source: chapter06/coreutils.xml@ 0aa4782

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Last change on this file since 0aa4782 was 0aa4782, checked in by Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs@…>, 7 years ago

Update to iproute2-4.1.0.
Update to texinfo-6.0.
Update to linux-4.1.1.
Update to coreutils-8.24.
Update perl installed files.

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/trunk/BOOK@10924 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-coreutils" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="coreutils.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>coreutils</productname>
13 <productnumber>&coreutils-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&coreutils-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Coreutils-&coreutils-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils">
20 <primary sortas="a-Coreutils">Coreutils</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the
27 basic system characteristics.</para>
28
29 <segmentedlist>
30 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
31 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
32
33 <seglistitem>
34 <seg>&coreutils-ch6-sbu;</seg>
35 <seg>&coreutils-ch6-du;</seg>
36 </seglistitem>
37 </segmentedlist>
38
39 </sect2>
40
41 <sect2 role="installation">
42 <title>Installation of Coreutils</title>
43<!--
44 <para>First, fix a segfault in <command>shuf</command> program:</para>
45
46<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&coreutils-shuf-segfault-patch;</userinput></screen>
47-->
48
49 <para>POSIX requires that programs from Coreutils recognize character
50 boundaries correctly even in multibyte locales. The following patch fixes
51 this non-compliance and other internationalization-related bugs.
52 <!--Afterwards make sure the timestamp for <filename>Makefile.in</filename> is
53 later than all other files to prevent a <command>make</command>
54 error:</para>-->
55 Afterwards disable a test that fails with the current version of perl.</para>
56
57<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&coreutils-i18n-patch;
58sed -i '/tests\/misc\/sort.pl/ d' Makefile.in</userinput></screen>
59
60<!--touch Makefile.in</userinput></screen>-->
61
62 <note>
63 <para>In the past, many bugs were found in this patch. When reporting new
64 bugs to Coreutils maintainers, please check first if they are reproducible
65 without this patch.</para>
66 </note>
67
68 <para>Now prepare Coreutils for compilation:</para>
69
70<screen><userinput remap="configure">FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 ./configure \
71 --prefix=/usr \
72 --enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</userinput></screen>
73
74 <variablelist>
75 <title>The meaning of the configure options:</title>
76
77 <varlistentry>
78 <term><envar>FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1</envar></term>
79 <listitem>
80 <para>This environment variable allows the package to be
81 built as the root user.
82 </para>
83 </listitem>
84 </varlistentry>
85
86 <varlistentry>
87 <term><parameter>--enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</parameter></term>
88 <listitem>
89 <para>The purpose of this switch is to prevent Coreutils from
90 installing binaries that will be installed by other packages later.
91 </para>
92 </listitem>
93 </varlistentry>
94 </variablelist>
95
96 <para>Compile the package:</para>
97
98<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
99
100 <para>Skip down to <quote>Install the
101 package</quote> if not running the test suite.</para>
102
103 <para>Now the test suite is ready to be run. First, run the tests that are
104 meant to be run as user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>:</para>
105
106<screen><userinput remap="test">make NON_ROOT_USERNAME=nobody check-root</userinput></screen>
107
108 <para>We're going to run the remainder of the tests as the
109 <systemitem class="username">nobody</systemitem> user. Certain tests,
110 however, require that the user be a member of more than one group. So that
111 these tests are not skipped we'll add a temporary group and make the
112 user <systemitem class="username">nobody</systemitem> a part of it:</para>
113
114<screen><userinput remap="test">echo "dummy:x:1000:nobody" &gt;&gt; /etc/group</userinput></screen>
115
116 <para>Fix some of the permissions so that the non-root user can compile and
117 run the tests:</para>
118
119<screen><userinput remap="test">chown -Rv nobody . </userinput></screen>
120
121 <para>Now run the tests. Make sure the PATH in the <userinput>su</userinput>
122 environment includes /tools/bin.</para>
123
124<screen><userinput remap="test">su nobody -s /bin/bash \
125 -c "PATH=$PATH make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check"</userinput></screen>
126
127 <para>The stty-pairs test is known to fail on a virtual console, but
128 passes if run in a X terminal.</para>
129
130 <para>Remove the temporary group:</para>
131
132<screen><userinput remap="test">sed -i '/dummy/d' /etc/group</userinput></screen>
133
134 <para>Install the package:</para>
135
136<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
137
138 <para>Move programs to the locations specified by the FHS:</para>
139
140<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{cat,chgrp,chmod,chown,cp,date,dd,df,echo} /bin
141mv -v /usr/bin/{false,ln,ls,mkdir,mknod,mv,pwd,rm} /bin
142mv -v /usr/bin/{rmdir,stty,sync,true,uname} /bin
143mv -v /usr/bin/chroot /usr/sbin
144mv -v /usr/share/man/man1/chroot.1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8
145sed -i s/\"1\"/\"8\"/1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8</userinput></screen>
146
147 <para>Some of the scripts in the LFS-Bootscripts package depend on
148 <command>head</command>, <command>sleep</command>, and
149 <command>nice</command>. As <filename class="directory">/usr</filename>
150 may not be available during the early stages of booting, those binaries
151 need to be on the root partition:</para>
152
153<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{head,sleep,nice,test,[} /bin</userinput></screen>
154
155 </sect2>
156
157 <sect2 id="contents-coreutils" role="content">
158 <title>Contents of Coreutils</title>
159
160 <segmentedlist>
161 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
162 <segtitle>Installed library</segtitle>
163 <segtitle>Installed directory</segtitle>
164
165 <seglistitem>
166 <seg>[, base64, basename, cat, chcon, chgrp, chmod, chown, chroot, cksum,
167 comm, cp, csplit, cut, date, dd, df, dir, dircolors, dirname, du, echo,
168 env, expand, expr, factor, false, fmt, fold, groups, head, hostid,
169 id, install, join, link, ln, logname, ls, md5sum, mkdir, mkfifo, mknod,
170 mktemp, mv, nice, nl, nohup, nproc, numfmt, od, paste, pathchk, pinky, pr,
171 printenv, printf, ptx, pwd, readlink, realpath, rm, rmdir, runcon, seq,
172 sha1sum, sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum, sha512sum, shred, shuf, sleep,
173 sort, split, stat, stdbuf, stty, sum, sync, tac, tail, tee, test,
174 timeout, touch, tr, true, truncate, tsort, tty, uname, unexpand, uniq,
175 unlink, users, vdir, wc, who, whoami, and yes</seg>
176 <seg>libstdbuf.so</seg>
177 <seg>/usr/libexec/coreutils</seg>
178 </seglistitem>
179 </segmentedlist>
180
181 <variablelist>
182 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
183 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
184 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
185
186 <varlistentry id="base64">
187 <term><command>base64</command></term>
188 <listitem>
189 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base64 (RFC 3548)
190 specification</para>
191 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
192 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
193 </indexterm>
194 </listitem>
195 </varlistentry>
196
197 <varlistentry id="basename">
198 <term><command>basename</command></term>
199 <listitem>
200 <para>Strips any path and a given suffix from a file name</para>
201 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basename">
202 <primary sortas="b-basename">basename</primary>
203 </indexterm>
204 </listitem>
205 </varlistentry>
206
207 <varlistentry id="cat">
208 <term><command>cat</command></term>
209 <listitem>
210 <para>Concatenates files to standard output</para>
211 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cat">
212 <primary sortas="b-cat">cat</primary>
213 </indexterm>
214 </listitem>
215 </varlistentry>
216
217 <varlistentry id="chcon">
218 <term><command>chcon</command></term>
219 <listitem>
220 <para>Changes security context for files and directories</para>
221 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chcon">
222 <primary sortas="b-chcon">chcon</primary>
223 </indexterm>
224 </listitem>
225 </varlistentry>
226
227 <varlistentry id="chgrp">
228 <term><command>chgrp</command></term>
229 <listitem>
230 <para>Changes the group ownership of files and directories</para>
231 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chgrp">
232 <primary sortas="b-chgrp">chgrp</primary>
233 </indexterm>
234 </listitem>
235 </varlistentry>
236
237 <varlistentry id="chmod">
238 <term><command>chmod</command></term>
239 <listitem>
240 <para>Changes the permissions of each file to the given mode; the mode
241 can be either a symbolic representation of the changes to make or an
242 octal number representing the new permissions</para>
243 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chmod">
244 <primary sortas="b-chmod">chmod</primary>
245 </indexterm>
246 </listitem>
247 </varlistentry>
248
249 <varlistentry id="chown">
250 <term><command>chown</command></term>
251 <listitem>
252 <para>Changes the user and/or group ownership of files and
253 directories</para>
254 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chown">
255 <primary sortas="b-chown">chown</primary>
256 </indexterm>
257 </listitem>
258 </varlistentry>
259
260 <varlistentry id="chroot">
261 <term><command>chroot</command></term>
262 <listitem>
263 <para>Runs a command with the specified directory as the
264 <filename class="directory">/</filename> directory</para>
265 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chroot">
266 <primary sortas="b-chroot">chroot</primary>
267 </indexterm>
268 </listitem>
269 </varlistentry>
270
271 <varlistentry id="cksum">
272 <term><command>cksum</command></term>
273 <listitem>
274 <para>Prints the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum and the byte
275 counts of each specified file</para>
276 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cksum">
277 <primary sortas="b-cksum">cksum</primary>
278 </indexterm>
279 </listitem>
280 </varlistentry>
281
282 <varlistentry id="comm">
283 <term><command>comm</command></term>
284 <listitem>
285 <para>Compares two sorted files, outputting in three columns the lines
286 that are unique and the lines that are common</para>
287 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils comm">
288 <primary sortas="b-comm">comm</primary>
289 </indexterm>
290 </listitem>
291 </varlistentry>
292
293 <varlistentry id="cp">
294 <term><command>cp</command></term>
295 <listitem>
296 <para>Copies files</para>
297 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cp">
298 <primary sortas="b-cp">cp</primary>
299 </indexterm>
300 </listitem>
301 </varlistentry>
302
303 <varlistentry id="csplit">
304 <term><command>csplit</command></term>
305 <listitem>
306 <para>Splits a given file into several new files, separating them
307 according to given patterns or line numbers and outputting the byte
308 count of each new file</para>
309 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils csplit">
310 <primary sortas="b-csplit">csplit</primary>
311 </indexterm>
312 </listitem>
313 </varlistentry>
314
315 <varlistentry id="cut">
316 <term><command>cut</command></term>
317 <listitem>
318 <para>Prints sections of lines, selecting the parts according to given
319 fields or positions</para>
320 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cut">
321 <primary sortas="b-cut">cut</primary>
322 </indexterm>
323 </listitem>
324 </varlistentry>
325
326 <varlistentry id="date">
327 <term><command>date</command></term>
328 <listitem>
329 <para>Displays the current time in the given format, or sets the
330 system date</para>
331 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils date">
332 <primary sortas="b-date">date</primary>
333 </indexterm>
334 </listitem>
335 </varlistentry>
336
337 <varlistentry id="dd">
338 <term><command>dd</command> </term>
339 <listitem>
340 <para>Copies a file using the given block size and count, while
341 optionally performing conversions on it</para>
342 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dd">
343 <primary sortas="b-dd">dd</primary>
344 </indexterm>
345 </listitem>
346 </varlistentry>
347
348 <varlistentry id="df">
349 <term><command>df</command></term>
350 <listitem>
351 <para>Reports the amount of disk space available (and used) on all
352 mounted file systems, or only on the file systems holding the selected
353 files</para>
354 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils df">
355 <primary sortas="b-df">df</primary>
356 </indexterm>
357 </listitem>
358 </varlistentry>
359
360 <varlistentry id="dir">
361 <term><command>dir</command></term>
362 <listitem>
363 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory (the same as
364 the <command>ls</command> command)</para>
365 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dir">
366 <primary sortas="b-dir">dir</primary>
367 </indexterm>
368 </listitem>
369 </varlistentry>
370
371 <varlistentry id="dircolors">
372 <term><command>dircolors</command></term>
373 <listitem>
374 <para>Outputs commands to set the <envar>LS_COLOR</envar>
375 environment variable to change the color scheme used by
376 <command>ls</command></para>
377 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dircolors">
378 <primary sortas="b-dircolors">dircolors</primary>
379 </indexterm>
380 </listitem>
381 </varlistentry>
382
383 <varlistentry id="dirname">
384 <term><command>dirname</command></term>
385 <listitem>
386 <para>Strips the non-directory suffix from a file name</para>
387 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dirname">
388 <primary sortas="b-dirname">dirname</primary>
389 </indexterm>
390 </listitem>
391 </varlistentry>
392
393 <varlistentry id="du">
394 <term><command>du</command></term>
395 <listitem>
396 <para>Reports the amount of disk space used by the current directory,
397 by each of the given directories (including all subdirectories) or by
398 each of the given files</para>
399 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils du">
400 <primary sortas="b-du">du</primary>
401 </indexterm>
402 </listitem>
403 </varlistentry>
404
405 <varlistentry id="echo">
406 <term><command>echo</command></term>
407 <listitem>
408 <para>Displays the given strings</para>
409 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils echo">
410 <primary sortas="b-echo">echo</primary>
411 </indexterm>
412 </listitem>
413 </varlistentry>
414
415 <varlistentry id="env">
416 <term><command>env</command></term>
417 <listitem>
418 <para>Runs a command in a modified environment</para>
419 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils env">
420 <primary sortas="b-env">env</primary>
421 </indexterm>
422 </listitem>
423 </varlistentry>
424
425 <varlistentry id="expand">
426 <term><command>expand</command></term>
427 <listitem>
428 <para>Converts tabs to spaces</para>
429 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expand">
430 <primary sortas="b-expand">expand</primary>
431 </indexterm>
432 </listitem>
433 </varlistentry>
434
435 <varlistentry id="expr">
436 <term><command>expr</command></term>
437 <listitem>
438 <para>Evaluates expressions</para>
439 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expr">
440 <primary sortas="b-expr">expr</primary>
441 </indexterm>
442 </listitem>
443 </varlistentry>
444
445 <varlistentry id="factor">
446 <term><command>factor</command></term>
447 <listitem>
448 <para>Prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers</para>
449 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils factor">
450 <primary sortas="b-factor">factor</primary>
451 </indexterm>
452 </listitem>
453 </varlistentry>
454
455 <varlistentry id="false">
456 <term><command>false</command></term>
457 <listitem>
458 <para>Does nothing, unsuccessfully; it always exits with a status code
459 indicating failure</para>
460 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils false">
461 <primary sortas="b-false">false</primary>
462 </indexterm>
463 </listitem>
464 </varlistentry>
465
466 <varlistentry id="fmt">
467 <term><command>fmt</command></term>
468 <listitem>
469 <para>Reformats the paragraphs in the given files</para>
470 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fmt">
471 <primary sortas="b-fmt">fmt</primary>
472 </indexterm>
473 </listitem>
474 </varlistentry>
475
476 <varlistentry id="fold">
477 <term><command>fold</command></term>
478 <listitem>
479 <para>Wraps the lines in the given files</para>
480 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fold">
481 <primary sortas="b-fold">fold</primary>
482 </indexterm>
483 </listitem>
484 </varlistentry>
485
486 <varlistentry id="groups">
487 <term><command>groups</command></term>
488 <listitem>
489 <para>Reports a user's group memberships</para>
490 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils groups">
491 <primary sortas="b-groups">groups</primary>
492 </indexterm>
493 </listitem>
494 </varlistentry>
495
496 <varlistentry id="head">
497 <term><command>head</command></term>
498 <listitem>
499 <para>Prints the first ten lines (or the given number of lines)
500 of each given file</para>
501 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils head">
502 <primary sortas="b-head">head</primary>
503 </indexterm>
504 </listitem>
505 </varlistentry>
506
507 <varlistentry id="hostid">
508 <term><command>hostid</command></term>
509 <listitem>
510 <para>Reports the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) of the host</para>
511 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils hostid">
512 <primary sortas="b-hostid">hostid</primary>
513 </indexterm>
514 </listitem>
515 </varlistentry>
516
517 <varlistentry id="id">
518 <term><command>id</command></term>
519 <listitem>
520 <para>Reports the effective user ID, group ID, and group memberships
521 of the current user or specified user</para>
522 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils id">
523 <primary sortas="b-id">id</primary>
524 </indexterm>
525 </listitem>
526 </varlistentry>
527
528 <varlistentry id="install">
529 <term><command>install</command> </term>
530 <listitem>
531 <para>Copies files while setting their permission modes and, if
532 possible, their owner and group</para>
533 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils install">
534 <primary sortas="b-install">install</primary>
535 </indexterm>
536 </listitem>
537 </varlistentry>
538
539 <varlistentry id="join">
540 <term><command>join</command></term>
541 <listitem>
542 <para>Joins the lines that have identical join fields from two
543 separate files</para>
544 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils join">
545 <primary sortas="b-join">join</primary>
546 </indexterm>
547 </listitem>
548 </varlistentry>
549
550 <varlistentry id="link">
551 <term><command>link</command></term>
552 <listitem>
553 <para>Creates a hard link with the given name to a file</para>
554 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils link">
555 <primary sortas="b-link">link</primary>
556 </indexterm>
557 </listitem>
558 </varlistentry>
559
560 <varlistentry id="ln">
561 <term><command>ln</command></term>
562 <listitem>
563 <para>Makes hard links or soft (symbolic) links between files</para>
564 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ln">
565 <primary sortas="b-ln">ln</primary>
566 </indexterm>
567 </listitem>
568 </varlistentry>
569
570 <varlistentry id="logname">
571 <term><command>logname</command></term>
572 <listitem>
573 <para>Reports the current user's login name</para>
574 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils logname">
575 <primary sortas="b-logname">logname</primary>
576 </indexterm>
577 </listitem>
578 </varlistentry>
579
580 <varlistentry id="ls">
581 <term><command>ls</command></term>
582 <listitem>
583 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory</para>
584 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ls">
585 <primary sortas="b-ls">ls</primary>
586 </indexterm>
587 </listitem>
588 </varlistentry>
589
590 <varlistentry id="md5sum">
591 <term><command>md5sum</command></term>
592 <listitem>
593 <para>Reports or checks Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums</para>
594 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils md5sum">
595 <primary sortas="b-md5sum">md5sum</primary>
596 </indexterm>
597 </listitem>
598 </varlistentry>
599
600 <varlistentry id="mkdir">
601 <term><command>mkdir</command></term>
602 <listitem>
603 <para>Creates directories with the given names</para>
604 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkdir">
605 <primary sortas="b-mkdir">mkdir</primary>
606 </indexterm>
607 </listitem>
608 </varlistentry>
609
610 <varlistentry id="mkfifo">
611 <term><command>mkfifo</command></term>
612 <listitem>
613 <para>Creates First-In, First-Outs (FIFOs), a "named
614 pipe" in UNIX parlance, with the given names</para>
615 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkfifo">
616 <primary sortas="b-mkfifo">mkfifo</primary>
617 </indexterm>
618 </listitem>
619 </varlistentry>
620
621 <varlistentry id="mknod">
622 <term><command>mknod</command></term>
623 <listitem>
624 <para>Creates device nodes with the given names; a device node is a
625 character special file, a block special file, or a FIFO</para>
626 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mknod">
627 <primary sortas="b-mknod">mknod</primary>
628 </indexterm>
629 </listitem>
630 </varlistentry>
631
632 <varlistentry id="mktemp">
633 <term><command>mktemp</command></term>
634 <listitem>
635 <para>Creates temporary files in a secure manner; it is used in scripts</para>
636 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mktemp">
637 <primary sortas="b-mktemp">mktemp</primary>
638 </indexterm>
639 </listitem>
640 </varlistentry>
641
642 <varlistentry id="mv">
643 <term><command>mv</command></term>
644 <listitem>
645 <para>Moves or renames files or directories</para>
646 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mv">
647 <primary sortas="b-mv">mv</primary>
648 </indexterm>
649 </listitem>
650 </varlistentry>
651
652 <varlistentry id="nice">
653 <term><command>nice</command></term>
654 <listitem>
655 <para>Runs a program with modified scheduling priority</para>
656 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nice">
657 <primary sortas="b-nice">nice</primary>
658 </indexterm>
659 </listitem>
660 </varlistentry>
661
662 <varlistentry id="nl">
663 <term><command>nl</command></term>
664 <listitem>
665 <para>Numbers the lines from the given files</para>
666 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nl">
667 <primary sortas="b-nl">nl</primary>
668 </indexterm>
669 </listitem>
670 </varlistentry>
671
672 <varlistentry id="nohup">
673 <term><command>nohup</command></term>
674 <listitem>
675 <para>Runs a command immune to hangups, with its output redirected to
676 a log file</para>
677 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nohup">
678 <primary sortas="b-nohup">nohup</primary>
679 </indexterm>
680 </listitem>
681 </varlistentry>
682
683 <varlistentry id="nproc">
684 <term><command>nproc</command></term>
685 <listitem>
686 <para>Prints the number of processing units available to a
687 process</para>
688 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nproc">
689 <primary sortas="b-nproc">nproc</primary>
690 </indexterm>
691 </listitem>
692 </varlistentry>
693
694 <varlistentry id="numfmt">
695 <term><command>numfmt</command></term>
696 <listitem>
697 <para>Converts numbers to or from human-readable strings</para>
698 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils numfmt">
699 <primary sortas="b-numfmt">numfmt</primary>
700 </indexterm>
701 </listitem>
702 </varlistentry>
703
704 <varlistentry id="od">
705 <term><command>od</command></term>
706 <listitem>
707 <para>Dumps files in octal and other formats</para>
708 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils od">
709 <primary sortas="b-od">od</primary>
710 </indexterm>
711 </listitem>
712 </varlistentry>
713
714 <varlistentry id="paste">
715 <term><command>paste</command></term>
716 <listitem>
717 <para>Merges the given files, joining sequentially corresponding lines
718 side by side, separated by tab characters</para>
719 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils paste">
720 <primary sortas="b-paste">paste</primary>
721 </indexterm>
722 </listitem>
723 </varlistentry>
724
725 <varlistentry id="pathchk">
726 <term><command>pathchk</command></term>
727 <listitem>
728 <para>Checks if file names are valid or portable</para>
729 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pathchk">
730 <primary sortas="b-pathchk">pathchk</primary>
731 </indexterm>
732 </listitem>
733 </varlistentry>
734
735 <varlistentry id="pinky">
736 <term><command>pinky</command></term>
737 <listitem>
738 <para>Is a lightweight finger client; it reports some information
739 about the given users</para>
740 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pinky">
741 <primary sortas="b-pinky">pinky</primary>
742 </indexterm>
743 </listitem>
744 </varlistentry>
745
746 <varlistentry id="pr">
747 <term><command>pr</command></term>
748 <listitem>
749 <para>Paginates and columnates files for printing</para>
750 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pr">
751 <primary sortas="b-pr">pr</primary>
752 </indexterm>
753 </listitem>
754 </varlistentry>
755
756 <varlistentry id="printenv">
757 <term><command>printenv</command></term>
758 <listitem>
759 <para>Prints the environment</para>
760 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printenv">
761 <primary sortas="b-printenv">printenv</primary>
762 </indexterm>
763 </listitem>
764 </varlistentry>
765
766 <varlistentry id="printf">
767 <term><command>printf</command></term>
768 <listitem>
769 <para>Prints the given arguments according to the given format, much
770 like the C printf function</para>
771 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printf">
772 <primary sortas="b-printf">printf</primary>
773 </indexterm>
774 </listitem>
775 </varlistentry>
776
777 <varlistentry id="ptx">
778 <term><command>ptx</command></term>
779 <listitem>
780 <para>Produces a permuted index from the contents of the given files,
781 with each keyword in its context</para>
782 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ptx">
783 <primary sortas="b-ptx">ptx</primary>
784 </indexterm>
785 </listitem>
786 </varlistentry>
787
788 <varlistentry id="pwd">
789 <term><command>pwd</command></term>
790 <listitem>
791 <para>Reports the name of the current working directory</para>
792 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pwd">
793 <primary sortas="b-pwd">pwd</primary>
794 </indexterm>
795 </listitem>
796 </varlistentry>
797
798 <varlistentry id="readlink">
799 <term><command>readlink</command></term>
800 <listitem>
801 <para>Reports the value of the given symbolic link</para>
802 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils readlink">
803 <primary sortas="b-readlink">readlink</primary>
804 </indexterm>
805 </listitem>
806 </varlistentry>
807
808 <varlistentry id="realpath">
809 <term><command>realpath</command></term>
810 <listitem>
811 <para>Prints the resolved path</para>
812 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils realpath">
813 <primary sortas="b-realpath">realpath</primary>
814 </indexterm>
815 </listitem>
816 </varlistentry>
817
818 <varlistentry id="rm">
819 <term><command>rm</command></term>
820 <listitem>
821 <para>Removes files or directories</para>
822 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rm">
823 <primary sortas="b-rm">rm</primary>
824 </indexterm>
825 </listitem>
826 </varlistentry>
827
828 <varlistentry id="rmdir">
829 <term><command>rmdir</command></term>
830 <listitem>
831 <para>Removes directories if they are empty</para>
832 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rmdir">
833 <primary sortas="b-rmdir">rmdir</primary>
834 </indexterm>
835 </listitem>
836 </varlistentry>
837
838 <varlistentry id="runcon">
839 <term><command>runcon</command></term>
840 <listitem>
841 <para>Runs a command with specified security context</para>
842 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils runcon">
843 <primary sortas="b-runcon">runcon</primary>
844 </indexterm>
845 </listitem>
846 </varlistentry>
847
848 <varlistentry id="seq">
849 <term><command>seq</command></term>
850 <listitem>
851 <para>Prints a sequence of numbers within a given range and with a
852 given increment</para>
853 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils seq">
854 <primary sortas="b-seq">seq</primary>
855 </indexterm>
856 </listitem>
857 </varlistentry>
858
859 <varlistentry id="sha1sum">
860 <term><command>sha1sum</command></term>
861 <listitem>
862 <para>Prints or checks 160-bit Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1)
863 checksums</para>
864 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha1sum">
865 <primary sortas="b-sha1sum">sha1sum</primary>
866 </indexterm>
867 </listitem>
868 </varlistentry>
869
870 <varlistentry id="sha224sum">
871 <term><command>sha224sum</command></term>
872 <listitem>
873 <para>Prints or checks 224-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
874 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha224sum">
875 <primary sortas="b-sha224sum">sha224sum</primary>
876 </indexterm>
877 </listitem>
878 </varlistentry>
879
880 <varlistentry id="sha256sum">
881 <term><command>sha256sum</command></term>
882 <listitem>
883 <para>Prints or checks 256-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
884 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha256sum">
885 <primary sortas="b-sha256sum">sha256sum</primary>
886 </indexterm>
887 </listitem>
888 </varlistentry>
889
890 <varlistentry id="sha384sum">
891 <term><command>sha384sum</command></term>
892 <listitem>
893 <para>Prints or checks 384-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
894 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha384sum">
895 <primary sortas="b-sha384sum">sha384sum</primary>
896 </indexterm>
897 </listitem>
898 </varlistentry>
899
900 <varlistentry id="sha512sum">
901 <term><command>sha512sum</command></term>
902 <listitem>
903 <para>Prints or checks 512-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
904 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha512sum">
905 <primary sortas="b-sha512sum">sha512sum</primary>
906 </indexterm>
907 </listitem>
908 </varlistentry>
909
910 <varlistentry id="shred">
911 <term><command>shred</command></term>
912 <listitem>
913 <para>Overwrites the given files repeatedly with complex patterns,
914 making it difficult to recover the data</para>
915 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shred">
916 <primary sortas="b-shred">shred</primary>
917 </indexterm>
918 </listitem>
919 </varlistentry>
920
921 <varlistentry id="shuf">
922 <term><command>shuf</command></term>
923 <listitem>
924 <para>Shuffles lines of text</para>
925 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shuf">
926 <primary sortas="b-shuf">shuf</primary>
927 </indexterm>
928 </listitem>
929 </varlistentry>
930
931 <varlistentry id="sleep">
932 <term><command>sleep</command></term>
933 <listitem>
934 <para>Pauses for the given amount of time</para>
935 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sleep">
936 <primary sortas="b-sleep">sleep</primary>
937 </indexterm>
938 </listitem>
939 </varlistentry>
940
941 <varlistentry id="sort">
942 <term><command>sort</command></term>
943 <listitem>
944 <para>Sorts the lines from the given files</para>
945 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sort">
946 <primary sortas="b-sort">sort</primary>
947 </indexterm>
948 </listitem>
949 </varlistentry>
950
951 <varlistentry id="split">
952 <term><command>split</command></term>
953 <listitem>
954 <para>Splits the given file into pieces, by size or by number of
955 lines</para>
956 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils split">
957 <primary sortas="b-split">split</primary>
958 </indexterm>
959 </listitem>
960 </varlistentry>
961
962 <varlistentry id="stat">
963 <term><command>stat</command></term>
964 <listitem>
965 <para>Displays file or filesystem status</para>
966 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stat">
967 <primary sortas="b-stat">stat</primary>
968 </indexterm>
969 </listitem>
970 </varlistentry>
971
972 <varlistentry id="stdbuf">
973 <term><command>stdbuf</command></term>
974 <listitem>
975 <para>Runs commands with altered buffering operations for its standard
976 streams</para>
977 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stdbuf">
978 <primary sortas="b-stdbuf">stdbuf</primary>
979 </indexterm>
980 </listitem>
981 </varlistentry>
982
983 <varlistentry id="stty">
984 <term><command>stty</command></term>
985 <listitem>
986 <para>Sets or reports terminal line settings</para>
987 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stty">
988 <primary sortas="b-stty">stty</primary>
989 </indexterm>
990 </listitem>
991 </varlistentry>
992
993 <varlistentry id="sum">
994 <term><command>sum</command></term>
995 <listitem>
996 <para>Prints checksum and block counts for each given file</para>
997 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sum">
998 <primary sortas="b-sum">sum</primary>
999 </indexterm>
1000 </listitem>
1001 </varlistentry>
1002
1003 <varlistentry id="sync">
1004 <term><command>sync</command></term>
1005 <listitem>
1006 <para>Flushes file system buffers; it forces changed blocks to disk
1007 and updates the super block</para>
1008 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sync">
1009 <primary sortas="b-sync">sync</primary>
1010 </indexterm>
1011 </listitem>
1012 </varlistentry>
1013
1014 <varlistentry id="tac">
1015 <term><command>tac</command></term>
1016 <listitem>
1017 <para>Concatenates the given files in reverse</para>
1018 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tac">
1019 <primary sortas="b-tac">tac</primary>
1020 </indexterm>
1021 </listitem>
1022 </varlistentry>
1023
1024 <varlistentry id="tail">
1025 <term><command>tail</command></term>
1026 <listitem>
1027 <para>Prints the last ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each
1028 given file</para>
1029 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tail">
1030 <primary sortas="b-tail">tail</primary>
1031 </indexterm>
1032 </listitem>
1033 </varlistentry>
1034
1035 <varlistentry id="tee">
1036 <term><command>tee</command></term>
1037 <listitem>
1038 <para>Reads from standard input while writing both to standard output
1039 and to the given files</para>
1040 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tee">
1041 <primary sortas="b-tee">tee</primary>
1042 </indexterm>
1043 </listitem>
1044 </varlistentry>
1045
1046 <varlistentry id="test">
1047 <term><command>test</command></term>
1048 <listitem>
1049 <para>Compares values and checks file types</para>
1050 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils test">
1051 <primary sortas="b-test">test</primary>
1052 </indexterm>
1053 </listitem>
1054 </varlistentry>
1055
1056 <varlistentry id="timeout">
1057 <term><command>timeout</command></term>
1058 <listitem>
1059 <para>Runs a command with a time limit</para>
1060 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils timeout">
1061 <primary sortas="b-timeout">timeout</primary>
1062 </indexterm>
1063 </listitem>
1064 </varlistentry>
1065
1066 <varlistentry id="touch">
1067 <term><command>touch</command></term>
1068 <listitem>
1069 <para>Changes file timestamps, setting the access and modification
1070 times of the given files to the current time; files that do not exist
1071 are created with zero length</para>
1072 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils touch">
1073 <primary sortas="b-touch">touch</primary>
1074 </indexterm>
1075 </listitem>
1076 </varlistentry>
1077
1078 <varlistentry id="tr">
1079 <term><command>tr</command></term>
1080 <listitem>
1081 <para>Translates, squeezes, and deletes the given characters from
1082 standard input</para>
1083 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tr">
1084 <primary sortas="b-tr">tr</primary>
1085 </indexterm>
1086 </listitem>
1087 </varlistentry>
1088
1089 <varlistentry id="true">
1090 <term><command>true</command></term>
1091 <listitem>
1092 <para>Does nothing, successfully; it always exits with a status code
1093 indicating success</para>
1094 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils true">
1095 <primary sortas="b-true">true</primary>
1096 </indexterm>
1097 </listitem>
1098 </varlistentry>
1099
1100 <varlistentry id="truncate">
1101 <term><command>truncate</command></term>
1102 <listitem>
1103 <para>Shrinks or expands a file to the specified size</para>
1104 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils truncate">
1105 <primary sortas="b-truncate">truncate</primary>
1106 </indexterm>
1107 </listitem>
1108 </varlistentry>
1109
1110 <varlistentry id="tsort">
1111 <term><command>tsort</command></term>
1112 <listitem>
1113 <para>Performs a topological sort; it writes a completely ordered list
1114 according to the partial ordering in a given file</para>
1115 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tsort">
1116 <primary sortas="b-tsort">tsort</primary>
1117 </indexterm>
1118 </listitem>
1119 </varlistentry>
1120
1121 <varlistentry id="tty">
1122 <term><command>tty</command></term>
1123 <listitem>
1124 <para>Reports the file name of the terminal connected to standard
1125 input</para>
1126 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tty">
1127 <primary sortas="b-tty">tty</primary>
1128 </indexterm>
1129 </listitem>
1130 </varlistentry>
1131
1132 <varlistentry id="uname">
1133 <term><command>uname</command></term>
1134 <listitem>
1135 <para>Reports system information</para>
1136 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uname">
1137 <primary sortas="b-uname">uname</primary>
1138 </indexterm>
1139 </listitem>
1140 </varlistentry>
1141
1142 <varlistentry id="unexpand">
1143 <term><command>unexpand</command></term>
1144 <listitem>
1145 <para>Converts spaces to tabs</para>
1146 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unexpand">
1147 <primary sortas="b-unexpand">unexpand</primary>
1148 </indexterm>
1149 </listitem>
1150 </varlistentry>
1151
1152 <varlistentry id="uniq">
1153 <term><command>uniq</command></term>
1154 <listitem>
1155 <para>Discards all but one of successive identical lines</para>
1156 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uniq">
1157 <primary sortas="b-uniq">uniq</primary>
1158 </indexterm>
1159 </listitem>
1160 </varlistentry>
1161
1162 <varlistentry id="unlink">
1163 <term><command>unlink</command></term>
1164 <listitem>
1165 <para>Removes the given file</para>
1166 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unlink">
1167 <primary sortas="b-unlink">unlink</primary>
1168 </indexterm>
1169 </listitem>
1170 </varlistentry>
1171
1172 <varlistentry id="users">
1173 <term><command>users</command></term>
1174 <listitem>
1175 <para>Reports the names of the users currently logged on</para>
1176 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils users">
1177 <primary sortas="b-users">users</primary>
1178 </indexterm>
1179 </listitem>
1180 </varlistentry>
1181
1182 <varlistentry id="vdir">
1183 <term><command>vdir</command></term>
1184 <listitem>
1185 <para>Is the same as <command>ls -l</command></para>
1186 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils vdir">
1187 <primary sortas="b-vdir">vdir</primary>
1188 </indexterm>
1189 </listitem>
1190 </varlistentry>
1191
1192 <varlistentry id="wc">
1193 <term><command>wc</command></term>
1194 <listitem>
1195 <para>Reports the number of lines, words, and bytes for each given
1196 file, as well as a total line when more than one file is given</para>
1197 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils wc">
1198 <primary sortas="b-wc">wc</primary>
1199 </indexterm>
1200 </listitem>
1201 </varlistentry>
1202
1203 <varlistentry id="who">
1204 <term><command>who</command></term>
1205 <listitem>
1206 <para>Reports who is logged on</para>
1207 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils who">
1208 <primary sortas="b-who">who</primary>
1209 </indexterm>
1210 </listitem>
1211 </varlistentry>
1212
1213 <varlistentry id="whoami">
1214 <term><command>whoami</command></term>
1215 <listitem>
1216 <para>Reports the user name associated with the current effective
1217 user ID</para>
1218 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils whoami">
1219 <primary sortas="b-whoami">whoami</primary>
1220 </indexterm>
1221 </listitem>
1222 </varlistentry>
1223
1224 <varlistentry id="yes">
1225 <term><command>yes</command></term>
1226 <listitem>
1227 <para>Repeatedly outputs <quote>y</quote> or a given string until
1228 killed</para>
1229 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils yes">
1230 <primary sortas="b-yes">yes</primary>
1231 </indexterm>
1232 </listitem>
1233 </varlistentry>
1234
1235 <varlistentry id="libstdbuf">
1236 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libstdbuf</filename></term>
1237 <listitem>
1238 <para>Library used by <command>stdbuf</command></para>
1239 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils libstdbuf">
1240 <primary sortas="c-libstdbuf">libstdbuf</primary>
1241 </indexterm>
1242 </listitem>
1243 </varlistentry>
1244
1245 </variablelist>
1246
1247 </sect2>
1248
1249</sect1>
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