source: chapter06/coreutils.xml@ d4bf7ab

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-coreutils" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="coreutils.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>coreutils</productname>
13 <productnumber>&coreutils-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&coreutils-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Coreutils-&coreutils-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils">
20 <primary sortas="a-Coreutils">Coreutils</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the
27 basic system characteristics.</para>
28
29 <segmentedlist>
30 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
31 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
32
33 <seglistitem>
34 <seg>&coreutils-ch6-sbu;</seg>
35 <seg>&coreutils-ch6-du;</seg>
36 </seglistitem>
37 </segmentedlist>
38
39 </sect2>
40
41 <sect2 role="installation">
42 <title>Installation of Coreutils</title>
43
44 <para>POSIX requires that programs from Coreutils recognize character
45 boundaries correctly even in multibyte locales. The following patch fixes
46 this non-compliance and other internationalization-related bugs.</para>
47
48<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&coreutils-i18n-patch;</userinput></screen>
49
50 <note>
51 <para>In the past, many bugs were found in this patch. When reporting new
52 bugs to Coreutils maintainers, please check first if they are reproducible
53 without this patch.</para>
54 </note>
55
56 <!-- this has been fixed in upstream gnulib, when a new version of
57 coreutils is released, please check #4055 to see if the change has been
58 picked up in this package -->
59 <para>Suppress a test which on some machines can loop forever:</para>
60
61<screen><userinput remap="pre">sed -i '/test.lock/s/^/#/' gnulib-tests/gnulib.mk</userinput></screen>
62
63 <para>Now prepare Coreutils for compilation:</para>
64
65<screen><userinput remap="configure">autoreconf -fiv
66FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 ./configure \
67 --prefix=/usr \
68 --enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</userinput></screen>
69
70 <variablelist>
71 <title>The meaning of the configure options:</title>
72
73 <varlistentry>
74 <term><command>autoreconf</command></term>
75 <listitem>
76 <para>This command updates generated configuration files
77 consistent with the latest version of automake.
78 </para>
79 </listitem>
80 </varlistentry>
81
82 <varlistentry>
83 <term><envar>FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1</envar></term>
84 <listitem>
85 <para>This environment variable allows the package to be
86 built as the root user.
87 </para>
88 </listitem>
89 </varlistentry>
90
91 <varlistentry>
92 <term><parameter>--enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</parameter></term>
93 <listitem>
94 <para>The purpose of this switch is to prevent Coreutils from
95 installing binaries that will be installed by other packages later.
96 </para>
97 </listitem>
98 </varlistentry>
99 </variablelist>
100
101 <para>Compile the package:</para>
102
103<screen><userinput remap="make">FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 make</userinput></screen>
104
105 <para>Skip down to <quote>Install the
106 package</quote> if not running the test suite.</para>
107
108 <para>Now the test suite is ready to be run. First, run the tests that are
109 meant to be run as user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>:</para>
110
111<screen><userinput remap="test">make NON_ROOT_USERNAME=nobody check-root</userinput></screen>
112
113 <para>We're going to run the remainder of the tests as the
114 <systemitem class="username">nobody</systemitem> user. Certain tests,
115 however, require that the user be a member of more than one group. So that
116 these tests are not skipped we'll add a temporary group and make the
117 user <systemitem class="username">nobody</systemitem> a part of it:</para>
118
119<screen><userinput remap="test">echo "dummy:x:1000:nobody" &gt;&gt; /etc/group</userinput></screen>
120
121 <para>Fix some of the permissions so that the non-root user can compile and
122 run the tests:</para>
123
124<screen><userinput remap="test">chown -Rv nobody . </userinput></screen>
125
126 <para>Now run the tests. Make sure the PATH in the <userinput>su</userinput>
127 environment includes /tools/bin.</para>
128
129<screen><userinput remap="test">su nobody -s /bin/bash \
130 -c "PATH=$PATH make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check"</userinput></screen>
131
132 <para>The test program test-getlogin is known to fail in a
133 partially built system environment like the chroot environment here, but
134 passes if run at the end of this chapter. The test program tty.sh is
135 also known to fail.</para>
136
137 <para>Remove the temporary group:</para>
138
139<screen><userinput remap="test">sed -i '/dummy/d' /etc/group</userinput></screen>
140
141 <para>Install the package:</para>
142
143<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
144
145 <para>Move programs to the locations specified by the FHS:</para>
146
147<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{cat,chgrp,chmod,chown,cp,date,dd,df,echo} /bin
148mv -v /usr/bin/{false,ln,ls,mkdir,mknod,mv,pwd,rm} /bin
149mv -v /usr/bin/{rmdir,stty,sync,true,uname} /bin
150mv -v /usr/bin/chroot /usr/sbin
151mv -v /usr/share/man/man1/chroot.1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8
152sed -i s/\"1\"/\"8\"/1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8</userinput></screen>
153
154 <para revision="sysv">Some of the scripts in the LFS-Bootscripts package
155 depend on <command>head</command>, <command>sleep</command>, and
156 <command>nice</command>. As <filename class="directory">/usr</filename>
157 may not be available during the early stages of booting, those binaries
158 need to be on the root partition:</para>
159
160 <para revision="systemd">Some packages in BLFS and beyond expect the
161 following programs in <filename class="directory">/bin</filename>, so make
162 sure they are placed there:</para>
163
164<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{head,sleep,nice} /bin</userinput></screen>
165
166 </sect2>
167
168 <sect2 id="contents-coreutils" role="content">
169 <title>Contents of Coreutils</title>
170
171 <segmentedlist>
172 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
173 <segtitle>Installed library</segtitle>
174 <segtitle>Installed directory</segtitle>
175
176 <seglistitem>
177 <seg>[, base32, base64, basename, cat, chcon, chgrp, chmod, chown,
178 chroot, cksum, comm, cp, csplit, cut, date, dd, df, dir, dircolors,
179 dirname, du, echo, env, expand, expr, factor, false, fmt, fold, groups,
180 head, hostid, id, install, join, link, ln, logname, ls, md5sum, mkdir,
181 mkfifo, mknod, mktemp, mv, nice, nl, nohup, nproc, numfmt, od, paste,
182 pathchk, pinky, pr, printenv, printf, ptx, pwd, readlink, realpath, rm,
183 rmdir, runcon, seq, sha1sum, sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum,
184 sha512sum, shred, shuf, sleep, sort, split, stat, stdbuf, stty, sum,
185 sync, tac, tail, tee, test, timeout, touch, tr, true, truncate, tsort,
186 tty, uname, unexpand, uniq, unlink, users, vdir, wc, who, whoami, and
187 yes</seg>
188 <seg>libstdbuf.so</seg>
189 <seg>/usr/libexec/coreutils</seg>
190 </seglistitem>
191 </segmentedlist>
192
193 <variablelist>
194 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
195 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
196 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
197
198 <varlistentry id="base32">
199 <term><command>base32</command></term>
200 <listitem>
201 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base32 specification
202 (RFC 4648)</para>
203 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
204 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
205 </indexterm>
206 </listitem>
207 </varlistentry>
208
209 <varlistentry id="base64">
210 <term><command>base64</command></term>
211 <listitem>
212 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base64 specification
213 (RFC 4648)</para>
214 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
215 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
216 </indexterm>
217 </listitem>
218 </varlistentry>
219
220 <varlistentry id="basename">
221 <term><command>basename</command></term>
222 <listitem>
223 <para>Strips any path and a given suffix from a file name</para>
224 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basename">
225 <primary sortas="b-basename">basename</primary>
226 </indexterm>
227 </listitem>
228 </varlistentry>
229
230 <varlistentry id="cat">
231 <term><command>cat</command></term>
232 <listitem>
233 <para>Concatenates files to standard output</para>
234 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cat">
235 <primary sortas="b-cat">cat</primary>
236 </indexterm>
237 </listitem>
238 </varlistentry>
239
240 <varlistentry id="chcon">
241 <term><command>chcon</command></term>
242 <listitem>
243 <para>Changes security context for files and directories</para>
244 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chcon">
245 <primary sortas="b-chcon">chcon</primary>
246 </indexterm>
247 </listitem>
248 </varlistentry>
249
250 <varlistentry id="chgrp">
251 <term><command>chgrp</command></term>
252 <listitem>
253 <para>Changes the group ownership of files and directories</para>
254 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chgrp">
255 <primary sortas="b-chgrp">chgrp</primary>
256 </indexterm>
257 </listitem>
258 </varlistentry>
259
260 <varlistentry id="chmod">
261 <term><command>chmod</command></term>
262 <listitem>
263 <para>Changes the permissions of each file to the given mode; the mode
264 can be either a symbolic representation of the changes to make or an
265 octal number representing the new permissions</para>
266 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chmod">
267 <primary sortas="b-chmod">chmod</primary>
268 </indexterm>
269 </listitem>
270 </varlistentry>
271
272 <varlistentry id="chown">
273 <term><command>chown</command></term>
274 <listitem>
275 <para>Changes the user and/or group ownership of files and
276 directories</para>
277 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chown">
278 <primary sortas="b-chown">chown</primary>
279 </indexterm>
280 </listitem>
281 </varlistentry>
282
283 <varlistentry id="chroot">
284 <term><command>chroot</command></term>
285 <listitem>
286 <para>Runs a command with the specified directory as the
287 <filename class="directory">/</filename> directory</para>
288 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chroot">
289 <primary sortas="b-chroot">chroot</primary>
290 </indexterm>
291 </listitem>
292 </varlistentry>
293
294 <varlistentry id="cksum">
295 <term><command>cksum</command></term>
296 <listitem>
297 <para>Prints the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum and the byte
298 counts of each specified file</para>
299 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cksum">
300 <primary sortas="b-cksum">cksum</primary>
301 </indexterm>
302 </listitem>
303 </varlistentry>
304
305 <varlistentry id="comm">
306 <term><command>comm</command></term>
307 <listitem>
308 <para>Compares two sorted files, outputting in three columns the lines
309 that are unique and the lines that are common</para>
310 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils comm">
311 <primary sortas="b-comm">comm</primary>
312 </indexterm>
313 </listitem>
314 </varlistentry>
315
316 <varlistentry id="cp">
317 <term><command>cp</command></term>
318 <listitem>
319 <para>Copies files</para>
320 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cp">
321 <primary sortas="b-cp">cp</primary>
322 </indexterm>
323 </listitem>
324 </varlistentry>
325
326 <varlistentry id="csplit">
327 <term><command>csplit</command></term>
328 <listitem>
329 <para>Splits a given file into several new files, separating them
330 according to given patterns or line numbers and outputting the byte
331 count of each new file</para>
332 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils csplit">
333 <primary sortas="b-csplit">csplit</primary>
334 </indexterm>
335 </listitem>
336 </varlistentry>
337
338 <varlistentry id="cut">
339 <term><command>cut</command></term>
340 <listitem>
341 <para>Prints sections of lines, selecting the parts according to given
342 fields or positions</para>
343 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cut">
344 <primary sortas="b-cut">cut</primary>
345 </indexterm>
346 </listitem>
347 </varlistentry>
348
349 <varlistentry id="date">
350 <term><command>date</command></term>
351 <listitem>
352 <para>Displays the current time in the given format, or sets the
353 system date</para>
354 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils date">
355 <primary sortas="b-date">date</primary>
356 </indexterm>
357 </listitem>
358 </varlistentry>
359
360 <varlistentry id="dd">
361 <term><command>dd</command> </term>
362 <listitem>
363 <para>Copies a file using the given block size and count, while
364 optionally performing conversions on it</para>
365 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dd">
366 <primary sortas="b-dd">dd</primary>
367 </indexterm>
368 </listitem>
369 </varlistentry>
370
371 <varlistentry id="df">
372 <term><command>df</command></term>
373 <listitem>
374 <para>Reports the amount of disk space available (and used) on all
375 mounted file systems, or only on the file systems holding the selected
376 files</para>
377 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils df">
378 <primary sortas="b-df">df</primary>
379 </indexterm>
380 </listitem>
381 </varlistentry>
382
383 <varlistentry id="dir">
384 <term><command>dir</command></term>
385 <listitem>
386 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory (the same as
387 the <command>ls</command> command)</para>
388 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dir">
389 <primary sortas="b-dir">dir</primary>
390 </indexterm>
391 </listitem>
392 </varlistentry>
393
394 <varlistentry id="dircolors">
395 <term><command>dircolors</command></term>
396 <listitem>
397 <para>Outputs commands to set the <envar>LS_COLOR</envar>
398 environment variable to change the color scheme used by
399 <command>ls</command></para>
400 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dircolors">
401 <primary sortas="b-dircolors">dircolors</primary>
402 </indexterm>
403 </listitem>
404 </varlistentry>
405
406 <varlistentry id="dirname">
407 <term><command>dirname</command></term>
408 <listitem>
409 <para>Strips the non-directory suffix from a file name</para>
410 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dirname">
411 <primary sortas="b-dirname">dirname</primary>
412 </indexterm>
413 </listitem>
414 </varlistentry>
415
416 <varlistentry id="du">
417 <term><command>du</command></term>
418 <listitem>
419 <para>Reports the amount of disk space used by the current directory,
420 by each of the given directories (including all subdirectories) or by
421 each of the given files</para>
422 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils du">
423 <primary sortas="b-du">du</primary>
424 </indexterm>
425 </listitem>
426 </varlistentry>
427
428 <varlistentry id="echo">
429 <term><command>echo</command></term>
430 <listitem>
431 <para>Displays the given strings</para>
432 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils echo">
433 <primary sortas="b-echo">echo</primary>
434 </indexterm>
435 </listitem>
436 </varlistentry>
437
438 <varlistentry id="env">
439 <term><command>env</command></term>
440 <listitem>
441 <para>Runs a command in a modified environment</para>
442 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils env">
443 <primary sortas="b-env">env</primary>
444 </indexterm>
445 </listitem>
446 </varlistentry>
447
448 <varlistentry id="expand">
449 <term><command>expand</command></term>
450 <listitem>
451 <para>Converts tabs to spaces</para>
452 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expand">
453 <primary sortas="b-expand">expand</primary>
454 </indexterm>
455 </listitem>
456 </varlistentry>
457
458 <varlistentry id="expr">
459 <term><command>expr</command></term>
460 <listitem>
461 <para>Evaluates expressions</para>
462 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expr">
463 <primary sortas="b-expr">expr</primary>
464 </indexterm>
465 </listitem>
466 </varlistentry>
467
468 <varlistentry id="factor">
469 <term><command>factor</command></term>
470 <listitem>
471 <para>Prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers</para>
472 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils factor">
473 <primary sortas="b-factor">factor</primary>
474 </indexterm>
475 </listitem>
476 </varlistentry>
477
478 <varlistentry id="false">
479 <term><command>false</command></term>
480 <listitem>
481 <para>Does nothing, unsuccessfully; it always exits with a status code
482 indicating failure</para>
483 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils false">
484 <primary sortas="b-false">false</primary>
485 </indexterm>
486 </listitem>
487 </varlistentry>
488
489 <varlistentry id="fmt">
490 <term><command>fmt</command></term>
491 <listitem>
492 <para>Reformats the paragraphs in the given files</para>
493 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fmt">
494 <primary sortas="b-fmt">fmt</primary>
495 </indexterm>
496 </listitem>
497 </varlistentry>
498
499 <varlistentry id="fold">
500 <term><command>fold</command></term>
501 <listitem>
502 <para>Wraps the lines in the given files</para>
503 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fold">
504 <primary sortas="b-fold">fold</primary>
505 </indexterm>
506 </listitem>
507 </varlistentry>
508
509 <varlistentry id="groups">
510 <term><command>groups</command></term>
511 <listitem>
512 <para>Reports a user's group memberships</para>
513 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils groups">
514 <primary sortas="b-groups">groups</primary>
515 </indexterm>
516 </listitem>
517 </varlistentry>
518
519 <varlistentry id="head">
520 <term><command>head</command></term>
521 <listitem>
522 <para>Prints the first ten lines (or the given number of lines)
523 of each given file</para>
524 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils head">
525 <primary sortas="b-head">head</primary>
526 </indexterm>
527 </listitem>
528 </varlistentry>
529
530 <varlistentry id="hostid">
531 <term><command>hostid</command></term>
532 <listitem>
533 <para>Reports the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) of the host</para>
534 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils hostid">
535 <primary sortas="b-hostid">hostid</primary>
536 </indexterm>
537 </listitem>
538 </varlistentry>
539
540 <varlistentry id="id">
541 <term><command>id</command></term>
542 <listitem>
543 <para>Reports the effective user ID, group ID, and group memberships
544 of the current user or specified user</para>
545 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils id">
546 <primary sortas="b-id">id</primary>
547 </indexterm>
548 </listitem>
549 </varlistentry>
550
551 <varlistentry id="install">
552 <term><command>install</command> </term>
553 <listitem>
554 <para>Copies files while setting their permission modes and, if
555 possible, their owner and group</para>
556 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils install">
557 <primary sortas="b-install">install</primary>
558 </indexterm>
559 </listitem>
560 </varlistentry>
561
562 <varlistentry id="join">
563 <term><command>join</command></term>
564 <listitem>
565 <para>Joins the lines that have identical join fields from two
566 separate files</para>
567 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils join">
568 <primary sortas="b-join">join</primary>
569 </indexterm>
570 </listitem>
571 </varlistentry>
572
573 <varlistentry id="link">
574 <term><command>link</command></term>
575 <listitem>
576 <para>Creates a hard link with the given name to a file</para>
577 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils link">
578 <primary sortas="b-link">link</primary>
579 </indexterm>
580 </listitem>
581 </varlistentry>
582
583 <varlistentry id="ln">
584 <term><command>ln</command></term>
585 <listitem>
586 <para>Makes hard links or soft (symbolic) links between files</para>
587 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ln">
588 <primary sortas="b-ln">ln</primary>
589 </indexterm>
590 </listitem>
591 </varlistentry>
592
593 <varlistentry id="logname">
594 <term><command>logname</command></term>
595 <listitem>
596 <para>Reports the current user's login name</para>
597 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils logname">
598 <primary sortas="b-logname">logname</primary>
599 </indexterm>
600 </listitem>
601 </varlistentry>
602
603 <varlistentry id="ls">
604 <term><command>ls</command></term>
605 <listitem>
606 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory</para>
607 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ls">
608 <primary sortas="b-ls">ls</primary>
609 </indexterm>
610 </listitem>
611 </varlistentry>
612
613 <varlistentry id="md5sum">
614 <term><command>md5sum</command></term>
615 <listitem>
616 <para>Reports or checks Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums</para>
617 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils md5sum">
618 <primary sortas="b-md5sum">md5sum</primary>
619 </indexterm>
620 </listitem>
621 </varlistentry>
622
623 <varlistentry id="mkdir">
624 <term><command>mkdir</command></term>
625 <listitem>
626 <para>Creates directories with the given names</para>
627 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkdir">
628 <primary sortas="b-mkdir">mkdir</primary>
629 </indexterm>
630 </listitem>
631 </varlistentry>
632
633 <varlistentry id="mkfifo">
634 <term><command>mkfifo</command></term>
635 <listitem>
636 <para>Creates First-In, First-Outs (FIFOs), a "named
637 pipe" in UNIX parlance, with the given names</para>
638 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkfifo">
639 <primary sortas="b-mkfifo">mkfifo</primary>
640 </indexterm>
641 </listitem>
642 </varlistentry>
643
644 <varlistentry id="mknod">
645 <term><command>mknod</command></term>
646 <listitem>
647 <para>Creates device nodes with the given names; a device node is a
648 character special file, a block special file, or a FIFO</para>
649 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mknod">
650 <primary sortas="b-mknod">mknod</primary>
651 </indexterm>
652 </listitem>
653 </varlistentry>
654
655 <varlistentry id="mktemp">
656 <term><command>mktemp</command></term>
657 <listitem>
658 <para>Creates temporary files in a secure manner; it is used in scripts</para>
659 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mktemp">
660 <primary sortas="b-mktemp">mktemp</primary>
661 </indexterm>
662 </listitem>
663 </varlistentry>
664
665 <varlistentry id="mv">
666 <term><command>mv</command></term>
667 <listitem>
668 <para>Moves or renames files or directories</para>
669 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mv">
670 <primary sortas="b-mv">mv</primary>
671 </indexterm>
672 </listitem>
673 </varlistentry>
674
675 <varlistentry id="nice">
676 <term><command>nice</command></term>
677 <listitem>
678 <para>Runs a program with modified scheduling priority</para>
679 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nice">
680 <primary sortas="b-nice">nice</primary>
681 </indexterm>
682 </listitem>
683 </varlistentry>
684
685 <varlistentry id="nl">
686 <term><command>nl</command></term>
687 <listitem>
688 <para>Numbers the lines from the given files</para>
689 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nl">
690 <primary sortas="b-nl">nl</primary>
691 </indexterm>
692 </listitem>
693 </varlistentry>
694
695 <varlistentry id="nohup">
696 <term><command>nohup</command></term>
697 <listitem>
698 <para>Runs a command immune to hangups, with its output redirected to
699 a log file</para>
700 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nohup">
701 <primary sortas="b-nohup">nohup</primary>
702 </indexterm>
703 </listitem>
704 </varlistentry>
705
706 <varlistentry id="nproc">
707 <term><command>nproc</command></term>
708 <listitem>
709 <para>Prints the number of processing units available to a
710 process</para>
711 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nproc">
712 <primary sortas="b-nproc">nproc</primary>
713 </indexterm>
714 </listitem>
715 </varlistentry>
716
717 <varlistentry id="numfmt">
718 <term><command>numfmt</command></term>
719 <listitem>
720 <para>Converts numbers to or from human-readable strings</para>
721 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils numfmt">
722 <primary sortas="b-numfmt">numfmt</primary>
723 </indexterm>
724 </listitem>
725 </varlistentry>
726
727 <varlistentry id="od">
728 <term><command>od</command></term>
729 <listitem>
730 <para>Dumps files in octal and other formats</para>
731 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils od">
732 <primary sortas="b-od">od</primary>
733 </indexterm>
734 </listitem>
735 </varlistentry>
736
737 <varlistentry id="paste">
738 <term><command>paste</command></term>
739 <listitem>
740 <para>Merges the given files, joining sequentially corresponding lines
741 side by side, separated by tab characters</para>
742 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils paste">
743 <primary sortas="b-paste">paste</primary>
744 </indexterm>
745 </listitem>
746 </varlistentry>
747
748 <varlistentry id="pathchk">
749 <term><command>pathchk</command></term>
750 <listitem>
751 <para>Checks if file names are valid or portable</para>
752 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pathchk">
753 <primary sortas="b-pathchk">pathchk</primary>
754 </indexterm>
755 </listitem>
756 </varlistentry>
757
758 <varlistentry id="pinky">
759 <term><command>pinky</command></term>
760 <listitem>
761 <para>Is a lightweight finger client; it reports some information
762 about the given users</para>
763 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pinky">
764 <primary sortas="b-pinky">pinky</primary>
765 </indexterm>
766 </listitem>
767 </varlistentry>
768
769 <varlistentry id="pr">
770 <term><command>pr</command></term>
771 <listitem>
772 <para>Paginates and columnates files for printing</para>
773 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pr">
774 <primary sortas="b-pr">pr</primary>
775 </indexterm>
776 </listitem>
777 </varlistentry>
778
779 <varlistentry id="printenv">
780 <term><command>printenv</command></term>
781 <listitem>
782 <para>Prints the environment</para>
783 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printenv">
784 <primary sortas="b-printenv">printenv</primary>
785 </indexterm>
786 </listitem>
787 </varlistentry>
788
789 <varlistentry id="printf">
790 <term><command>printf</command></term>
791 <listitem>
792 <para>Prints the given arguments according to the given format, much
793 like the C printf function</para>
794 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printf">
795 <primary sortas="b-printf">printf</primary>
796 </indexterm>
797 </listitem>
798 </varlistentry>
799
800 <varlistentry id="ptx">
801 <term><command>ptx</command></term>
802 <listitem>
803 <para>Produces a permuted index from the contents of the given files,
804 with each keyword in its context</para>
805 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ptx">
806 <primary sortas="b-ptx">ptx</primary>
807 </indexterm>
808 </listitem>
809 </varlistentry>
810
811 <varlistentry id="pwd">
812 <term><command>pwd</command></term>
813 <listitem>
814 <para>Reports the name of the current working directory</para>
815 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pwd">
816 <primary sortas="b-pwd">pwd</primary>
817 </indexterm>
818 </listitem>
819 </varlistentry>
820
821 <varlistentry id="readlink">
822 <term><command>readlink</command></term>
823 <listitem>
824 <para>Reports the value of the given symbolic link</para>
825 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils readlink">
826 <primary sortas="b-readlink">readlink</primary>
827 </indexterm>
828 </listitem>
829 </varlistentry>
830
831 <varlistentry id="realpath">
832 <term><command>realpath</command></term>
833 <listitem>
834 <para>Prints the resolved path</para>
835 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils realpath">
836 <primary sortas="b-realpath">realpath</primary>
837 </indexterm>
838 </listitem>
839 </varlistentry>
840
841 <varlistentry id="rm">
842 <term><command>rm</command></term>
843 <listitem>
844 <para>Removes files or directories</para>
845 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rm">
846 <primary sortas="b-rm">rm</primary>
847 </indexterm>
848 </listitem>
849 </varlistentry>
850
851 <varlistentry id="rmdir">
852 <term><command>rmdir</command></term>
853 <listitem>
854 <para>Removes directories if they are empty</para>
855 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rmdir">
856 <primary sortas="b-rmdir">rmdir</primary>
857 </indexterm>
858 </listitem>
859 </varlistentry>
860
861 <varlistentry id="runcon">
862 <term><command>runcon</command></term>
863 <listitem>
864 <para>Runs a command with specified security context</para>
865 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils runcon">
866 <primary sortas="b-runcon">runcon</primary>
867 </indexterm>
868 </listitem>
869 </varlistentry>
870
871 <varlistentry id="seq">
872 <term><command>seq</command></term>
873 <listitem>
874 <para>Prints a sequence of numbers within a given range and with a
875 given increment</para>
876 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils seq">
877 <primary sortas="b-seq">seq</primary>
878 </indexterm>
879 </listitem>
880 </varlistentry>
881
882 <varlistentry id="sha1sum">
883 <term><command>sha1sum</command></term>
884 <listitem>
885 <para>Prints or checks 160-bit Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1)
886 checksums</para>
887 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha1sum">
888 <primary sortas="b-sha1sum">sha1sum</primary>
889 </indexterm>
890 </listitem>
891 </varlistentry>
892
893 <varlistentry id="sha224sum">
894 <term><command>sha224sum</command></term>
895 <listitem>
896 <para>Prints or checks 224-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
897 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha224sum">
898 <primary sortas="b-sha224sum">sha224sum</primary>
899 </indexterm>
900 </listitem>
901 </varlistentry>
902
903 <varlistentry id="sha256sum">
904 <term><command>sha256sum</command></term>
905 <listitem>
906 <para>Prints or checks 256-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
907 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha256sum">
908 <primary sortas="b-sha256sum">sha256sum</primary>
909 </indexterm>
910 </listitem>
911 </varlistentry>
912
913 <varlistentry id="sha384sum">
914 <term><command>sha384sum</command></term>
915 <listitem>
916 <para>Prints or checks 384-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
917 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha384sum">
918 <primary sortas="b-sha384sum">sha384sum</primary>
919 </indexterm>
920 </listitem>
921 </varlistentry>
922
923 <varlistentry id="sha512sum">
924 <term><command>sha512sum</command></term>
925 <listitem>
926 <para>Prints or checks 512-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
927 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha512sum">
928 <primary sortas="b-sha512sum">sha512sum</primary>
929 </indexterm>
930 </listitem>
931 </varlistentry>
932
933 <varlistentry id="shred">
934 <term><command>shred</command></term>
935 <listitem>
936 <para>Overwrites the given files repeatedly with complex patterns,
937 making it difficult to recover the data</para>
938 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shred">
939 <primary sortas="b-shred">shred</primary>
940 </indexterm>
941 </listitem>
942 </varlistentry>
943
944 <varlistentry id="shuf">
945 <term><command>shuf</command></term>
946 <listitem>
947 <para>Shuffles lines of text</para>
948 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shuf">
949 <primary sortas="b-shuf">shuf</primary>
950 </indexterm>
951 </listitem>
952 </varlistentry>
953
954 <varlistentry id="sleep">
955 <term><command>sleep</command></term>
956 <listitem>
957 <para>Pauses for the given amount of time</para>
958 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sleep">
959 <primary sortas="b-sleep">sleep</primary>
960 </indexterm>
961 </listitem>
962 </varlistentry>
963
964 <varlistentry id="sort">
965 <term><command>sort</command></term>
966 <listitem>
967 <para>Sorts the lines from the given files</para>
968 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sort">
969 <primary sortas="b-sort">sort</primary>
970 </indexterm>
971 </listitem>
972 </varlistentry>
973
974 <varlistentry id="split">
975 <term><command>split</command></term>
976 <listitem>
977 <para>Splits the given file into pieces, by size or by number of
978 lines</para>
979 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils split">
980 <primary sortas="b-split">split</primary>
981 </indexterm>
982 </listitem>
983 </varlistentry>
984
985 <varlistentry id="stat">
986 <term><command>stat</command></term>
987 <listitem>
988 <para>Displays file or filesystem status</para>
989 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stat">
990 <primary sortas="b-stat">stat</primary>
991 </indexterm>
992 </listitem>
993 </varlistentry>
994
995 <varlistentry id="stdbuf">
996 <term><command>stdbuf</command></term>
997 <listitem>
998 <para>Runs commands with altered buffering operations for its standard
999 streams</para>
1000 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stdbuf">
1001 <primary sortas="b-stdbuf">stdbuf</primary>
1002 </indexterm>
1003 </listitem>
1004 </varlistentry>
1005
1006 <varlistentry id="stty">
1007 <term><command>stty</command></term>
1008 <listitem>
1009 <para>Sets or reports terminal line settings</para>
1010 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stty">
1011 <primary sortas="b-stty">stty</primary>
1012 </indexterm>
1013 </listitem>
1014 </varlistentry>
1015
1016 <varlistentry id="sum">
1017 <term><command>sum</command></term>
1018 <listitem>
1019 <para>Prints checksum and block counts for each given file</para>
1020 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sum">
1021 <primary sortas="b-sum">sum</primary>
1022 </indexterm>
1023 </listitem>
1024 </varlistentry>
1025
1026 <varlistentry id="sync">
1027 <term><command>sync</command></term>
1028 <listitem>
1029 <para>Flushes file system buffers; it forces changed blocks to disk
1030 and updates the super block</para>
1031 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sync">
1032 <primary sortas="b-sync">sync</primary>
1033 </indexterm>
1034 </listitem>
1035 </varlistentry>
1036
1037 <varlistentry id="tac">
1038 <term><command>tac</command></term>
1039 <listitem>
1040 <para>Concatenates the given files in reverse</para>
1041 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tac">
1042 <primary sortas="b-tac">tac</primary>
1043 </indexterm>
1044 </listitem>
1045 </varlistentry>
1046
1047 <varlistentry id="tail">
1048 <term><command>tail</command></term>
1049 <listitem>
1050 <para>Prints the last ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each
1051 given file</para>
1052 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tail">
1053 <primary sortas="b-tail">tail</primary>
1054 </indexterm>
1055 </listitem>
1056 </varlistentry>
1057
1058 <varlistentry id="tee">
1059 <term><command>tee</command></term>
1060 <listitem>
1061 <para>Reads from standard input while writing both to standard output
1062 and to the given files</para>
1063 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tee">
1064 <primary sortas="b-tee">tee</primary>
1065 </indexterm>
1066 </listitem>
1067 </varlistentry>
1068
1069 <varlistentry id="test">
1070 <term><command>test</command></term>
1071 <listitem>
1072 <para>Compares values and checks file types</para>
1073 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils test">
1074 <primary sortas="b-test">test</primary>
1075 </indexterm>
1076 </listitem>
1077 </varlistentry>
1078
1079 <varlistentry id="timeout">
1080 <term><command>timeout</command></term>
1081 <listitem>
1082 <para>Runs a command with a time limit</para>
1083 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils timeout">
1084 <primary sortas="b-timeout">timeout</primary>
1085 </indexterm>
1086 </listitem>
1087 </varlistentry>
1088
1089 <varlistentry id="touch">
1090 <term><command>touch</command></term>
1091 <listitem>
1092 <para>Changes file timestamps, setting the access and modification
1093 times of the given files to the current time; files that do not exist
1094 are created with zero length</para>
1095 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils touch">
1096 <primary sortas="b-touch">touch</primary>
1097 </indexterm>
1098 </listitem>
1099 </varlistentry>
1100
1101 <varlistentry id="tr">
1102 <term><command>tr</command></term>
1103 <listitem>
1104 <para>Translates, squeezes, and deletes the given characters from
1105 standard input</para>
1106 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tr">
1107 <primary sortas="b-tr">tr</primary>
1108 </indexterm>
1109 </listitem>
1110 </varlistentry>
1111
1112 <varlistentry id="true">
1113 <term><command>true</command></term>
1114 <listitem>
1115 <para>Does nothing, successfully; it always exits with a status code
1116 indicating success</para>
1117 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils true">
1118 <primary sortas="b-true">true</primary>
1119 </indexterm>
1120 </listitem>
1121 </varlistentry>
1122
1123 <varlistentry id="truncate">
1124 <term><command>truncate</command></term>
1125 <listitem>
1126 <para>Shrinks or expands a file to the specified size</para>
1127 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils truncate">
1128 <primary sortas="b-truncate">truncate</primary>
1129 </indexterm>
1130 </listitem>
1131 </varlistentry>
1132
1133 <varlistentry id="tsort">
1134 <term><command>tsort</command></term>
1135 <listitem>
1136 <para>Performs a topological sort; it writes a completely ordered list
1137 according to the partial ordering in a given file</para>
1138 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tsort">
1139 <primary sortas="b-tsort">tsort</primary>
1140 </indexterm>
1141 </listitem>
1142 </varlistentry>
1143
1144 <varlistentry id="tty">
1145 <term><command>tty</command></term>
1146 <listitem>
1147 <para>Reports the file name of the terminal connected to standard
1148 input</para>
1149 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tty">
1150 <primary sortas="b-tty">tty</primary>
1151 </indexterm>
1152 </listitem>
1153 </varlistentry>
1154
1155 <varlistentry id="uname">
1156 <term><command>uname</command></term>
1157 <listitem>
1158 <para>Reports system information</para>
1159 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uname">
1160 <primary sortas="b-uname">uname</primary>
1161 </indexterm>
1162 </listitem>
1163 </varlistentry>
1164
1165 <varlistentry id="unexpand">
1166 <term><command>unexpand</command></term>
1167 <listitem>
1168 <para>Converts spaces to tabs</para>
1169 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unexpand">
1170 <primary sortas="b-unexpand">unexpand</primary>
1171 </indexterm>
1172 </listitem>
1173 </varlistentry>
1174
1175 <varlistentry id="uniq">
1176 <term><command>uniq</command></term>
1177 <listitem>
1178 <para>Discards all but one of successive identical lines</para>
1179 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uniq">
1180 <primary sortas="b-uniq">uniq</primary>
1181 </indexterm>
1182 </listitem>
1183 </varlistentry>
1184
1185 <varlistentry id="unlink">
1186 <term><command>unlink</command></term>
1187 <listitem>
1188 <para>Removes the given file</para>
1189 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unlink">
1190 <primary sortas="b-unlink">unlink</primary>
1191 </indexterm>
1192 </listitem>
1193 </varlistentry>
1194
1195 <varlistentry id="users">
1196 <term><command>users</command></term>
1197 <listitem>
1198 <para>Reports the names of the users currently logged on</para>
1199 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils users">
1200 <primary sortas="b-users">users</primary>
1201 </indexterm>
1202 </listitem>
1203 </varlistentry>
1204
1205 <varlistentry id="vdir">
1206 <term><command>vdir</command></term>
1207 <listitem>
1208 <para>Is the same as <command>ls -l</command></para>
1209 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils vdir">
1210 <primary sortas="b-vdir">vdir</primary>
1211 </indexterm>
1212 </listitem>
1213 </varlistentry>
1214
1215 <varlistentry id="wc">
1216 <term><command>wc</command></term>
1217 <listitem>
1218 <para>Reports the number of lines, words, and bytes for each given
1219 file, as well as a total line when more than one file is given</para>
1220 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils wc">
1221 <primary sortas="b-wc">wc</primary>
1222 </indexterm>
1223 </listitem>
1224 </varlistentry>
1225
1226 <varlistentry id="who">
1227 <term><command>who</command></term>
1228 <listitem>
1229 <para>Reports who is logged on</para>
1230 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils who">
1231 <primary sortas="b-who">who</primary>
1232 </indexterm>
1233 </listitem>
1234 </varlistentry>
1235
1236 <varlistentry id="whoami">
1237 <term><command>whoami</command></term>
1238 <listitem>
1239 <para>Reports the user name associated with the current effective
1240 user ID</para>
1241 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils whoami">
1242 <primary sortas="b-whoami">whoami</primary>
1243 </indexterm>
1244 </listitem>
1245 </varlistentry>
1246
1247 <varlistentry id="yes">
1248 <term><command>yes</command></term>
1249 <listitem>
1250 <para>Repeatedly outputs <quote>y</quote> or a given string until
1251 killed</para>
1252 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils yes">
1253 <primary sortas="b-yes">yes</primary>
1254 </indexterm>
1255 </listitem>
1256 </varlistentry>
1257
1258 <varlistentry id="libstdbuf">
1259 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libstdbuf</filename></term>
1260 <listitem>
1261 <para>Library used by <command>stdbuf</command></para>
1262 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils libstdbuf">
1263 <primary sortas="c-libstdbuf">libstdbuf</primary>
1264 </indexterm>
1265 </listitem>
1266 </varlistentry>
1267
1268 </variablelist>
1269
1270 </sect2>
1271
1272</sect1>
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