source: chapter06/coreutils.xml@ 8c5e7286

multilib-10.1 multilib-before-cross
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-coreutils" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="coreutils.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>coreutils</productname>
13 <productnumber>&coreutils-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&coreutils-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Coreutils-&coreutils-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils">
20 <primary sortas="a-Coreutils">Coreutils</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the
27 basic system characteristics.</para>
28
29 <segmentedlist>
30 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
31 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
32
33 <seglistitem>
34 <seg>&coreutils-ch6-sbu;</seg>
35 <seg>&coreutils-ch6-du;</seg>
36 </seglistitem>
37 </segmentedlist>
38
39 </sect2>
40
41 <sect2 role="installation">
42 <title>Installation of Coreutils</title>
43
44 <para>POSIX requires that programs from Coreutils recognize character
45 boundaries correctly even in multibyte locales. The following patch fixes
46 this non-compliance and other internationalization-related bugs.</para>
47
48<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&coreutils-i18n-patch;</userinput></screen>
49
50 <note>
51 <para>In the past, many bugs were found in this patch. When reporting new
52 bugs to Coreutils maintainers, please check first if they are reproducible
53 without this patch.</para>
54 </note>
55
56 <!-- this has been fixed in upstream gnulib, when a new version of
57 coreutils is released, please check #4055 to see if the change has been
58 picked up in this package -->
59 <para>Suppress a test which on some machines can loop forever:</para>
60
61<screen><userinput remap="pre">sed -i '/test.lock/s/^/#/' gnulib-tests/gnulib.mk</userinput></screen>
62
63 <para>Now prepare Coreutils for compilation:</para>
64
65<screen><userinput remap="configure">autoreconf -fiv
66FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 ./configure \
67 --prefix=/usr \
68 --enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</userinput></screen>
69
70 <variablelist>
71 <title>The meaning of the configure options:</title>
72
73 <varlistentry>
74 <term><command>autoreconf</command></term>
75 <listitem>
76 <para>This command updates generated configuration files
77 consistent with the latest version of automake.
78 </para>
79 </listitem>
80 </varlistentry>
81
82 <varlistentry>
83 <term><envar>FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1</envar></term>
84 <listitem>
85 <para>This environment variable allows the package to be
86 built as the root user.
87 </para>
88 </listitem>
89 </varlistentry>
90
91 <varlistentry>
92 <term><parameter>--enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</parameter></term>
93 <listitem>
94 <para>The purpose of this switch is to prevent Coreutils from
95 installing binaries that will be installed by other packages later.
96 </para>
97 </listitem>
98 </varlistentry>
99 </variablelist>
100
101 <para>Compile the package:</para>
102
103<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
104
105 <para>Skip down to <quote>Install the
106 package</quote> if not running the test suite.</para>
107
108 <para>Now the test suite is ready to be run. First, run the tests that are
109 meant to be run as user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>:</para>
110
111<screen><userinput remap="test">make NON_ROOT_USERNAME=nobody check-root</userinput></screen>
112
113 <para>We're going to run the remainder of the tests as the
114 <systemitem class="username">nobody</systemitem> user. Certain tests,
115 however, require that the user be a member of more than one group. So that
116 these tests are not skipped we'll add a temporary group and make the
117 user <systemitem class="username">nobody</systemitem> a part of it:</para>
118
119<screen><userinput remap="test">echo "dummy:x:1000:nobody" &gt;&gt; /etc/group</userinput></screen>
120
121 <para>Fix some of the permissions so that the non-root user can compile and
122 run the tests:</para>
123
124<screen><userinput remap="test">chown -Rv nobody . </userinput></screen>
125
126 <para>Now run the tests. Make sure the PATH in the <userinput>su</userinput>
127 environment includes /tools/bin.</para>
128
129<screen><userinput remap="test">su nobody -s /bin/bash \
130 -c "PATH=$PATH make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check"</userinput></screen>
131
132 <para>The test program test-getlogin is known to fail in a
133 partially built system environment like the chroot environment here, but
134 passes if run at the end of this chapter. The test program tty.sh is
135 also known to fail.</para>
136
137 <para>Remove the temporary group:</para>
138
139<screen><userinput remap="test">sed -i '/dummy/d' /etc/group</userinput></screen>
140
141 <para>Install the package:</para>
142
143<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
144
145 <para>Move programs to the locations specified by the FHS:</para>
146
147<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{cat,chgrp,chmod,chown,cp,date,dd,df,echo} /bin
148mv -v /usr/bin/{false,ln,ls,mkdir,mknod,mv,pwd,rm} /bin
149mv -v /usr/bin/{rmdir,stty,sync,true,uname} /bin
150mv -v /usr/bin/chroot /usr/sbin
151mv -v /usr/share/man/man1/chroot.1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8
152sed -i s/\"1\"/\"8\"/1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8</userinput></screen>
153
154 <para revision="sysv">Some of the scripts in the LFS-Bootscripts package
155 depend on <command>head</command>, <command>nice</command>,
156 <command>sleep</command>, and <command>touch</command>. As <filename
157 class="directory">/usr</filename> may not be available during the early and
158 late stages of booting, those binaries need to be on the root partition to
159 maintain FHS compliance:</para>
160
161<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{head,nice,sleep,touch} /bin</userinput></screen>
162
163 </sect2>
164
165 <sect2 id="contents-coreutils" role="content">
166 <title>Contents of Coreutils</title>
167
168 <segmentedlist>
169 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
170 <segtitle>Installed library</segtitle>
171 <segtitle>Installed directory</segtitle>
172
173 <seglistitem>
174 <seg>[, b2sum, base32, base64, basename, basenc, cat, chcon, chgrp, chmod, chown,
175 chroot, cksum, comm, cp, csplit, cut, date, dd, df, dir, dircolors,
176 dirname, du, echo, env, expand, expr, factor, false, fmt, fold, groups,
177 head, hostid, id, install, join, link, ln, logname, ls, md5sum, mkdir,
178 mkfifo, mknod, mktemp, mv, nice, nl, nohup, nproc, numfmt, od, paste,
179 pathchk, pinky, pr, printenv, printf, ptx, pwd, readlink, realpath, rm,
180 rmdir, runcon, seq, sha1sum, sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum,
181 sha512sum, shred, shuf, sleep, sort, split, stat, stdbuf, stty, sum,
182 sync, tac, tail, tee, test, timeout, touch, tr, true, truncate, tsort,
183 tty, uname, unexpand, uniq, unlink, users, vdir, wc, who, whoami, and
184 yes</seg>
185 <seg>libstdbuf.so (in /usr/libexec/coreutils)</seg>
186 <seg>/usr/libexec/coreutils</seg>
187 </seglistitem>
188 </segmentedlist>
189
190 <variablelist>
191 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
192 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
193 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
194
195 <varlistentry id="base32">
196 <term><command>base32</command></term>
197 <listitem>
198 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base32 specification
199 (RFC 4648)</para>
200 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
201 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
202 </indexterm>
203 </listitem>
204 </varlistentry>
205
206 <varlistentry id="base64">
207 <term><command>base64</command></term>
208 <listitem>
209 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base64 specification
210 (RFC 4648)</para>
211 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
212 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
213 </indexterm>
214 </listitem>
215 </varlistentry>
216
217 <varlistentry id="b2sum">
218 <term><command>b2sum</command></term>
219 <listitem>
220 <para>Prints or checks BLAKE2 (512-bit) checksums</para>
221 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils b2sum">
222 <primary sortas="b-b2sum">b2sum</primary>
223 </indexterm>
224 </listitem>
225 </varlistentry>
226
227 <varlistentry id="basename">
228 <term><command>basename</command></term>
229 <listitem>
230 <para>Strips any path and a given suffix from a file name</para>
231 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basename">
232 <primary sortas="b-basename">basename</primary>
233 </indexterm>
234 </listitem>
235 </varlistentry>
236
237 <varlistentry id="basenc">
238 <term><command>basenc</command></term>
239 <listitem>
240 <para>Encodes or decodes data using various algorithms</para>
241 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basenc">
242 <primary sortas="b-basenc">basenc</primary>
243 </indexterm>
244 </listitem>
245 </varlistentry>
246
247 <varlistentry id="cat">
248 <term><command>cat</command></term>
249 <listitem>
250 <para>Concatenates files to standard output</para>
251 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cat">
252 <primary sortas="b-cat">cat</primary>
253 </indexterm>
254 </listitem>
255 </varlistentry>
256
257 <varlistentry id="chcon">
258 <term><command>chcon</command></term>
259 <listitem>
260 <para>Changes security context for files and directories</para>
261 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chcon">
262 <primary sortas="b-chcon">chcon</primary>
263 </indexterm>
264 </listitem>
265 </varlistentry>
266
267 <varlistentry id="chgrp">
268 <term><command>chgrp</command></term>
269 <listitem>
270 <para>Changes the group ownership of files and directories</para>
271 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chgrp">
272 <primary sortas="b-chgrp">chgrp</primary>
273 </indexterm>
274 </listitem>
275 </varlistentry>
276
277 <varlistentry id="chmod">
278 <term><command>chmod</command></term>
279 <listitem>
280 <para>Changes the permissions of each file to the given mode; the mode
281 can be either a symbolic representation of the changes to make or an
282 octal number representing the new permissions</para>
283 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chmod">
284 <primary sortas="b-chmod">chmod</primary>
285 </indexterm>
286 </listitem>
287 </varlistentry>
288
289 <varlistentry id="chown">
290 <term><command>chown</command></term>
291 <listitem>
292 <para>Changes the user and/or group ownership of files and
293 directories</para>
294 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chown">
295 <primary sortas="b-chown">chown</primary>
296 </indexterm>
297 </listitem>
298 </varlistentry>
299
300 <varlistentry id="chroot">
301 <term><command>chroot</command></term>
302 <listitem>
303 <para>Runs a command with the specified directory as the
304 <filename class="directory">/</filename> directory</para>
305 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chroot">
306 <primary sortas="b-chroot">chroot</primary>
307 </indexterm>
308 </listitem>
309 </varlistentry>
310
311 <varlistentry id="cksum">
312 <term><command>cksum</command></term>
313 <listitem>
314 <para>Prints the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum and the byte
315 counts of each specified file</para>
316 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cksum">
317 <primary sortas="b-cksum">cksum</primary>
318 </indexterm>
319 </listitem>
320 </varlistentry>
321
322 <varlistentry id="comm">
323 <term><command>comm</command></term>
324 <listitem>
325 <para>Compares two sorted files, outputting in three columns the lines
326 that are unique and the lines that are common</para>
327 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils comm">
328 <primary sortas="b-comm">comm</primary>
329 </indexterm>
330 </listitem>
331 </varlistentry>
332
333 <varlistentry id="cp">
334 <term><command>cp</command></term>
335 <listitem>
336 <para>Copies files</para>
337 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cp">
338 <primary sortas="b-cp">cp</primary>
339 </indexterm>
340 </listitem>
341 </varlistentry>
342
343 <varlistentry id="csplit">
344 <term><command>csplit</command></term>
345 <listitem>
346 <para>Splits a given file into several new files, separating them
347 according to given patterns or line numbers and outputting the byte
348 count of each new file</para>
349 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils csplit">
350 <primary sortas="b-csplit">csplit</primary>
351 </indexterm>
352 </listitem>
353 </varlistentry>
354
355 <varlistentry id="cut">
356 <term><command>cut</command></term>
357 <listitem>
358 <para>Prints sections of lines, selecting the parts according to given
359 fields or positions</para>
360 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cut">
361 <primary sortas="b-cut">cut</primary>
362 </indexterm>
363 </listitem>
364 </varlistentry>
365
366 <varlistentry id="date">
367 <term><command>date</command></term>
368 <listitem>
369 <para>Displays the current time in the given format, or sets the
370 system date</para>
371 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils date">
372 <primary sortas="b-date">date</primary>
373 </indexterm>
374 </listitem>
375 </varlistentry>
376
377 <varlistentry id="dd">
378 <term><command>dd</command> </term>
379 <listitem>
380 <para>Copies a file using the given block size and count, while
381 optionally performing conversions on it</para>
382 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dd">
383 <primary sortas="b-dd">dd</primary>
384 </indexterm>
385 </listitem>
386 </varlistentry>
387
388 <varlistentry id="df">
389 <term><command>df</command></term>
390 <listitem>
391 <para>Reports the amount of disk space available (and used) on all
392 mounted file systems, or only on the file systems holding the selected
393 files</para>
394 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils df">
395 <primary sortas="b-df">df</primary>
396 </indexterm>
397 </listitem>
398 </varlistentry>
399
400 <varlistentry id="dir">
401 <term><command>dir</command></term>
402 <listitem>
403 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory (the same as
404 the <command>ls</command> command)</para>
405 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dir">
406 <primary sortas="b-dir">dir</primary>
407 </indexterm>
408 </listitem>
409 </varlistentry>
410
411 <varlistentry id="dircolors">
412 <term><command>dircolors</command></term>
413 <listitem>
414 <para>Outputs commands to set the <envar>LS_COLOR</envar>
415 environment variable to change the color scheme used by
416 <command>ls</command></para>
417 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dircolors">
418 <primary sortas="b-dircolors">dircolors</primary>
419 </indexterm>
420 </listitem>
421 </varlistentry>
422
423 <varlistentry id="dirname">
424 <term><command>dirname</command></term>
425 <listitem>
426 <para>Strips the non-directory suffix from a file name</para>
427 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dirname">
428 <primary sortas="b-dirname">dirname</primary>
429 </indexterm>
430 </listitem>
431 </varlistentry>
432
433 <varlistentry id="du">
434 <term><command>du</command></term>
435 <listitem>
436 <para>Reports the amount of disk space used by the current directory,
437 by each of the given directories (including all subdirectories) or by
438 each of the given files</para>
439 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils du">
440 <primary sortas="b-du">du</primary>
441 </indexterm>
442 </listitem>
443 </varlistentry>
444
445 <varlistentry id="echo">
446 <term><command>echo</command></term>
447 <listitem>
448 <para>Displays the given strings</para>
449 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils echo">
450 <primary sortas="b-echo">echo</primary>
451 </indexterm>
452 </listitem>
453 </varlistentry>
454
455 <varlistentry id="env">
456 <term><command>env</command></term>
457 <listitem>
458 <para>Runs a command in a modified environment</para>
459 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils env">
460 <primary sortas="b-env">env</primary>
461 </indexterm>
462 </listitem>
463 </varlistentry>
464
465 <varlistentry id="expand">
466 <term><command>expand</command></term>
467 <listitem>
468 <para>Converts tabs to spaces</para>
469 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expand">
470 <primary sortas="b-expand">expand</primary>
471 </indexterm>
472 </listitem>
473 </varlistentry>
474
475 <varlistentry id="expr">
476 <term><command>expr</command></term>
477 <listitem>
478 <para>Evaluates expressions</para>
479 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expr">
480 <primary sortas="b-expr">expr</primary>
481 </indexterm>
482 </listitem>
483 </varlistentry>
484
485 <varlistentry id="factor">
486 <term><command>factor</command></term>
487 <listitem>
488 <para>Prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers</para>
489 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils factor">
490 <primary sortas="b-factor">factor</primary>
491 </indexterm>
492 </listitem>
493 </varlistentry>
494
495 <varlistentry id="false">
496 <term><command>false</command></term>
497 <listitem>
498 <para>Does nothing, unsuccessfully; it always exits with a status code
499 indicating failure</para>
500 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils false">
501 <primary sortas="b-false">false</primary>
502 </indexterm>
503 </listitem>
504 </varlistentry>
505
506 <varlistentry id="fmt">
507 <term><command>fmt</command></term>
508 <listitem>
509 <para>Reformats the paragraphs in the given files</para>
510 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fmt">
511 <primary sortas="b-fmt">fmt</primary>
512 </indexterm>
513 </listitem>
514 </varlistentry>
515
516 <varlistentry id="fold">
517 <term><command>fold</command></term>
518 <listitem>
519 <para>Wraps the lines in the given files</para>
520 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fold">
521 <primary sortas="b-fold">fold</primary>
522 </indexterm>
523 </listitem>
524 </varlistentry>
525
526 <varlistentry id="groups">
527 <term><command>groups</command></term>
528 <listitem>
529 <para>Reports a user's group memberships</para>
530 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils groups">
531 <primary sortas="b-groups">groups</primary>
532 </indexterm>
533 </listitem>
534 </varlistentry>
535
536 <varlistentry id="head">
537 <term><command>head</command></term>
538 <listitem>
539 <para>Prints the first ten lines (or the given number of lines)
540 of each given file</para>
541 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils head">
542 <primary sortas="b-head">head</primary>
543 </indexterm>
544 </listitem>
545 </varlistentry>
546
547 <varlistentry id="hostid">
548 <term><command>hostid</command></term>
549 <listitem>
550 <para>Reports the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) of the host</para>
551 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils hostid">
552 <primary sortas="b-hostid">hostid</primary>
553 </indexterm>
554 </listitem>
555 </varlistentry>
556
557 <varlistentry id="id">
558 <term><command>id</command></term>
559 <listitem>
560 <para>Reports the effective user ID, group ID, and group memberships
561 of the current user or specified user</para>
562 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils id">
563 <primary sortas="b-id">id</primary>
564 </indexterm>
565 </listitem>
566 </varlistentry>
567
568 <varlistentry id="install">
569 <term><command>install</command> </term>
570 <listitem>
571 <para>Copies files while setting their permission modes and, if
572 possible, their owner and group</para>
573 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils install">
574 <primary sortas="b-install">install</primary>
575 </indexterm>
576 </listitem>
577 </varlistentry>
578
579 <varlistentry id="join">
580 <term><command>join</command></term>
581 <listitem>
582 <para>Joins the lines that have identical join fields from two
583 separate files</para>
584 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils join">
585 <primary sortas="b-join">join</primary>
586 </indexterm>
587 </listitem>
588 </varlistentry>
589
590 <varlistentry id="link">
591 <term><command>link</command></term>
592 <listitem>
593 <para>Creates a hard link with the given name to a file</para>
594 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils link">
595 <primary sortas="b-link">link</primary>
596 </indexterm>
597 </listitem>
598 </varlistentry>
599
600 <varlistentry id="ln">
601 <term><command>ln</command></term>
602 <listitem>
603 <para>Makes hard links or soft (symbolic) links between files</para>
604 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ln">
605 <primary sortas="b-ln">ln</primary>
606 </indexterm>
607 </listitem>
608 </varlistentry>
609
610 <varlistentry id="logname">
611 <term><command>logname</command></term>
612 <listitem>
613 <para>Reports the current user's login name</para>
614 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils logname">
615 <primary sortas="b-logname">logname</primary>
616 </indexterm>
617 </listitem>
618 </varlistentry>
619
620 <varlistentry id="ls">
621 <term><command>ls</command></term>
622 <listitem>
623 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory</para>
624 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ls">
625 <primary sortas="b-ls">ls</primary>
626 </indexterm>
627 </listitem>
628 </varlistentry>
629
630 <varlistentry id="md5sum">
631 <term><command>md5sum</command></term>
632 <listitem>
633 <para>Reports or checks Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums</para>
634 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils md5sum">
635 <primary sortas="b-md5sum">md5sum</primary>
636 </indexterm>
637 </listitem>
638 </varlistentry>
639
640 <varlistentry id="mkdir">
641 <term><command>mkdir</command></term>
642 <listitem>
643 <para>Creates directories with the given names</para>
644 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkdir">
645 <primary sortas="b-mkdir">mkdir</primary>
646 </indexterm>
647 </listitem>
648 </varlistentry>
649
650 <varlistentry id="mkfifo">
651 <term><command>mkfifo</command></term>
652 <listitem>
653 <para>Creates First-In, First-Outs (FIFOs), a "named
654 pipe" in UNIX parlance, with the given names</para>
655 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkfifo">
656 <primary sortas="b-mkfifo">mkfifo</primary>
657 </indexterm>
658 </listitem>
659 </varlistentry>
660
661 <varlistentry id="mknod">
662 <term><command>mknod</command></term>
663 <listitem>
664 <para>Creates device nodes with the given names; a device node is a
665 character special file, a block special file, or a FIFO</para>
666 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mknod">
667 <primary sortas="b-mknod">mknod</primary>
668 </indexterm>
669 </listitem>
670 </varlistentry>
671
672 <varlistentry id="mktemp">
673 <term><command>mktemp</command></term>
674 <listitem>
675 <para>Creates temporary files in a secure manner; it is used in scripts</para>
676 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mktemp">
677 <primary sortas="b-mktemp">mktemp</primary>
678 </indexterm>
679 </listitem>
680 </varlistentry>
681
682 <varlistentry id="mv">
683 <term><command>mv</command></term>
684 <listitem>
685 <para>Moves or renames files or directories</para>
686 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mv">
687 <primary sortas="b-mv">mv</primary>
688 </indexterm>
689 </listitem>
690 </varlistentry>
691
692 <varlistentry id="nice">
693 <term><command>nice</command></term>
694 <listitem>
695 <para>Runs a program with modified scheduling priority</para>
696 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nice">
697 <primary sortas="b-nice">nice</primary>
698 </indexterm>
699 </listitem>
700 </varlistentry>
701
702 <varlistentry id="nl">
703 <term><command>nl</command></term>
704 <listitem>
705 <para>Numbers the lines from the given files</para>
706 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nl">
707 <primary sortas="b-nl">nl</primary>
708 </indexterm>
709 </listitem>
710 </varlistentry>
711
712 <varlistentry id="nohup">
713 <term><command>nohup</command></term>
714 <listitem>
715 <para>Runs a command immune to hangups, with its output redirected to
716 a log file</para>
717 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nohup">
718 <primary sortas="b-nohup">nohup</primary>
719 </indexterm>
720 </listitem>
721 </varlistentry>
722
723 <varlistentry id="nproc">
724 <term><command>nproc</command></term>
725 <listitem>
726 <para>Prints the number of processing units available to a
727 process</para>
728 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nproc">
729 <primary sortas="b-nproc">nproc</primary>
730 </indexterm>
731 </listitem>
732 </varlistentry>
733
734 <varlistentry id="numfmt">
735 <term><command>numfmt</command></term>
736 <listitem>
737 <para>Converts numbers to or from human-readable strings</para>
738 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils numfmt">
739 <primary sortas="b-numfmt">numfmt</primary>
740 </indexterm>
741 </listitem>
742 </varlistentry>
743
744 <varlistentry id="od">
745 <term><command>od</command></term>
746 <listitem>
747 <para>Dumps files in octal and other formats</para>
748 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils od">
749 <primary sortas="b-od">od</primary>
750 </indexterm>
751 </listitem>
752 </varlistentry>
753
754 <varlistentry id="paste">
755 <term><command>paste</command></term>
756 <listitem>
757 <para>Merges the given files, joining sequentially corresponding lines
758 side by side, separated by tab characters</para>
759 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils paste">
760 <primary sortas="b-paste">paste</primary>
761 </indexterm>
762 </listitem>
763 </varlistentry>
764
765 <varlistentry id="pathchk">
766 <term><command>pathchk</command></term>
767 <listitem>
768 <para>Checks if file names are valid or portable</para>
769 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pathchk">
770 <primary sortas="b-pathchk">pathchk</primary>
771 </indexterm>
772 </listitem>
773 </varlistentry>
774
775 <varlistentry id="pinky">
776 <term><command>pinky</command></term>
777 <listitem>
778 <para>Is a lightweight finger client; it reports some information
779 about the given users</para>
780 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pinky">
781 <primary sortas="b-pinky">pinky</primary>
782 </indexterm>
783 </listitem>
784 </varlistentry>
785
786 <varlistentry id="pr">
787 <term><command>pr</command></term>
788 <listitem>
789 <para>Paginates and columnates files for printing</para>
790 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pr">
791 <primary sortas="b-pr">pr</primary>
792 </indexterm>
793 </listitem>
794 </varlistentry>
795
796 <varlistentry id="printenv">
797 <term><command>printenv</command></term>
798 <listitem>
799 <para>Prints the environment</para>
800 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printenv">
801 <primary sortas="b-printenv">printenv</primary>
802 </indexterm>
803 </listitem>
804 </varlistentry>
805
806 <varlistentry id="printf">
807 <term><command>printf</command></term>
808 <listitem>
809 <para>Prints the given arguments according to the given format, much
810 like the C printf function</para>
811 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printf">
812 <primary sortas="b-printf">printf</primary>
813 </indexterm>
814 </listitem>
815 </varlistentry>
816
817 <varlistentry id="ptx">
818 <term><command>ptx</command></term>
819 <listitem>
820 <para>Produces a permuted index from the contents of the given files,
821 with each keyword in its context</para>
822 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ptx">
823 <primary sortas="b-ptx">ptx</primary>
824 </indexterm>
825 </listitem>
826 </varlistentry>
827
828 <varlistentry id="pwd">
829 <term><command>pwd</command></term>
830 <listitem>
831 <para>Reports the name of the current working directory</para>
832 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pwd">
833 <primary sortas="b-pwd">pwd</primary>
834 </indexterm>
835 </listitem>
836 </varlistentry>
837
838 <varlistentry id="readlink">
839 <term><command>readlink</command></term>
840 <listitem>
841 <para>Reports the value of the given symbolic link</para>
842 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils readlink">
843 <primary sortas="b-readlink">readlink</primary>
844 </indexterm>
845 </listitem>
846 </varlistentry>
847
848 <varlistentry id="realpath">
849 <term><command>realpath</command></term>
850 <listitem>
851 <para>Prints the resolved path</para>
852 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils realpath">
853 <primary sortas="b-realpath">realpath</primary>
854 </indexterm>
855 </listitem>
856 </varlistentry>
857
858 <varlistentry id="rm">
859 <term><command>rm</command></term>
860 <listitem>
861 <para>Removes files or directories</para>
862 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rm">
863 <primary sortas="b-rm">rm</primary>
864 </indexterm>
865 </listitem>
866 </varlistentry>
867
868 <varlistentry id="rmdir">
869 <term><command>rmdir</command></term>
870 <listitem>
871 <para>Removes directories if they are empty</para>
872 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rmdir">
873 <primary sortas="b-rmdir">rmdir</primary>
874 </indexterm>
875 </listitem>
876 </varlistentry>
877
878 <varlistentry id="runcon">
879 <term><command>runcon</command></term>
880 <listitem>
881 <para>Runs a command with specified security context</para>
882 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils runcon">
883 <primary sortas="b-runcon">runcon</primary>
884 </indexterm>
885 </listitem>
886 </varlistentry>
887
888 <varlistentry id="seq">
889 <term><command>seq</command></term>
890 <listitem>
891 <para>Prints a sequence of numbers within a given range and with a
892 given increment</para>
893 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils seq">
894 <primary sortas="b-seq">seq</primary>
895 </indexterm>
896 </listitem>
897 </varlistentry>
898
899 <varlistentry id="sha1sum">
900 <term><command>sha1sum</command></term>
901 <listitem>
902 <para>Prints or checks 160-bit Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1)
903 checksums</para>
904 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha1sum">
905 <primary sortas="b-sha1sum">sha1sum</primary>
906 </indexterm>
907 </listitem>
908 </varlistentry>
909
910 <varlistentry id="sha224sum">
911 <term><command>sha224sum</command></term>
912 <listitem>
913 <para>Prints or checks 224-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
914 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha224sum">
915 <primary sortas="b-sha224sum">sha224sum</primary>
916 </indexterm>
917 </listitem>
918 </varlistentry>
919
920 <varlistentry id="sha256sum">
921 <term><command>sha256sum</command></term>
922 <listitem>
923 <para>Prints or checks 256-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
924 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha256sum">
925 <primary sortas="b-sha256sum">sha256sum</primary>
926 </indexterm>
927 </listitem>
928 </varlistentry>
929
930 <varlistentry id="sha384sum">
931 <term><command>sha384sum</command></term>
932 <listitem>
933 <para>Prints or checks 384-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
934 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha384sum">
935 <primary sortas="b-sha384sum">sha384sum</primary>
936 </indexterm>
937 </listitem>
938 </varlistentry>
939
940 <varlistentry id="sha512sum">
941 <term><command>sha512sum</command></term>
942 <listitem>
943 <para>Prints or checks 512-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
944 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha512sum">
945 <primary sortas="b-sha512sum">sha512sum</primary>
946 </indexterm>
947 </listitem>
948 </varlistentry>
949
950 <varlistentry id="shred">
951 <term><command>shred</command></term>
952 <listitem>
953 <para>Overwrites the given files repeatedly with complex patterns,
954 making it difficult to recover the data</para>
955 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shred">
956 <primary sortas="b-shred">shred</primary>
957 </indexterm>
958 </listitem>
959 </varlistentry>
960
961 <varlistentry id="shuf">
962 <term><command>shuf</command></term>
963 <listitem>
964 <para>Shuffles lines of text</para>
965 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shuf">
966 <primary sortas="b-shuf">shuf</primary>
967 </indexterm>
968 </listitem>
969 </varlistentry>
970
971 <varlistentry id="sleep">
972 <term><command>sleep</command></term>
973 <listitem>
974 <para>Pauses for the given amount of time</para>
975 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sleep">
976 <primary sortas="b-sleep">sleep</primary>
977 </indexterm>
978 </listitem>
979 </varlistentry>
980
981 <varlistentry id="sort">
982 <term><command>sort</command></term>
983 <listitem>
984 <para>Sorts the lines from the given files</para>
985 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sort">
986 <primary sortas="b-sort">sort</primary>
987 </indexterm>
988 </listitem>
989 </varlistentry>
990
991 <varlistentry id="split">
992 <term><command>split</command></term>
993 <listitem>
994 <para>Splits the given file into pieces, by size or by number of
995 lines</para>
996 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils split">
997 <primary sortas="b-split">split</primary>
998 </indexterm>
999 </listitem>
1000 </varlistentry>
1001
1002 <varlistentry id="stat">
1003 <term><command>stat</command></term>
1004 <listitem>
1005 <para>Displays file or filesystem status</para>
1006 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stat">
1007 <primary sortas="b-stat">stat</primary>
1008 </indexterm>
1009 </listitem>
1010 </varlistentry>
1011
1012 <varlistentry id="stdbuf">
1013 <term><command>stdbuf</command></term>
1014 <listitem>
1015 <para>Runs commands with altered buffering operations for its standard
1016 streams</para>
1017 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stdbuf">
1018 <primary sortas="b-stdbuf">stdbuf</primary>
1019 </indexterm>
1020 </listitem>
1021 </varlistentry>
1022
1023 <varlistentry id="stty">
1024 <term><command>stty</command></term>
1025 <listitem>
1026 <para>Sets or reports terminal line settings</para>
1027 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stty">
1028 <primary sortas="b-stty">stty</primary>
1029 </indexterm>
1030 </listitem>
1031 </varlistentry>
1032
1033 <varlistentry id="sum">
1034 <term><command>sum</command></term>
1035 <listitem>
1036 <para>Prints checksum and block counts for each given file</para>
1037 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sum">
1038 <primary sortas="b-sum">sum</primary>
1039 </indexterm>
1040 </listitem>
1041 </varlistentry>
1042
1043 <varlistentry id="sync">
1044 <term><command>sync</command></term>
1045 <listitem>
1046 <para>Flushes file system buffers; it forces changed blocks to disk
1047 and updates the super block</para>
1048 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sync">
1049 <primary sortas="b-sync">sync</primary>
1050 </indexterm>
1051 </listitem>
1052 </varlistentry>
1053
1054 <varlistentry id="tac">
1055 <term><command>tac</command></term>
1056 <listitem>
1057 <para>Concatenates the given files in reverse</para>
1058 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tac">
1059 <primary sortas="b-tac">tac</primary>
1060 </indexterm>
1061 </listitem>
1062 </varlistentry>
1063
1064 <varlistentry id="tail">
1065 <term><command>tail</command></term>
1066 <listitem>
1067 <para>Prints the last ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each
1068 given file</para>
1069 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tail">
1070 <primary sortas="b-tail">tail</primary>
1071 </indexterm>
1072 </listitem>
1073 </varlistentry>
1074
1075 <varlistentry id="tee">
1076 <term><command>tee</command></term>
1077 <listitem>
1078 <para>Reads from standard input while writing both to standard output
1079 and to the given files</para>
1080 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tee">
1081 <primary sortas="b-tee">tee</primary>
1082 </indexterm>
1083 </listitem>
1084 </varlistentry>
1085
1086 <varlistentry id="test">
1087 <term><command>test</command></term>
1088 <listitem>
1089 <para>Compares values and checks file types</para>
1090 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils test">
1091 <primary sortas="b-test">test</primary>
1092 </indexterm>
1093 </listitem>
1094 </varlistentry>
1095
1096 <varlistentry id="timeout">
1097 <term><command>timeout</command></term>
1098 <listitem>
1099 <para>Runs a command with a time limit</para>
1100 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils timeout">
1101 <primary sortas="b-timeout">timeout</primary>
1102 </indexterm>
1103 </listitem>
1104 </varlistentry>
1105
1106 <varlistentry id="touch">
1107 <term><command>touch</command></term>
1108 <listitem>
1109 <para>Changes file timestamps, setting the access and modification
1110 times of the given files to the current time; files that do not exist
1111 are created with zero length</para>
1112 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils touch">
1113 <primary sortas="b-touch">touch</primary>
1114 </indexterm>
1115 </listitem>
1116 </varlistentry>
1117
1118 <varlistentry id="tr">
1119 <term><command>tr</command></term>
1120 <listitem>
1121 <para>Translates, squeezes, and deletes the given characters from
1122 standard input</para>
1123 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tr">
1124 <primary sortas="b-tr">tr</primary>
1125 </indexterm>
1126 </listitem>
1127 </varlistentry>
1128
1129 <varlistentry id="true">
1130 <term><command>true</command></term>
1131 <listitem>
1132 <para>Does nothing, successfully; it always exits with a status code
1133 indicating success</para>
1134 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils true">
1135 <primary sortas="b-true">true</primary>
1136 </indexterm>
1137 </listitem>
1138 </varlistentry>
1139
1140 <varlistentry id="truncate">
1141 <term><command>truncate</command></term>
1142 <listitem>
1143 <para>Shrinks or expands a file to the specified size</para>
1144 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils truncate">
1145 <primary sortas="b-truncate">truncate</primary>
1146 </indexterm>
1147 </listitem>
1148 </varlistentry>
1149
1150 <varlistentry id="tsort">
1151 <term><command>tsort</command></term>
1152 <listitem>
1153 <para>Performs a topological sort; it writes a completely ordered list
1154 according to the partial ordering in a given file</para>
1155 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tsort">
1156 <primary sortas="b-tsort">tsort</primary>
1157 </indexterm>
1158 </listitem>
1159 </varlistentry>
1160
1161 <varlistentry id="tty">
1162 <term><command>tty</command></term>
1163 <listitem>
1164 <para>Reports the file name of the terminal connected to standard
1165 input</para>
1166 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tty">
1167 <primary sortas="b-tty">tty</primary>
1168 </indexterm>
1169 </listitem>
1170 </varlistentry>
1171
1172 <varlistentry id="uname">
1173 <term><command>uname</command></term>
1174 <listitem>
1175 <para>Reports system information</para>
1176 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uname">
1177 <primary sortas="b-uname">uname</primary>
1178 </indexterm>
1179 </listitem>
1180 </varlistentry>
1181
1182 <varlistentry id="unexpand">
1183 <term><command>unexpand</command></term>
1184 <listitem>
1185 <para>Converts spaces to tabs</para>
1186 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unexpand">
1187 <primary sortas="b-unexpand">unexpand</primary>
1188 </indexterm>
1189 </listitem>
1190 </varlistentry>
1191
1192 <varlistentry id="uniq">
1193 <term><command>uniq</command></term>
1194 <listitem>
1195 <para>Discards all but one of successive identical lines</para>
1196 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uniq">
1197 <primary sortas="b-uniq">uniq</primary>
1198 </indexterm>
1199 </listitem>
1200 </varlistentry>
1201
1202 <varlistentry id="unlink">
1203 <term><command>unlink</command></term>
1204 <listitem>
1205 <para>Removes the given file</para>
1206 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unlink">
1207 <primary sortas="b-unlink">unlink</primary>
1208 </indexterm>
1209 </listitem>
1210 </varlistentry>
1211
1212 <varlistentry id="users">
1213 <term><command>users</command></term>
1214 <listitem>
1215 <para>Reports the names of the users currently logged on</para>
1216 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils users">
1217 <primary sortas="b-users">users</primary>
1218 </indexterm>
1219 </listitem>
1220 </varlistentry>
1221
1222 <varlistentry id="vdir">
1223 <term><command>vdir</command></term>
1224 <listitem>
1225 <para>Is the same as <command>ls -l</command></para>
1226 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils vdir">
1227 <primary sortas="b-vdir">vdir</primary>
1228 </indexterm>
1229 </listitem>
1230 </varlistentry>
1231
1232 <varlistentry id="wc">
1233 <term><command>wc</command></term>
1234 <listitem>
1235 <para>Reports the number of lines, words, and bytes for each given
1236 file, as well as a total line when more than one file is given</para>
1237 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils wc">
1238 <primary sortas="b-wc">wc</primary>
1239 </indexterm>
1240 </listitem>
1241 </varlistentry>
1242
1243 <varlistentry id="who">
1244 <term><command>who</command></term>
1245 <listitem>
1246 <para>Reports who is logged on</para>
1247 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils who">
1248 <primary sortas="b-who">who</primary>
1249 </indexterm>
1250 </listitem>
1251 </varlistentry>
1252
1253 <varlistentry id="whoami">
1254 <term><command>whoami</command></term>
1255 <listitem>
1256 <para>Reports the user name associated with the current effective
1257 user ID</para>
1258 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils whoami">
1259 <primary sortas="b-whoami">whoami</primary>
1260 </indexterm>
1261 </listitem>
1262 </varlistentry>
1263
1264 <varlistentry id="yes">
1265 <term><command>yes</command></term>
1266 <listitem>
1267 <para>Repeatedly outputs <quote>y</quote> or a given string until
1268 killed</para>
1269 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils yes">
1270 <primary sortas="b-yes">yes</primary>
1271 </indexterm>
1272 </listitem>
1273 </varlistentry>
1274
1275 <varlistentry id="libstdbuf">
1276 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libstdbuf</filename></term>
1277 <listitem>
1278 <para>Library used by <command>stdbuf</command></para>
1279 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils libstdbuf">
1280 <primary sortas="c-libstdbuf">libstdbuf</primary>
1281 </indexterm>
1282 </listitem>
1283 </varlistentry>
1284
1285 </variablelist>
1286
1287 </sect2>
1288
1289</sect1>
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