source: chapter06/coreutils.xml@ b2f3f15

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-coreutils" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="coreutils.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>coreutils</productname>
13 <productnumber>&coreutils-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&coreutils-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Coreutils-&coreutils-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils">
20 <primary sortas="a-Coreutils">Coreutils</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the
27 basic system characteristics.</para>
28
29 <segmentedlist>
30 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
31 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
32
33 <seglistitem>
34 <seg>&coreutils-ch6-sbu;</seg>
35 <seg>&coreutils-ch6-du;</seg>
36 </seglistitem>
37 </segmentedlist>
38
39 </sect2>
40
41 <sect2 role="installation">
42 <title>Installation of Coreutils</title>
43
44 <para>POSIX requires that programs from Coreutils recognize character
45 boundaries correctly even in multibyte locales. The following patch fixes
46 this non-compliance and other internationalization-related bugs.</para>
47
48<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&coreutils-i18n-patch;</userinput></screen>
49
50 <note>
51 <para>In the past, many bugs were found in this patch. When reporting new
52 bugs to Coreutils maintainers, please check first if they are reproducible
53 without this patch.</para>
54 </note>
55
56 <para>Now prepare Coreutils for compilation:</para>
57
58<screen><userinput remap="configure">FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 ./configure \
59 --prefix=/usr \
60 --enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</userinput></screen>
61
62 <variablelist>
63 <title>The meaning of the configure options:</title>
64
65 <varlistentry>
66 <term><envar>FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1</envar></term>
67 <listitem>
68 <para>This environment variable allows the package to be
69 built as the root user.
70 </para>
71 </listitem>
72 </varlistentry>
73
74 <varlistentry>
75 <term><parameter>--enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</parameter></term>
76 <listitem>
77 <para>The purpose of this switch is to prevent Coreutils from
78 installing binaries that will be installed by other packages later.
79 </para>
80 </listitem>
81 </varlistentry>
82 </variablelist>
83
84 <para>Compile the package:</para>
85
86<screen><userinput remap="make">FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 make</userinput></screen>
87
88 <para>Skip down to <quote>Install the
89 package</quote> if not running the test suite.</para>
90
91 <para>Now the test suite is ready to be run. First, run the tests that are
92 meant to be run as user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>:</para>
93
94<screen><userinput remap="test">make NON_ROOT_USERNAME=nobody check-root</userinput></screen>
95
96 <para>We're going to run the remainder of the tests as the
97 <systemitem class="username">nobody</systemitem> user. Certain tests,
98 however, require that the user be a member of more than one group. So that
99 these tests are not skipped we'll add a temporary group and make the
100 user <systemitem class="username">nobody</systemitem> a part of it:</para>
101
102<screen><userinput remap="test">echo "dummy:x:1000:nobody" &gt;&gt; /etc/group</userinput></screen>
103
104 <para>Fix some of the permissions so that the non-root user can compile and
105 run the tests:</para>
106
107<screen><userinput remap="test">chown -Rv nobody . </userinput></screen>
108
109 <para>Now run the tests. Make sure the PATH in the <userinput>su</userinput>
110 environment includes /tools/bin.</para>
111
112<screen><userinput remap="test">su nobody -s /bin/bash \
113 -c "PATH=$PATH make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check"</userinput></screen>
114
115 <para>The test-getlogin test is known to fail on a virtual console, but
116 passes if run in a X terminal.</para>
117
118 <para>Remove the temporary group:</para>
119
120<screen><userinput remap="test">sed -i '/dummy/d' /etc/group</userinput></screen>
121
122 <para>Install the package:</para>
123
124<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
125
126 <para>Move programs to the locations specified by the FHS:</para>
127
128<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{cat,chgrp,chmod,chown,cp,date,dd,df,echo} /bin
129mv -v /usr/bin/{false,ln,ls,mkdir,mknod,mv,pwd,rm} /bin
130mv -v /usr/bin/{rmdir,stty,sync,true,uname} /bin
131mv -v /usr/bin/chroot /usr/sbin
132mv -v /usr/share/man/man1/chroot.1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8
133sed -i s/\"1\"/\"8\"/1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8</userinput></screen>
134
135 <para revision="sysv">Some of the scripts in the LFS-Bootscripts package
136 depend on <command>head</command>, <command>sleep</command>, and
137 <command>nice</command>. As <filename class="directory">/usr</filename>
138 may not be available during the early stages of booting, those binaries
139 need to be on the root partition:</para>
140
141 <para revision="systemd">Some packages in BLFS and beyond expect the
142 following programs in <filename class="directory">/bin</filename>, so make
143 sure they are placed there:</para>
144
145<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{head,sleep,nice,test,[} /bin</userinput></screen>
146
147 </sect2>
148
149 <sect2 id="contents-coreutils" role="content">
150 <title>Contents of Coreutils</title>
151
152 <segmentedlist>
153 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
154 <segtitle>Installed library</segtitle>
155 <segtitle>Installed directory</segtitle>
156
157 <seglistitem>
158 <seg>[, base32, base64, basename, cat, chcon, chgrp, chmod, chown,
159 chroot, cksum, comm, cp, csplit, cut, date, dd, df, dir, dircolors,
160 dirname, du, echo, env, expand, expr, factor, false, fmt, fold, groups,
161 head, hostid, id, install, join, link, ln, logname, ls, md5sum, mkdir,
162 mkfifo, mknod, mktemp, mv, nice, nl, nohup, nproc, numfmt, od, paste,
163 pathchk, pinky, pr, printenv, printf, ptx, pwd, readlink, realpath, rm,
164 rmdir, runcon, seq, sha1sum, sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum,
165 sha512sum, shred, shuf, sleep, sort, split, stat, stdbuf, stty, sum,
166 sync, tac, tail, tee, test, timeout, touch, tr, true, truncate, tsort,
167 tty, uname, unexpand, uniq, unlink, users, vdir, wc, who, whoami, and
168 yes</seg>
169 <seg>libstdbuf.so</seg>
170 <seg>/usr/libexec/coreutils</seg>
171 </seglistitem>
172 </segmentedlist>
173
174 <variablelist>
175 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
176 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
177 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
178
179 <varlistentry id="base32">
180 <term><command>base32</command></term>
181 <listitem>
182 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base32 specification
183 (RFC 4648)</para>
184 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
185 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
186 </indexterm>
187 </listitem>
188 </varlistentry>
189
190 <varlistentry id="base64">
191 <term><command>base64</command></term>
192 <listitem>
193 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base64 specification
194 (RFC 4648)</para>
195 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
196 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
197 </indexterm>
198 </listitem>
199 </varlistentry>
200
201 <varlistentry id="basename">
202 <term><command>basename</command></term>
203 <listitem>
204 <para>Strips any path and a given suffix from a file name</para>
205 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basename">
206 <primary sortas="b-basename">basename</primary>
207 </indexterm>
208 </listitem>
209 </varlistentry>
210
211 <varlistentry id="cat">
212 <term><command>cat</command></term>
213 <listitem>
214 <para>Concatenates files to standard output</para>
215 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cat">
216 <primary sortas="b-cat">cat</primary>
217 </indexterm>
218 </listitem>
219 </varlistentry>
220
221 <varlistentry id="chcon">
222 <term><command>chcon</command></term>
223 <listitem>
224 <para>Changes security context for files and directories</para>
225 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chcon">
226 <primary sortas="b-chcon">chcon</primary>
227 </indexterm>
228 </listitem>
229 </varlistentry>
230
231 <varlistentry id="chgrp">
232 <term><command>chgrp</command></term>
233 <listitem>
234 <para>Changes the group ownership of files and directories</para>
235 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chgrp">
236 <primary sortas="b-chgrp">chgrp</primary>
237 </indexterm>
238 </listitem>
239 </varlistentry>
240
241 <varlistentry id="chmod">
242 <term><command>chmod</command></term>
243 <listitem>
244 <para>Changes the permissions of each file to the given mode; the mode
245 can be either a symbolic representation of the changes to make or an
246 octal number representing the new permissions</para>
247 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chmod">
248 <primary sortas="b-chmod">chmod</primary>
249 </indexterm>
250 </listitem>
251 </varlistentry>
252
253 <varlistentry id="chown">
254 <term><command>chown</command></term>
255 <listitem>
256 <para>Changes the user and/or group ownership of files and
257 directories</para>
258 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chown">
259 <primary sortas="b-chown">chown</primary>
260 </indexterm>
261 </listitem>
262 </varlistentry>
263
264 <varlistentry id="chroot">
265 <term><command>chroot</command></term>
266 <listitem>
267 <para>Runs a command with the specified directory as the
268 <filename class="directory">/</filename> directory</para>
269 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chroot">
270 <primary sortas="b-chroot">chroot</primary>
271 </indexterm>
272 </listitem>
273 </varlistentry>
274
275 <varlistentry id="cksum">
276 <term><command>cksum</command></term>
277 <listitem>
278 <para>Prints the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum and the byte
279 counts of each specified file</para>
280 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cksum">
281 <primary sortas="b-cksum">cksum</primary>
282 </indexterm>
283 </listitem>
284 </varlistentry>
285
286 <varlistentry id="comm">
287 <term><command>comm</command></term>
288 <listitem>
289 <para>Compares two sorted files, outputting in three columns the lines
290 that are unique and the lines that are common</para>
291 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils comm">
292 <primary sortas="b-comm">comm</primary>
293 </indexterm>
294 </listitem>
295 </varlistentry>
296
297 <varlistentry id="cp">
298 <term><command>cp</command></term>
299 <listitem>
300 <para>Copies files</para>
301 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cp">
302 <primary sortas="b-cp">cp</primary>
303 </indexterm>
304 </listitem>
305 </varlistentry>
306
307 <varlistentry id="csplit">
308 <term><command>csplit</command></term>
309 <listitem>
310 <para>Splits a given file into several new files, separating them
311 according to given patterns or line numbers and outputting the byte
312 count of each new file</para>
313 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils csplit">
314 <primary sortas="b-csplit">csplit</primary>
315 </indexterm>
316 </listitem>
317 </varlistentry>
318
319 <varlistentry id="cut">
320 <term><command>cut</command></term>
321 <listitem>
322 <para>Prints sections of lines, selecting the parts according to given
323 fields or positions</para>
324 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cut">
325 <primary sortas="b-cut">cut</primary>
326 </indexterm>
327 </listitem>
328 </varlistentry>
329
330 <varlistentry id="date">
331 <term><command>date</command></term>
332 <listitem>
333 <para>Displays the current time in the given format, or sets the
334 system date</para>
335 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils date">
336 <primary sortas="b-date">date</primary>
337 </indexterm>
338 </listitem>
339 </varlistentry>
340
341 <varlistentry id="dd">
342 <term><command>dd</command> </term>
343 <listitem>
344 <para>Copies a file using the given block size and count, while
345 optionally performing conversions on it</para>
346 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dd">
347 <primary sortas="b-dd">dd</primary>
348 </indexterm>
349 </listitem>
350 </varlistentry>
351
352 <varlistentry id="df">
353 <term><command>df</command></term>
354 <listitem>
355 <para>Reports the amount of disk space available (and used) on all
356 mounted file systems, or only on the file systems holding the selected
357 files</para>
358 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils df">
359 <primary sortas="b-df">df</primary>
360 </indexterm>
361 </listitem>
362 </varlistentry>
363
364 <varlistentry id="dir">
365 <term><command>dir</command></term>
366 <listitem>
367 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory (the same as
368 the <command>ls</command> command)</para>
369 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dir">
370 <primary sortas="b-dir">dir</primary>
371 </indexterm>
372 </listitem>
373 </varlistentry>
374
375 <varlistentry id="dircolors">
376 <term><command>dircolors</command></term>
377 <listitem>
378 <para>Outputs commands to set the <envar>LS_COLOR</envar>
379 environment variable to change the color scheme used by
380 <command>ls</command></para>
381 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dircolors">
382 <primary sortas="b-dircolors">dircolors</primary>
383 </indexterm>
384 </listitem>
385 </varlistentry>
386
387 <varlistentry id="dirname">
388 <term><command>dirname</command></term>
389 <listitem>
390 <para>Strips the non-directory suffix from a file name</para>
391 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dirname">
392 <primary sortas="b-dirname">dirname</primary>
393 </indexterm>
394 </listitem>
395 </varlistentry>
396
397 <varlistentry id="du">
398 <term><command>du</command></term>
399 <listitem>
400 <para>Reports the amount of disk space used by the current directory,
401 by each of the given directories (including all subdirectories) or by
402 each of the given files</para>
403 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils du">
404 <primary sortas="b-du">du</primary>
405 </indexterm>
406 </listitem>
407 </varlistentry>
408
409 <varlistentry id="echo">
410 <term><command>echo</command></term>
411 <listitem>
412 <para>Displays the given strings</para>
413 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils echo">
414 <primary sortas="b-echo">echo</primary>
415 </indexterm>
416 </listitem>
417 </varlistentry>
418
419 <varlistentry id="env">
420 <term><command>env</command></term>
421 <listitem>
422 <para>Runs a command in a modified environment</para>
423 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils env">
424 <primary sortas="b-env">env</primary>
425 </indexterm>
426 </listitem>
427 </varlistentry>
428
429 <varlistentry id="expand">
430 <term><command>expand</command></term>
431 <listitem>
432 <para>Converts tabs to spaces</para>
433 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expand">
434 <primary sortas="b-expand">expand</primary>
435 </indexterm>
436 </listitem>
437 </varlistentry>
438
439 <varlistentry id="expr">
440 <term><command>expr</command></term>
441 <listitem>
442 <para>Evaluates expressions</para>
443 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expr">
444 <primary sortas="b-expr">expr</primary>
445 </indexterm>
446 </listitem>
447 </varlistentry>
448
449 <varlistentry id="factor">
450 <term><command>factor</command></term>
451 <listitem>
452 <para>Prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers</para>
453 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils factor">
454 <primary sortas="b-factor">factor</primary>
455 </indexterm>
456 </listitem>
457 </varlistentry>
458
459 <varlistentry id="false">
460 <term><command>false</command></term>
461 <listitem>
462 <para>Does nothing, unsuccessfully; it always exits with a status code
463 indicating failure</para>
464 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils false">
465 <primary sortas="b-false">false</primary>
466 </indexterm>
467 </listitem>
468 </varlistentry>
469
470 <varlistentry id="fmt">
471 <term><command>fmt</command></term>
472 <listitem>
473 <para>Reformats the paragraphs in the given files</para>
474 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fmt">
475 <primary sortas="b-fmt">fmt</primary>
476 </indexterm>
477 </listitem>
478 </varlistentry>
479
480 <varlistentry id="fold">
481 <term><command>fold</command></term>
482 <listitem>
483 <para>Wraps the lines in the given files</para>
484 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fold">
485 <primary sortas="b-fold">fold</primary>
486 </indexterm>
487 </listitem>
488 </varlistentry>
489
490 <varlistentry id="groups">
491 <term><command>groups</command></term>
492 <listitem>
493 <para>Reports a user's group memberships</para>
494 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils groups">
495 <primary sortas="b-groups">groups</primary>
496 </indexterm>
497 </listitem>
498 </varlistentry>
499
500 <varlistentry id="head">
501 <term><command>head</command></term>
502 <listitem>
503 <para>Prints the first ten lines (or the given number of lines)
504 of each given file</para>
505 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils head">
506 <primary sortas="b-head">head</primary>
507 </indexterm>
508 </listitem>
509 </varlistentry>
510
511 <varlistentry id="hostid">
512 <term><command>hostid</command></term>
513 <listitem>
514 <para>Reports the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) of the host</para>
515 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils hostid">
516 <primary sortas="b-hostid">hostid</primary>
517 </indexterm>
518 </listitem>
519 </varlistentry>
520
521 <varlistentry id="id">
522 <term><command>id</command></term>
523 <listitem>
524 <para>Reports the effective user ID, group ID, and group memberships
525 of the current user or specified user</para>
526 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils id">
527 <primary sortas="b-id">id</primary>
528 </indexterm>
529 </listitem>
530 </varlistentry>
531
532 <varlistentry id="install">
533 <term><command>install</command> </term>
534 <listitem>
535 <para>Copies files while setting their permission modes and, if
536 possible, their owner and group</para>
537 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils install">
538 <primary sortas="b-install">install</primary>
539 </indexterm>
540 </listitem>
541 </varlistentry>
542
543 <varlistentry id="join">
544 <term><command>join</command></term>
545 <listitem>
546 <para>Joins the lines that have identical join fields from two
547 separate files</para>
548 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils join">
549 <primary sortas="b-join">join</primary>
550 </indexterm>
551 </listitem>
552 </varlistentry>
553
554 <varlistentry id="link">
555 <term><command>link</command></term>
556 <listitem>
557 <para>Creates a hard link with the given name to a file</para>
558 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils link">
559 <primary sortas="b-link">link</primary>
560 </indexterm>
561 </listitem>
562 </varlistentry>
563
564 <varlistentry id="ln">
565 <term><command>ln</command></term>
566 <listitem>
567 <para>Makes hard links or soft (symbolic) links between files</para>
568 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ln">
569 <primary sortas="b-ln">ln</primary>
570 </indexterm>
571 </listitem>
572 </varlistentry>
573
574 <varlistentry id="logname">
575 <term><command>logname</command></term>
576 <listitem>
577 <para>Reports the current user's login name</para>
578 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils logname">
579 <primary sortas="b-logname">logname</primary>
580 </indexterm>
581 </listitem>
582 </varlistentry>
583
584 <varlistentry id="ls">
585 <term><command>ls</command></term>
586 <listitem>
587 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory</para>
588 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ls">
589 <primary sortas="b-ls">ls</primary>
590 </indexterm>
591 </listitem>
592 </varlistentry>
593
594 <varlistentry id="md5sum">
595 <term><command>md5sum</command></term>
596 <listitem>
597 <para>Reports or checks Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums</para>
598 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils md5sum">
599 <primary sortas="b-md5sum">md5sum</primary>
600 </indexterm>
601 </listitem>
602 </varlistentry>
603
604 <varlistentry id="mkdir">
605 <term><command>mkdir</command></term>
606 <listitem>
607 <para>Creates directories with the given names</para>
608 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkdir">
609 <primary sortas="b-mkdir">mkdir</primary>
610 </indexterm>
611 </listitem>
612 </varlistentry>
613
614 <varlistentry id="mkfifo">
615 <term><command>mkfifo</command></term>
616 <listitem>
617 <para>Creates First-In, First-Outs (FIFOs), a "named
618 pipe" in UNIX parlance, with the given names</para>
619 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkfifo">
620 <primary sortas="b-mkfifo">mkfifo</primary>
621 </indexterm>
622 </listitem>
623 </varlistentry>
624
625 <varlistentry id="mknod">
626 <term><command>mknod</command></term>
627 <listitem>
628 <para>Creates device nodes with the given names; a device node is a
629 character special file, a block special file, or a FIFO</para>
630 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mknod">
631 <primary sortas="b-mknod">mknod</primary>
632 </indexterm>
633 </listitem>
634 </varlistentry>
635
636 <varlistentry id="mktemp">
637 <term><command>mktemp</command></term>
638 <listitem>
639 <para>Creates temporary files in a secure manner; it is used in scripts</para>
640 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mktemp">
641 <primary sortas="b-mktemp">mktemp</primary>
642 </indexterm>
643 </listitem>
644 </varlistentry>
645
646 <varlistentry id="mv">
647 <term><command>mv</command></term>
648 <listitem>
649 <para>Moves or renames files or directories</para>
650 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mv">
651 <primary sortas="b-mv">mv</primary>
652 </indexterm>
653 </listitem>
654 </varlistentry>
655
656 <varlistentry id="nice">
657 <term><command>nice</command></term>
658 <listitem>
659 <para>Runs a program with modified scheduling priority</para>
660 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nice">
661 <primary sortas="b-nice">nice</primary>
662 </indexterm>
663 </listitem>
664 </varlistentry>
665
666 <varlistentry id="nl">
667 <term><command>nl</command></term>
668 <listitem>
669 <para>Numbers the lines from the given files</para>
670 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nl">
671 <primary sortas="b-nl">nl</primary>
672 </indexterm>
673 </listitem>
674 </varlistentry>
675
676 <varlistentry id="nohup">
677 <term><command>nohup</command></term>
678 <listitem>
679 <para>Runs a command immune to hangups, with its output redirected to
680 a log file</para>
681 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nohup">
682 <primary sortas="b-nohup">nohup</primary>
683 </indexterm>
684 </listitem>
685 </varlistentry>
686
687 <varlistentry id="nproc">
688 <term><command>nproc</command></term>
689 <listitem>
690 <para>Prints the number of processing units available to a
691 process</para>
692 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nproc">
693 <primary sortas="b-nproc">nproc</primary>
694 </indexterm>
695 </listitem>
696 </varlistentry>
697
698 <varlistentry id="numfmt">
699 <term><command>numfmt</command></term>
700 <listitem>
701 <para>Converts numbers to or from human-readable strings</para>
702 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils numfmt">
703 <primary sortas="b-numfmt">numfmt</primary>
704 </indexterm>
705 </listitem>
706 </varlistentry>
707
708 <varlistentry id="od">
709 <term><command>od</command></term>
710 <listitem>
711 <para>Dumps files in octal and other formats</para>
712 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils od">
713 <primary sortas="b-od">od</primary>
714 </indexterm>
715 </listitem>
716 </varlistentry>
717
718 <varlistentry id="paste">
719 <term><command>paste</command></term>
720 <listitem>
721 <para>Merges the given files, joining sequentially corresponding lines
722 side by side, separated by tab characters</para>
723 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils paste">
724 <primary sortas="b-paste">paste</primary>
725 </indexterm>
726 </listitem>
727 </varlistentry>
728
729 <varlistentry id="pathchk">
730 <term><command>pathchk</command></term>
731 <listitem>
732 <para>Checks if file names are valid or portable</para>
733 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pathchk">
734 <primary sortas="b-pathchk">pathchk</primary>
735 </indexterm>
736 </listitem>
737 </varlistentry>
738
739 <varlistentry id="pinky">
740 <term><command>pinky</command></term>
741 <listitem>
742 <para>Is a lightweight finger client; it reports some information
743 about the given users</para>
744 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pinky">
745 <primary sortas="b-pinky">pinky</primary>
746 </indexterm>
747 </listitem>
748 </varlistentry>
749
750 <varlistentry id="pr">
751 <term><command>pr</command></term>
752 <listitem>
753 <para>Paginates and columnates files for printing</para>
754 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pr">
755 <primary sortas="b-pr">pr</primary>
756 </indexterm>
757 </listitem>
758 </varlistentry>
759
760 <varlistentry id="printenv">
761 <term><command>printenv</command></term>
762 <listitem>
763 <para>Prints the environment</para>
764 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printenv">
765 <primary sortas="b-printenv">printenv</primary>
766 </indexterm>
767 </listitem>
768 </varlistentry>
769
770 <varlistentry id="printf">
771 <term><command>printf</command></term>
772 <listitem>
773 <para>Prints the given arguments according to the given format, much
774 like the C printf function</para>
775 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printf">
776 <primary sortas="b-printf">printf</primary>
777 </indexterm>
778 </listitem>
779 </varlistentry>
780
781 <varlistentry id="ptx">
782 <term><command>ptx</command></term>
783 <listitem>
784 <para>Produces a permuted index from the contents of the given files,
785 with each keyword in its context</para>
786 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ptx">
787 <primary sortas="b-ptx">ptx</primary>
788 </indexterm>
789 </listitem>
790 </varlistentry>
791
792 <varlistentry id="pwd">
793 <term><command>pwd</command></term>
794 <listitem>
795 <para>Reports the name of the current working directory</para>
796 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pwd">
797 <primary sortas="b-pwd">pwd</primary>
798 </indexterm>
799 </listitem>
800 </varlistentry>
801
802 <varlistentry id="readlink">
803 <term><command>readlink</command></term>
804 <listitem>
805 <para>Reports the value of the given symbolic link</para>
806 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils readlink">
807 <primary sortas="b-readlink">readlink</primary>
808 </indexterm>
809 </listitem>
810 </varlistentry>
811
812 <varlistentry id="realpath">
813 <term><command>realpath</command></term>
814 <listitem>
815 <para>Prints the resolved path</para>
816 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils realpath">
817 <primary sortas="b-realpath">realpath</primary>
818 </indexterm>
819 </listitem>
820 </varlistentry>
821
822 <varlistentry id="rm">
823 <term><command>rm</command></term>
824 <listitem>
825 <para>Removes files or directories</para>
826 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rm">
827 <primary sortas="b-rm">rm</primary>
828 </indexterm>
829 </listitem>
830 </varlistentry>
831
832 <varlistentry id="rmdir">
833 <term><command>rmdir</command></term>
834 <listitem>
835 <para>Removes directories if they are empty</para>
836 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rmdir">
837 <primary sortas="b-rmdir">rmdir</primary>
838 </indexterm>
839 </listitem>
840 </varlistentry>
841
842 <varlistentry id="runcon">
843 <term><command>runcon</command></term>
844 <listitem>
845 <para>Runs a command with specified security context</para>
846 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils runcon">
847 <primary sortas="b-runcon">runcon</primary>
848 </indexterm>
849 </listitem>
850 </varlistentry>
851
852 <varlistentry id="seq">
853 <term><command>seq</command></term>
854 <listitem>
855 <para>Prints a sequence of numbers within a given range and with a
856 given increment</para>
857 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils seq">
858 <primary sortas="b-seq">seq</primary>
859 </indexterm>
860 </listitem>
861 </varlistentry>
862
863 <varlistentry id="sha1sum">
864 <term><command>sha1sum</command></term>
865 <listitem>
866 <para>Prints or checks 160-bit Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1)
867 checksums</para>
868 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha1sum">
869 <primary sortas="b-sha1sum">sha1sum</primary>
870 </indexterm>
871 </listitem>
872 </varlistentry>
873
874 <varlistentry id="sha224sum">
875 <term><command>sha224sum</command></term>
876 <listitem>
877 <para>Prints or checks 224-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
878 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha224sum">
879 <primary sortas="b-sha224sum">sha224sum</primary>
880 </indexterm>
881 </listitem>
882 </varlistentry>
883
884 <varlistentry id="sha256sum">
885 <term><command>sha256sum</command></term>
886 <listitem>
887 <para>Prints or checks 256-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
888 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha256sum">
889 <primary sortas="b-sha256sum">sha256sum</primary>
890 </indexterm>
891 </listitem>
892 </varlistentry>
893
894 <varlistentry id="sha384sum">
895 <term><command>sha384sum</command></term>
896 <listitem>
897 <para>Prints or checks 384-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
898 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha384sum">
899 <primary sortas="b-sha384sum">sha384sum</primary>
900 </indexterm>
901 </listitem>
902 </varlistentry>
903
904 <varlistentry id="sha512sum">
905 <term><command>sha512sum</command></term>
906 <listitem>
907 <para>Prints or checks 512-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
908 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha512sum">
909 <primary sortas="b-sha512sum">sha512sum</primary>
910 </indexterm>
911 </listitem>
912 </varlistentry>
913
914 <varlistentry id="shred">
915 <term><command>shred</command></term>
916 <listitem>
917 <para>Overwrites the given files repeatedly with complex patterns,
918 making it difficult to recover the data</para>
919 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shred">
920 <primary sortas="b-shred">shred</primary>
921 </indexterm>
922 </listitem>
923 </varlistentry>
924
925 <varlistentry id="shuf">
926 <term><command>shuf</command></term>
927 <listitem>
928 <para>Shuffles lines of text</para>
929 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shuf">
930 <primary sortas="b-shuf">shuf</primary>
931 </indexterm>
932 </listitem>
933 </varlistentry>
934
935 <varlistentry id="sleep">
936 <term><command>sleep</command></term>
937 <listitem>
938 <para>Pauses for the given amount of time</para>
939 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sleep">
940 <primary sortas="b-sleep">sleep</primary>
941 </indexterm>
942 </listitem>
943 </varlistentry>
944
945 <varlistentry id="sort">
946 <term><command>sort</command></term>
947 <listitem>
948 <para>Sorts the lines from the given files</para>
949 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sort">
950 <primary sortas="b-sort">sort</primary>
951 </indexterm>
952 </listitem>
953 </varlistentry>
954
955 <varlistentry id="split">
956 <term><command>split</command></term>
957 <listitem>
958 <para>Splits the given file into pieces, by size or by number of
959 lines</para>
960 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils split">
961 <primary sortas="b-split">split</primary>
962 </indexterm>
963 </listitem>
964 </varlistentry>
965
966 <varlistentry id="stat">
967 <term><command>stat</command></term>
968 <listitem>
969 <para>Displays file or filesystem status</para>
970 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stat">
971 <primary sortas="b-stat">stat</primary>
972 </indexterm>
973 </listitem>
974 </varlistentry>
975
976 <varlistentry id="stdbuf">
977 <term><command>stdbuf</command></term>
978 <listitem>
979 <para>Runs commands with altered buffering operations for its standard
980 streams</para>
981 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stdbuf">
982 <primary sortas="b-stdbuf">stdbuf</primary>
983 </indexterm>
984 </listitem>
985 </varlistentry>
986
987 <varlistentry id="stty">
988 <term><command>stty</command></term>
989 <listitem>
990 <para>Sets or reports terminal line settings</para>
991 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stty">
992 <primary sortas="b-stty">stty</primary>
993 </indexterm>
994 </listitem>
995 </varlistentry>
996
997 <varlistentry id="sum">
998 <term><command>sum</command></term>
999 <listitem>
1000 <para>Prints checksum and block counts for each given file</para>
1001 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sum">
1002 <primary sortas="b-sum">sum</primary>
1003 </indexterm>
1004 </listitem>
1005 </varlistentry>
1006
1007 <varlistentry id="sync">
1008 <term><command>sync</command></term>
1009 <listitem>
1010 <para>Flushes file system buffers; it forces changed blocks to disk
1011 and updates the super block</para>
1012 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sync">
1013 <primary sortas="b-sync">sync</primary>
1014 </indexterm>
1015 </listitem>
1016 </varlistentry>
1017
1018 <varlistentry id="tac">
1019 <term><command>tac</command></term>
1020 <listitem>
1021 <para>Concatenates the given files in reverse</para>
1022 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tac">
1023 <primary sortas="b-tac">tac</primary>
1024 </indexterm>
1025 </listitem>
1026 </varlistentry>
1027
1028 <varlistentry id="tail">
1029 <term><command>tail</command></term>
1030 <listitem>
1031 <para>Prints the last ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each
1032 given file</para>
1033 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tail">
1034 <primary sortas="b-tail">tail</primary>
1035 </indexterm>
1036 </listitem>
1037 </varlistentry>
1038
1039 <varlistentry id="tee">
1040 <term><command>tee</command></term>
1041 <listitem>
1042 <para>Reads from standard input while writing both to standard output
1043 and to the given files</para>
1044 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tee">
1045 <primary sortas="b-tee">tee</primary>
1046 </indexterm>
1047 </listitem>
1048 </varlistentry>
1049
1050 <varlistentry id="test">
1051 <term><command>test</command></term>
1052 <listitem>
1053 <para>Compares values and checks file types</para>
1054 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils test">
1055 <primary sortas="b-test">test</primary>
1056 </indexterm>
1057 </listitem>
1058 </varlistentry>
1059
1060 <varlistentry id="timeout">
1061 <term><command>timeout</command></term>
1062 <listitem>
1063 <para>Runs a command with a time limit</para>
1064 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils timeout">
1065 <primary sortas="b-timeout">timeout</primary>
1066 </indexterm>
1067 </listitem>
1068 </varlistentry>
1069
1070 <varlistentry id="touch">
1071 <term><command>touch</command></term>
1072 <listitem>
1073 <para>Changes file timestamps, setting the access and modification
1074 times of the given files to the current time; files that do not exist
1075 are created with zero length</para>
1076 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils touch">
1077 <primary sortas="b-touch">touch</primary>
1078 </indexterm>
1079 </listitem>
1080 </varlistentry>
1081
1082 <varlistentry id="tr">
1083 <term><command>tr</command></term>
1084 <listitem>
1085 <para>Translates, squeezes, and deletes the given characters from
1086 standard input</para>
1087 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tr">
1088 <primary sortas="b-tr">tr</primary>
1089 </indexterm>
1090 </listitem>
1091 </varlistentry>
1092
1093 <varlistentry id="true">
1094 <term><command>true</command></term>
1095 <listitem>
1096 <para>Does nothing, successfully; it always exits with a status code
1097 indicating success</para>
1098 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils true">
1099 <primary sortas="b-true">true</primary>
1100 </indexterm>
1101 </listitem>
1102 </varlistentry>
1103
1104 <varlistentry id="truncate">
1105 <term><command>truncate</command></term>
1106 <listitem>
1107 <para>Shrinks or expands a file to the specified size</para>
1108 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils truncate">
1109 <primary sortas="b-truncate">truncate</primary>
1110 </indexterm>
1111 </listitem>
1112 </varlistentry>
1113
1114 <varlistentry id="tsort">
1115 <term><command>tsort</command></term>
1116 <listitem>
1117 <para>Performs a topological sort; it writes a completely ordered list
1118 according to the partial ordering in a given file</para>
1119 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tsort">
1120 <primary sortas="b-tsort">tsort</primary>
1121 </indexterm>
1122 </listitem>
1123 </varlistentry>
1124
1125 <varlistentry id="tty">
1126 <term><command>tty</command></term>
1127 <listitem>
1128 <para>Reports the file name of the terminal connected to standard
1129 input</para>
1130 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tty">
1131 <primary sortas="b-tty">tty</primary>
1132 </indexterm>
1133 </listitem>
1134 </varlistentry>
1135
1136 <varlistentry id="uname">
1137 <term><command>uname</command></term>
1138 <listitem>
1139 <para>Reports system information</para>
1140 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uname">
1141 <primary sortas="b-uname">uname</primary>
1142 </indexterm>
1143 </listitem>
1144 </varlistentry>
1145
1146 <varlistentry id="unexpand">
1147 <term><command>unexpand</command></term>
1148 <listitem>
1149 <para>Converts spaces to tabs</para>
1150 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unexpand">
1151 <primary sortas="b-unexpand">unexpand</primary>
1152 </indexterm>
1153 </listitem>
1154 </varlistentry>
1155
1156 <varlistentry id="uniq">
1157 <term><command>uniq</command></term>
1158 <listitem>
1159 <para>Discards all but one of successive identical lines</para>
1160 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uniq">
1161 <primary sortas="b-uniq">uniq</primary>
1162 </indexterm>
1163 </listitem>
1164 </varlistentry>
1165
1166 <varlistentry id="unlink">
1167 <term><command>unlink</command></term>
1168 <listitem>
1169 <para>Removes the given file</para>
1170 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unlink">
1171 <primary sortas="b-unlink">unlink</primary>
1172 </indexterm>
1173 </listitem>
1174 </varlistentry>
1175
1176 <varlistentry id="users">
1177 <term><command>users</command></term>
1178 <listitem>
1179 <para>Reports the names of the users currently logged on</para>
1180 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils users">
1181 <primary sortas="b-users">users</primary>
1182 </indexterm>
1183 </listitem>
1184 </varlistentry>
1185
1186 <varlistentry id="vdir">
1187 <term><command>vdir</command></term>
1188 <listitem>
1189 <para>Is the same as <command>ls -l</command></para>
1190 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils vdir">
1191 <primary sortas="b-vdir">vdir</primary>
1192 </indexterm>
1193 </listitem>
1194 </varlistentry>
1195
1196 <varlistentry id="wc">
1197 <term><command>wc</command></term>
1198 <listitem>
1199 <para>Reports the number of lines, words, and bytes for each given
1200 file, as well as a total line when more than one file is given</para>
1201 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils wc">
1202 <primary sortas="b-wc">wc</primary>
1203 </indexterm>
1204 </listitem>
1205 </varlistentry>
1206
1207 <varlistentry id="who">
1208 <term><command>who</command></term>
1209 <listitem>
1210 <para>Reports who is logged on</para>
1211 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils who">
1212 <primary sortas="b-who">who</primary>
1213 </indexterm>
1214 </listitem>
1215 </varlistentry>
1216
1217 <varlistentry id="whoami">
1218 <term><command>whoami</command></term>
1219 <listitem>
1220 <para>Reports the user name associated with the current effective
1221 user ID</para>
1222 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils whoami">
1223 <primary sortas="b-whoami">whoami</primary>
1224 </indexterm>
1225 </listitem>
1226 </varlistentry>
1227
1228 <varlistentry id="yes">
1229 <term><command>yes</command></term>
1230 <listitem>
1231 <para>Repeatedly outputs <quote>y</quote> or a given string until
1232 killed</para>
1233 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils yes">
1234 <primary sortas="b-yes">yes</primary>
1235 </indexterm>
1236 </listitem>
1237 </varlistentry>
1238
1239 <varlistentry id="libstdbuf">
1240 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libstdbuf</filename></term>
1241 <listitem>
1242 <para>Library used by <command>stdbuf</command></para>
1243 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils libstdbuf">
1244 <primary sortas="c-libstdbuf">libstdbuf</primary>
1245 </indexterm>
1246 </listitem>
1247 </varlistentry>
1248
1249 </variablelist>
1250
1251 </sect2>
1252
1253</sect1>
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