source: chapter06/coreutils.xml@ 6f2efae

8.0
Last change on this file since 6f2efae was 6f2efae, checked in by Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs@…>, 5 years ago

LFS-8.0

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/tags/8.0@11197 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-coreutils" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="coreutils.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>coreutils</productname>
13 <productnumber>&coreutils-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&coreutils-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Coreutils-&coreutils-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils">
20 <primary sortas="a-Coreutils">Coreutils</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the
27 basic system characteristics.</para>
28
29 <segmentedlist>
30 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
31 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
32
33 <seglistitem>
34 <seg>&coreutils-ch6-sbu;</seg>
35 <seg>&coreutils-ch6-du;</seg>
36 </seglistitem>
37 </segmentedlist>
38
39 </sect2>
40
41 <sect2 role="installation">
42 <title>Installation of Coreutils</title>
43
44 <para>POSIX requires that programs from Coreutils recognize character
45 boundaries correctly even in multibyte locales. The following patch fixes
46 this non-compliance and other internationalization-related bugs.</para>
47
48<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&coreutils-i18n-patch;</userinput></screen>
49
50 <note>
51 <para>In the past, many bugs were found in this patch. When reporting new
52 bugs to Coreutils maintainers, please check first if they are reproducible
53 without this patch.</para>
54 </note>
55
56 <!-- this has been fixed in upstream gnulib, when a new version of
57 coreutils is released, please check #4055 to see if the change has been
58 picked up in this package -->
59 <para>Suppress a test which on some machines can loop forever:</para>
60
61<screen><userinput remap="pre">sed -i '/test.lock/s/^/#/' gnulib-tests/gnulib.mk</userinput></screen>
62
63 <para>Now prepare Coreutils for compilation:</para>
64
65<screen><userinput remap="configure">FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 ./configure \
66 --prefix=/usr \
67 --enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</userinput></screen>
68
69 <variablelist>
70 <title>The meaning of the configure options:</title>
71
72 <varlistentry>
73 <term><envar>FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1</envar></term>
74 <listitem>
75 <para>This environment variable allows the package to be
76 built as the root user.
77 </para>
78 </listitem>
79 </varlistentry>
80
81 <varlistentry>
82 <term><parameter>--enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</parameter></term>
83 <listitem>
84 <para>The purpose of this switch is to prevent Coreutils from
85 installing binaries that will be installed by other packages later.
86 </para>
87 </listitem>
88 </varlistentry>
89 </variablelist>
90
91 <para>Compile the package:</para>
92
93<screen><userinput remap="make">FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 make</userinput></screen>
94
95 <para>Skip down to <quote>Install the
96 package</quote> if not running the test suite.</para>
97
98 <para>Now the test suite is ready to be run. First, run the tests that are
99 meant to be run as user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>:</para>
100
101<screen><userinput remap="test">make NON_ROOT_USERNAME=nobody check-root</userinput></screen>
102
103 <para>We're going to run the remainder of the tests as the
104 <systemitem class="username">nobody</systemitem> user. Certain tests,
105 however, require that the user be a member of more than one group. So that
106 these tests are not skipped we'll add a temporary group and make the
107 user <systemitem class="username">nobody</systemitem> a part of it:</para>
108
109<screen><userinput remap="test">echo "dummy:x:1000:nobody" &gt;&gt; /etc/group</userinput></screen>
110
111 <para>Fix some of the permissions so that the non-root user can compile and
112 run the tests:</para>
113
114<screen><userinput remap="test">chown -Rv nobody . </userinput></screen>
115
116 <para>Now run the tests. Make sure the PATH in the <userinput>su</userinput>
117 environment includes /tools/bin.</para>
118
119<screen><userinput remap="test">su nobody -s /bin/bash \
120 -c "PATH=$PATH make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check"</userinput></screen>
121
122 <para>The test-getlogin test is known to fail on a virtual console such as
123 the chroot environment here, but passes if run in an X terminal.</para>
124
125 <para>Remove the temporary group:</para>
126
127<screen><userinput remap="test">sed -i '/dummy/d' /etc/group</userinput></screen>
128
129 <para>Install the package:</para>
130
131<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
132
133 <para>Move programs to the locations specified by the FHS:</para>
134
135<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{cat,chgrp,chmod,chown,cp,date,dd,df,echo} /bin
136mv -v /usr/bin/{false,ln,ls,mkdir,mknod,mv,pwd,rm} /bin
137mv -v /usr/bin/{rmdir,stty,sync,true,uname} /bin
138mv -v /usr/bin/chroot /usr/sbin
139mv -v /usr/share/man/man1/chroot.1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8
140sed -i s/\"1\"/\"8\"/1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8</userinput></screen>
141
142 <para revision="sysv">Some of the scripts in the LFS-Bootscripts package
143 depend on <command>head</command>, <command>sleep</command>, and
144 <command>nice</command>. As <filename class="directory">/usr</filename>
145 may not be available during the early stages of booting, those binaries
146 need to be on the root partition:</para>
147
148 <para revision="systemd">Some packages in BLFS and beyond expect the
149 following programs in <filename class="directory">/bin</filename>, so make
150 sure they are placed there:</para>
151
152<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{head,sleep,nice,test,[} /bin</userinput></screen>
153
154 </sect2>
155
156 <sect2 id="contents-coreutils" role="content">
157 <title>Contents of Coreutils</title>
158
159 <segmentedlist>
160 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
161 <segtitle>Installed library</segtitle>
162 <segtitle>Installed directory</segtitle>
163
164 <seglistitem>
165 <seg>[, base32, base64, basename, cat, chcon, chgrp, chmod, chown,
166 chroot, cksum, comm, cp, csplit, cut, date, dd, df, dir, dircolors,
167 dirname, du, echo, env, expand, expr, factor, false, fmt, fold, groups,
168 head, hostid, id, install, join, link, ln, logname, ls, md5sum, mkdir,
169 mkfifo, mknod, mktemp, mv, nice, nl, nohup, nproc, numfmt, od, paste,
170 pathchk, pinky, pr, printenv, printf, ptx, pwd, readlink, realpath, rm,
171 rmdir, runcon, seq, sha1sum, sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum,
172 sha512sum, shred, shuf, sleep, sort, split, stat, stdbuf, stty, sum,
173 sync, tac, tail, tee, test, timeout, touch, tr, true, truncate, tsort,
174 tty, uname, unexpand, uniq, unlink, users, vdir, wc, who, whoami, and
175 yes</seg>
176 <seg>libstdbuf.so</seg>
177 <seg>/usr/libexec/coreutils</seg>
178 </seglistitem>
179 </segmentedlist>
180
181 <variablelist>
182 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
183 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
184 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
185
186 <varlistentry id="base32">
187 <term><command>base32</command></term>
188 <listitem>
189 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base32 specification
190 (RFC 4648)</para>
191 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
192 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
193 </indexterm>
194 </listitem>
195 </varlistentry>
196
197 <varlistentry id="base64">
198 <term><command>base64</command></term>
199 <listitem>
200 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base64 specification
201 (RFC 4648)</para>
202 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
203 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
204 </indexterm>
205 </listitem>
206 </varlistentry>
207
208 <varlistentry id="basename">
209 <term><command>basename</command></term>
210 <listitem>
211 <para>Strips any path and a given suffix from a file name</para>
212 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basename">
213 <primary sortas="b-basename">basename</primary>
214 </indexterm>
215 </listitem>
216 </varlistentry>
217
218 <varlistentry id="cat">
219 <term><command>cat</command></term>
220 <listitem>
221 <para>Concatenates files to standard output</para>
222 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cat">
223 <primary sortas="b-cat">cat</primary>
224 </indexterm>
225 </listitem>
226 </varlistentry>
227
228 <varlistentry id="chcon">
229 <term><command>chcon</command></term>
230 <listitem>
231 <para>Changes security context for files and directories</para>
232 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chcon">
233 <primary sortas="b-chcon">chcon</primary>
234 </indexterm>
235 </listitem>
236 </varlistentry>
237
238 <varlistentry id="chgrp">
239 <term><command>chgrp</command></term>
240 <listitem>
241 <para>Changes the group ownership of files and directories</para>
242 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chgrp">
243 <primary sortas="b-chgrp">chgrp</primary>
244 </indexterm>
245 </listitem>
246 </varlistentry>
247
248 <varlistentry id="chmod">
249 <term><command>chmod</command></term>
250 <listitem>
251 <para>Changes the permissions of each file to the given mode; the mode
252 can be either a symbolic representation of the changes to make or an
253 octal number representing the new permissions</para>
254 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chmod">
255 <primary sortas="b-chmod">chmod</primary>
256 </indexterm>
257 </listitem>
258 </varlistentry>
259
260 <varlistentry id="chown">
261 <term><command>chown</command></term>
262 <listitem>
263 <para>Changes the user and/or group ownership of files and
264 directories</para>
265 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chown">
266 <primary sortas="b-chown">chown</primary>
267 </indexterm>
268 </listitem>
269 </varlistentry>
270
271 <varlistentry id="chroot">
272 <term><command>chroot</command></term>
273 <listitem>
274 <para>Runs a command with the specified directory as the
275 <filename class="directory">/</filename> directory</para>
276 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chroot">
277 <primary sortas="b-chroot">chroot</primary>
278 </indexterm>
279 </listitem>
280 </varlistentry>
281
282 <varlistentry id="cksum">
283 <term><command>cksum</command></term>
284 <listitem>
285 <para>Prints the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum and the byte
286 counts of each specified file</para>
287 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cksum">
288 <primary sortas="b-cksum">cksum</primary>
289 </indexterm>
290 </listitem>
291 </varlistentry>
292
293 <varlistentry id="comm">
294 <term><command>comm</command></term>
295 <listitem>
296 <para>Compares two sorted files, outputting in three columns the lines
297 that are unique and the lines that are common</para>
298 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils comm">
299 <primary sortas="b-comm">comm</primary>
300 </indexterm>
301 </listitem>
302 </varlistentry>
303
304 <varlistentry id="cp">
305 <term><command>cp</command></term>
306 <listitem>
307 <para>Copies files</para>
308 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cp">
309 <primary sortas="b-cp">cp</primary>
310 </indexterm>
311 </listitem>
312 </varlistentry>
313
314 <varlistentry id="csplit">
315 <term><command>csplit</command></term>
316 <listitem>
317 <para>Splits a given file into several new files, separating them
318 according to given patterns or line numbers and outputting the byte
319 count of each new file</para>
320 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils csplit">
321 <primary sortas="b-csplit">csplit</primary>
322 </indexterm>
323 </listitem>
324 </varlistentry>
325
326 <varlistentry id="cut">
327 <term><command>cut</command></term>
328 <listitem>
329 <para>Prints sections of lines, selecting the parts according to given
330 fields or positions</para>
331 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cut">
332 <primary sortas="b-cut">cut</primary>
333 </indexterm>
334 </listitem>
335 </varlistentry>
336
337 <varlistentry id="date">
338 <term><command>date</command></term>
339 <listitem>
340 <para>Displays the current time in the given format, or sets the
341 system date</para>
342 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils date">
343 <primary sortas="b-date">date</primary>
344 </indexterm>
345 </listitem>
346 </varlistentry>
347
348 <varlistentry id="dd">
349 <term><command>dd</command> </term>
350 <listitem>
351 <para>Copies a file using the given block size and count, while
352 optionally performing conversions on it</para>
353 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dd">
354 <primary sortas="b-dd">dd</primary>
355 </indexterm>
356 </listitem>
357 </varlistentry>
358
359 <varlistentry id="df">
360 <term><command>df</command></term>
361 <listitem>
362 <para>Reports the amount of disk space available (and used) on all
363 mounted file systems, or only on the file systems holding the selected
364 files</para>
365 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils df">
366 <primary sortas="b-df">df</primary>
367 </indexterm>
368 </listitem>
369 </varlistentry>
370
371 <varlistentry id="dir">
372 <term><command>dir</command></term>
373 <listitem>
374 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory (the same as
375 the <command>ls</command> command)</para>
376 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dir">
377 <primary sortas="b-dir">dir</primary>
378 </indexterm>
379 </listitem>
380 </varlistentry>
381
382 <varlistentry id="dircolors">
383 <term><command>dircolors</command></term>
384 <listitem>
385 <para>Outputs commands to set the <envar>LS_COLOR</envar>
386 environment variable to change the color scheme used by
387 <command>ls</command></para>
388 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dircolors">
389 <primary sortas="b-dircolors">dircolors</primary>
390 </indexterm>
391 </listitem>
392 </varlistentry>
393
394 <varlistentry id="dirname">
395 <term><command>dirname</command></term>
396 <listitem>
397 <para>Strips the non-directory suffix from a file name</para>
398 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dirname">
399 <primary sortas="b-dirname">dirname</primary>
400 </indexterm>
401 </listitem>
402 </varlistentry>
403
404 <varlistentry id="du">
405 <term><command>du</command></term>
406 <listitem>
407 <para>Reports the amount of disk space used by the current directory,
408 by each of the given directories (including all subdirectories) or by
409 each of the given files</para>
410 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils du">
411 <primary sortas="b-du">du</primary>
412 </indexterm>
413 </listitem>
414 </varlistentry>
415
416 <varlistentry id="echo">
417 <term><command>echo</command></term>
418 <listitem>
419 <para>Displays the given strings</para>
420 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils echo">
421 <primary sortas="b-echo">echo</primary>
422 </indexterm>
423 </listitem>
424 </varlistentry>
425
426 <varlistentry id="env">
427 <term><command>env</command></term>
428 <listitem>
429 <para>Runs a command in a modified environment</para>
430 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils env">
431 <primary sortas="b-env">env</primary>
432 </indexterm>
433 </listitem>
434 </varlistentry>
435
436 <varlistentry id="expand">
437 <term><command>expand</command></term>
438 <listitem>
439 <para>Converts tabs to spaces</para>
440 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expand">
441 <primary sortas="b-expand">expand</primary>
442 </indexterm>
443 </listitem>
444 </varlistentry>
445
446 <varlistentry id="expr">
447 <term><command>expr</command></term>
448 <listitem>
449 <para>Evaluates expressions</para>
450 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expr">
451 <primary sortas="b-expr">expr</primary>
452 </indexterm>
453 </listitem>
454 </varlistentry>
455
456 <varlistentry id="factor">
457 <term><command>factor</command></term>
458 <listitem>
459 <para>Prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers</para>
460 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils factor">
461 <primary sortas="b-factor">factor</primary>
462 </indexterm>
463 </listitem>
464 </varlistentry>
465
466 <varlistentry id="false">
467 <term><command>false</command></term>
468 <listitem>
469 <para>Does nothing, unsuccessfully; it always exits with a status code
470 indicating failure</para>
471 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils false">
472 <primary sortas="b-false">false</primary>
473 </indexterm>
474 </listitem>
475 </varlistentry>
476
477 <varlistentry id="fmt">
478 <term><command>fmt</command></term>
479 <listitem>
480 <para>Reformats the paragraphs in the given files</para>
481 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fmt">
482 <primary sortas="b-fmt">fmt</primary>
483 </indexterm>
484 </listitem>
485 </varlistentry>
486
487 <varlistentry id="fold">
488 <term><command>fold</command></term>
489 <listitem>
490 <para>Wraps the lines in the given files</para>
491 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fold">
492 <primary sortas="b-fold">fold</primary>
493 </indexterm>
494 </listitem>
495 </varlistentry>
496
497 <varlistentry id="groups">
498 <term><command>groups</command></term>
499 <listitem>
500 <para>Reports a user's group memberships</para>
501 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils groups">
502 <primary sortas="b-groups">groups</primary>
503 </indexterm>
504 </listitem>
505 </varlistentry>
506
507 <varlistentry id="head">
508 <term><command>head</command></term>
509 <listitem>
510 <para>Prints the first ten lines (or the given number of lines)
511 of each given file</para>
512 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils head">
513 <primary sortas="b-head">head</primary>
514 </indexterm>
515 </listitem>
516 </varlistentry>
517
518 <varlistentry id="hostid">
519 <term><command>hostid</command></term>
520 <listitem>
521 <para>Reports the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) of the host</para>
522 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils hostid">
523 <primary sortas="b-hostid">hostid</primary>
524 </indexterm>
525 </listitem>
526 </varlistentry>
527
528 <varlistentry id="id">
529 <term><command>id</command></term>
530 <listitem>
531 <para>Reports the effective user ID, group ID, and group memberships
532 of the current user or specified user</para>
533 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils id">
534 <primary sortas="b-id">id</primary>
535 </indexterm>
536 </listitem>
537 </varlistentry>
538
539 <varlistentry id="install">
540 <term><command>install</command> </term>
541 <listitem>
542 <para>Copies files while setting their permission modes and, if
543 possible, their owner and group</para>
544 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils install">
545 <primary sortas="b-install">install</primary>
546 </indexterm>
547 </listitem>
548 </varlistentry>
549
550 <varlistentry id="join">
551 <term><command>join</command></term>
552 <listitem>
553 <para>Joins the lines that have identical join fields from two
554 separate files</para>
555 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils join">
556 <primary sortas="b-join">join</primary>
557 </indexterm>
558 </listitem>
559 </varlistentry>
560
561 <varlistentry id="link">
562 <term><command>link</command></term>
563 <listitem>
564 <para>Creates a hard link with the given name to a file</para>
565 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils link">
566 <primary sortas="b-link">link</primary>
567 </indexterm>
568 </listitem>
569 </varlistentry>
570
571 <varlistentry id="ln">
572 <term><command>ln</command></term>
573 <listitem>
574 <para>Makes hard links or soft (symbolic) links between files</para>
575 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ln">
576 <primary sortas="b-ln">ln</primary>
577 </indexterm>
578 </listitem>
579 </varlistentry>
580
581 <varlistentry id="logname">
582 <term><command>logname</command></term>
583 <listitem>
584 <para>Reports the current user's login name</para>
585 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils logname">
586 <primary sortas="b-logname">logname</primary>
587 </indexterm>
588 </listitem>
589 </varlistentry>
590
591 <varlistentry id="ls">
592 <term><command>ls</command></term>
593 <listitem>
594 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory</para>
595 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ls">
596 <primary sortas="b-ls">ls</primary>
597 </indexterm>
598 </listitem>
599 </varlistentry>
600
601 <varlistentry id="md5sum">
602 <term><command>md5sum</command></term>
603 <listitem>
604 <para>Reports or checks Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums</para>
605 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils md5sum">
606 <primary sortas="b-md5sum">md5sum</primary>
607 </indexterm>
608 </listitem>
609 </varlistentry>
610
611 <varlistentry id="mkdir">
612 <term><command>mkdir</command></term>
613 <listitem>
614 <para>Creates directories with the given names</para>
615 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkdir">
616 <primary sortas="b-mkdir">mkdir</primary>
617 </indexterm>
618 </listitem>
619 </varlistentry>
620
621 <varlistentry id="mkfifo">
622 <term><command>mkfifo</command></term>
623 <listitem>
624 <para>Creates First-In, First-Outs (FIFOs), a "named
625 pipe" in UNIX parlance, with the given names</para>
626 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkfifo">
627 <primary sortas="b-mkfifo">mkfifo</primary>
628 </indexterm>
629 </listitem>
630 </varlistentry>
631
632 <varlistentry id="mknod">
633 <term><command>mknod</command></term>
634 <listitem>
635 <para>Creates device nodes with the given names; a device node is a
636 character special file, a block special file, or a FIFO</para>
637 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mknod">
638 <primary sortas="b-mknod">mknod</primary>
639 </indexterm>
640 </listitem>
641 </varlistentry>
642
643 <varlistentry id="mktemp">
644 <term><command>mktemp</command></term>
645 <listitem>
646 <para>Creates temporary files in a secure manner; it is used in scripts</para>
647 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mktemp">
648 <primary sortas="b-mktemp">mktemp</primary>
649 </indexterm>
650 </listitem>
651 </varlistentry>
652
653 <varlistentry id="mv">
654 <term><command>mv</command></term>
655 <listitem>
656 <para>Moves or renames files or directories</para>
657 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mv">
658 <primary sortas="b-mv">mv</primary>
659 </indexterm>
660 </listitem>
661 </varlistentry>
662
663 <varlistentry id="nice">
664 <term><command>nice</command></term>
665 <listitem>
666 <para>Runs a program with modified scheduling priority</para>
667 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nice">
668 <primary sortas="b-nice">nice</primary>
669 </indexterm>
670 </listitem>
671 </varlistentry>
672
673 <varlistentry id="nl">
674 <term><command>nl</command></term>
675 <listitem>
676 <para>Numbers the lines from the given files</para>
677 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nl">
678 <primary sortas="b-nl">nl</primary>
679 </indexterm>
680 </listitem>
681 </varlistentry>
682
683 <varlistentry id="nohup">
684 <term><command>nohup</command></term>
685 <listitem>
686 <para>Runs a command immune to hangups, with its output redirected to
687 a log file</para>
688 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nohup">
689 <primary sortas="b-nohup">nohup</primary>
690 </indexterm>
691 </listitem>
692 </varlistentry>
693
694 <varlistentry id="nproc">
695 <term><command>nproc</command></term>
696 <listitem>
697 <para>Prints the number of processing units available to a
698 process</para>
699 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nproc">
700 <primary sortas="b-nproc">nproc</primary>
701 </indexterm>
702 </listitem>
703 </varlistentry>
704
705 <varlistentry id="numfmt">
706 <term><command>numfmt</command></term>
707 <listitem>
708 <para>Converts numbers to or from human-readable strings</para>
709 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils numfmt">
710 <primary sortas="b-numfmt">numfmt</primary>
711 </indexterm>
712 </listitem>
713 </varlistentry>
714
715 <varlistentry id="od">
716 <term><command>od</command></term>
717 <listitem>
718 <para>Dumps files in octal and other formats</para>
719 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils od">
720 <primary sortas="b-od">od</primary>
721 </indexterm>
722 </listitem>
723 </varlistentry>
724
725 <varlistentry id="paste">
726 <term><command>paste</command></term>
727 <listitem>
728 <para>Merges the given files, joining sequentially corresponding lines
729 side by side, separated by tab characters</para>
730 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils paste">
731 <primary sortas="b-paste">paste</primary>
732 </indexterm>
733 </listitem>
734 </varlistentry>
735
736 <varlistentry id="pathchk">
737 <term><command>pathchk</command></term>
738 <listitem>
739 <para>Checks if file names are valid or portable</para>
740 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pathchk">
741 <primary sortas="b-pathchk">pathchk</primary>
742 </indexterm>
743 </listitem>
744 </varlistentry>
745
746 <varlistentry id="pinky">
747 <term><command>pinky</command></term>
748 <listitem>
749 <para>Is a lightweight finger client; it reports some information
750 about the given users</para>
751 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pinky">
752 <primary sortas="b-pinky">pinky</primary>
753 </indexterm>
754 </listitem>
755 </varlistentry>
756
757 <varlistentry id="pr">
758 <term><command>pr</command></term>
759 <listitem>
760 <para>Paginates and columnates files for printing</para>
761 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pr">
762 <primary sortas="b-pr">pr</primary>
763 </indexterm>
764 </listitem>
765 </varlistentry>
766
767 <varlistentry id="printenv">
768 <term><command>printenv</command></term>
769 <listitem>
770 <para>Prints the environment</para>
771 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printenv">
772 <primary sortas="b-printenv">printenv</primary>
773 </indexterm>
774 </listitem>
775 </varlistentry>
776
777 <varlistentry id="printf">
778 <term><command>printf</command></term>
779 <listitem>
780 <para>Prints the given arguments according to the given format, much
781 like the C printf function</para>
782 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printf">
783 <primary sortas="b-printf">printf</primary>
784 </indexterm>
785 </listitem>
786 </varlistentry>
787
788 <varlistentry id="ptx">
789 <term><command>ptx</command></term>
790 <listitem>
791 <para>Produces a permuted index from the contents of the given files,
792 with each keyword in its context</para>
793 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ptx">
794 <primary sortas="b-ptx">ptx</primary>
795 </indexterm>
796 </listitem>
797 </varlistentry>
798
799 <varlistentry id="pwd">
800 <term><command>pwd</command></term>
801 <listitem>
802 <para>Reports the name of the current working directory</para>
803 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pwd">
804 <primary sortas="b-pwd">pwd</primary>
805 </indexterm>
806 </listitem>
807 </varlistentry>
808
809 <varlistentry id="readlink">
810 <term><command>readlink</command></term>
811 <listitem>
812 <para>Reports the value of the given symbolic link</para>
813 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils readlink">
814 <primary sortas="b-readlink">readlink</primary>
815 </indexterm>
816 </listitem>
817 </varlistentry>
818
819 <varlistentry id="realpath">
820 <term><command>realpath</command></term>
821 <listitem>
822 <para>Prints the resolved path</para>
823 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils realpath">
824 <primary sortas="b-realpath">realpath</primary>
825 </indexterm>
826 </listitem>
827 </varlistentry>
828
829 <varlistentry id="rm">
830 <term><command>rm</command></term>
831 <listitem>
832 <para>Removes files or directories</para>
833 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rm">
834 <primary sortas="b-rm">rm</primary>
835 </indexterm>
836 </listitem>
837 </varlistentry>
838
839 <varlistentry id="rmdir">
840 <term><command>rmdir</command></term>
841 <listitem>
842 <para>Removes directories if they are empty</para>
843 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rmdir">
844 <primary sortas="b-rmdir">rmdir</primary>
845 </indexterm>
846 </listitem>
847 </varlistentry>
848
849 <varlistentry id="runcon">
850 <term><command>runcon</command></term>
851 <listitem>
852 <para>Runs a command with specified security context</para>
853 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils runcon">
854 <primary sortas="b-runcon">runcon</primary>
855 </indexterm>
856 </listitem>
857 </varlistentry>
858
859 <varlistentry id="seq">
860 <term><command>seq</command></term>
861 <listitem>
862 <para>Prints a sequence of numbers within a given range and with a
863 given increment</para>
864 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils seq">
865 <primary sortas="b-seq">seq</primary>
866 </indexterm>
867 </listitem>
868 </varlistentry>
869
870 <varlistentry id="sha1sum">
871 <term><command>sha1sum</command></term>
872 <listitem>
873 <para>Prints or checks 160-bit Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1)
874 checksums</para>
875 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha1sum">
876 <primary sortas="b-sha1sum">sha1sum</primary>
877 </indexterm>
878 </listitem>
879 </varlistentry>
880
881 <varlistentry id="sha224sum">
882 <term><command>sha224sum</command></term>
883 <listitem>
884 <para>Prints or checks 224-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
885 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha224sum">
886 <primary sortas="b-sha224sum">sha224sum</primary>
887 </indexterm>
888 </listitem>
889 </varlistentry>
890
891 <varlistentry id="sha256sum">
892 <term><command>sha256sum</command></term>
893 <listitem>
894 <para>Prints or checks 256-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
895 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha256sum">
896 <primary sortas="b-sha256sum">sha256sum</primary>
897 </indexterm>
898 </listitem>
899 </varlistentry>
900
901 <varlistentry id="sha384sum">
902 <term><command>sha384sum</command></term>
903 <listitem>
904 <para>Prints or checks 384-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
905 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha384sum">
906 <primary sortas="b-sha384sum">sha384sum</primary>
907 </indexterm>
908 </listitem>
909 </varlistentry>
910
911 <varlistentry id="sha512sum">
912 <term><command>sha512sum</command></term>
913 <listitem>
914 <para>Prints or checks 512-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
915 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha512sum">
916 <primary sortas="b-sha512sum">sha512sum</primary>
917 </indexterm>
918 </listitem>
919 </varlistentry>
920
921 <varlistentry id="shred">
922 <term><command>shred</command></term>
923 <listitem>
924 <para>Overwrites the given files repeatedly with complex patterns,
925 making it difficult to recover the data</para>
926 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shred">
927 <primary sortas="b-shred">shred</primary>
928 </indexterm>
929 </listitem>
930 </varlistentry>
931
932 <varlistentry id="shuf">
933 <term><command>shuf</command></term>
934 <listitem>
935 <para>Shuffles lines of text</para>
936 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shuf">
937 <primary sortas="b-shuf">shuf</primary>
938 </indexterm>
939 </listitem>
940 </varlistentry>
941
942 <varlistentry id="sleep">
943 <term><command>sleep</command></term>
944 <listitem>
945 <para>Pauses for the given amount of time</para>
946 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sleep">
947 <primary sortas="b-sleep">sleep</primary>
948 </indexterm>
949 </listitem>
950 </varlistentry>
951
952 <varlistentry id="sort">
953 <term><command>sort</command></term>
954 <listitem>
955 <para>Sorts the lines from the given files</para>
956 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sort">
957 <primary sortas="b-sort">sort</primary>
958 </indexterm>
959 </listitem>
960 </varlistentry>
961
962 <varlistentry id="split">
963 <term><command>split</command></term>
964 <listitem>
965 <para>Splits the given file into pieces, by size or by number of
966 lines</para>
967 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils split">
968 <primary sortas="b-split">split</primary>
969 </indexterm>
970 </listitem>
971 </varlistentry>
972
973 <varlistentry id="stat">
974 <term><command>stat</command></term>
975 <listitem>
976 <para>Displays file or filesystem status</para>
977 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stat">
978 <primary sortas="b-stat">stat</primary>
979 </indexterm>
980 </listitem>
981 </varlistentry>
982
983 <varlistentry id="stdbuf">
984 <term><command>stdbuf</command></term>
985 <listitem>
986 <para>Runs commands with altered buffering operations for its standard
987 streams</para>
988 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stdbuf">
989 <primary sortas="b-stdbuf">stdbuf</primary>
990 </indexterm>
991 </listitem>
992 </varlistentry>
993
994 <varlistentry id="stty">
995 <term><command>stty</command></term>
996 <listitem>
997 <para>Sets or reports terminal line settings</para>
998 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stty">
999 <primary sortas="b-stty">stty</primary>
1000 </indexterm>
1001 </listitem>
1002 </varlistentry>
1003
1004 <varlistentry id="sum">
1005 <term><command>sum</command></term>
1006 <listitem>
1007 <para>Prints checksum and block counts for each given file</para>
1008 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sum">
1009 <primary sortas="b-sum">sum</primary>
1010 </indexterm>
1011 </listitem>
1012 </varlistentry>
1013
1014 <varlistentry id="sync">
1015 <term><command>sync</command></term>
1016 <listitem>
1017 <para>Flushes file system buffers; it forces changed blocks to disk
1018 and updates the super block</para>
1019 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sync">
1020 <primary sortas="b-sync">sync</primary>
1021 </indexterm>
1022 </listitem>
1023 </varlistentry>
1024
1025 <varlistentry id="tac">
1026 <term><command>tac</command></term>
1027 <listitem>
1028 <para>Concatenates the given files in reverse</para>
1029 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tac">
1030 <primary sortas="b-tac">tac</primary>
1031 </indexterm>
1032 </listitem>
1033 </varlistentry>
1034
1035 <varlistentry id="tail">
1036 <term><command>tail</command></term>
1037 <listitem>
1038 <para>Prints the last ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each
1039 given file</para>
1040 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tail">
1041 <primary sortas="b-tail">tail</primary>
1042 </indexterm>
1043 </listitem>
1044 </varlistentry>
1045
1046 <varlistentry id="tee">
1047 <term><command>tee</command></term>
1048 <listitem>
1049 <para>Reads from standard input while writing both to standard output
1050 and to the given files</para>
1051 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tee">
1052 <primary sortas="b-tee">tee</primary>
1053 </indexterm>
1054 </listitem>
1055 </varlistentry>
1056
1057 <varlistentry id="test">
1058 <term><command>test</command></term>
1059 <listitem>
1060 <para>Compares values and checks file types</para>
1061 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils test">
1062 <primary sortas="b-test">test</primary>
1063 </indexterm>
1064 </listitem>
1065 </varlistentry>
1066
1067 <varlistentry id="timeout">
1068 <term><command>timeout</command></term>
1069 <listitem>
1070 <para>Runs a command with a time limit</para>
1071 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils timeout">
1072 <primary sortas="b-timeout">timeout</primary>
1073 </indexterm>
1074 </listitem>
1075 </varlistentry>
1076
1077 <varlistentry id="touch">
1078 <term><command>touch</command></term>
1079 <listitem>
1080 <para>Changes file timestamps, setting the access and modification
1081 times of the given files to the current time; files that do not exist
1082 are created with zero length</para>
1083 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils touch">
1084 <primary sortas="b-touch">touch</primary>
1085 </indexterm>
1086 </listitem>
1087 </varlistentry>
1088
1089 <varlistentry id="tr">
1090 <term><command>tr</command></term>
1091 <listitem>
1092 <para>Translates, squeezes, and deletes the given characters from
1093 standard input</para>
1094 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tr">
1095 <primary sortas="b-tr">tr</primary>
1096 </indexterm>
1097 </listitem>
1098 </varlistentry>
1099
1100 <varlistentry id="true">
1101 <term><command>true</command></term>
1102 <listitem>
1103 <para>Does nothing, successfully; it always exits with a status code
1104 indicating success</para>
1105 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils true">
1106 <primary sortas="b-true">true</primary>
1107 </indexterm>
1108 </listitem>
1109 </varlistentry>
1110
1111 <varlistentry id="truncate">
1112 <term><command>truncate</command></term>
1113 <listitem>
1114 <para>Shrinks or expands a file to the specified size</para>
1115 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils truncate">
1116 <primary sortas="b-truncate">truncate</primary>
1117 </indexterm>
1118 </listitem>
1119 </varlistentry>
1120
1121 <varlistentry id="tsort">
1122 <term><command>tsort</command></term>
1123 <listitem>
1124 <para>Performs a topological sort; it writes a completely ordered list
1125 according to the partial ordering in a given file</para>
1126 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tsort">
1127 <primary sortas="b-tsort">tsort</primary>
1128 </indexterm>
1129 </listitem>
1130 </varlistentry>
1131
1132 <varlistentry id="tty">
1133 <term><command>tty</command></term>
1134 <listitem>
1135 <para>Reports the file name of the terminal connected to standard
1136 input</para>
1137 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tty">
1138 <primary sortas="b-tty">tty</primary>
1139 </indexterm>
1140 </listitem>
1141 </varlistentry>
1142
1143 <varlistentry id="uname">
1144 <term><command>uname</command></term>
1145 <listitem>
1146 <para>Reports system information</para>
1147 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uname">
1148 <primary sortas="b-uname">uname</primary>
1149 </indexterm>
1150 </listitem>
1151 </varlistentry>
1152
1153 <varlistentry id="unexpand">
1154 <term><command>unexpand</command></term>
1155 <listitem>
1156 <para>Converts spaces to tabs</para>
1157 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unexpand">
1158 <primary sortas="b-unexpand">unexpand</primary>
1159 </indexterm>
1160 </listitem>
1161 </varlistentry>
1162
1163 <varlistentry id="uniq">
1164 <term><command>uniq</command></term>
1165 <listitem>
1166 <para>Discards all but one of successive identical lines</para>
1167 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uniq">
1168 <primary sortas="b-uniq">uniq</primary>
1169 </indexterm>
1170 </listitem>
1171 </varlistentry>
1172
1173 <varlistentry id="unlink">
1174 <term><command>unlink</command></term>
1175 <listitem>
1176 <para>Removes the given file</para>
1177 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unlink">
1178 <primary sortas="b-unlink">unlink</primary>
1179 </indexterm>
1180 </listitem>
1181 </varlistentry>
1182
1183 <varlistentry id="users">
1184 <term><command>users</command></term>
1185 <listitem>
1186 <para>Reports the names of the users currently logged on</para>
1187 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils users">
1188 <primary sortas="b-users">users</primary>
1189 </indexterm>
1190 </listitem>
1191 </varlistentry>
1192
1193 <varlistentry id="vdir">
1194 <term><command>vdir</command></term>
1195 <listitem>
1196 <para>Is the same as <command>ls -l</command></para>
1197 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils vdir">
1198 <primary sortas="b-vdir">vdir</primary>
1199 </indexterm>
1200 </listitem>
1201 </varlistentry>
1202
1203 <varlistentry id="wc">
1204 <term><command>wc</command></term>
1205 <listitem>
1206 <para>Reports the number of lines, words, and bytes for each given
1207 file, as well as a total line when more than one file is given</para>
1208 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils wc">
1209 <primary sortas="b-wc">wc</primary>
1210 </indexterm>
1211 </listitem>
1212 </varlistentry>
1213
1214 <varlistentry id="who">
1215 <term><command>who</command></term>
1216 <listitem>
1217 <para>Reports who is logged on</para>
1218 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils who">
1219 <primary sortas="b-who">who</primary>
1220 </indexterm>
1221 </listitem>
1222 </varlistentry>
1223
1224 <varlistentry id="whoami">
1225 <term><command>whoami</command></term>
1226 <listitem>
1227 <para>Reports the user name associated with the current effective
1228 user ID</para>
1229 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils whoami">
1230 <primary sortas="b-whoami">whoami</primary>
1231 </indexterm>
1232 </listitem>
1233 </varlistentry>
1234
1235 <varlistentry id="yes">
1236 <term><command>yes</command></term>
1237 <listitem>
1238 <para>Repeatedly outputs <quote>y</quote> or a given string until
1239 killed</para>
1240 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils yes">
1241 <primary sortas="b-yes">yes</primary>
1242 </indexterm>
1243 </listitem>
1244 </varlistentry>
1245
1246 <varlistentry id="libstdbuf">
1247 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libstdbuf</filename></term>
1248 <listitem>
1249 <para>Library used by <command>stdbuf</command></para>
1250 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils libstdbuf">
1251 <primary sortas="c-libstdbuf">libstdbuf</primary>
1252 </indexterm>
1253 </listitem>
1254 </varlistentry>
1255
1256 </variablelist>
1257
1258 </sect2>
1259
1260</sect1>
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