source: chapter06/coreutils.xml@ b8cb3b3

10.0 10.0-rc1 10.1 10.1-rc1 11.0 11.0-rc1 11.0-rc2 11.0-rc3 8.4 8.4-rc1 9.0 9.0-rc1 9.1 9.1-rc1 cross-chap5 ml-11.0 multilib old-trunk trunk xry111/git-transition xry111/glibc-2.34 xry111/tester-nohack xry111/usr-move
Last change on this file since b8cb3b3 was b8cb3b3, checked in by DJ Lucas <dj@…>, 3 years ago

Add 'wheel' group to systemd groups.
Add touch to the list of moved coreutils programs, and clarify necessity of the moves to meet FHS compliance.

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/trunk/BOOK@11488 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

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File size: 43.6 KB
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-coreutils" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="coreutils.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>coreutils</productname>
13 <productnumber>&coreutils-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&coreutils-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Coreutils-&coreutils-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils">
20 <primary sortas="a-Coreutils">Coreutils</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the
27 basic system characteristics.</para>
28
29 <segmentedlist>
30 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
31 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
32
33 <seglistitem>
34 <seg>&coreutils-ch6-sbu;</seg>
35 <seg>&coreutils-ch6-du;</seg>
36 </seglistitem>
37 </segmentedlist>
38
39 </sect2>
40
41 <sect2 role="installation">
42 <title>Installation of Coreutils</title>
43
44 <para>POSIX requires that programs from Coreutils recognize character
45 boundaries correctly even in multibyte locales. The following patch fixes
46 this non-compliance and other internationalization-related bugs.</para>
47
48<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&coreutils-i18n-patch;</userinput></screen>
49
50 <note>
51 <para>In the past, many bugs were found in this patch. When reporting new
52 bugs to Coreutils maintainers, please check first if they are reproducible
53 without this patch.</para>
54 </note>
55
56 <!-- this has been fixed in upstream gnulib, when a new version of
57 coreutils is released, please check #4055 to see if the change has been
58 picked up in this package -->
59 <para>Suppress a test which on some machines can loop forever:</para>
60
61<screen><userinput remap="pre">sed -i '/test.lock/s/^/#/' gnulib-tests/gnulib.mk</userinput></screen>
62
63 <para>Now prepare Coreutils for compilation:</para>
64
65<screen><userinput remap="configure">autoreconf -fiv
66FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 ./configure \
67 --prefix=/usr \
68 --enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</userinput></screen>
69
70 <variablelist>
71 <title>The meaning of the configure options:</title>
72
73 <varlistentry>
74 <term><command>autoreconf</command></term>
75 <listitem>
76 <para>This command updates generated configuration files
77 consistent with the latest version of automake.
78 </para>
79 </listitem>
80 </varlistentry>
81
82 <varlistentry>
83 <term><envar>FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1</envar></term>
84 <listitem>
85 <para>This environment variable allows the package to be
86 built as the root user.
87 </para>
88 </listitem>
89 </varlistentry>
90
91 <varlistentry>
92 <term><parameter>--enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</parameter></term>
93 <listitem>
94 <para>The purpose of this switch is to prevent Coreutils from
95 installing binaries that will be installed by other packages later.
96 </para>
97 </listitem>
98 </varlistentry>
99 </variablelist>
100
101 <para>Compile the package:</para>
102
103<screen><userinput remap="make">FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 make</userinput></screen>
104
105 <para>Skip down to <quote>Install the
106 package</quote> if not running the test suite.</para>
107
108 <para>Now the test suite is ready to be run. First, run the tests that are
109 meant to be run as user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>:</para>
110
111<screen><userinput remap="test">make NON_ROOT_USERNAME=nobody check-root</userinput></screen>
112
113 <para>We're going to run the remainder of the tests as the
114 <systemitem class="username">nobody</systemitem> user. Certain tests,
115 however, require that the user be a member of more than one group. So that
116 these tests are not skipped we'll add a temporary group and make the
117 user <systemitem class="username">nobody</systemitem> a part of it:</para>
118
119<screen><userinput remap="test">echo "dummy:x:1000:nobody" &gt;&gt; /etc/group</userinput></screen>
120
121 <para>Fix some of the permissions so that the non-root user can compile and
122 run the tests:</para>
123
124<screen><userinput remap="test">chown -Rv nobody . </userinput></screen>
125
126 <para>Now run the tests. Make sure the PATH in the <userinput>su</userinput>
127 environment includes /tools/bin.</para>
128
129<screen><userinput remap="test">su nobody -s /bin/bash \
130 -c "PATH=$PATH make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check"</userinput></screen>
131
132 <para>The test program test-getlogin is known to fail in a
133 partially built system environment like the chroot environment here, but
134 passes if run at the end of this chapter. The test program tty.sh is
135 also known to fail.</para>
136
137 <para>Remove the temporary group:</para>
138
139<screen><userinput remap="test">sed -i '/dummy/d' /etc/group</userinput></screen>
140
141 <para>Install the package:</para>
142
143<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
144
145 <para>Move programs to the locations specified by the FHS:</para>
146
147<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{cat,chgrp,chmod,chown,cp,date,dd,df,echo} /bin
148mv -v /usr/bin/{false,ln,ls,mkdir,mknod,mv,pwd,rm} /bin
149mv -v /usr/bin/{rmdir,stty,sync,true,uname} /bin
150mv -v /usr/bin/chroot /usr/sbin
151mv -v /usr/share/man/man1/chroot.1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8
152sed -i s/\"1\"/\"8\"/1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8</userinput></screen>
153
154 <para revision="sysv">Some of the scripts in the LFS-Bootscripts package
155 depend on <command>head</command>, <command>nice</command>,
156 <command>sleep</command>, and <command>touch</command>. As <filename
157 class="directory">/usr</filename> may not be available during the early and
158 late stages of booting, those binaries need to be on the root partition to
159 maintain FHS compliance:</para>
160
161<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{head,nice,sleep,touch} /bin</userinput></screen>
162
163 </sect2>
164
165 <sect2 id="contents-coreutils" role="content">
166 <title>Contents of Coreutils</title>
167
168 <segmentedlist>
169 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
170 <segtitle>Installed library</segtitle>
171 <segtitle>Installed directory</segtitle>
172
173 <seglistitem>
174 <seg>[, base32, base64, basename, cat, chcon, chgrp, chmod, chown,
175 chroot, cksum, comm, cp, csplit, cut, date, dd, df, dir, dircolors,
176 dirname, du, echo, env, expand, expr, factor, false, fmt, fold, groups,
177 head, hostid, id, install, join, link, ln, logname, ls, md5sum, mkdir,
178 mkfifo, mknod, mktemp, mv, nice, nl, nohup, nproc, numfmt, od, paste,
179 pathchk, pinky, pr, printenv, printf, ptx, pwd, readlink, realpath, rm,
180 rmdir, runcon, seq, sha1sum, sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum,
181 sha512sum, shred, shuf, sleep, sort, split, stat, stdbuf, stty, sum,
182 sync, tac, tail, tee, test, timeout, touch, tr, true, truncate, tsort,
183 tty, uname, unexpand, uniq, unlink, users, vdir, wc, who, whoami, and
184 yes</seg>
185 <seg>libstdbuf.so</seg>
186 <seg>/usr/libexec/coreutils</seg>
187 </seglistitem>
188 </segmentedlist>
189
190 <variablelist>
191 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
192 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
193 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
194
195 <varlistentry id="base32">
196 <term><command>base32</command></term>
197 <listitem>
198 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base32 specification
199 (RFC 4648)</para>
200 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
201 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
202 </indexterm>
203 </listitem>
204 </varlistentry>
205
206 <varlistentry id="base64">
207 <term><command>base64</command></term>
208 <listitem>
209 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base64 specification
210 (RFC 4648)</para>
211 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
212 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
213 </indexterm>
214 </listitem>
215 </varlistentry>
216
217 <varlistentry id="basename">
218 <term><command>basename</command></term>
219 <listitem>
220 <para>Strips any path and a given suffix from a file name</para>
221 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basename">
222 <primary sortas="b-basename">basename</primary>
223 </indexterm>
224 </listitem>
225 </varlistentry>
226
227 <varlistentry id="cat">
228 <term><command>cat</command></term>
229 <listitem>
230 <para>Concatenates files to standard output</para>
231 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cat">
232 <primary sortas="b-cat">cat</primary>
233 </indexterm>
234 </listitem>
235 </varlistentry>
236
237 <varlistentry id="chcon">
238 <term><command>chcon</command></term>
239 <listitem>
240 <para>Changes security context for files and directories</para>
241 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chcon">
242 <primary sortas="b-chcon">chcon</primary>
243 </indexterm>
244 </listitem>
245 </varlistentry>
246
247 <varlistentry id="chgrp">
248 <term><command>chgrp</command></term>
249 <listitem>
250 <para>Changes the group ownership of files and directories</para>
251 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chgrp">
252 <primary sortas="b-chgrp">chgrp</primary>
253 </indexterm>
254 </listitem>
255 </varlistentry>
256
257 <varlistentry id="chmod">
258 <term><command>chmod</command></term>
259 <listitem>
260 <para>Changes the permissions of each file to the given mode; the mode
261 can be either a symbolic representation of the changes to make or an
262 octal number representing the new permissions</para>
263 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chmod">
264 <primary sortas="b-chmod">chmod</primary>
265 </indexterm>
266 </listitem>
267 </varlistentry>
268
269 <varlistentry id="chown">
270 <term><command>chown</command></term>
271 <listitem>
272 <para>Changes the user and/or group ownership of files and
273 directories</para>
274 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chown">
275 <primary sortas="b-chown">chown</primary>
276 </indexterm>
277 </listitem>
278 </varlistentry>
279
280 <varlistentry id="chroot">
281 <term><command>chroot</command></term>
282 <listitem>
283 <para>Runs a command with the specified directory as the
284 <filename class="directory">/</filename> directory</para>
285 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chroot">
286 <primary sortas="b-chroot">chroot</primary>
287 </indexterm>
288 </listitem>
289 </varlistentry>
290
291 <varlistentry id="cksum">
292 <term><command>cksum</command></term>
293 <listitem>
294 <para>Prints the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum and the byte
295 counts of each specified file</para>
296 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cksum">
297 <primary sortas="b-cksum">cksum</primary>
298 </indexterm>
299 </listitem>
300 </varlistentry>
301
302 <varlistentry id="comm">
303 <term><command>comm</command></term>
304 <listitem>
305 <para>Compares two sorted files, outputting in three columns the lines
306 that are unique and the lines that are common</para>
307 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils comm">
308 <primary sortas="b-comm">comm</primary>
309 </indexterm>
310 </listitem>
311 </varlistentry>
312
313 <varlistentry id="cp">
314 <term><command>cp</command></term>
315 <listitem>
316 <para>Copies files</para>
317 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cp">
318 <primary sortas="b-cp">cp</primary>
319 </indexterm>
320 </listitem>
321 </varlistentry>
322
323 <varlistentry id="csplit">
324 <term><command>csplit</command></term>
325 <listitem>
326 <para>Splits a given file into several new files, separating them
327 according to given patterns or line numbers and outputting the byte
328 count of each new file</para>
329 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils csplit">
330 <primary sortas="b-csplit">csplit</primary>
331 </indexterm>
332 </listitem>
333 </varlistentry>
334
335 <varlistentry id="cut">
336 <term><command>cut</command></term>
337 <listitem>
338 <para>Prints sections of lines, selecting the parts according to given
339 fields or positions</para>
340 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cut">
341 <primary sortas="b-cut">cut</primary>
342 </indexterm>
343 </listitem>
344 </varlistentry>
345
346 <varlistentry id="date">
347 <term><command>date</command></term>
348 <listitem>
349 <para>Displays the current time in the given format, or sets the
350 system date</para>
351 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils date">
352 <primary sortas="b-date">date</primary>
353 </indexterm>
354 </listitem>
355 </varlistentry>
356
357 <varlistentry id="dd">
358 <term><command>dd</command> </term>
359 <listitem>
360 <para>Copies a file using the given block size and count, while
361 optionally performing conversions on it</para>
362 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dd">
363 <primary sortas="b-dd">dd</primary>
364 </indexterm>
365 </listitem>
366 </varlistentry>
367
368 <varlistentry id="df">
369 <term><command>df</command></term>
370 <listitem>
371 <para>Reports the amount of disk space available (and used) on all
372 mounted file systems, or only on the file systems holding the selected
373 files</para>
374 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils df">
375 <primary sortas="b-df">df</primary>
376 </indexterm>
377 </listitem>
378 </varlistentry>
379
380 <varlistentry id="dir">
381 <term><command>dir</command></term>
382 <listitem>
383 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory (the same as
384 the <command>ls</command> command)</para>
385 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dir">
386 <primary sortas="b-dir">dir</primary>
387 </indexterm>
388 </listitem>
389 </varlistentry>
390
391 <varlistentry id="dircolors">
392 <term><command>dircolors</command></term>
393 <listitem>
394 <para>Outputs commands to set the <envar>LS_COLOR</envar>
395 environment variable to change the color scheme used by
396 <command>ls</command></para>
397 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dircolors">
398 <primary sortas="b-dircolors">dircolors</primary>
399 </indexterm>
400 </listitem>
401 </varlistentry>
402
403 <varlistentry id="dirname">
404 <term><command>dirname</command></term>
405 <listitem>
406 <para>Strips the non-directory suffix from a file name</para>
407 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dirname">
408 <primary sortas="b-dirname">dirname</primary>
409 </indexterm>
410 </listitem>
411 </varlistentry>
412
413 <varlistentry id="du">
414 <term><command>du</command></term>
415 <listitem>
416 <para>Reports the amount of disk space used by the current directory,
417 by each of the given directories (including all subdirectories) or by
418 each of the given files</para>
419 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils du">
420 <primary sortas="b-du">du</primary>
421 </indexterm>
422 </listitem>
423 </varlistentry>
424
425 <varlistentry id="echo">
426 <term><command>echo</command></term>
427 <listitem>
428 <para>Displays the given strings</para>
429 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils echo">
430 <primary sortas="b-echo">echo</primary>
431 </indexterm>
432 </listitem>
433 </varlistentry>
434
435 <varlistentry id="env">
436 <term><command>env</command></term>
437 <listitem>
438 <para>Runs a command in a modified environment</para>
439 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils env">
440 <primary sortas="b-env">env</primary>
441 </indexterm>
442 </listitem>
443 </varlistentry>
444
445 <varlistentry id="expand">
446 <term><command>expand</command></term>
447 <listitem>
448 <para>Converts tabs to spaces</para>
449 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expand">
450 <primary sortas="b-expand">expand</primary>
451 </indexterm>
452 </listitem>
453 </varlistentry>
454
455 <varlistentry id="expr">
456 <term><command>expr</command></term>
457 <listitem>
458 <para>Evaluates expressions</para>
459 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expr">
460 <primary sortas="b-expr">expr</primary>
461 </indexterm>
462 </listitem>
463 </varlistentry>
464
465 <varlistentry id="factor">
466 <term><command>factor</command></term>
467 <listitem>
468 <para>Prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers</para>
469 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils factor">
470 <primary sortas="b-factor">factor</primary>
471 </indexterm>
472 </listitem>
473 </varlistentry>
474
475 <varlistentry id="false">
476 <term><command>false</command></term>
477 <listitem>
478 <para>Does nothing, unsuccessfully; it always exits with a status code
479 indicating failure</para>
480 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils false">
481 <primary sortas="b-false">false</primary>
482 </indexterm>
483 </listitem>
484 </varlistentry>
485
486 <varlistentry id="fmt">
487 <term><command>fmt</command></term>
488 <listitem>
489 <para>Reformats the paragraphs in the given files</para>
490 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fmt">
491 <primary sortas="b-fmt">fmt</primary>
492 </indexterm>
493 </listitem>
494 </varlistentry>
495
496 <varlistentry id="fold">
497 <term><command>fold</command></term>
498 <listitem>
499 <para>Wraps the lines in the given files</para>
500 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fold">
501 <primary sortas="b-fold">fold</primary>
502 </indexterm>
503 </listitem>
504 </varlistentry>
505
506 <varlistentry id="groups">
507 <term><command>groups</command></term>
508 <listitem>
509 <para>Reports a user's group memberships</para>
510 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils groups">
511 <primary sortas="b-groups">groups</primary>
512 </indexterm>
513 </listitem>
514 </varlistentry>
515
516 <varlistentry id="head">
517 <term><command>head</command></term>
518 <listitem>
519 <para>Prints the first ten lines (or the given number of lines)
520 of each given file</para>
521 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils head">
522 <primary sortas="b-head">head</primary>
523 </indexterm>
524 </listitem>
525 </varlistentry>
526
527 <varlistentry id="hostid">
528 <term><command>hostid</command></term>
529 <listitem>
530 <para>Reports the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) of the host</para>
531 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils hostid">
532 <primary sortas="b-hostid">hostid</primary>
533 </indexterm>
534 </listitem>
535 </varlistentry>
536
537 <varlistentry id="id">
538 <term><command>id</command></term>
539 <listitem>
540 <para>Reports the effective user ID, group ID, and group memberships
541 of the current user or specified user</para>
542 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils id">
543 <primary sortas="b-id">id</primary>
544 </indexterm>
545 </listitem>
546 </varlistentry>
547
548 <varlistentry id="install">
549 <term><command>install</command> </term>
550 <listitem>
551 <para>Copies files while setting their permission modes and, if
552 possible, their owner and group</para>
553 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils install">
554 <primary sortas="b-install">install</primary>
555 </indexterm>
556 </listitem>
557 </varlistentry>
558
559 <varlistentry id="join">
560 <term><command>join</command></term>
561 <listitem>
562 <para>Joins the lines that have identical join fields from two
563 separate files</para>
564 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils join">
565 <primary sortas="b-join">join</primary>
566 </indexterm>
567 </listitem>
568 </varlistentry>
569
570 <varlistentry id="link">
571 <term><command>link</command></term>
572 <listitem>
573 <para>Creates a hard link with the given name to a file</para>
574 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils link">
575 <primary sortas="b-link">link</primary>
576 </indexterm>
577 </listitem>
578 </varlistentry>
579
580 <varlistentry id="ln">
581 <term><command>ln</command></term>
582 <listitem>
583 <para>Makes hard links or soft (symbolic) links between files</para>
584 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ln">
585 <primary sortas="b-ln">ln</primary>
586 </indexterm>
587 </listitem>
588 </varlistentry>
589
590 <varlistentry id="logname">
591 <term><command>logname</command></term>
592 <listitem>
593 <para>Reports the current user's login name</para>
594 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils logname">
595 <primary sortas="b-logname">logname</primary>
596 </indexterm>
597 </listitem>
598 </varlistentry>
599
600 <varlistentry id="ls">
601 <term><command>ls</command></term>
602 <listitem>
603 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory</para>
604 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ls">
605 <primary sortas="b-ls">ls</primary>
606 </indexterm>
607 </listitem>
608 </varlistentry>
609
610 <varlistentry id="md5sum">
611 <term><command>md5sum</command></term>
612 <listitem>
613 <para>Reports or checks Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums</para>
614 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils md5sum">
615 <primary sortas="b-md5sum">md5sum</primary>
616 </indexterm>
617 </listitem>
618 </varlistentry>
619
620 <varlistentry id="mkdir">
621 <term><command>mkdir</command></term>
622 <listitem>
623 <para>Creates directories with the given names</para>
624 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkdir">
625 <primary sortas="b-mkdir">mkdir</primary>
626 </indexterm>
627 </listitem>
628 </varlistentry>
629
630 <varlistentry id="mkfifo">
631 <term><command>mkfifo</command></term>
632 <listitem>
633 <para>Creates First-In, First-Outs (FIFOs), a "named
634 pipe" in UNIX parlance, with the given names</para>
635 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkfifo">
636 <primary sortas="b-mkfifo">mkfifo</primary>
637 </indexterm>
638 </listitem>
639 </varlistentry>
640
641 <varlistentry id="mknod">
642 <term><command>mknod</command></term>
643 <listitem>
644 <para>Creates device nodes with the given names; a device node is a
645 character special file, a block special file, or a FIFO</para>
646 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mknod">
647 <primary sortas="b-mknod">mknod</primary>
648 </indexterm>
649 </listitem>
650 </varlistentry>
651
652 <varlistentry id="mktemp">
653 <term><command>mktemp</command></term>
654 <listitem>
655 <para>Creates temporary files in a secure manner; it is used in scripts</para>
656 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mktemp">
657 <primary sortas="b-mktemp">mktemp</primary>
658 </indexterm>
659 </listitem>
660 </varlistentry>
661
662 <varlistentry id="mv">
663 <term><command>mv</command></term>
664 <listitem>
665 <para>Moves or renames files or directories</para>
666 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mv">
667 <primary sortas="b-mv">mv</primary>
668 </indexterm>
669 </listitem>
670 </varlistentry>
671
672 <varlistentry id="nice">
673 <term><command>nice</command></term>
674 <listitem>
675 <para>Runs a program with modified scheduling priority</para>
676 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nice">
677 <primary sortas="b-nice">nice</primary>
678 </indexterm>
679 </listitem>
680 </varlistentry>
681
682 <varlistentry id="nl">
683 <term><command>nl</command></term>
684 <listitem>
685 <para>Numbers the lines from the given files</para>
686 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nl">
687 <primary sortas="b-nl">nl</primary>
688 </indexterm>
689 </listitem>
690 </varlistentry>
691
692 <varlistentry id="nohup">
693 <term><command>nohup</command></term>
694 <listitem>
695 <para>Runs a command immune to hangups, with its output redirected to
696 a log file</para>
697 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nohup">
698 <primary sortas="b-nohup">nohup</primary>
699 </indexterm>
700 </listitem>
701 </varlistentry>
702
703 <varlistentry id="nproc">
704 <term><command>nproc</command></term>
705 <listitem>
706 <para>Prints the number of processing units available to a
707 process</para>
708 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nproc">
709 <primary sortas="b-nproc">nproc</primary>
710 </indexterm>
711 </listitem>
712 </varlistentry>
713
714 <varlistentry id="numfmt">
715 <term><command>numfmt</command></term>
716 <listitem>
717 <para>Converts numbers to or from human-readable strings</para>
718 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils numfmt">
719 <primary sortas="b-numfmt">numfmt</primary>
720 </indexterm>
721 </listitem>
722 </varlistentry>
723
724 <varlistentry id="od">
725 <term><command>od</command></term>
726 <listitem>
727 <para>Dumps files in octal and other formats</para>
728 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils od">
729 <primary sortas="b-od">od</primary>
730 </indexterm>
731 </listitem>
732 </varlistentry>
733
734 <varlistentry id="paste">
735 <term><command>paste</command></term>
736 <listitem>
737 <para>Merges the given files, joining sequentially corresponding lines
738 side by side, separated by tab characters</para>
739 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils paste">
740 <primary sortas="b-paste">paste</primary>
741 </indexterm>
742 </listitem>
743 </varlistentry>
744
745 <varlistentry id="pathchk">
746 <term><command>pathchk</command></term>
747 <listitem>
748 <para>Checks if file names are valid or portable</para>
749 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pathchk">
750 <primary sortas="b-pathchk">pathchk</primary>
751 </indexterm>
752 </listitem>
753 </varlistentry>
754
755 <varlistentry id="pinky">
756 <term><command>pinky</command></term>
757 <listitem>
758 <para>Is a lightweight finger client; it reports some information
759 about the given users</para>
760 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pinky">
761 <primary sortas="b-pinky">pinky</primary>
762 </indexterm>
763 </listitem>
764 </varlistentry>
765
766 <varlistentry id="pr">
767 <term><command>pr</command></term>
768 <listitem>
769 <para>Paginates and columnates files for printing</para>
770 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pr">
771 <primary sortas="b-pr">pr</primary>
772 </indexterm>
773 </listitem>
774 </varlistentry>
775
776 <varlistentry id="printenv">
777 <term><command>printenv</command></term>
778 <listitem>
779 <para>Prints the environment</para>
780 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printenv">
781 <primary sortas="b-printenv">printenv</primary>
782 </indexterm>
783 </listitem>
784 </varlistentry>
785
786 <varlistentry id="printf">
787 <term><command>printf</command></term>
788 <listitem>
789 <para>Prints the given arguments according to the given format, much
790 like the C printf function</para>
791 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printf">
792 <primary sortas="b-printf">printf</primary>
793 </indexterm>
794 </listitem>
795 </varlistentry>
796
797 <varlistentry id="ptx">
798 <term><command>ptx</command></term>
799 <listitem>
800 <para>Produces a permuted index from the contents of the given files,
801 with each keyword in its context</para>
802 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ptx">
803 <primary sortas="b-ptx">ptx</primary>
804 </indexterm>
805 </listitem>
806 </varlistentry>
807
808 <varlistentry id="pwd">
809 <term><command>pwd</command></term>
810 <listitem>
811 <para>Reports the name of the current working directory</para>
812 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pwd">
813 <primary sortas="b-pwd">pwd</primary>
814 </indexterm>
815 </listitem>
816 </varlistentry>
817
818 <varlistentry id="readlink">
819 <term><command>readlink</command></term>
820 <listitem>
821 <para>Reports the value of the given symbolic link</para>
822 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils readlink">
823 <primary sortas="b-readlink">readlink</primary>
824 </indexterm>
825 </listitem>
826 </varlistentry>
827
828 <varlistentry id="realpath">
829 <term><command>realpath</command></term>
830 <listitem>
831 <para>Prints the resolved path</para>
832 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils realpath">
833 <primary sortas="b-realpath">realpath</primary>
834 </indexterm>
835 </listitem>
836 </varlistentry>
837
838 <varlistentry id="rm">
839 <term><command>rm</command></term>
840 <listitem>
841 <para>Removes files or directories</para>
842 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rm">
843 <primary sortas="b-rm">rm</primary>
844 </indexterm>
845 </listitem>
846 </varlistentry>
847
848 <varlistentry id="rmdir">
849 <term><command>rmdir</command></term>
850 <listitem>
851 <para>Removes directories if they are empty</para>
852 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rmdir">
853 <primary sortas="b-rmdir">rmdir</primary>
854 </indexterm>
855 </listitem>
856 </varlistentry>
857
858 <varlistentry id="runcon">
859 <term><command>runcon</command></term>
860 <listitem>
861 <para>Runs a command with specified security context</para>
862 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils runcon">
863 <primary sortas="b-runcon">runcon</primary>
864 </indexterm>
865 </listitem>
866 </varlistentry>
867
868 <varlistentry id="seq">
869 <term><command>seq</command></term>
870 <listitem>
871 <para>Prints a sequence of numbers within a given range and with a
872 given increment</para>
873 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils seq">
874 <primary sortas="b-seq">seq</primary>
875 </indexterm>
876 </listitem>
877 </varlistentry>
878
879 <varlistentry id="sha1sum">
880 <term><command>sha1sum</command></term>
881 <listitem>
882 <para>Prints or checks 160-bit Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1)
883 checksums</para>
884 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha1sum">
885 <primary sortas="b-sha1sum">sha1sum</primary>
886 </indexterm>
887 </listitem>
888 </varlistentry>
889
890 <varlistentry id="sha224sum">
891 <term><command>sha224sum</command></term>
892 <listitem>
893 <para>Prints or checks 224-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
894 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha224sum">
895 <primary sortas="b-sha224sum">sha224sum</primary>
896 </indexterm>
897 </listitem>
898 </varlistentry>
899
900 <varlistentry id="sha256sum">
901 <term><command>sha256sum</command></term>
902 <listitem>
903 <para>Prints or checks 256-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
904 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha256sum">
905 <primary sortas="b-sha256sum">sha256sum</primary>
906 </indexterm>
907 </listitem>
908 </varlistentry>
909
910 <varlistentry id="sha384sum">
911 <term><command>sha384sum</command></term>
912 <listitem>
913 <para>Prints or checks 384-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
914 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha384sum">
915 <primary sortas="b-sha384sum">sha384sum</primary>
916 </indexterm>
917 </listitem>
918 </varlistentry>
919
920 <varlistentry id="sha512sum">
921 <term><command>sha512sum</command></term>
922 <listitem>
923 <para>Prints or checks 512-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
924 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha512sum">
925 <primary sortas="b-sha512sum">sha512sum</primary>
926 </indexterm>
927 </listitem>
928 </varlistentry>
929
930 <varlistentry id="shred">
931 <term><command>shred</command></term>
932 <listitem>
933 <para>Overwrites the given files repeatedly with complex patterns,
934 making it difficult to recover the data</para>
935 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shred">
936 <primary sortas="b-shred">shred</primary>
937 </indexterm>
938 </listitem>
939 </varlistentry>
940
941 <varlistentry id="shuf">
942 <term><command>shuf</command></term>
943 <listitem>
944 <para>Shuffles lines of text</para>
945 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shuf">
946 <primary sortas="b-shuf">shuf</primary>
947 </indexterm>
948 </listitem>
949 </varlistentry>
950
951 <varlistentry id="sleep">
952 <term><command>sleep</command></term>
953 <listitem>
954 <para>Pauses for the given amount of time</para>
955 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sleep">
956 <primary sortas="b-sleep">sleep</primary>
957 </indexterm>
958 </listitem>
959 </varlistentry>
960
961 <varlistentry id="sort">
962 <term><command>sort</command></term>
963 <listitem>
964 <para>Sorts the lines from the given files</para>
965 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sort">
966 <primary sortas="b-sort">sort</primary>
967 </indexterm>
968 </listitem>
969 </varlistentry>
970
971 <varlistentry id="split">
972 <term><command>split</command></term>
973 <listitem>
974 <para>Splits the given file into pieces, by size or by number of
975 lines</para>
976 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils split">
977 <primary sortas="b-split">split</primary>
978 </indexterm>
979 </listitem>
980 </varlistentry>
981
982 <varlistentry id="stat">
983 <term><command>stat</command></term>
984 <listitem>
985 <para>Displays file or filesystem status</para>
986 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stat">
987 <primary sortas="b-stat">stat</primary>
988 </indexterm>
989 </listitem>
990 </varlistentry>
991
992 <varlistentry id="stdbuf">
993 <term><command>stdbuf</command></term>
994 <listitem>
995 <para>Runs commands with altered buffering operations for its standard
996 streams</para>
997 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stdbuf">
998 <primary sortas="b-stdbuf">stdbuf</primary>
999 </indexterm>
1000 </listitem>
1001 </varlistentry>
1002
1003 <varlistentry id="stty">
1004 <term><command>stty</command></term>
1005 <listitem>
1006 <para>Sets or reports terminal line settings</para>
1007 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stty">
1008 <primary sortas="b-stty">stty</primary>
1009 </indexterm>
1010 </listitem>
1011 </varlistentry>
1012
1013 <varlistentry id="sum">
1014 <term><command>sum</command></term>
1015 <listitem>
1016 <para>Prints checksum and block counts for each given file</para>
1017 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sum">
1018 <primary sortas="b-sum">sum</primary>
1019 </indexterm>
1020 </listitem>
1021 </varlistentry>
1022
1023 <varlistentry id="sync">
1024 <term><command>sync</command></term>
1025 <listitem>
1026 <para>Flushes file system buffers; it forces changed blocks to disk
1027 and updates the super block</para>
1028 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sync">
1029 <primary sortas="b-sync">sync</primary>
1030 </indexterm>
1031 </listitem>
1032 </varlistentry>
1033
1034 <varlistentry id="tac">
1035 <term><command>tac</command></term>
1036 <listitem>
1037 <para>Concatenates the given files in reverse</para>
1038 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tac">
1039 <primary sortas="b-tac">tac</primary>
1040 </indexterm>
1041 </listitem>
1042 </varlistentry>
1043
1044 <varlistentry id="tail">
1045 <term><command>tail</command></term>
1046 <listitem>
1047 <para>Prints the last ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each
1048 given file</para>
1049 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tail">
1050 <primary sortas="b-tail">tail</primary>
1051 </indexterm>
1052 </listitem>
1053 </varlistentry>
1054
1055 <varlistentry id="tee">
1056 <term><command>tee</command></term>
1057 <listitem>
1058 <para>Reads from standard input while writing both to standard output
1059 and to the given files</para>
1060 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tee">
1061 <primary sortas="b-tee">tee</primary>
1062 </indexterm>
1063 </listitem>
1064 </varlistentry>
1065
1066 <varlistentry id="test">
1067 <term><command>test</command></term>
1068 <listitem>
1069 <para>Compares values and checks file types</para>
1070 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils test">
1071 <primary sortas="b-test">test</primary>
1072 </indexterm>
1073 </listitem>
1074 </varlistentry>
1075
1076 <varlistentry id="timeout">
1077 <term><command>timeout</command></term>
1078 <listitem>
1079 <para>Runs a command with a time limit</para>
1080 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils timeout">
1081 <primary sortas="b-timeout">timeout</primary>
1082 </indexterm>
1083 </listitem>
1084 </varlistentry>
1085
1086 <varlistentry id="touch">
1087 <term><command>touch</command></term>
1088 <listitem>
1089 <para>Changes file timestamps, setting the access and modification
1090 times of the given files to the current time; files that do not exist
1091 are created with zero length</para>
1092 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils touch">
1093 <primary sortas="b-touch">touch</primary>
1094 </indexterm>
1095 </listitem>
1096 </varlistentry>
1097
1098 <varlistentry id="tr">
1099 <term><command>tr</command></term>
1100 <listitem>
1101 <para>Translates, squeezes, and deletes the given characters from
1102 standard input</para>
1103 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tr">
1104 <primary sortas="b-tr">tr</primary>
1105 </indexterm>
1106 </listitem>
1107 </varlistentry>
1108
1109 <varlistentry id="true">
1110 <term><command>true</command></term>
1111 <listitem>
1112 <para>Does nothing, successfully; it always exits with a status code
1113 indicating success</para>
1114 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils true">
1115 <primary sortas="b-true">true</primary>
1116 </indexterm>
1117 </listitem>
1118 </varlistentry>
1119
1120 <varlistentry id="truncate">
1121 <term><command>truncate</command></term>
1122 <listitem>
1123 <para>Shrinks or expands a file to the specified size</para>
1124 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils truncate">
1125 <primary sortas="b-truncate">truncate</primary>
1126 </indexterm>
1127 </listitem>
1128 </varlistentry>
1129
1130 <varlistentry id="tsort">
1131 <term><command>tsort</command></term>
1132 <listitem>
1133 <para>Performs a topological sort; it writes a completely ordered list
1134 according to the partial ordering in a given file</para>
1135 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tsort">
1136 <primary sortas="b-tsort">tsort</primary>
1137 </indexterm>
1138 </listitem>
1139 </varlistentry>
1140
1141 <varlistentry id="tty">
1142 <term><command>tty</command></term>
1143 <listitem>
1144 <para>Reports the file name of the terminal connected to standard
1145 input</para>
1146 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tty">
1147 <primary sortas="b-tty">tty</primary>
1148 </indexterm>
1149 </listitem>
1150 </varlistentry>
1151
1152 <varlistentry id="uname">
1153 <term><command>uname</command></term>
1154 <listitem>
1155 <para>Reports system information</para>
1156 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uname">
1157 <primary sortas="b-uname">uname</primary>
1158 </indexterm>
1159 </listitem>
1160 </varlistentry>
1161
1162 <varlistentry id="unexpand">
1163 <term><command>unexpand</command></term>
1164 <listitem>
1165 <para>Converts spaces to tabs</para>
1166 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unexpand">
1167 <primary sortas="b-unexpand">unexpand</primary>
1168 </indexterm>
1169 </listitem>
1170 </varlistentry>
1171
1172 <varlistentry id="uniq">
1173 <term><command>uniq</command></term>
1174 <listitem>
1175 <para>Discards all but one of successive identical lines</para>
1176 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uniq">
1177 <primary sortas="b-uniq">uniq</primary>
1178 </indexterm>
1179 </listitem>
1180 </varlistentry>
1181
1182 <varlistentry id="unlink">
1183 <term><command>unlink</command></term>
1184 <listitem>
1185 <para>Removes the given file</para>
1186 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unlink">
1187 <primary sortas="b-unlink">unlink</primary>
1188 </indexterm>
1189 </listitem>
1190 </varlistentry>
1191
1192 <varlistentry id="users">
1193 <term><command>users</command></term>
1194 <listitem>
1195 <para>Reports the names of the users currently logged on</para>
1196 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils users">
1197 <primary sortas="b-users">users</primary>
1198 </indexterm>
1199 </listitem>
1200 </varlistentry>
1201
1202 <varlistentry id="vdir">
1203 <term><command>vdir</command></term>
1204 <listitem>
1205 <para>Is the same as <command>ls -l</command></para>
1206 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils vdir">
1207 <primary sortas="b-vdir">vdir</primary>
1208 </indexterm>
1209 </listitem>
1210 </varlistentry>
1211
1212 <varlistentry id="wc">
1213 <term><command>wc</command></term>
1214 <listitem>
1215 <para>Reports the number of lines, words, and bytes for each given
1216 file, as well as a total line when more than one file is given</para>
1217 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils wc">
1218 <primary sortas="b-wc">wc</primary>
1219 </indexterm>
1220 </listitem>
1221 </varlistentry>
1222
1223 <varlistentry id="who">
1224 <term><command>who</command></term>
1225 <listitem>
1226 <para>Reports who is logged on</para>
1227 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils who">
1228 <primary sortas="b-who">who</primary>
1229 </indexterm>
1230 </listitem>
1231 </varlistentry>
1232
1233 <varlistentry id="whoami">
1234 <term><command>whoami</command></term>
1235 <listitem>
1236 <para>Reports the user name associated with the current effective
1237 user ID</para>
1238 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils whoami">
1239 <primary sortas="b-whoami">whoami</primary>
1240 </indexterm>
1241 </listitem>
1242 </varlistentry>
1243
1244 <varlistentry id="yes">
1245 <term><command>yes</command></term>
1246 <listitem>
1247 <para>Repeatedly outputs <quote>y</quote> or a given string until
1248 killed</para>
1249 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils yes">
1250 <primary sortas="b-yes">yes</primary>
1251 </indexterm>
1252 </listitem>
1253 </varlistentry>
1254
1255 <varlistentry id="libstdbuf">
1256 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libstdbuf</filename></term>
1257 <listitem>
1258 <para>Library used by <command>stdbuf</command></para>
1259 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils libstdbuf">
1260 <primary sortas="c-libstdbuf">libstdbuf</primary>
1261 </indexterm>
1262 </listitem>
1263 </varlistentry>
1264
1265 </variablelist>
1266
1267 </sect2>
1268
1269</sect1>
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