source: chapter03/introduction.xml

Last change on this file was 9b2dedc, checked in by Xi Ruoyao <xry111@…>, 8 months ago

package: add optional instruction to change the owner of downloaded packages to root

Many users will create a user with the same username and UID so the
files will still be owned by his/her. So make it optional by "If you
won't assign the same UID for your user in the LFS system".

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 5.4 KB
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
8<sect1 id="ch-materials-introduction">
9 <?dbhtml filename="introduction.html"?>
11 <title>Introduction</title>
13 <para>This chapter includes a list of packages that need to be downloaded in
14 order to build a basic Linux system. The listed version numbers correspond to
15 versions of the software that are known to work, and this book is based on
16 their use. We highly recommend against using different versions, because the build
17 commands for one version may not work with a different version, unless the
18 different version is specified by an LFS erratum or security advisory.
19 The newest package versions may also have problems that require
20 work-arounds. These work-arounds will be developed and stabilized in the
21 development version of the book.</para>
23 <para>For some packages, the release tarball and the (Git or SVN)
24 repository snapshot tarball for that release may be published with
25 similar file names. A release tarball contains generated files (for
26 example, a <command>configure</command> script generated by
27 <command>autoconf</command>), in addition to the contents of the
28 corresponding repository snapshot. The book uses release tarballs
29 whenever possible. Using a repository snapshot instead of a release
30 tarball specified by the book will cause problems.</para>
32 <para>Download locations may not always be accessible. If a download
33 location has changed since this book was published, Google (<ulink
34 url=""/>) provides a useful search engine for
35 most packages. If this search is unsuccessful, try one of the
36 alternative means of downloading at <ulink
37 url="&lfs-root;lfs/mirrors.html#files"/>. </para>
39 <para>Downloaded packages and patches will need to be stored somewhere
40 that is conveniently available throughout the entire build. A working
41 directory is also required to unpack the sources and build them.
42 <filename class="directory">$LFS/sources</filename> can be used both
43 as the place to store the tarballs and patches and as a working
44 directory. By using this directory, the required elements will be
45 located on the LFS partition and will be available during all stages
46 of the building process.</para>
48 <para>To create this directory, execute the following command, as user
49 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>, before starting the download
50 session:</para>
52<screen role="nodump"><userinput>mkdir -v $LFS/sources</userinput></screen>
54 <para>Make this directory writable and sticky. <quote>Sticky</quote>
55 means that even if multiple users have write permission on a
56 directory, only the owner of a file can delete the file within a
57 sticky directory. The following command will enable the write and
58 sticky modes:</para>
60<screen role="nodump"><userinput>chmod -v a+wt $LFS/sources</userinput></screen>
62 <para>There are several ways to obtain all the necessary packages and patches
63 to build LFS:</para>
65 <itemizedlist>
66 <listitem>
67 <para>The files can be downloaded individually as described in the
68 next two sections.</para>
69 </listitem>
70 <listitem>
71 <para>For stable versions of the book, a tarball of all the needed files
72 can be downloaded from one of the mirror sites listed at
73 <ulink url=""/>.</para>
74 </listitem>
75 <listitem>
76 <para>The files can be downloaded using <command>wget</command> and
77 a wget-list as described below.</para>
78 </listitem>
79 </itemizedlist>
81 <para>To download all of the packages and patches by using
82 <ulink url="../&wget-list;">&wget-list;</ulink>
83 as an input to the <command>wget</command> command, use:</para>
85<screen role="nodump"><userinput>wget --input-file=&wget-list; --continue --directory-prefix=$LFS/sources</userinput></screen>
87 <note><para>
88 The <filename>wget-list</filename> file mentioned above retrieves all
89 packages for both the sysV and systemd versions of LFS. There are a total
90 of five additional small packages not needed for the current book. The
91 <filename>md5sums</filename> file mentioned below is specific to the
92 current book.
93 </para></note>
95 <para>Additionally, starting with LFS-7.0, there is a separate file,
96 <ulink url="../md5sums">md5sums</ulink>, which can be used to verify that all
97 the correct packages are available before proceeding. Place that file in
98 <filename class="directory">$LFS/sources</filename> and run:</para>
100<screen role="nodump"><userinput>pushd $LFS/sources
101 md5sum -c md5sums
104 <para>This check can be used after retrieving the needed files with any of the
105 methods listed above.</para>
107 <para>If the packages and patches are downloaded as a non-&root; user,
108 these files will be owned by the user. The file system records the
109 owner by its UID, and the UID of a normal user in the host distro is
110 not assigned in LFS. So the files will be left owned by an unnamed UID
111 in the final LFS system. If you won't assign the same UID for your user
112 in the LFS system, change the owners of these files to &root; now to
113 avoid this issue:</para>
115<screen role="nodump"><userinput>chown root:root $LFS/sources/*</userinput></screen>
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