para></listitem>
     66      <listitem>
     67        <para>
     68          Volume groups may be subdivided into logical volumes. Each logical
     69          volume can then be individually formatted as if it were a regular
     70          Linux partition. Logical volumes may be dynamically resized by
     71          the administrator according to need.
     72        </para>
     73      </listitem>
    5674
    5775    </varlistentry>
    5876  </variablelist>
    5977
    60   <para>To give a concrete example, suppose that you have two 2 TB disks.
    61   Also suppose a really large amount of space is required for a very large database,
    62   mounted on <filename class='directory'>/srv/mysql</filename>.  This is what
    63   the initial set of partitions would look like:</para>
     78  <para>
     79    To give a concrete example, suppose that you have two 2 TB disks. Also
     80    suppose a really large amount of space is required for a very large
     81    database, mounted on <filename class='directory'>/srv/mysql</filename>.
     82    This is what the initial set of partitions would look like:
     83  </para>
    6484
    6585  <screen><literal>Partition  Use    Size      Partition Type
     
    7191/dev/sdb2  LVM    remainder 8e (LVM)</literal></screen>
    7292
    73   <para>First initialize the physical volumes:</para>
     93  <para>
     94    First initialize the physical volumes:
     95  </para>
    7496
    7597  <screen><userinput>pvcreate /dev/sda4 /dev/sdb2</userinput></screen>
    7698
    77   <note><para>A full disk can be used as part of a physical volume, but
    78   beware that the <command>pvcreate</command> command will destroy any
    79   partition information on that disk.</para></note>
     99  <note>
     100    <para>
     101      A full disk can be used as part of a physical volume, but
     102      beware that the <command>pvcreate</command> command will destroy any
     103      partition information on that disk.
     104    </para>
     105  </note>
    80106
    81   <para>Next create a volume group named lfs-lvm:</para>
     107  <para>
     108    Next create a volume group named lfs-lvm:
     109  </para>
    82110
    83111  <screen><userinput>vgcreate lfs-lvm /dev/sda4  /dev/sdb2</userinput></screen>
    84112
    85   <para>The status of the volume group can be checked by running the command
    86   <command>vgscan</command>. Now create the logical volumes.  Since there is
    87   about 3900 GB available, leave about 900 GB free for expansion. Note that the
    88   logical volume named <emphasis>mysql</emphasis> is larger than any physical
    89   disk.  </para>
     113  <para>
     114    The status of the volume group can be checked by running the command
     115    <command>vgscan</command>. Now create the logical volumes.  Since there
     116    is about 3900 GB available, leave about 900 GB free for expansion. Note
     117    that the logical volume named <emphasis>mysql</emphasis> is larger than
     118    any physical disk.
     119  </para>
    90120
    91121  <screen><userinput>lvcreate --name mysql --size 2500G lfs-lvm
    92122lvcreate --name home  --size  500G lfs-lvm</userinput></screen>
    93123
    94   <para>Finally the logical volumes can be formatted and mounted.  In this
    95   example, the jfs file system (<xref linkend='jfsutils'/>) is used for
    96   demonstration purposes.</para>
     124  <para>
     125    Finally the logical volumes can be formatted and mounted.  In this
     126    example, the jfs file system (<xref linkend='jfsutils'/>) is used for
     127    demonstration purposes.
     128  </para>
    97129
    98130  <screen><userinput>mkfs -t ext4 /dev/lfs-lvm/home
     
    102134mount /dev/lfs-lvm/mysql /srv/mysql</userinput></screen>
    103135
    104   <para>The LFS boot scripts automatically make these file systems available
    105   to the system in the checkfs script.  Edit the <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>
    106   file as required to automatically mount them.</para>
     136  <para>
     137    The LFS boot scripts automatically make these file systems available to
     138    the system in the checkfs script. Edit the <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>
     139    file as required to automatically mount them.
     140  </para>
    107141
    108   <para>A LVM logical volume can host a root filesystem, but requires the use
    109   of an initramfs (initial RAM file system) and is not discussed here.</para>
     142  <para>
     143    A LVM logical volume can host a root filesystem, but requires the use
     144    of an initramfs (initial RAM file system) and is not discussed here.
     145  </para>
    110146
    111   <para>For a more information about LVM, see the <ulink
    112   url="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/LVM-HOWTO/">LVM HOWTO</ulink> and
    113   the lvm man pages.</para>
     147  <para>
     148    For a more information about LVM, see the <ulink
     149    url="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/LVM-HOWTO/">LVM HOWTO</ulink> and
     150    the lvm man pages.
     151  </para>
    114152
    115153</sect1>
  • postlfs/filesystems/aboutraid.xml

    r9bd10279 r29244b7  
    1616  <title>About RAID</title>
    1717
    18   <para>The storage technology known as RAID (Redundant Array of
    19   Independent Disks) combines multiple physical disks into a logical
    20   unit.  The drives can generally be combined to provide data
    21   redundancy or to extend the size of logical units beyond the
    22   capability of the physical disks or both.  The technology
    23   also allows for providing hardware maintenance without powering
    24   down the system.</para>
    25 
    26   <para>The types of RAID organization are described in the <ulink
    27   url="https://raid.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Overview#The_RAID_levels">
    28   RAID Wiki</ulink>.</para>
    29 
    30   <para>Note that while RAID provides protection against disk
    31   failures, it is not a substitute for backups.  A file deleted
    32   is still deleted on all the disks of a RAID array.  Modern backups
    33   are generally done via <xref linkend='rsync'/>.</para>
    34 
    35   <para>There are three major types of RAID implementation:
    36   Hardware RAID, BIOS-based RAID, and Software RAID.</para>
     18  <para>
     19    The storage technology known as RAID (Redundant Array of
     20    Independent Disks) combines multiple physical disks into a logical
     21    unit.  The drives can generally be combined to provide data
     22    redundancy or to extend the size of logical units beyond the
     23    capability of the physical disks or both.  The technology
     24    also allows for providing hardware maintenance without powering
     25    down the system.
     26  </para>
     27
     28  <para>
     29    The types of RAID organization are described in the <ulink
     30    url="https://raid.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Overview#The_RAID_levels">
     31    RAID Wiki</ulink>.
     32  </para>
     33
     34  <para>
     35    Note that while RAID provides protection against disk
     36    failures, it is not a substitute for backups.  A file deleted
     37    is still deleted on all the disks of a RAID array.  Modern backups
     38    are generally done via <xref linkend='rsync'/>.
     39  </para>
     40
     41  <para>
     42    There are three major types of RAID implementation:
     43    Hardware RAID, BIOS-based RAID, and Software RAID.
     44  </para>
    3745
    3846  <sect2 id="hwraid">
    3947    <title>Hardware RAID</title>
    40     <para>Hardware based RAID provides capability through proprietary
    41     hardware and data layouts.  The control and configuration is generally
    42     done via firmware in conjunction with executable programs made
    43     available by the device manufacturer.  The capabilities are
    44     generally supplied via a PCI card, although there are some
    45     instances of RAID components integrated in to the motherboard.
    46     Hardware RAID may also be available in a stand-alone enclosure.</para>
    47 
    48     <para>One advantage of hardware-based RAID is that the drives
    49     are offered to the operating system as a logical drive and no
    50     operating system dependent configuration is needed.</para>
    51 
    52     <para>Disadvantages include difficulties in transferring drives
    53     from one system to another, updating firmware, or replacing
    54     failed RAID hardware.</para>
     48    <para>
     49      Hardware based RAID provides capability through proprietary
     50      hardware and data layouts.  The control and configuration is generally
     51      done via firmware in conjunction with executable programs made
     52      available by the device manufacturer.  The capabilities are
     53      generally supplied via a PCI card, although there are some
     54      instances of RAID components integrated in to the motherboard.
     55      Hardware RAID may also be available in a stand-alone enclosure.
     56    </para>
     57
     58    <para>
     59      One advantage of hardware-based RAID is that the drives
     60      are offered to the operating system as a logical drive and no
     61      operating system dependent configuration is needed.
     62    </para>
     63
     64    <para>
     65      Disadvantages include difficulties in transferring drives
     66      from one system to another, updating firmware, or replacing
     67      failed RAID hardware.
     68    </para>
    5569
    5670  </sect2>
     
    5973    <title>BIOS-based RAID</title>
    6074
    61     <para>Some computers offter a hardware-like RAID implementation in the
    62     system BIOS.  Sometime this is referred to as 'fake' RAID as the
    63     capabilites are generally incorporated into firmware without any hardware
    64     acceleration.</para>
    65 
    66     <para>The advantages and disadvantages of BIOS-based RAID are generally
    67     the same as hardware RAID with the additional disadvantage that there
    68     is no hardware acceleration.</para>
    69 
    70     <para>In some cases, BIOS-based RAID firmware is enabled by default (e.g.
    71     some DELL systems).  If software RAID is desired, this option must be
    72     explicitly disabled in the BIOS.</para>
     75    <para>
     76      Some computers offter a hardware-like RAID implementation in the
     77      system BIOS.  Sometime this is referred to as 'fake' RAID as the
     78      capabilites are generally incorporated into firmware without any hardware
     79      acceleration.
     80    </para>
     81
     82    <para>
     83      The advantages and disadvantages of BIOS-based RAID are generally
     84      the same as hardware RAID with the additional disadvantage that there
     85      is no hardware acceleration.
     86    </para>
     87
     88    <para>
     89      In some cases, BIOS-based RAID firmware is enabled by default (e.g.
     90      some DELL systems).  If software RAID is desired, this option must be
     91      explicitly disabled in the BIOS.
     92    </para>
    7393
    7494  </sect2>
     
    7696  <sect2 id="swraid">
    7797  <title>Software RAID</title>
    78     <para>Software based RAID is the most flexible form of RAID.  It is
    79     easy to install and update and provides full capability on all or
    80     part of any drives available to the system.  In BLFS, the RAID software
    81     is found in <xref linkend='mdadm'/>.</para>
    82 
    83     <para>Configuring a RAID device is straight forward using
    84     <application>mdadm</application>.  Generally devices are created in the
    85     <filename class='directory'>/dev</filename> directory as
    86     <filename>/dev/mdx</filename> where <emphasis>x</emphasis> is an integer.
    87     </para>
    88 
    89     <para>The first step in creating a RAID array is to use partitioning software
    90     such as <userinput>fdisk</userinput> or <xref linkend='parted'/> to define the
    91     partitions needed for the array.  Usually, there will be one partition on
    92     each drive participating in the RAID array, but that is not strictly necessary.
    93     For this example, there will be four disk drives:
    94     <filename>/dev/sda</filename>,
    95     <filename>/dev/sdb</filename>,
    96     <filename>/dev/sdc</filename>, and
    97     <filename>/dev/sdd</filename>.  They will be partitioned as follows:</para>
     98    <para>
     99      Software based RAID is the most flexible form of RAID.  It is
     100      easy to install and update and provides full capability on all or
     101      part of any drives available to the system.  In BLFS, the RAID software
     102      is found in <xref linkend='mdadm'/>.
     103    </para>
     104
     105    <para>
     106      Configuring a RAID device is straight forward using
     107      <application>mdadm</application>.  Generally devices are created in the
     108      <filename class='directory'>/dev</filename> directory as
     109      <filename>/dev/mdx</filename> where <emphasis>x</emphasis> is an integer.
     110    </para>
     111
     112    <para>
     113      The first step in creating a RAID array is to use partitioning software
     114      such as <userinput>fdisk</userinput> or <xref linkend='parted'/> to
     115      define the partitions needed for the array.  Usually, there will be
     116      one partition on each drive participating in the RAID array, but that
     117      is not strictly necessary.  For this example, there will be four disk
     118      drives:
     119      <filename>/dev/sda</filename>,
     120      <filename>/dev/sdb</filename>,
     121      <filename>/dev/sdc</filename>, and
     122      <filename>/dev/sdd</filename>.  They will be partitioned as follows:
     123    </para>
    98124
    99125<screen><literal>Partition Size     Type                Use
     
    114140sdd2:     300 GB   fd Linux raid auto  /home    (RAID 5) /dev/md2 </literal></screen>
    115141
    116     <para>Is this arrangement, a separate boot partition is created as the
    117     first small RAID array and a root filesystem as the secong RAID array,
    118     both mirrored.  The third partition is a large (about 1TB) array for the
    119     <filename class='directory'>/home</filename> directory.  This provides
    120     an ability to stripe data across multiple devices, improving speed for
    121     botih reading and writing large files.  Finally, a fourth array is created
    122     that concatenates two partitions into a larger device.</para>
    123 
    124     <note><para>All <application>mdadm</application> commands must be run
    125     as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user.</para></note>
    126 
    127     <para>To create these RAID arrays the commands are:</para>
     142    <para>
     143      In this arrangement, a separate boot partition is created as the
     144      first small RAID array and a root filesystem as the secong RAID array,
     145      both mirrored.  The third partition is a large (about 1TB) array for the
     146      <filename class='directory'>/home</filename> directory.  This provides
     147      an ability to stripe data across multiple devices, improving speed for
     148      both reading and writing large files.  Finally, a fourth array is created
     149      that concatenates two partitions into a larger device.
     150    </para>
     151
     152    <note>
     153      <para>
     154        All <application>mdadm</application> commands must be run
     155        as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user.
     156      </para>
     157    </note>
     158
     159    <para>
     160      To create these RAID arrays the commands are:
     161    </para>
    128162
    129163<screen><userinput>/sbin/mdadm -Cv /dev/md0 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1
     
    133167        /dev/sda4 /dev/sdb4 /dev/sdc2 /dev/sdd2 </userinput></screen>
    134168
    135     <para>The devices created can be examined by device.  For example,
    136     to see the details of <filename>/dev/md1</filename>, use
    137     <userinput>/sbin/mdadm --detail /dev/md1</userinput>:  </para>
     169    <para>
     170      The devices created can be examined by device.  For example,
     171      to see the details of <filename>/dev/md1</filename>, use
     172      <userinput>/sbin/mdadm --detail /dev/md1</userinput>:
     173    </para>
    138174
    139175<screen><literal>        Version : 1.2
     
    161197       1       8       17        1      active sync   /dev/sdb1</literal></screen>
    162198
    163    <para>From this point, the partitions can be formated with the filesystem of
    164    choice (e.g. ext3, ext4, <xref linkend='xfsprogs'/>, <xref linkend='reiserfs'/>,
    165    etc).  The formatted partitions can then be mounted.  The
    166    <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> file can use the devices created for mounting at
    167    boot time and the linux command line in
    168    <filename>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</filename> can specify
    169    <option>root=/dev/md1</option>.</para>
    170 
    171    <note><para>The swap devices should be specified in the <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>
    172    file as normal.  The kernel normally stripes swap data across multiple swap
    173    files and should not be made part of a RAID array.</para></note>
    174 
    175    <para>For further options and management details of RAID devices, refer to
    176    <userinput>man mdadm</userinput>.</para>
    177 
    178    <para>Additional details for monitoring RAID arrays and dealing with
    179    problems can be found at the <ulink
    180    url="https://raid.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Linux_Raid">Linux RAID
    181    Wiki</ulink>.</para>
     199    <para>
     200      From this point, the partitions can be formated with the filesystem of
     201      choice (e.g. ext3, ext4, <xref linkend='xfsprogs'/>, <xref
     202      linkend='reiserfs'/>, etc).  The formatted partitions can then be
     203      mounted.  The <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> file can use the devices
     204      created for mounting at boot time and the linux command line in
     205      <filename>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</filename> can specify
     206      <option>root=/dev/md1</option>.
     207    </para>
     208
     209    <note>
     210      <para>
     211        The swap devices should be specified in the
     212        <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> file as normal.  The kernel normally
     213        stripes swap data across multiple swap files and should not be made
     214        part of a RAID array.
     215      </para>
     216    </note>
     217
     218    <para>
     219      For further options and management details of RAID devices, refer to
     220      <userinput>man mdadm</userinput>.
     221    </para>
     222
     223    <para>
     224      Additional details for monitoring RAID arrays and dealing with
     225      problems can be found at the <ulink
     226      url="https://raid.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Linux_Raid">Linux RAID
     227      Wiki</ulink>.
     228    </para>
    182229
    183230  </sect2>
  • postlfs/filesystems/btrfs-progs.xml

    r9bd10279 r29244b7  
    3030    <title>Introduction to btrfs-progs</title>
    3131
    32     <para>The <application>btrfs-progs</application> package contains administration
    33     and debugging tools for the B-tree file system (btrfs).</para>
     32    <para>
     33      The <application>btrfs-progs</application> package contains
     34      administration and debugging tools for the B-tree file system (btrfs).
     35    </para>
    3436
    3537    &lfs91_checked;
     
    3840    <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
    3941      <listitem>
    40         <para>Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&btrfs-progs-download-http;"/></para>
    41       </listitem>
    42       <listitem>
    43         <para>Download (FTP): <ulink url="&btrfs-progs-download-ftp;"/></para>
    44       </listitem>
    45       <listitem>
    46         <para>Download MD5 sum: &btrfs-progs-md5sum;</para>
    47       </listitem>
    48       <listitem>
    49         <para>Download size: &btrfs-progs-size;</para>
    50       </listitem>
    51       <listitem>
    52         <para>Estimated disk space required: &btrfs-progs-buildsize;</para>
    53       </listitem>
    54       <listitem>
    55         <para>Estimated build time: &btrfs-progs-time;</para>
     42        <para>
     43          Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&btrfs-progs-download-http;"/>
     44        </para>
     45      </listitem>
     46      <listitem>
     47        <para>
     48          Download (FTP): <ulink url="&btrfs-progs-download-ftp;"/>
     49        </para>
     50      </listitem>
     51      <listitem>
     52        <para>
     53          Download MD5 sum: &btrfs-progs-md5sum;
     54        </para>
     55      </listitem>
     56      <listitem>
     57        <para>
     58          Download size: &btrfs-progs-size;
     59        </para>
     60      </listitem>
     61      <listitem>
     62        <para>
     63          Estimated disk space required: &btrfs-progs-buildsize;
     64        </para>
     65      </listitem>
     66      <listitem>
     67        <para>
     68          Estimated build time: &btrfs-progs-time;
     69        </para>
    5670      </listitem>
    5771    </itemizedlist>
     
    8599    <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
    86100
    87     <para>Enable the following option in the kernel configuration
    88     and recompile the kernel:</para>
     101    <para>
     102      Enable the following option in the kernel configuration
     103      and recompile the kernel:
     104    </para>
    89105
    90106<screen><literal>File systems ---&gt;
    91107  &lt;*/M&gt; Btrfs filesystem support [CONFIG_BTRFS_FS]</literal></screen>
    92108
    93     <note><para>CONFIG_BTRFS_FS_POSIX_ACL and
    94     CONFIG_REISERFS_FS_XATTR are required for some tests.
    95     Other Btrfs options in the kernel are optional.</para></note>
     109    <note>
     110      <para>
     111        CONFIG_BTRFS_FS_POSIX_ACL and
     112        CONFIG_REISERFS_FS_XATTR are required for some tests.
     113        Other Btrfs options in the kernel are optional.
     114      </para>
     115    </note>
    96116
    97117    <indexterm zone="btrfs-progs btrfs-progs-kernel">
     
    104124    <title>Installation of btrfs-progs</title>
    105125
    106     <para>Install <application>btrfs-progs</application> by running the following
    107     commands:</para>
     126    <para>
     127      Install <application>btrfs-progs</application> by running the following
     128      commands:
     129    </para>
    108130
    109131<screen><userinput>./configure --prefix=/usr  \
     
    113135make</userinput></screen>
    114136
    115     <note><para>Some tests require grep built with perl regular expressions. To
    116     obtain this, rebuild grep with the LFS Chapter 6 instructions after
    117     installing <xref linkend="pcre"/>.</para></note>
    118 
    119     <para>Before running tests, build a support program and
    120     disable several that fail:</para>
     137    <note>
     138      <para>
     139        Some tests require grep built with perl regular expressions. To
     140        obtain this, rebuild grep with the LFS Chapter 6 instructions after
     141        installing <xref linkend="pcre"/>.
     142      </para>
     143    </note>
     144
     145    <para>
     146      Before running tests, build a support program and
     147      disable several that fail:
     148    </para>
    121149
    122150<screen remap="test"><userinput>make fssum &amp;&amp;
     
    131159mv tests/misc-tests/025-zstd-compression/test.sh{,.broken}</userinput></screen>
    132160
    133     <para>To test the results, issue (as the <systemitem
    134     class="username">root</systemitem> user): </para>
     161    <para>
     162      To test the results, issue (as the <systemitem
     163      class="username">root</systemitem> user):
     164    </para>
    135165
    136166<screen role="root" remap="test"><userinput>pushd tests
     
    143173popd</userinput></screen>
    144174
    145     <para>Install the package as the <systemitem
    146     class="username">root</systemitem> user:</para>
     175    <para>
     176      Install the package as the <systemitem
     177      class="username">root</systemitem> user:
     178    </para>
    147179
    148180<screen role="root"><userinput>make install &amp;&amp;
     
    158190    <title>Command Explanations</title>
    159191
    160     <para><option>--disable-documentation</option>: This option
    161     is needed if the recommended dependencies are not installed.</para>
    162 
    163     <para><command>mv tests/{cli,convert,misc,fuzz}-tests/ ...</command>: Disables
    164     tests that fail and prevent tests from completing.</para>
    165 
    166     <para><command>ln -s ... /usr/lib/libbtrfs.so</command>: Creates a
    167     symbolic link in the directory where it is expected.</para>
    168 
    169     <para><command>rm /lib/libbtrfs.{a,so}</command>: Removes unneeded
    170     library entries.</para>
     192    <para>
     193      <option>--disable-documentation</option>: This option
     194      is needed if the recommended dependencies are not installed.
     195    </para>
     196
     197    <para>
     198      <command>mv tests/{cli,convert,misc,fuzz}-tests/ ...</command>: Disables
     199      tests that fail and prevent tests from completing.
     200    </para>
     201
     202    <para>
     203      <command>ln -s ... /usr/lib/libbtrfs.so</command>: Creates a
     204      symbolic link in the directory where it is expected.
     205    </para>
     206
     207    <para>
     208      <command>rm /lib/libbtrfs.{a,so}</command>: Removes unneeded
     209      library entries.
     210    </para>
    171211
    172212  </sect2>
     
    295335        <term><command>mkfs.btrfs</command></term>
    296336        <listitem>
    297           <para>creates a btrfs file system.</para>
     337          <para>
     338            creates a btrfs file system.
     339          </para>
    298340          <indexterm zone="btrfs-progs mkfs.btrfs">
    299341            <primary sortas="b-mkfs.btrfs">mkfs.btrfs</primary>
  • postlfs/filesystems/dosfstools.xml

    r9bd10279 r29244b7  
    3030    <title>Introduction to dosfstools</title>
    3131
    32     <para>The <application>dosfstools</application> package contains various
    33     utilities for use with the FAT family of file systems.</para>
     32    <para>
     33      The <application>dosfstools</application> package contains various
     34      utilities for use with the FAT family of file systems.
     35    </para>
    3436
    3537    &lfs91_checked;
     
    3840    <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
    3941      <listitem>
    40         <para>Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&dosfstools-download-http;"/></para>
     42        <para>
     43          Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&dosfstools-download-http;"/>
     44        </para>
    4145      </listitem>
    4246      <listitem>
    43         <para>Download (FTP): <ulink url="&dosfstools-download-ftp;"/></para>
     47        <para>
     48          Download (FTP): <ulink url="&dosfstools-download-ftp;"/>
     49        </para>
    4450      </listitem>
    4551      <listitem>
    46         <para>Download MD5 sum: &dosfstools-md5sum;</para>
     52        <para>
     53          Download MD5 sum: &dosfstools-md5sum;
     54        </para>
    4755      </listitem>
    4856      <listitem>
    49         <para>Download size: &dosfstools-size;</para>
     57        <para>
     58          Download size: &dosfstools-size;
     59        </para>
    5060      </listitem>
    5161      <listitem>
    52         <para>Estimated disk space required: &dosfstools-buildsize;</para>
     62        <para>
     63          Estimated disk space required: &dosfstools-buildsize;
     64        </para>
    5365      </listitem>
    5466      <listitem>
    55         <para>Estimated build time: &dosfstools-time;</para>
     67        <para>
     68          Estimated build time: &dosfstools-time;
     69        </para>
    5670      </listitem>
    5771    </itemizedlist>
     
    6579    <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
    6680
    67     <para>Enable the following option in the kernel configuration
    68     and recompile the kernel:</para>
     81    <para>
     82      Enable the following option in the kernel configuration
     83      and recompile the kernel:
     84    </para>
    6985
    7086<screen><literal>File systems ---&gt;
     
    8298    <title>Installation of dosfstools</title>
    8399
    84     <para>Install <application>dosfstools</application> by running the
    85     following commands:</para>
     100    <para>
     101      Install <application>dosfstools</application> by running the
     102      following commands:
     103    </para>
    86104
    87105<screen><userinput>./configure --prefix=/               \
     
    91109make</userinput></screen>
    92110
    93     <para>This package does not come with a test suite.</para>
     111    <para>
     112      This package does not come with a test suite.
     113    </para>
    94114
    95     <para>Now, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>
    96     user:</para>
     115    <para>
     116      Now, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
     117    </para>
    97118
    98119<screen role="root"><userinput>make install</userinput></screen>
     
    135156        <term><command>fatlabel</command></term>
    136157        <listitem>
    137           <para>set or get a MS-DOS filesystem label from a given
    138           device</para>
     158          <para>
     159            sets or gets a MS-DOS filesystem label from a given device.
     160          </para>
    139161          <indexterm zone="dosfstools fatlabel">
    140162            <primary sortas="b-fatlabel">fatlabel</primary>
     
    146168        <term><command>fsck.fat</command></term>
    147169        <listitem>
    148           <para>check and repair MS-DOS filesystems</para>
     170          <para>
     171            checks and repairs MS-DOS filesystems.
     172          </para>
    149173          <indexterm zone="dosfstools fsckfat">
    150174            <primary sortas="b-fsckfat">fsck.fat</primary>
     
    156180        <term><command>mkfs.fat</command></term>
    157181        <listitem>
    158           <para>create an MS-DOS filesystem under Linux</para>
     182          <para>
     183            creates an MS-DOS filesystem under Linux.
     184          </para>
    159185          <indexterm zone="dosfstools mkfsfat">
    160186            <primary sortas="b-mkfsfat">mkfs.fat</primary>
  • postlfs/filesystems/filesystems.xml

    r9bd10279 r29244b7  
    1616  <title>File Systems and Disk Management</title>
    1717
    18   <para>Journaling file systems reduce the time needed to recover a file system
    19   that was not unmounted properly.  While this can be extremely important in
    20   reducing downtime for servers, it has also become popular for desktop
    21   environments.  This chapter contains other journaling file systems you can
    22   use instead of the default LFS extended file system (ext2/3/4). It also
    23   provides introductory material on managing disk arrays.</para>
     18  <para>
     19    Journaling file systems reduce the time needed to recover a file system
     20    that was not unmounted properly.  While this can be extremely important in
     21    reducing downtime for servers, it has also become popular for desktop
     22    environments.  This chapter contains other journaling file systems you can
     23    use instead of the default LFS extended file system (ext2/3/4). It also
     24    provides introductory material on managing disk arrays.
     25  </para>
    2426
    2527  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="initramfs.xml"/>
  • postlfs/filesystems/gptfdisk.xml

    r9bd10279 r29244b7  
    4444    <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
    4545      <listitem>
    46         <para>Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&gptfdisk-download-http;"/></para>
    47       </listitem>
    48       <listitem>
    49         <para>Download (FTP): <ulink url="&gptfdisk-download-ftp;"/></para>
    50       </listitem>
    51       <listitem>
    52         <para>Download MD5 sum: &gptfdisk-md5sum;</para>
    53       </listitem>
    54       <listitem>
    55         <para>Download size: &gptfdisk-size;</para>
    56       </listitem>
    57       <listitem>
    58         <para>Estimated disk space required: &gptfdisk-buildsize;</para>
    59       </listitem>
    60       <listitem>
    61         <para>Estimated build time: &gptfdisk-time;</para>
     46        <para>
     47          Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&gptfdisk-download-http;"/>
     48        </para>
     49      </listitem>
     50      <listitem>
     51        <para>
     52          Download (FTP): <ulink url="&gptfdisk-download-ftp;"/>
     53        </para>
     54      </listitem>
     55      <listitem>
     56        <para>
     57          Download MD5 sum: &gptfdisk-md5sum;
     58        </para>
     59      </listitem>
     60      <listitem>
     61        <para>
     62          Download size: &gptfdisk-size;
     63        </para>
     64      </listitem>
     65      <listitem>
     66        <para>
     67          Estimated disk space required: &gptfdisk-buildsize;
     68        </para>
     69      </listitem>
     70      <listitem>
     71        <para>
     72          Estimated build time: &gptfdisk-time;
     73        </para>
    6274      </listitem>
    6375    </itemizedlist>
     
    6678    <itemizedlist spacing='compact'>
    6779      <listitem>
    68         <para>Recommended patch: <ulink
    69           url="&patch-root;/gptfdisk-&gptfdisk-version;-convenience-1.patch"/></para>
     80        <para>
     81          Recommended patch: <ulink url=
     82            "&patch-root;/gptfdisk-&gptfdisk-version;-convenience-1.patch"/>
     83        </para>
    7084      </listitem>
    7185    </itemizedlist>
     
    148162        <term><command>cgdisk</command></term>
    149163        <listitem>
    150           <para>is an ncurses-based tool for
    151           manipulating GPT partitions.</para>
     164          <para>
     165            is an ncurses-based tool for manipulating GPT partitions.
     166          </para>
    152167          <indexterm zone="gptfdisk cgdisk">
    153168            <primary sortas="b-cgdisk">cgdisk</primary>
     
    159174        <term><command>gdisk</command></term>
    160175        <listitem>
    161           <para>is an interactive text-mode tool
    162           for manipulating GPT partitions.</para>
     176          <para>
     177            is an interactive text-mode tool for manipulating GPT partitions.
     178          </para>
    163179          <indexterm zone="gptfdisk gdisk">
    164180            <primary sortas="b-gdisk">gdisk</primary>
     
    170186        <term><command>fixparts</command></term>
    171187        <listitem>
    172           <para>repairs mis-formatted MBR based disk partitions.</para>
     188          <para>
     189            repairs mis-formatted MBR based disk partitions.
     190          </para>
    173191          <indexterm zone="gptfdisk fixparts">
    174192            <primary sortas="b-fixparts">fixparts</primary>
     
    180198        <term><command>sgdisk</command></term>
    181199        <listitem>
    182           <para>is a partition manipulation program for
    183           GPT partitions similar to <command>sfdisk</command>.</para>
     200          <para>
     201            is a partition manipulation program for
     202            GPT partitions similar to <command>sfdisk</command>.
     203          </para>
    184204          <indexterm zone="gptfdisk sgdisk">
    185205            <primary sortas="b-sgdisk">sgdisk</primary>
  • postlfs/filesystems/initramfs.xml

    r9bd10279 r29244b7  
    1616  <title>About initramfs</title>
    1717
    18   <para>The only purpose of an initramfs is to mount the root filesystem.  The
    19   initramfs is a complete set of directories that you would find on a normal
    20   root filesystem.  It is bundled into a single cpio archive and compressed
    21   with one of several compression algorithms.</para>
    22 
    23   <para>At boot time, the boot loader loads the kernel and the initramfs image
    24   into memory and starts the kernel.  The kernel checks for the presence of the
    25   initramfs and, if found, mounts it as / and runs /init. The init program is
    26   typically a shell script.  Note that the boot process takes longer, possibly
    27   significantly longer, if an initramfs is used.</para>
    28 
    29   <para>For most distributions, kernel modules are the biggest reason to have an
    30   initramfs.  In a general distribution, there are many unknowns such as file
    31   system types and disk layouts.  In a way, this is the opposite of LFS where
    32   the system capabilities and layout are known and a custom kernel is normally
    33   built.  In this situation, an initramfs is rarely needed.</para>
    34 
    35   <para>There are only four primary reasons to have an initramfs in the LFS
    36   environment: loading the rootfs from a network, loading it from an LVM
    37   logical volume, having an encrypted rootfs where a password is required, or
    38   for the convenience of specifying the rootfs as a LABEL or UUID.  Anything
    39   else usually means that the kernel was not configured properly.</para>
     18  <para>
     19    The only purpose of an initramfs is to mount the root filesystem.  The
     20    initramfs is a complete set of directories that you would find on a normal
     21    root filesystem.  It is bundled into a single cpio archive and compressed
     22    with one of several compression algorithms.
     23  </para>
     24
     25  <para>
     26    At boot time, the boot loader loads the kernel and the initramfs image
     27    into memory and starts the kernel.  The kernel checks for the presence
     28    of the initramfs and, if found, mounts it as / and runs /init. The init
     29    program is typically a shell script.  Note that the boot process takes
     30    longer, possibly significantly longer, if an initramfs is used.
     31  </para>
     32
     33  <para>
     34    For most distributions, kernel modules are the biggest reason to have
     35    an initramfs.  In a general distribution, there are many unknowns such
     36    as file system types and disk layouts.  In a way, this is the opposite
     37    of LFS where the system capabilities and layout are known and a custom
     38    kernel is normally built.  In this situation, an initramfs is rarely
     39    needed.
     40  </para>
     41
     42  <para>
     43    There are only four primary reasons to have an initramfs in the LFS
     44    environment: loading the rootfs from a network, loading it from an LVM
     45    logical volume, having an encrypted rootfs where a password is required, or
     46    for the convenience of specifying the rootfs as a LABEL or UUID.  Anything
     47    else usually means that the kernel was not configured properly.
     48  </para>
    4049
    4150  <sect2 id="initramfs-build">
    4251    <title>Building an initramfs</title>
    4352
    44     <para>If you do decide to build an initramfs, the following scripts
    45     will provide a basis to do it.  The scripts will allow specifying a
    46     rootfs via partition UUID or partition LABEL or a rootfs on an
    47     LVM logical volume.  They do not support an encrypted root file system
    48     or mounting the rootfs over a network card.  For a more complete
    49     capability see <ulink url="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/read.html">
    50     the LFS Hints</ulink> or <ulink url="http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Dracut">
    51     dracut</ulink>.</para>
    52 
    53     <para>To install these scripts, run the following commands as the
    54     <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:</para>
     53    <para>
     54      If you do decide to build an initramfs, the following scripts will
     55      provide a basis to do it.  The scripts will allow specifying a rootfs
     56      via partition UUID or partition LABEL or a rootfs on an LVM logical
     57      volume.  They do not support an encrypted root file system or mounting
     58      the rootfs over a network card.  For a more complete capability see
     59      <ulink url="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/read.html"> the LFS
     60      Hints</ulink> or <ulink
     61      url="http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Dracut">dracut</ulink>.
     62    </para>
     63
     64    <para>
     65      To install these scripts, run the following commands as the
     66      <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
     67    </para>
    5568
    5669    <screen role="root"><userinput>cat &gt; /sbin/mkinitramfs &lt;&lt; "EOF"
     
    434447
    435448
    436     <para>To build an initramfs, run the following as the  <systemitem
    437     class="username">root</systemitem> user:</para>
     449    <para>
     450      To build an initramfs, run the following as the  <systemitem
     451      class="username">root</systemitem> user:
     452    </para>
    438453
    439454    <screen role="nodump"><userinput>mkinitramfs [KERNEL VERSION]</userinput></screen>
    440455
    441     <para>The optional argument is the directory where the appropriate kernel
    442     modules are located. This must be a subdirectory of <filename
    443     class='directory'> /lib/modules</filename>.  If no modules are specified,
    444     then the initramfs is named <emphasis>initrd.img-no-kmods</emphasis>.  If a
    445     kernel version is specified, the initrd is named
    446     <emphasis>initrd.img-$KERNEL_VERSION</emphasis> and is only appropriate for
    447     the specific kernel specified. The output file will be placed in the
    448     current directory.</para>
    449 
    450     <para>If early loading of microcode is needed (see <xref
    451     linkend="cpu-microcode"/>), you can install the appropriate blob or
    452     container in <filename class="directory">/lib/firmware</filename>.
    453     It will be automatically added to the initrd when running
    454     <command>mkinitramfs</command>.</para>
    455 
    456     <para>After generating the initrd, copy it to the <filename
    457     class='directory'>/boot</filename> directory.</para>
    458 
    459     <para>Now edit <filename>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</filename> and add a new
    460     menuentry.  Below are several examples.</para>
     456    <para>
     457      The optional argument is the directory where the appropriate kernel
     458      modules are located. This must be a subdirectory of <filename
     459      class='directory'> /lib/modules</filename>.  If no modules are specified,
     460      then the initramfs is named <emphasis>initrd.img-no-kmods</emphasis>.
     461      If a kernel version is specified, the initrd is named
     462      <emphasis>initrd.img-$KERNEL_VERSION</emphasis> and is only appropriate
     463      for the specific kernel specified. The output file will be placed in the
     464      current directory.
     465    </para>
     466
     467    <para>
     468      If early loading of microcode is needed (see <xref
     469      linkend="cpu-microcode"/>), you can install the appropriate blob or
     470      container in <filename class="directory">/lib/firmware</filename>.
     471      It will be automatically added to the initrd when running
     472      <command>mkinitramfs</command>.
     473    </para>
     474
     475    <para>
     476      After generating the initrd, copy it to the <filename
     477      class='directory'>/boot</filename> directory.
     478    </para>
     479
     480    <para>
     481      Now edit <filename>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</filename> and add a new
     482      menuentry.  Below are several examples.
     483    </para>
    461484
    462485     <screen role="nodump"><userinput># Generic initramfs and root fs identified by UUID
     
    481504}</userinput></screen>
    482505
    483     <para>Finally, reboot the system and select the desired system.</para>
     506    <para>
     507      Finally, reboot the system and select the desired system.
     508    </para>
    484509
    485510  </sect2>
  • postlfs/filesystems/jfs.xml

    r9bd10279 r29244b7  
    3030    <title>Introduction to jfsutils</title>
    3131
    32     <para>The <application>jfsutils</application> package contains administration
    33     and debugging tools for the jfs file system.</para>
     32    <para>
     33      The <application>jfsutils</application> package contains administration
     34      and debugging tools for the jfs file system.
     35    </para>
    3436
    3537    &lfs91_checked;
     
    3840    <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
    3941      <listitem>
    40         <para>Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&jfsutils-download-http;"/></para>
    41       </listitem>
    42       <listitem>
    43         <para>Download (FTP): <ulink url="&jfsutils-download-ftp;"/></para>
    44       </listitem>
    45       <listitem>
    46         <para>Download MD5 sum: &jfsutils-md5sum;</para>
    47       </listitem>
    48       <listitem>
    49         <para>Download size: &jfsutils-size;</para>
    50       </listitem>
    51       <listitem>
    52         <para>Estimated disk space required: &jfsutils-buildsize;</para>
    53       </listitem>
    54       <listitem>
    55         <para>Estimated build time: &jfsutils-time;</para>
     42        <para>
     43          Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&jfsutils-download-http;"/>
     44        </para>
     45      </listitem>
     46      <listitem>
     47        <para>
     48          Download (FTP): <ulink url="&jfsutils-download-ftp;"/>
     49        </para>
     50      </listitem>
     51      <listitem>
     52        <para>
     53          Download MD5 sum: &jfsutils-md5sum;
     54        </para>
     55      </listitem>
     56      <listitem>
     57        <para>
     58          Download size: &jfsutils-size;
     59        </para>
     60      </listitem>
     61      <listitem>
     62        <para>
     63          Estimated disk space required: &jfsutils-buildsize;
     64        </para>
     65      </listitem>
     66      <listitem>
     67        <para>
     68          Estimated build time: &jfsutils-time;
     69        </para>
    5670      </listitem>
    5771    </itemizedlist>
     
    6579    <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
    6680
    67     <para>Enable the following option in the kernel configuration
    68     and recompile the kernel:</para>
     81    <para>
     82      Enable the following option in the kernel configuration
     83      and recompile the kernel:
     84    </para>
    6985
    7086<screen><literal>File systems  ---&gt;
     
    8096    <title>Installation of jfsutils</title>
    8197
    82     <para>Install <application>jfsutils</application> by running the following
    83     commands:</para>
     98    <para>
     99      Install <application>jfsutils</application> by running the following
     100      commands:
     101    </para>
    84102
    85103<screen><userinput>sed -i "/unistd.h/a#include &lt;sys/types.h&gt;"    fscklog/extract.c &amp;&amp;
     
    89107make</userinput></screen>
    90108
    91     <para>This package does not come with a test suite.</para>
    92 
    93     <para>Now, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:</para>
     109    <para>
     110      This package does not come with a test suite.
     111    </para>
     112
     113    <para>
     114      Now, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
     115    </para>
    94116
    95117<screen role="root"><userinput>make install</userinput></screen>
     
    130152        <term><command>fsck.jfs</command></term>
    131153        <listitem>
    132           <para>is used to replay the JFS transaction log, check a
    133           JFS formatted device for errors, and fix any errors found.</para>
     154          <para>
     155            is used to replay the JFS transaction log, check a
     156            JFS formatted device for errors, and fix any errors found.
     157          </para>
    134158          <indexterm zone="jfsutils fsck.jfs">
    135159            <primary sortas="b-fsck.jfs">fsck.jfs</primary>
     
    141165        <term><command>jfs_fsck</command></term>
    142166        <listitem>
    143           <para>is a hard link to fsck.jfs.</para>
     167          <para>
     168            is a hard link to fsck.jfs.
     169          </para>
    144170          <indexterm zone="jfsutils jfs_fsck">
    145171            <primary sortas="b-jfs_fsck">jfs_fsck</primary>
     
    151177        <term><command>mkfs.jfs</command></term>
    152178        <listitem>
    153           <para>constructs an JFS file system.</para>
     179          <para>
     180            constructs an JFS file system.
     181          </para>
    154182          <indexterm zone="jfsutils mkfs.jfs">
    155183            <primary sortas="b-mkfs.jfs">mkfs.jfs</primary>
     
    161189        <term><command>jfs_mkfs</command></term>
    162190        <listitem>
    163           <para>is a hard link to mkfs.jfs.</para>
     191          <para>
     192            is a hard link to mkfs.jfs.
     193          </para>
    164194          <indexterm zone="jfsutils jfs_mkfs">
    165195            <primary sortas="b-jfs_mkfs">jfs_mkfs</primary>
     
    171201        <term><command>jfs_debugfs</command></term>
    172202        <listitem>
    173           <para>is a program which can be used to perform various low-level
    174           actions on a JFS formatted device.</para>
     203          <para>
     204            is a program which can be used to perform various low-level
     205            actions on a JFS formatted device.
     206          </para>
    175207          <indexterm zone="jfsutils jfs_debugfs">
    176208            <primary sortas="b-jfs_debugfs">jfs_debugfs</primary>
     
    182214        <term><command>jfs_fscklog</command></term>
    183215        <listitem>
    184           <para>extracts a JFS fsck service log into a file and/or formats and
    185           displays the extracted file.</para>
     216          <para>
     217            extracts a JFS fsck service log into a file and/or formats and
     218            displays the extracted file.
     219          </para>
    186220          <indexterm zone="jfsutils jfs_fscklog">
    187221            <primary sortas="b-jfs_fscklog">jfs_fscklog</primary>
     
    193227        <term><command>jfs_logdump</command></term>
    194228        <listitem>
    195           <para>dumps the contents of the journal log from the specified
    196           JFS formatted device into output file ./jfslog.dmp.</para>
     229          <para>
     230            dumps the contents of the journal log from the specified
     231            JFS formatted device into output file ./jfslog.dmp.
     232          </para>
    197233          <indexterm zone="jfsutils jfs_logdump">
    198234            <primary sortas="b-jfs_logdump">jfs_logdump</primary>
     
    204240        <term><command>jfs_tune</command></term>
    205241        <listitem>
    206           <para>adjusts tunable file system parameters on JFS file systems.</para>
     242          <para>
     243            adjusts tunable file system parameters on JFS file systems.
     244          </para>
    207245          <indexterm zone="jfsutils jfs_tune">
    208246            <primary sortas="b-jfs_tune">jfs_tune</primary>
  • postlfs/filesystems/mdadm.xml

    r9bd10279 r29244b7  
    3030    <title>Introduction to mdadm</title>
    3131
    32     <para>The <application>mdadm</application> package contains administration
    33     tools for software RAID.</para>
     32    <para>
     33      The <application>mdadm</application> package contains administration
     34      tools for software RAID.
     35    </para>
    3436
    3537    &lfs91_checked;
     
    3840    <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
    3941      <listitem>
    40         <para>Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&mdadm-download-http;"/></para>
    41       </listitem>
    42       <listitem>
    43         <para>Download (FTP): <ulink url="&mdadm-download-ftp;"/></para>
    44       </listitem>
    45       <listitem>
    46         <para>Download MD5 sum: &mdadm-md5sum;</para>
    47       </listitem>
    48       <listitem>
    49         <para>Download size: &mdadm-size;</para>
    50       </listitem>
    51       <listitem>
    52         <para>Estimated disk space required: &mdadm-buildsize;</para>
    53       </listitem>
    54       <listitem>
    55         <para>Estimated build time: &mdadm-time;</para>
     42        <para>
     43          Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&mdadm-download-http;"/>
     44        </para>
     45      </listitem>
     46      <listitem>
     47        <para>
     48          Download (FTP): <ulink url="&mdadm-download-ftp;"/>
     49        </para>
     50      </listitem>
     51      <listitem>
     52        <para>
     53          Download MD5 sum: &mdadm-md5sum;
     54        </para>
     55      </listitem>
     56      <listitem>
     57        <para>
     58          Download size: &mdadm-size;
     59        </para>
     60      </listitem>
     61      <listitem>
     62        <para>
     63          Estimated disk space required: &mdadm-buildsize;
     64        </para>
     65      </listitem>
     66      <listitem>
     67        <para>
     68          Estimated build time: &mdadm-time;
     69        </para>
    5670      </listitem>
    5771    </itemizedlist>
     
    7993    <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
    8094
    81     <para>Enable the following options in the kernel configuration
    82     and recompile the kernel, if necessary.  Only the RAID types desired
    83     are required.</para>
     95    <para>
     96      Enable the following options in the kernel configuration
     97      and recompile the kernel, if necessary.  Only the RAID types desired
     98      are required.
     99    </para>
    84100
    85101<screen><literal>Device Drivers ---&gt;
     
    102118    <title>Installation of mdadm</title>
    103119
    104     <para>Fix a build error introduced by gcc-7.1:</para>
     120    <para>
     121      Fix a build error introduced by gcc-7.1:
     122    </para>
    105123
    106124<screen><userinput>sed 's@-Werror@@' -i Makefile</userinput></screen>
    107125
    108     <para>Build <application>mdadm</application> by running the following
    109     command:</para>
     126    <para>
     127      Build <application>mdadm</application> by running the following
     128      command:
     129    </para>
    110130
    111131<screen><userinput>make</userinput></screen>
    112132
    113     <para>If you wish to run the tests, ensure that your kernel supports
    114     RAID and that a version of mdadm is not already running.  As many as 9 out
    115     of 124 tests may fail.</para>
    116 
    117     <caution><para>The tests edit values in /proc and run tests on software raid devices.
    118      They shouldn't be run on systems with active software RAID devices.</para></caution>
    119 
    120     <para>Run the tests as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:</para>
     133    <para>
     134      If you wish to run the tests, ensure that your kernel supports RAID
     135      and that a version of mdadm is not already running.  As many as 9 out
     136      of 124 tests may fail.
     137    </para>
     138
     139    <caution>
     140      <para>
     141        The tests edit values in /proc and run tests on software raid devices.
     142        They shouldn't be run on systems with active software RAID devices.
     143      </para>
     144    </caution>
     145
     146    <para>
     147      Run the tests as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
     148    </para>
    121149
    122150<screen role="root"
    123151        remap="test"><userinput>./test --keep-going --logdir=test-logs --save-logs</userinput></screen>
    124152
    125     <para>Now, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:</para>
     153    <para>
     154      Now, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
     155    </para>
    126156
    127157<screen role="root"><userinput>make install</userinput></screen>
     
    186216        <term><command>mdadm</command></term>
    187217        <listitem>
    188           <para>manages MD devices aka Linux Software RAID.</para>
     218          <para>
     219            manages MD devices aka Linux Software RAID.
     220          </para>
    189221          <indexterm zone="mdadm mdadm-prog">
    190222            <primary sortas="b-mdadm-prog">mdadm</primary>
     
    196228        <term><command>mdmon</command></term>
    197229        <listitem>
    198           <para>monitors MD external metadata arrays.</para>
     230          <para>
     231            monitors MD external metadata arrays.
     232          </para>
    199233          <indexterm zone="mdadm mdmon">
    200234            <primary sortas="b-mdmon">mdmon</primary>
     
    206240        <term><command>mdassemble</command></term>
    207241        <listitem>
    208           <para>is a tiny program that can be used to assemble MD devices
    209           inside an initial ramdisk (initrd) or initramfs.</para>
     242          <para>
     243            is a tiny program that can be used to assemble MD devices
     244            inside an initial ramdisk (initrd) or initramfs.
     245          </para>
    210246          <indexterm zone="mdadm mdassemble">
    211247            <primary sortas="b-mdassemble">mdassemble</primary>
  • postlfs/filesystems/parted.xml

    r9bd10279 r29244b7  
    4040    <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
    4141      <listitem>
    42         <para>Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&parted-download-http;"/></para>
    43       </listitem>
    44       <listitem>
    45         <para>Download (FTP): <ulink url="&parted-download-ftp;"/></para>
    46       </listitem>
    47       <listitem>
    48         <para>Download MD5 sum: &parted-md5sum;</para>
    49       </listitem>
    50       <listitem>
    51         <para>Download size: &parted-size;</para>
    52       </listitem>
    53       <listitem>
    54         <para>Estimated disk space required: &parted-buildsize;</para>
    55       </listitem>
    56       <listitem>
    57         <para>Estimated build time: &parted-time;</para>
     42        <para>
     43          Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&parted-download-http;"/>
     44        </para>
     45      </listitem>
     46      <listitem>
     47        <para>
     48          Download (FTP): <ulink url="&parted-download-ftp;"/>
     49        </para>
     50      </listitem>
     51      <listitem>
     52        <para>
     53          Download MD5 sum: &parted-md5sum;
     54        </para>
     55      </listitem>
     56      <listitem>
     57        <para>
     58          Download size: &parted-size;
     59        </para>
     60      </listitem>
     61      <listitem>
     62        <para>
     63          Estimated disk space required: &parted-buildsize;
     64        </para>
     65      </listitem>
     66      <listitem>
     67        <para>
     68          Estimated build time: &parted-time;
     69        </para>
    5870      </listitem>
    5971    </itemizedlist>
     
    6375        <listitem>
    6476          <para>
    65              Optional, to fix build without device mapper support:
    66             <ulink url="&patch-root;/parted-&parted-version;-devmapper-1.patch"/>
     77             Optional, to fix build without device mapper support: <ulink
     78              url="&patch-root;/parted-&parted-version;-devmapper-1.patch"/>
    6779          </para>
    6880        </listitem>
     
    111123makeinfo --plaintext -o doc/parted.txt doc/parted.texi</userinput></screen>
    112124
    113     <para>If you have <xref linkend="texlive"/> installed and wish to create
    114     PDF and Postcript documentation issue the following commands:</para>
     125    <para>
     126      If you have <xref linkend="texlive"/> installed and wish to create
     127      PDF and Postcript documentation issue the following commands:
     128    </para>
    115129
    116130<screen remap="doc"><userinput>texi2pdf             -o doc/parted.pdf doc/parted.texi &amp;&amp;
     
    118132dvips                -o doc/parted.ps  doc/parted.dvi</userinput></screen>
    119133
    120     <para>If you wish to run the test suite, first remove a couple of tests
    121     that are known to fail in a BLFS environment:</para>
     134    <para>
     135      If you wish to run the test suite, first remove a couple of tests
     136      that are known to fail in a BLFS environment:
     137    </para>
    122138 <!-- One of these is due to a C locale, and another is a problem in LVM. -->
    123139<screen remap="test"><userinput>sed -i '/t0251-gpt-unicode.sh/d' tests/Makefile &amp;&amp;
     
    150166                    /usr/share/doc/parted-&parted-version;</userinput></screen>
    151167
    152     <para>Install the optional PDF and Postscript documentation by issuing
    153     the following command as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>
    154     user:</para>
     168    <para>
     169      Install the optional PDF and Postscript documentation by issuing the
     170      following command as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>
     171      user:
     172    </para>
    155173
    156174<screen role="root"
     
    202220        <term><command>parted</command></term>
    203221        <listitem>
    204           <para>is a partition manipulation program.</para>
     222          <para>
     223            is a partition manipulation program.
     224          </para>
    205225          <indexterm zone="parted parted-prog">
    206226            <primary sortas="b-parted">parted</primary>
     
    212232        <term><command>partprobe</command></term>
    213233        <listitem>
    214           <para>informs the OS of partition table changes.</para>
     234          <para>
     235            informs the OS of partition table changes.
     236          </para>
    215237          <indexterm zone="parted partprobe">
    216238            <primary sortas="b-partprobe">partprobe</primary>
  • postlfs/filesystems/reiser.xml

    r9bd10279 r29244b7  
    3030    <title>Introduction to reiserfsprogs</title>
    3131
    32     <para>The <application>reiserfsprogs</application> package contains various
    33     utilities for use with the Reiser file system.</para>
     32    <para>
     33      The <application>reiserfsprogs</application> package contains various
     34      utilities for use with the Reiser file system.
     35    </para>
    3436
    3537    &lfs91_checked;
     
    3840    <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
    3941      <listitem>
    40         <para>Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&reiser-download-http;"/></para>
    41       </listitem>
    42       <listitem>
    43         <para>Download (FTP): <ulink url="&reiser-download-ftp;"/></para>
    44       </listitem>
    45       <listitem>
    46         <para>Download MD5 sum: &reiser-md5sum;</para>
    47       </listitem>
    48       <listitem>
    49         <para>Download size: &reiser-size;</para>
    50       </listitem>
    51       <listitem>
    52         <para>Estimated disk space required: &reiser-buildsize;</para>
    53       </listitem>
    54       <listitem>
    55         <para>Estimated build time: &reiser-time;</para>
     42        <para>
     43          Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&reiser-download-http;"/>
     44        </para>
     45      </listitem>
     46      <listitem>
     47        <para>
     48          Download (FTP): <ulink url="&reiser-download-ftp;"/>
     49        </para>
     50      </listitem>
     51      <listitem>
     52        <para>
     53          Download MD5 sum: &reiser-md5sum;
     54        </para>
     55      </listitem>
     56      <listitem>
     57        <para>
     58          Download size: &reiser-size;
     59        </para>
     60      </listitem>
     61      <listitem>
     62        <para>
     63          Estimated disk space required: &reiser-buildsize;
     64        </para>
     65      </listitem>
     66      <listitem>
     67        <para>
     68          Estimated build time: &reiser-time;
     69        </para>
    5670      </listitem>
    5771    </itemizedlist>
     
    6579    <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
    6680
    67     <para>Enable the following option in the kernel configuration
    68     and recompile the kernel:</para>
     81    <para>
     82      Enable the following option in the kernel configuration
     83      and recompile the kernel:
     84    </para>
    6985
    7086<screen><literal>File systems ---&gt;
     
    8096    <title>Installation of reiserfsprogs</title>
    8197
    82     <para>Install <application>reiserfsprogs</application> by running the following
    83     commands:</para>
     98    <para>
     99      Install <application>reiserfsprogs</application> by running the following
     100      commands:
     101    </para>
    84102
    85103<screen><userinput>sed -i '/parse_time.h/i #define _GNU_SOURCE' lib/parse_time.c &amp;&amp;
     
    90108make</userinput></screen>
    91109
    92     <para>This package does not come with a test suite.</para>
    93 
    94     <para>Now, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:</para>
     110    <para>
     111      This package does not come with a test suite.
     112    </para>
     113
     114    <para>
     115      Now, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
     116    </para>
    95117
    96118<screen role="root"><userinput>make install</userinput></screen>
     
    138160        <term><command>debugreiserfs</command></term>
    139161        <listitem>
    140           <para>can sometimes help to solve problems with
    141           <application>ReiserFS</application> file systems. If it is called
    142           without options, it prints the super block of any
    143           <application>ReiserFS</application> file
    144           system found on the device.</para>
     162          <para>
     163            can sometimes help to solve problems with
     164            <application>ReiserFS</application> file systems. If it is called
     165            without options, it prints the super block of any
     166            <application>ReiserFS</application> file
     167            system found on the device.
     168          </para>
    145169          <indexterm zone="reiserfs debugreiserfs">
    146170            <primary sortas="b-debugreiserfs">debugreiserfs</primary>
     
    152176        <term><command>mkreiserfs</command></term>
    153177        <listitem>
    154           <para>creates a <application>ReiserFS</application> file system.</para>
     178          <para>
     179            creates a <application>ReiserFS</application> file system.
     180          </para>
    155181          <indexterm zone="reiserfs mkreiserfs">
    156182            <primary sortas="b-mkreiserfs">mkreiserfs</primary>
     
    162188        <term><command>reiserfsck</command></term>
    163189        <listitem>
    164           <para>is used to check or repair a
    165           <application>ReiserFS</application> file system.</para>
     190          <para>
     191            is used to check or repair a
     192            <application>ReiserFS</application> file system.
     193          </para>
    166194          <indexterm zone="reiserfs reiserfsck">
    167195            <primary sortas="b-reiserfsck">reiserfsck</primary>
     
    173201        <term><command>reiserfstune</command></term>
    174202        <listitem>
    175           <para>is used for tuning the <application>ReiserFS</application>
    176           journal. <emphasis>WARNING</emphasis>: Don't use this utility without
    177           first reading the man page thoroughly.</para>
     203          <para>
     204            is used for tuning the <application>ReiserFS</application>
     205            journal. <emphasis>WARNING</emphasis>: Don't use this utility
     206            without first reading the man page thoroughly.
     207          </para>
    178208          <indexterm zone="reiserfs reiserfstune">
    179209            <primary sortas="b-reiserfstune">reiserfstune</primary>
     
    185215        <term><command>resize_reiserfs</command></term>
    186216        <listitem>
    187           <para>is used to resize an unmounted
    188           <application>ReiserFS</application> file system.</para>
     217          <para>
     218            is used to resize an unmounted
     219            <application>ReiserFS</application> file system.
     220          </para>
    189221          <indexterm zone="reiserfs resize_reiserfs">
    190222            <primary sortas="b-resize_reiserfs">resize_reiserfs</primary>
  • postlfs/filesystems/smartmontools.xml

    r9bd10279 r29244b7  
    4242    <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
    4343      <listitem>
    44         <para>Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&smartmontools-download-http;"/></para>
    45       </listitem>
    46       <listitem>
    47         <para>Download (FTP): <ulink url="&smartmontools-download-ftp;"/></para>
    48       </listitem>
    49       <listitem>
    50         <para>Download MD5 sum: &smartmontools-md5sum;</para>
    51       </listitem>
    52       <listitem>
    53         <para>Download size: &smartmontools-size;</para>
    54       </listitem>
    55       <listitem>
    56         <para>Estimated disk space required: &smartmontools-buildsize;</para>
    57       </listitem>
    58       <listitem>
    59         <para>Estimated build time: &smartmontools-time;</para>
     44        <para>
     45          Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&smartmontools-download-http;"/>
     46        </para>
     47      </listitem>
     48      <listitem>
     49        <para>
     50          Download (FTP): <ulink url="&smartmontools-download-ftp;"/>
     51        </para>
     52      </listitem>
     53      <listitem>
     54        <para>
     55          Download MD5 sum: &smartmontools-md5sum;
     56        </para>
     57      </listitem>
     58      <listitem>
     59        <para>
     60          Download size: &smartmontools-size;
     61        </para>
     62      </listitem>
     63      <listitem>
     64        <para>
     65          Estimated disk space required: &smartmontools-buildsize;
     66        </para>
     67      </listitem>
     68      <listitem>
     69        <para>
     70          Estimated build time: &smartmontools-time;
     71        </para>
    6072      </listitem>
    6173    </itemizedlist>
     
    97109make</userinput></screen>
    98110
    99     <para>This package does not come with a test suite.</para>
     111    <para>
     112      This package does not come with a test suite.
     113    </para>
    100114
    101115    <para>
     
    195209        <term><command>smartctl</command></term>
    196210        <listitem>
    197           <para>is the control and monitor utility for SMART Disks.</para>
     211          <para>
     212            is the control and monitor utility for SMART Disks.
     213          </para>
    198214          <indexterm zone="smartmontools smartctl">
    199215            <primary sortas="b-smartctl">smartctl</primary>
     
    205221        <term><command>smartd</command></term>
    206222        <listitem>
    207           <para>is the SMART disk monitoring daemon.</para>
     223          <para>
     224            is the SMART disk monitoring daemon.
     225          </para>
    208226          <indexterm zone="smartmontools smartd">
    209227            <primary sortas="b-smartd">smartd</primary>
     
    215233        <term><command>update-smart-drivedb</command></term>
    216234        <listitem>
    217           <para>is the update tool for the smartmontools drive database.</para>
     235          <para>
     236            is the update tool for the smartmontools drive database.
     237          </para>
    218238          <indexterm zone="smartmontools update-smart-drivedb">
    219239            <primary sortas="b-update-smart-drivedb">update-smart-drivedb</primary>
  • postlfs/filesystems/xfsprogs.xml

    r9bd10279 r29244b7  
    3030    <title>Introduction to xfsprogs</title>
    3131
    32     <para>The <application>xfsprogs</application> package contains
    33     administration and debugging tools for the XFS file system.</para>
     32    <para>
     33      The <application>xfsprogs</application> package contains
     34      administration and debugging tools for the XFS file system.
     35    </para>
    3436
    3537    &lfs91_checked;
     
    3840    <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
    3941      <listitem>
    40         <para>Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&xfsprogs-download-http;"/></para>
    41       </listitem>
    42       <listitem>
    43         <para>Download (FTP): <ulink url="&xfsprogs-download-ftp;"/></para>
    44       </listitem>
    45       <listitem>
    46         <para>Download MD5 sum: &xfsprogs-md5sum;</para>
    47       </listitem>
    48       <listitem>
    49         <para>Download size: &xfsprogs-size;</para>
    50       </listitem>
    51       <listitem>
    52         <para>Estimated disk space required: &xfsprogs-buildsize;</para>
    53       </listitem>
    54       <listitem>
    55         <para>Estimated build time: &xfsprogs-time;</para>
     42        <para>
     43          Download (HTTP): <ulink url="&xfsprogs-download-http;"/>
     44        </para>
     45      </listitem>
     46      <listitem>
     47        <para>
     48          Download (FTP): <ulink url="&xfsprogs-download-ftp;"/>
     49        </para>
     50      </listitem>
     51      <listitem>
     52        <para>
     53          Download MD5 sum: &xfsprogs-md5sum;
     54        </para>
     55      </listitem>
     56      <listitem>
     57        <para>
     58          Download size: &xfsprogs-size;
     59        </para>
     60      </listitem>
     61      <listitem>
     62        <para>
     63          Estimated disk space required: &xfsprogs-buildsize;
     64        </para>
     65      </listitem>
     66      <listitem>
     67        <para>
     68          Estimated build time: &xfsprogs-time;
     69        </para>
    5670      </listitem>
    5771    </itemizedlist>
     
    6579    <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
    6680
    67     <para>Enable the following options in the kernel configuration
    68     and recompile the kernel:</para>
     81    <para>
     82      Enable the following options in the kernel configuration
     83      and recompile the kernel:
     84    </para>
    6985
    7086<screen><literal>File systems ---&gt;
     
    8096    <title>Installation of xfsprogs</title>
    8197
    82     <para>Install <application>xfsprogs</application> by running the following
    83     commands:</para>
     98    <para>
     99      Install <application>xfsprogs</application> by running the following
     100      commands:
     101    </para>
    84102
    85103 <screen><userinput>make DEBUG=-DNDEBUG     \
     
    88106     LOCAL_CONFIGURE_OPTIONS="--enable-readline"</userinput></screen>
    89107
    90     <para>This package does not come with a test suite.</para>
    91 
    92     <para>Now, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:</para>
     108    <para>
     109      This package does not come with a test suite.
     110    </para>
     111
     112    <para>
     113      Now, as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user:
     114    </para>
    93115
    94116<screen role="root"><userinput>make PKG_DOC_DIR=/usr/share/doc/xfsprogs-&xfsprogs-version; install     &amp;&amp;
     
    105127    <title>Command Explanations</title>
    106128
    107     <para><command>make DEBUG=-DNDEBUG</command>: Turns off debugging
    108     symbols.</para>
    109 
    110     <para><parameter>INSTALL_USER=root INSTALL_GROUP=root</parameter>: This
    111     sets the owner and group of the installed files.</para>
    112 
    113     <para><parameter>LOCAL_CONFIGURE_OPTIONS="..."</parameter>: This passes
    114     extra configuration options to the <filename>configure</filename> script.
    115     The example <parameter>--enable-readline</parameter> parameter
    116     enables linking the XFS programs with the
    117     <filename class="libraryfile">libreadline.so</filename> library, in order
    118     to allow editing interactive commands.</para>
    119 
    120     <para><option>OPTIMIZER="..."</option>: Adding this parameter to
    121     the end of the <command>make</command> command overrides the
    122     default optimization settings.</para>
     129    <para>
     130      <command>make DEBUG=-DNDEBUG</command>: Turns off debugging
     131      symbols.
     132    </para>
     133
     134    <para>
     135      <parameter>INSTALL_USER=root INSTALL_GROUP=root</parameter>: This
     136      sets the owner and group of the installed files.
     137    </para>
     138
     139    <para>
     140      <parameter>LOCAL_CONFIGURE_OPTIONS="..."</parameter>: This passes
     141      extra configuration options to the <filename>configure</filename> script.
     142      The example <parameter>--enable-readline</parameter> parameter
     143      enables linking the XFS programs with the
     144      <filename class="libraryfile">libreadline.so</filename> library, in order
     145      to allow editing interactive commands.
     146    </para>
     147
     148    <para>
     149      <option>OPTIMIZER="..."</option>: Adding this parameter to
     150      the end of the <command>make</command> command overrides the
     151      default optimization settings.
     152    </para>
    123153
    124154  </sect2>
     
    150180        <term><command>fsck.xfs</command></term>
    151181        <listitem>
    152           <para>simply exits with a zero status, since XFS
    153           partitions are checked at mount time.</para>
     182          <para>
     183            simply exits with a zero status, since XFS
     184            partitions are checked at mount time.
     185          </para>
    154186          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs fsck.xfs">
    155187            <primary sortas="b-fsck.xfs">fsck.xfs</primary>
     
    161193        <term><command>mkfs.xfs</command></term>
    162194        <listitem>
    163           <para>constructs an XFS file system.</para>
     195          <para>
     196            constructs an XFS file system.
     197          </para>
    164198          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs mkfs.xfs">
    165199            <primary sortas="b-mkfs.xfs">mkfs.xfs</primary>
     
    171205        <term><command>xfs_admin</command></term>
    172206        <listitem>
    173           <para>changes the parameters of an XFS file system.</para>
     207          <para>
     208            changes the parameters of an XFS file system.
     209          </para>
    174210          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_admin">
    175211            <primary sortas="b-xfs_admin">xfs_admin</primary>
     
    181217        <term><command>xfs_bmap</command></term>
    182218        <listitem>
    183           <para>prints block mapping for an XFS file.</para>
     219          <para>
     220            prints block mapping for an XFS file.
     221          </para>
    184222          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_bmap">
    185223            <primary sortas="b-xfs_bmap">xfs_bmap</primary>
     
    191229        <term><command>xfs_copy</command></term>
    192230        <listitem>
    193           <para>copies the contents of an XFS file system
    194           to one or more targets in parallel.</para>
     231          <para>
     232            copies the contents of an XFS file system
     233            to one or more targets in parallel.
     234          </para>
    195235          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_copy">
    196236            <primary sortas="b-xfs_copy">xfs_copy</primary>
     
    202242        <term><command>xfs_estimate</command></term>
    203243        <listitem>
    204           <para>for each directory argument, estimates the space that directory
    205           would take if it were copied to an XFS filesystem
    206           (does not cross mount points).</para>
     244          <para>
     245            for each directory argument, estimates the space that directory
     246            would take if it were copied to an XFS filesystem
     247            (does not cross mount points).
     248          </para>
    207249          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_estimate">
    208250            <primary sortas="b-xfs_estimate">xfs_estimate</primary>
     
    214256        <term><command>xfs_db</command></term>
    215257        <listitem>
    216           <para>is used to debug an XFS file system.</para>
     258          <para>
     259            is used to debug an XFS file system.
     260          </para>
    217261          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_db">
    218262            <primary sortas="b-xfs_db">xfs_db</primary>
     
    224268        <term><command>xfs_freeze</command></term>
    225269        <listitem>
    226           <para>suspends access to an XFS file system.</para>
     270          <para>
     271            suspends access to an XFS file system.
     272          </para>
    227273          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_freeze">
    228274            <primary sortas="b-xfs_freeze">xfs_freeze</primary>
     
    234280        <term><command>xfs_fsr</command></term>
    235281        <listitem>
    236           <para>applicable only to XFS filesystems, improves the organization
    237           of mounted filesystems, the reorganization algorithm operates on one
    238           file at a time, compacting or othewise  improving the layout of the
    239           file extents (contiguous blocks of file data).</para>
     282          <para>
     283            applicable only to XFS filesystems, improves the organization of
     284            mounted filesystems, the reorganization algorithm operates on one
     285            file at a time, compacting or othewise  improving the layout of the
     286            file extents (contiguous blocks of file data).
     287          </para>
    240288          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_fsr">
    241289            <primary sortas="b-xfs_fsr">xfs_fsr</primary>
     
    247295        <term><command>xfs_growfs</command></term>
    248296        <listitem>
    249           <para>expands an XFS file system.</para>
     297          <para>
     298            expands an XFS file system.
     299          </para>
    250300          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_growfs">
    251301            <primary sortas="b-xfs_growfs">xfs_growfs</primary>
     
    257307        <term><command>xfs_info</command></term>
    258308        <listitem>
    259           <para>is equivalent to invoking <command>xfs_growfs</command>, but
    260           specifying that no change to the file system is to be made.</para>
     309          <para>
     310            is equivalent to invoking <command>xfs_growfs</command>, but
     311            specifying that no change to the file system is to be made.
     312          </para>
    261313          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_info">
    262314            <primary sortas="b-xfs_info">xfs_info</primary>
     
    268320        <term><command>xfs_io</command></term>
    269321        <listitem>
    270           <para>is a debugging tool like <command>xfs_db</command>, but is
    271           aimed at examining the regular file I/O path rather than the raw
    272           XFS volume itself.</para>
     322          <para>
     323            is a debugging tool like <command>xfs_db</command>, but is
     324            aimed at examining the regular file I/O path rather than the raw
     325            XFS volume itself.
     326          </para>
    273327          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_io">
    274328            <primary sortas="b-xfs_io">xfs_io</primary>
     
    280334        <term><command>xfs_logprint</command></term>
    281335        <listitem>
    282           <para>prints the log of an XFS file system.</para>
     336          <para>
     337            prints the log of an XFS file system.
     338          </para>
    283339          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_logprint">
    284340            <primary sortas="b-xfs_logprint">xfs_logprint</primary>
     
    290346        <term><command>xfs_mdrestore</command></term>
    291347        <listitem>
    292           <para>restores an XFS metadump image to a filesystem image.</para>
     348          <para>
     349            restores an XFS metadump image to a filesystem image.
     350          </para>
    293351          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_mdrestore">
    294352            <primary sortas="b-xfs_mdrestore">xfs_mdrestore</primary>
     
    300358        <term><command>xfs_metadump</command></term>
    301359        <listitem>
    302           <para>copies XFS filesystem metadata to a file.</para>
     360          <para>
     361            copies XFS filesystem metadata to a file.
     362          </para>
    303363          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_metadump">
    304364            <primary sortas="b-xfs_metadump">xfs_metadump</primary>
     
    310370        <term><command>xfs_mkfile</command></term>
    311371        <listitem>
    312           <para>creates an XFS file, padded with zeroes by default.</para>
     372          <para>
     373            creates an XFS file, padded with zeroes by default.
     374          </para>
    313375          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_mkfile">
    314376            <primary sortas="b-xfs_mkfile">xfs_mkfile</primary>
     
    320382        <term><command>xfs_ncheck</command></term>
    321383        <listitem>
    322           <para>generates pathnames from inode numbers for an
    323           XFS file system.</para>
     384          <para>
     385            generates pathnames from inode numbers for an
     386            XFS file system.
     387          </para>
    324388          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_ncheck">
    325389            <primary sortas="b-xfs_ncheck">xfs_ncheck</primary>
     
    331395        <term><command>xfs_quota</command></term>
    332396        <listitem>
    333           <para>is a utility for reporting and editing various
    334           aspects of filesystem quota.</para>
     397          <para>
     398            is a utility for reporting and editing various
     399            aspects of filesystem quota.
     400          </para>
    335401          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_quota">
    336402            <primary sortas="b-xfs_quota">xfs_quota</primary>
     
    342408        <term><command>xfs_repair</command></term>
    343409        <listitem>
    344           <para>repairs corrupt or damaged XFS file systems.</para>
     410          <para>
     411            repairs corrupt or damaged XFS file systems.
     412          </para>
    345413          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_repair">
    346414            <primary sortas="b-xfs_repair">xfs_repair</primary>
     
    352420        <term><command>xfs_rtcp</command></term>
    353421        <listitem>
    354           <para>copies a file to the real-time partition on an
    355           XFS file system.</para>
     422          <para>
     423            copies a file to the real-time partition on an
     424            XFS file system.
     425          </para>
    356426          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_rtcp">
    357427            <primary sortas="b-xfs_rtcp">xfs_rtcp</primary>
     
    363433        <term><command>xfs_spaceman</command></term>
    364434        <listitem>
    365           <para>reports and controls free space usage in an
    366           XFS file system.</para>
     435          <para>
     436            reports and controls free space usage in an
     437            XFS file system.
     438          </para>
    367439          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs xfs_spaceman">
    368440            <primary sortas="b-xfs_spaceman">xfs_spaceman</primary>
     
    374446        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libhandle.so</filename></term>
    375447        <listitem>
    376           <para>contains XFS-specific functions that provide a way to perform
    377           certain filesystem  operations without using a file descriptor to
    378           access filesystem objects.</para>
     448          <para>
     449            contains XFS-specific functions that provide a way to perform
     450            certain filesystem  operations without using a file descriptor to
     451            access filesystem objects.
     452          </para>
    379453          <indexterm zone="xfsprogs libhandle">
    380454            <primary sortas="c-libhandle">libhandle.so</primary>
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