source: chapter06/binutils.xml@ 12a27da7

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Last change on this file since 12a27da7 was 12a27da7, checked in by Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs@…>, 2 years ago

Fix testing of binutils-2.32 gold linker.
Update to tzdata-2019b.
Update to python3-3.7.4.
Update to meson-0.51.1.
Update to iproute2-5.2.0.
Update to grub-2.04.
Update to linux-5.2.1.
Update to bc-2.1.0.
Update to bzip2-1.0.8.

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/trunk/BOOK@11639 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-binutils" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="binutils.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>binutils</productname>
13 <productnumber>&binutils-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&binutils-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Binutils-&binutils-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils">
20 <primary sortas="a-Binutils">Binutils</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other
27 tools for handling object files.</para>
28
29 <segmentedlist>
30 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
31 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
32
33 <seglistitem>
34 <seg>&binutils-ch6-sbu;</seg>
35 <seg>&binutils-ch6-du;</seg>
36 </seglistitem>
37 </segmentedlist>
38
39 </sect2>
40
41 <sect2 role="installation">
42 <title>Installation of Binutils</title>
43
44 <para>Verify that the PTYs are working properly inside the chroot
45 environment by performing a simple test:</para>
46
47<screen><userinput remap="test">expect -c "spawn ls"</userinput></screen>
48
49 <para>This command should output the following:</para>
50
51<screen><computeroutput>spawn ls</computeroutput></screen>
52
53 <para>If, instead, the output includes the message below, then the environment
54 is not set up for proper PTY operation. This issue needs to be resolved before
55 running the test suites for Binutils and GCC:</para>
56
57<screen><computeroutput>The system has no more ptys.
58Ask your system administrator to create more.</computeroutput></screen>
59
60 <para>Now remove one test that prevents the tests from running
61 to completion:</para>
62
63<screen><userinput remap="pre">sed -i '/@\tincremental_copy/d' gold/testsuite/Makefile.in</userinput></screen>
64
65 <para>The Binutils documentation recommends building Binutils
66 in a dedicated build directory:</para>
67
68<screen><userinput remap="pre">mkdir -v build
69cd build</userinput></screen>
70
71 <para>Prepare Binutils for compilation:</para>
72
73<screen><userinput remap="configure">../configure --prefix=/usr \
74 --enable-gold \
75 --enable-ld=default \
76 --enable-plugins \
77 --enable-shared \
78 --disable-werror \
79 --enable-64-bit-bfd \
80 --with-system-zlib</userinput></screen>
81 <variablelist>
82 <title>The meaning of the configure parameters:</title>
83
84 <varlistentry>
85 <term><parameter>--enable-gold</parameter></term>
86 <listitem>
87 <para>Build the gold linker and install it as ld.gold (along side the
88 default linker).</para>
89 </listitem>
90 </varlistentry>
91
92 <varlistentry>
93 <term><parameter>--enable-ld=default</parameter></term>
94 <listitem>
95 <para>Build the original bdf linker and install it as both ld (the
96 default linker) and ld.bfd.</para>
97 </listitem>
98 </varlistentry>
99
100 <varlistentry>
101 <term><parameter>--enable-plugins</parameter></term>
102 <listitem>
103 <para>Enables plugin support for the linker.</para>
104 </listitem>
105 </varlistentry>
106
107 <varlistentry>
108 <term><parameter>--enable-64-bit-bfd</parameter></term>
109 <listitem>
110 <para>Enables 64-bit support (on hosts with narrower word sizes).
111 May not be needed on 64-bit systems, but does no harm.</para>
112 </listitem>
113 </varlistentry>
114
115 <varlistentry>
116 <term><parameter>--with-system-zlib</parameter></term>
117 <listitem>
118 <para>Use the installed zlib library rather than building the
119 included version.</para>
120 </listitem>
121 </varlistentry>
122
123 </variablelist>
124
125 <para>Compile the package:</para>
126
127<screen><userinput remap="make">make tooldir=/usr</userinput></screen>
128
129 <variablelist>
130 <title>The meaning of the make parameter:</title>
131
132 <varlistentry>
133 <term><parameter>tooldir=/usr</parameter></term>
134 <listitem>
135 <para>Normally, the tooldir (the directory where the executables will
136 ultimately be located) is set to <filename
137 class="directory">$(exec_prefix)/$(target_alias)</filename>. For
138 example, x86_64 machines would expand that to <filename
139 class="directory">/usr/x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu</filename>. Because this is
140 a custom system, this target-specific directory in <filename
141 class="directory">/usr</filename> is not required. <filename
142 class="directory">$(exec_prefix)/$(target_alias)</filename> would be
143 used if the system was used to cross-compile (for example, compiling a
144 package on an Intel machine that generates code that can be executed
145 on PowerPC machines).</para>
146 </listitem>
147 </varlistentry>
148
149 </variablelist>
150
151 <important>
152 <para>The test suite for Binutils in this section is considered critical.
153 Do not skip it under any circumstances.</para>
154 </important>
155
156 <para>Test the results:</para>
157
158<screen><userinput remap="test">make -k check</userinput></screen>
159
160 <para>The PC-relative offset test and
161 the debug_msg.sh test may fail in the LFS environment.</para>
162
163 <para>Install the package:</para>
164
165<screen><userinput remap="install">make tooldir=/usr install</userinput></screen>
166
167 </sect2>
168
169 <sect2 id="contents-binutils" role="content">
170 <title>Contents of Binutils</title>
171
172 <segmentedlist>
173 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
174 <segtitle>Installed libraries</segtitle>
175 <segtitle>Installed directory</segtitle>
176
177 <seglistitem>
178 <seg>addr2line, ar, as, c++filt, dwp, elfedit, gprof, ld, ld.bfd, ld.gold, nm,
179 objcopy, objdump, ranlib, readelf, size, strings, and strip</seg>
180 <seg>libbfd.{a,so} and libopcodes.{a,so}</seg>
181 <seg>/usr/lib/ldscripts</seg>
182 </seglistitem>
183 </segmentedlist>
184
185 <variablelist>
186 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
187 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
188 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
189
190 <varlistentry id="addr2line">
191 <term><command>addr2line</command></term>
192 <listitem>
193 <para>Translates program addresses to file names and line numbers;
194 given an address and the name of an executable, it uses the debugging
195 information in the executable to determine which source file and line
196 number are associated with the address</para>
197 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils addr2line">
198 <primary sortas="b-addr2line">addr2line</primary>
199 </indexterm>
200 </listitem>
201 </varlistentry>
202
203 <varlistentry id="ar">
204 <term><command>ar</command></term>
205 <listitem>
206 <para>Creates, modifies, and extracts from archives</para>
207 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ar">
208 <primary sortas="b-ar">ar</primary>
209 </indexterm>
210 </listitem>
211 </varlistentry>
212
213 <varlistentry id="as">
214 <term><command>as</command></term>
215 <listitem>
216 <para>An assembler that assembles the output of <command>gcc</command>
217 into object files</para>
218 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils as">
219 <primary sortas="b-as">as</primary>
220 </indexterm>
221 </listitem>
222 </varlistentry>
223
224 <varlistentry id="c-filt">
225 <term><command>c++filt</command></term>
226 <listitem>
227 <para>Used by the linker to de-mangle C++ and Java symbols and to keep
228 overloaded functions from clashing</para>
229 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils c-filt">
230 <primary sortas="b-c++filt">c++filt</primary>
231 </indexterm>
232 </listitem>
233 </varlistentry>
234
235 <varlistentry id="dwp">
236 <term><command>dwp</command></term>
237 <listitem>
238 <para>The DWARF packaging utility</para>
239 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils dwp">
240 <primary sortas="dwp">dwp</primary>
241 </indexterm>
242 </listitem>
243 </varlistentry>
244
245 <varlistentry id="elfedit">
246 <term><command>elfedit</command></term>
247 <listitem>
248 <para>Updates the ELF header of ELF files</para>
249 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils elfedit">
250 <primary sortas="b-elfedit">elfedit</primary>
251 </indexterm>
252 </listitem>
253 </varlistentry>
254
255 <varlistentry id="gprof">
256 <term><command>gprof</command></term>
257 <listitem>
258 <para>Displays call graph profile data</para>
259 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils gprof">
260 <primary sortas="b-gprof">gprof</primary>
261 </indexterm>
262 </listitem>
263 </varlistentry>
264
265 <varlistentry id="ld">
266 <term><command>ld</command></term>
267 <listitem>
268 <para>A linker that combines a number of object and archive files
269 into a single file, relocating their data and tying up symbol
270 references</para>
271 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ld">
272 <primary sortas="b-ld">ld</primary>
273 </indexterm>
274 </listitem>
275 </varlistentry>
276
277 <varlistentry id="ld.gold">
278 <term><command>ld.gold</command></term>
279 <listitem>
280 <para>A cut down version of ld that only supports the
281 elf object file format</para>
282 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ld.gold">
283 <primary sortas="b-ld.gold">ld.gold</primary>
284 </indexterm>
285 </listitem>
286 </varlistentry>
287
288 <varlistentry id="ld.bfd">
289 <term><command>ld.bfd</command></term>
290 <listitem>
291 <para>Hard link to <command>ld</command></para>
292 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ld.bfd">
293 <primary sortas="b-ld.bfd">ld.bfd</primary>
294 </indexterm>
295 </listitem>
296 </varlistentry>
297
298 <varlistentry id="nm">
299 <term><command>nm</command></term>
300 <listitem>
301 <para>Lists the symbols occurring in a given object file</para>
302 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils nm">
303 <primary sortas="b-nm">nm</primary>
304 </indexterm>
305 </listitem>
306 </varlistentry>
307
308 <varlistentry id="objcopy">
309 <term><command>objcopy</command></term>
310 <listitem>
311 <para>Translates one type of object file into another</para>
312 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils objcopy">
313 <primary sortas="b-objcopy">objcopy</primary>
314 </indexterm>
315 </listitem>
316 </varlistentry>
317
318 <varlistentry id="objdump">
319 <term><command>objdump</command></term>
320 <listitem>
321 <para>Displays information about the given object file, with options
322 controlling the particular information to display; the information
323 shown is useful to programmers who are working on the compilation
324 tools</para>
325 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils objdump">
326 <primary sortas="b-objdump">objdump</primary>
327 </indexterm>
328 </listitem>
329 </varlistentry>
330
331 <varlistentry id="ranlib">
332 <term><command>ranlib</command></term>
333 <listitem>
334 <para>Generates an index of the contents of an archive and stores it
335 in the archive; the index lists all of the symbols defined by archive
336 members that are relocatable object files</para>
337 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ranlib">
338 <primary sortas="b-ranlib">ranlib</primary>
339 </indexterm>
340 </listitem>
341 </varlistentry>
342
343 <varlistentry id="readelf">
344 <term><command>readelf</command></term>
345 <listitem>
346 <para>Displays information about ELF type binaries</para>
347 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils readelf">
348 <primary sortas="b-readelf">readelf</primary>
349 </indexterm>
350 </listitem>
351 </varlistentry>
352
353 <varlistentry id="size">
354 <term><command>size</command></term>
355 <listitem>
356 <para>Lists the section sizes and the total size for the given
357 object files</para>
358 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils size">
359 <primary sortas="b-size">size</primary>
360 </indexterm>
361 </listitem>
362 </varlistentry>
363
364 <varlistentry id="strings">
365 <term><command>strings</command></term>
366 <listitem>
367 <para>Outputs, for each given file, the sequences of printable
368 characters that are of at least the specified length (defaulting to
369 four); for object files, it prints, by default, only the strings from
370 the initializing and loading sections while for other types of files, it
371 scans the entire file</para>
372 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils strings">
373 <primary sortas="b-strings">strings</primary>
374 </indexterm>
375 </listitem>
376 </varlistentry>
377
378 <varlistentry id="strip">
379 <term><command>strip</command></term>
380 <listitem>
381 <para>Discards symbols from object files</para>
382 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils strip">
383 <primary sortas="b-strip">strip</primary>
384 </indexterm>
385 </listitem>
386 </varlistentry>
387
388 <varlistentry id="libbfd">
389 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libbfd</filename></term>
390 <listitem>
391 <para>The Binary File Descriptor library</para>
392 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils libbfd">
393 <primary sortas="c-libbfd">libbfd</primary>
394 </indexterm>
395 </listitem>
396 </varlistentry>
397
398 <varlistentry id="libopcodes">
399 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libopcodes</filename></term>
400 <listitem>
401 <para>A library for dealing with opcodes&mdash;the <quote>readable
402 text</quote> versions of instructions for the processor;
403 it is used for building utilities like
404 <command>objdump</command></para>
405 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils libopcodes">
406 <primary sortas="c-libopcodes">libopcodes</primary>
407 </indexterm>
408 </listitem>
409 </varlistentry>
410
411 </variablelist>
412
413 </sect2>
414
415</sect1>
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