source: chapter06/coreutils.xml@ d83fd51

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Last change on this file since d83fd51 was d83fd51, checked in by Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs@…>, 5 years ago

Update formats of error messages in checkfs boot script.
Update to man-pages-4.10.
Update to linux-4.10.3.
Update to gdbm-1.13.
Update to coreutils-8.27.

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/trunk/BOOK@11209 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

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File size: 43.4 KB
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-coreutils" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="coreutils.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>coreutils</productname>
13 <productnumber>&coreutils-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&coreutils-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Coreutils-&coreutils-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils">
20 <primary sortas="a-Coreutils">Coreutils</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the
27 basic system characteristics.</para>
28
29 <segmentedlist>
30 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
31 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
32
33 <seglistitem>
34 <seg>&coreutils-ch6-sbu;</seg>
35 <seg>&coreutils-ch6-du;</seg>
36 </seglistitem>
37 </segmentedlist>
38
39 </sect2>
40
41 <sect2 role="installation">
42 <title>Installation of Coreutils</title>
43
44 <para>POSIX requires that programs from Coreutils recognize character
45 boundaries correctly even in multibyte locales. The following patch fixes
46 this non-compliance and other internationalization-related bugs.</para>
47
48<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&coreutils-i18n-patch;</userinput></screen>
49
50 <note>
51 <para>In the past, many bugs were found in this patch. When reporting new
52 bugs to Coreutils maintainers, please check first if they are reproducible
53 without this patch.</para>
54 </note>
55
56 <!-- this has been fixed in upstream gnulib, when a new version of
57 coreutils is released, please check #4055 to see if the change has been
58 picked up in this package -->
59 <para>Suppress a test which on some machines can loop forever:</para>
60
61<screen><userinput remap="pre">sed -i '/test.lock/s/^/#/' gnulib-tests/gnulib.mk</userinput></screen>
62
63 <para>Now prepare Coreutils for compilation:</para>
64
65<screen><userinput remap="configure">FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 ./configure \
66 --prefix=/usr \
67 --enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</userinput></screen>
68
69 <variablelist>
70 <title>The meaning of the configure options:</title>
71
72 <varlistentry>
73 <term><envar>FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1</envar></term>
74 <listitem>
75 <para>This environment variable allows the package to be
76 built as the root user.
77 </para>
78 </listitem>
79 </varlistentry>
80
81 <varlistentry>
82 <term><parameter>--enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</parameter></term>
83 <listitem>
84 <para>The purpose of this switch is to prevent Coreutils from
85 installing binaries that will be installed by other packages later.
86 </para>
87 </listitem>
88 </varlistentry>
89 </variablelist>
90
91 <para>Compile the package:</para>
92
93<screen><userinput remap="make">FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 make</userinput></screen>
94
95 <para>Skip down to <quote>Install the
96 package</quote> if not running the test suite.</para>
97
98 <para>Now the test suite is ready to be run. First, run the tests that are
99 meant to be run as user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>:</para>
100
101<screen><userinput remap="test">make NON_ROOT_USERNAME=nobody check-root</userinput></screen>
102
103 <para>We're going to run the remainder of the tests as the
104 <systemitem class="username">nobody</systemitem> user. Certain tests,
105 however, require that the user be a member of more than one group. So that
106 these tests are not skipped we'll add a temporary group and make the
107 user <systemitem class="username">nobody</systemitem> a part of it:</para>
108
109<screen><userinput remap="test">echo "dummy:x:1000:nobody" &gt;&gt; /etc/group</userinput></screen>
110
111 <para>Fix some of the permissions so that the non-root user can compile and
112 run the tests:</para>
113
114<screen><userinput remap="test">chown -Rv nobody . </userinput></screen>
115
116 <para>Now run the tests. Make sure the PATH in the <userinput>su</userinput>
117 environment includes /tools/bin.</para>
118
119<screen><userinput remap="test">su nobody -s /bin/bash \
120 -c "PATH=$PATH make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check"</userinput></screen>
121
122 <para>The test programs test-getlogin and date-debug are known to fail in a
123 partially built system environment like the chroot environment here, but
124 pass if run at the end of this chapter.</para>
125
126 <para>Remove the temporary group:</para>
127
128<screen><userinput remap="test">sed -i '/dummy/d' /etc/group</userinput></screen>
129
130 <para>Install the package:</para>
131
132<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
133
134 <para>Move programs to the locations specified by the FHS:</para>
135
136<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{cat,chgrp,chmod,chown,cp,date,dd,df,echo} /bin
137mv -v /usr/bin/{false,ln,ls,mkdir,mknod,mv,pwd,rm} /bin
138mv -v /usr/bin/{rmdir,stty,sync,true,uname} /bin
139mv -v /usr/bin/chroot /usr/sbin
140mv -v /usr/share/man/man1/chroot.1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8
141sed -i s/\"1\"/\"8\"/1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8</userinput></screen>
142
143 <para revision="sysv">Some of the scripts in the LFS-Bootscripts package
144 depend on <command>head</command>, <command>sleep</command>, and
145 <command>nice</command>. As <filename class="directory">/usr</filename>
146 may not be available during the early stages of booting, those binaries
147 need to be on the root partition:</para>
148
149 <para revision="systemd">Some packages in BLFS and beyond expect the
150 following programs in <filename class="directory">/bin</filename>, so make
151 sure they are placed there:</para>
152
153<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{head,sleep,nice,test,[} /bin</userinput></screen>
154
155 </sect2>
156
157 <sect2 id="contents-coreutils" role="content">
158 <title>Contents of Coreutils</title>
159
160 <segmentedlist>
161 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
162 <segtitle>Installed library</segtitle>
163 <segtitle>Installed directory</segtitle>
164
165 <seglistitem>
166 <seg>[, base32, base64, basename, cat, chcon, chgrp, chmod, chown,
167 chroot, cksum, comm, cp, csplit, cut, date, dd, df, dir, dircolors,
168 dirname, du, echo, env, expand, expr, factor, false, fmt, fold, groups,
169 head, hostid, id, install, join, link, ln, logname, ls, md5sum, mkdir,
170 mkfifo, mknod, mktemp, mv, nice, nl, nohup, nproc, numfmt, od, paste,
171 pathchk, pinky, pr, printenv, printf, ptx, pwd, readlink, realpath, rm,
172 rmdir, runcon, seq, sha1sum, sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum,
173 sha512sum, shred, shuf, sleep, sort, split, stat, stdbuf, stty, sum,
174 sync, tac, tail, tee, test, timeout, touch, tr, true, truncate, tsort,
175 tty, uname, unexpand, uniq, unlink, users, vdir, wc, who, whoami, and
176 yes</seg>
177 <seg>libstdbuf.so</seg>
178 <seg>/usr/libexec/coreutils</seg>
179 </seglistitem>
180 </segmentedlist>
181
182 <variablelist>
183 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
184 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
185 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
186
187 <varlistentry id="base32">
188 <term><command>base32</command></term>
189 <listitem>
190 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base32 specification
191 (RFC 4648)</para>
192 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
193 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
194 </indexterm>
195 </listitem>
196 </varlistentry>
197
198 <varlistentry id="base64">
199 <term><command>base64</command></term>
200 <listitem>
201 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base64 specification
202 (RFC 4648)</para>
203 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
204 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
205 </indexterm>
206 </listitem>
207 </varlistentry>
208
209 <varlistentry id="basename">
210 <term><command>basename</command></term>
211 <listitem>
212 <para>Strips any path and a given suffix from a file name</para>
213 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basename">
214 <primary sortas="b-basename">basename</primary>
215 </indexterm>
216 </listitem>
217 </varlistentry>
218
219 <varlistentry id="cat">
220 <term><command>cat</command></term>
221 <listitem>
222 <para>Concatenates files to standard output</para>
223 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cat">
224 <primary sortas="b-cat">cat</primary>
225 </indexterm>
226 </listitem>
227 </varlistentry>
228
229 <varlistentry id="chcon">
230 <term><command>chcon</command></term>
231 <listitem>
232 <para>Changes security context for files and directories</para>
233 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chcon">
234 <primary sortas="b-chcon">chcon</primary>
235 </indexterm>
236 </listitem>
237 </varlistentry>
238
239 <varlistentry id="chgrp">
240 <term><command>chgrp</command></term>
241 <listitem>
242 <para>Changes the group ownership of files and directories</para>
243 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chgrp">
244 <primary sortas="b-chgrp">chgrp</primary>
245 </indexterm>
246 </listitem>
247 </varlistentry>
248
249 <varlistentry id="chmod">
250 <term><command>chmod</command></term>
251 <listitem>
252 <para>Changes the permissions of each file to the given mode; the mode
253 can be either a symbolic representation of the changes to make or an
254 octal number representing the new permissions</para>
255 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chmod">
256 <primary sortas="b-chmod">chmod</primary>
257 </indexterm>
258 </listitem>
259 </varlistentry>
260
261 <varlistentry id="chown">
262 <term><command>chown</command></term>
263 <listitem>
264 <para>Changes the user and/or group ownership of files and
265 directories</para>
266 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chown">
267 <primary sortas="b-chown">chown</primary>
268 </indexterm>
269 </listitem>
270 </varlistentry>
271
272 <varlistentry id="chroot">
273 <term><command>chroot</command></term>
274 <listitem>
275 <para>Runs a command with the specified directory as the
276 <filename class="directory">/</filename> directory</para>
277 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chroot">
278 <primary sortas="b-chroot">chroot</primary>
279 </indexterm>
280 </listitem>
281 </varlistentry>
282
283 <varlistentry id="cksum">
284 <term><command>cksum</command></term>
285 <listitem>
286 <para>Prints the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum and the byte
287 counts of each specified file</para>
288 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cksum">
289 <primary sortas="b-cksum">cksum</primary>
290 </indexterm>
291 </listitem>
292 </varlistentry>
293
294 <varlistentry id="comm">
295 <term><command>comm</command></term>
296 <listitem>
297 <para>Compares two sorted files, outputting in three columns the lines
298 that are unique and the lines that are common</para>
299 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils comm">
300 <primary sortas="b-comm">comm</primary>
301 </indexterm>
302 </listitem>
303 </varlistentry>
304
305 <varlistentry id="cp">
306 <term><command>cp</command></term>
307 <listitem>
308 <para>Copies files</para>
309 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cp">
310 <primary sortas="b-cp">cp</primary>
311 </indexterm>
312 </listitem>
313 </varlistentry>
314
315 <varlistentry id="csplit">
316 <term><command>csplit</command></term>
317 <listitem>
318 <para>Splits a given file into several new files, separating them
319 according to given patterns or line numbers and outputting the byte
320 count of each new file</para>
321 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils csplit">
322 <primary sortas="b-csplit">csplit</primary>
323 </indexterm>
324 </listitem>
325 </varlistentry>
326
327 <varlistentry id="cut">
328 <term><command>cut</command></term>
329 <listitem>
330 <para>Prints sections of lines, selecting the parts according to given
331 fields or positions</para>
332 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cut">
333 <primary sortas="b-cut">cut</primary>
334 </indexterm>
335 </listitem>
336 </varlistentry>
337
338 <varlistentry id="date">
339 <term><command>date</command></term>
340 <listitem>
341 <para>Displays the current time in the given format, or sets the
342 system date</para>
343 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils date">
344 <primary sortas="b-date">date</primary>
345 </indexterm>
346 </listitem>
347 </varlistentry>
348
349 <varlistentry id="dd">
350 <term><command>dd</command> </term>
351 <listitem>
352 <para>Copies a file using the given block size and count, while
353 optionally performing conversions on it</para>
354 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dd">
355 <primary sortas="b-dd">dd</primary>
356 </indexterm>
357 </listitem>
358 </varlistentry>
359
360 <varlistentry id="df">
361 <term><command>df</command></term>
362 <listitem>
363 <para>Reports the amount of disk space available (and used) on all
364 mounted file systems, or only on the file systems holding the selected
365 files</para>
366 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils df">
367 <primary sortas="b-df">df</primary>
368 </indexterm>
369 </listitem>
370 </varlistentry>
371
372 <varlistentry id="dir">
373 <term><command>dir</command></term>
374 <listitem>
375 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory (the same as
376 the <command>ls</command> command)</para>
377 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dir">
378 <primary sortas="b-dir">dir</primary>
379 </indexterm>
380 </listitem>
381 </varlistentry>
382
383 <varlistentry id="dircolors">
384 <term><command>dircolors</command></term>
385 <listitem>
386 <para>Outputs commands to set the <envar>LS_COLOR</envar>
387 environment variable to change the color scheme used by
388 <command>ls</command></para>
389 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dircolors">
390 <primary sortas="b-dircolors">dircolors</primary>
391 </indexterm>
392 </listitem>
393 </varlistentry>
394
395 <varlistentry id="dirname">
396 <term><command>dirname</command></term>
397 <listitem>
398 <para>Strips the non-directory suffix from a file name</para>
399 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dirname">
400 <primary sortas="b-dirname">dirname</primary>
401 </indexterm>
402 </listitem>
403 </varlistentry>
404
405 <varlistentry id="du">
406 <term><command>du</command></term>
407 <listitem>
408 <para>Reports the amount of disk space used by the current directory,
409 by each of the given directories (including all subdirectories) or by
410 each of the given files</para>
411 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils du">
412 <primary sortas="b-du">du</primary>
413 </indexterm>
414 </listitem>
415 </varlistentry>
416
417 <varlistentry id="echo">
418 <term><command>echo</command></term>
419 <listitem>
420 <para>Displays the given strings</para>
421 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils echo">
422 <primary sortas="b-echo">echo</primary>
423 </indexterm>
424 </listitem>
425 </varlistentry>
426
427 <varlistentry id="env">
428 <term><command>env</command></term>
429 <listitem>
430 <para>Runs a command in a modified environment</para>
431 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils env">
432 <primary sortas="b-env">env</primary>
433 </indexterm>
434 </listitem>
435 </varlistentry>
436
437 <varlistentry id="expand">
438 <term><command>expand</command></term>
439 <listitem>
440 <para>Converts tabs to spaces</para>
441 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expand">
442 <primary sortas="b-expand">expand</primary>
443 </indexterm>
444 </listitem>
445 </varlistentry>
446
447 <varlistentry id="expr">
448 <term><command>expr</command></term>
449 <listitem>
450 <para>Evaluates expressions</para>
451 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expr">
452 <primary sortas="b-expr">expr</primary>
453 </indexterm>
454 </listitem>
455 </varlistentry>
456
457 <varlistentry id="factor">
458 <term><command>factor</command></term>
459 <listitem>
460 <para>Prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers</para>
461 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils factor">
462 <primary sortas="b-factor">factor</primary>
463 </indexterm>
464 </listitem>
465 </varlistentry>
466
467 <varlistentry id="false">
468 <term><command>false</command></term>
469 <listitem>
470 <para>Does nothing, unsuccessfully; it always exits with a status code
471 indicating failure</para>
472 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils false">
473 <primary sortas="b-false">false</primary>
474 </indexterm>
475 </listitem>
476 </varlistentry>
477
478 <varlistentry id="fmt">
479 <term><command>fmt</command></term>
480 <listitem>
481 <para>Reformats the paragraphs in the given files</para>
482 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fmt">
483 <primary sortas="b-fmt">fmt</primary>
484 </indexterm>
485 </listitem>
486 </varlistentry>
487
488 <varlistentry id="fold">
489 <term><command>fold</command></term>
490 <listitem>
491 <para>Wraps the lines in the given files</para>
492 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fold">
493 <primary sortas="b-fold">fold</primary>
494 </indexterm>
495 </listitem>
496 </varlistentry>
497
498 <varlistentry id="groups">
499 <term><command>groups</command></term>
500 <listitem>
501 <para>Reports a user's group memberships</para>
502 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils groups">
503 <primary sortas="b-groups">groups</primary>
504 </indexterm>
505 </listitem>
506 </varlistentry>
507
508 <varlistentry id="head">
509 <term><command>head</command></term>
510 <listitem>
511 <para>Prints the first ten lines (or the given number of lines)
512 of each given file</para>
513 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils head">
514 <primary sortas="b-head">head</primary>
515 </indexterm>
516 </listitem>
517 </varlistentry>
518
519 <varlistentry id="hostid">
520 <term><command>hostid</command></term>
521 <listitem>
522 <para>Reports the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) of the host</para>
523 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils hostid">
524 <primary sortas="b-hostid">hostid</primary>
525 </indexterm>
526 </listitem>
527 </varlistentry>
528
529 <varlistentry id="id">
530 <term><command>id</command></term>
531 <listitem>
532 <para>Reports the effective user ID, group ID, and group memberships
533 of the current user or specified user</para>
534 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils id">
535 <primary sortas="b-id">id</primary>
536 </indexterm>
537 </listitem>
538 </varlistentry>
539
540 <varlistentry id="install">
541 <term><command>install</command> </term>
542 <listitem>
543 <para>Copies files while setting their permission modes and, if
544 possible, their owner and group</para>
545 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils install">
546 <primary sortas="b-install">install</primary>
547 </indexterm>
548 </listitem>
549 </varlistentry>
550
551 <varlistentry id="join">
552 <term><command>join</command></term>
553 <listitem>
554 <para>Joins the lines that have identical join fields from two
555 separate files</para>
556 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils join">
557 <primary sortas="b-join">join</primary>
558 </indexterm>
559 </listitem>
560 </varlistentry>
561
562 <varlistentry id="link">
563 <term><command>link</command></term>
564 <listitem>
565 <para>Creates a hard link with the given name to a file</para>
566 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils link">
567 <primary sortas="b-link">link</primary>
568 </indexterm>
569 </listitem>
570 </varlistentry>
571
572 <varlistentry id="ln">
573 <term><command>ln</command></term>
574 <listitem>
575 <para>Makes hard links or soft (symbolic) links between files</para>
576 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ln">
577 <primary sortas="b-ln">ln</primary>
578 </indexterm>
579 </listitem>
580 </varlistentry>
581
582 <varlistentry id="logname">
583 <term><command>logname</command></term>
584 <listitem>
585 <para>Reports the current user's login name</para>
586 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils logname">
587 <primary sortas="b-logname">logname</primary>
588 </indexterm>
589 </listitem>
590 </varlistentry>
591
592 <varlistentry id="ls">
593 <term><command>ls</command></term>
594 <listitem>
595 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory</para>
596 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ls">
597 <primary sortas="b-ls">ls</primary>
598 </indexterm>
599 </listitem>
600 </varlistentry>
601
602 <varlistentry id="md5sum">
603 <term><command>md5sum</command></term>
604 <listitem>
605 <para>Reports or checks Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums</para>
606 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils md5sum">
607 <primary sortas="b-md5sum">md5sum</primary>
608 </indexterm>
609 </listitem>
610 </varlistentry>
611
612 <varlistentry id="mkdir">
613 <term><command>mkdir</command></term>
614 <listitem>
615 <para>Creates directories with the given names</para>
616 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkdir">
617 <primary sortas="b-mkdir">mkdir</primary>
618 </indexterm>
619 </listitem>
620 </varlistentry>
621
622 <varlistentry id="mkfifo">
623 <term><command>mkfifo</command></term>
624 <listitem>
625 <para>Creates First-In, First-Outs (FIFOs), a "named
626 pipe" in UNIX parlance, with the given names</para>
627 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkfifo">
628 <primary sortas="b-mkfifo">mkfifo</primary>
629 </indexterm>
630 </listitem>
631 </varlistentry>
632
633 <varlistentry id="mknod">
634 <term><command>mknod</command></term>
635 <listitem>
636 <para>Creates device nodes with the given names; a device node is a
637 character special file, a block special file, or a FIFO</para>
638 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mknod">
639 <primary sortas="b-mknod">mknod</primary>
640 </indexterm>
641 </listitem>
642 </varlistentry>
643
644 <varlistentry id="mktemp">
645 <term><command>mktemp</command></term>
646 <listitem>
647 <para>Creates temporary files in a secure manner; it is used in scripts</para>
648 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mktemp">
649 <primary sortas="b-mktemp">mktemp</primary>
650 </indexterm>
651 </listitem>
652 </varlistentry>
653
654 <varlistentry id="mv">
655 <term><command>mv</command></term>
656 <listitem>
657 <para>Moves or renames files or directories</para>
658 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mv">
659 <primary sortas="b-mv">mv</primary>
660 </indexterm>
661 </listitem>
662 </varlistentry>
663
664 <varlistentry id="nice">
665 <term><command>nice</command></term>
666 <listitem>
667 <para>Runs a program with modified scheduling priority</para>
668 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nice">
669 <primary sortas="b-nice">nice</primary>
670 </indexterm>
671 </listitem>
672 </varlistentry>
673
674 <varlistentry id="nl">
675 <term><command>nl</command></term>
676 <listitem>
677 <para>Numbers the lines from the given files</para>
678 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nl">
679 <primary sortas="b-nl">nl</primary>
680 </indexterm>
681 </listitem>
682 </varlistentry>
683
684 <varlistentry id="nohup">
685 <term><command>nohup</command></term>
686 <listitem>
687 <para>Runs a command immune to hangups, with its output redirected to
688 a log file</para>
689 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nohup">
690 <primary sortas="b-nohup">nohup</primary>
691 </indexterm>
692 </listitem>
693 </varlistentry>
694
695 <varlistentry id="nproc">
696 <term><command>nproc</command></term>
697 <listitem>
698 <para>Prints the number of processing units available to a
699 process</para>
700 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nproc">
701 <primary sortas="b-nproc">nproc</primary>
702 </indexterm>
703 </listitem>
704 </varlistentry>
705
706 <varlistentry id="numfmt">
707 <term><command>numfmt</command></term>
708 <listitem>
709 <para>Converts numbers to or from human-readable strings</para>
710 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils numfmt">
711 <primary sortas="b-numfmt">numfmt</primary>
712 </indexterm>
713 </listitem>
714 </varlistentry>
715
716 <varlistentry id="od">
717 <term><command>od</command></term>
718 <listitem>
719 <para>Dumps files in octal and other formats</para>
720 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils od">
721 <primary sortas="b-od">od</primary>
722 </indexterm>
723 </listitem>
724 </varlistentry>
725
726 <varlistentry id="paste">
727 <term><command>paste</command></term>
728 <listitem>
729 <para>Merges the given files, joining sequentially corresponding lines
730 side by side, separated by tab characters</para>
731 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils paste">
732 <primary sortas="b-paste">paste</primary>
733 </indexterm>
734 </listitem>
735 </varlistentry>
736
737 <varlistentry id="pathchk">
738 <term><command>pathchk</command></term>
739 <listitem>
740 <para>Checks if file names are valid or portable</para>
741 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pathchk">
742 <primary sortas="b-pathchk">pathchk</primary>
743 </indexterm>
744 </listitem>
745 </varlistentry>
746
747 <varlistentry id="pinky">
748 <term><command>pinky</command></term>
749 <listitem>
750 <para>Is a lightweight finger client; it reports some information
751 about the given users</para>
752 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pinky">
753 <primary sortas="b-pinky">pinky</primary>
754 </indexterm>
755 </listitem>
756 </varlistentry>
757
758 <varlistentry id="pr">
759 <term><command>pr</command></term>
760 <listitem>
761 <para>Paginates and columnates files for printing</para>
762 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pr">
763 <primary sortas="b-pr">pr</primary>
764 </indexterm>
765 </listitem>
766 </varlistentry>
767
768 <varlistentry id="printenv">
769 <term><command>printenv</command></term>
770 <listitem>
771 <para>Prints the environment</para>
772 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printenv">
773 <primary sortas="b-printenv">printenv</primary>
774 </indexterm>
775 </listitem>
776 </varlistentry>
777
778 <varlistentry id="printf">
779 <term><command>printf</command></term>
780 <listitem>
781 <para>Prints the given arguments according to the given format, much
782 like the C printf function</para>
783 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printf">
784 <primary sortas="b-printf">printf</primary>
785 </indexterm>
786 </listitem>
787 </varlistentry>
788
789 <varlistentry id="ptx">
790 <term><command>ptx</command></term>
791 <listitem>
792 <para>Produces a permuted index from the contents of the given files,
793 with each keyword in its context</para>
794 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ptx">
795 <primary sortas="b-ptx">ptx</primary>
796 </indexterm>
797 </listitem>
798 </varlistentry>
799
800 <varlistentry id="pwd">
801 <term><command>pwd</command></term>
802 <listitem>
803 <para>Reports the name of the current working directory</para>
804 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pwd">
805 <primary sortas="b-pwd">pwd</primary>
806 </indexterm>
807 </listitem>
808 </varlistentry>
809
810 <varlistentry id="readlink">
811 <term><command>readlink</command></term>
812 <listitem>
813 <para>Reports the value of the given symbolic link</para>
814 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils readlink">
815 <primary sortas="b-readlink">readlink</primary>
816 </indexterm>
817 </listitem>
818 </varlistentry>
819
820 <varlistentry id="realpath">
821 <term><command>realpath</command></term>
822 <listitem>
823 <para>Prints the resolved path</para>
824 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils realpath">
825 <primary sortas="b-realpath">realpath</primary>
826 </indexterm>
827 </listitem>
828 </varlistentry>
829
830 <varlistentry id="rm">
831 <term><command>rm</command></term>
832 <listitem>
833 <para>Removes files or directories</para>
834 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rm">
835 <primary sortas="b-rm">rm</primary>
836 </indexterm>
837 </listitem>
838 </varlistentry>
839
840 <varlistentry id="rmdir">
841 <term><command>rmdir</command></term>
842 <listitem>
843 <para>Removes directories if they are empty</para>
844 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rmdir">
845 <primary sortas="b-rmdir">rmdir</primary>
846 </indexterm>
847 </listitem>
848 </varlistentry>
849
850 <varlistentry id="runcon">
851 <term><command>runcon</command></term>
852 <listitem>
853 <para>Runs a command with specified security context</para>
854 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils runcon">
855 <primary sortas="b-runcon">runcon</primary>
856 </indexterm>
857 </listitem>
858 </varlistentry>
859
860 <varlistentry id="seq">
861 <term><command>seq</command></term>
862 <listitem>
863 <para>Prints a sequence of numbers within a given range and with a
864 given increment</para>
865 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils seq">
866 <primary sortas="b-seq">seq</primary>
867 </indexterm>
868 </listitem>
869 </varlistentry>
870
871 <varlistentry id="sha1sum">
872 <term><command>sha1sum</command></term>
873 <listitem>
874 <para>Prints or checks 160-bit Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1)
875 checksums</para>
876 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha1sum">
877 <primary sortas="b-sha1sum">sha1sum</primary>
878 </indexterm>
879 </listitem>
880 </varlistentry>
881
882 <varlistentry id="sha224sum">
883 <term><command>sha224sum</command></term>
884 <listitem>
885 <para>Prints or checks 224-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
886 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha224sum">
887 <primary sortas="b-sha224sum">sha224sum</primary>
888 </indexterm>
889 </listitem>
890 </varlistentry>
891
892 <varlistentry id="sha256sum">
893 <term><command>sha256sum</command></term>
894 <listitem>
895 <para>Prints or checks 256-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
896 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha256sum">
897 <primary sortas="b-sha256sum">sha256sum</primary>
898 </indexterm>
899 </listitem>
900 </varlistentry>
901
902 <varlistentry id="sha384sum">
903 <term><command>sha384sum</command></term>
904 <listitem>
905 <para>Prints or checks 384-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
906 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha384sum">
907 <primary sortas="b-sha384sum">sha384sum</primary>
908 </indexterm>
909 </listitem>
910 </varlistentry>
911
912 <varlistentry id="sha512sum">
913 <term><command>sha512sum</command></term>
914 <listitem>
915 <para>Prints or checks 512-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
916 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha512sum">
917 <primary sortas="b-sha512sum">sha512sum</primary>
918 </indexterm>
919 </listitem>
920 </varlistentry>
921
922 <varlistentry id="shred">
923 <term><command>shred</command></term>
924 <listitem>
925 <para>Overwrites the given files repeatedly with complex patterns,
926 making it difficult to recover the data</para>
927 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shred">
928 <primary sortas="b-shred">shred</primary>
929 </indexterm>
930 </listitem>
931 </varlistentry>
932
933 <varlistentry id="shuf">
934 <term><command>shuf</command></term>
935 <listitem>
936 <para>Shuffles lines of text</para>
937 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shuf">
938 <primary sortas="b-shuf">shuf</primary>
939 </indexterm>
940 </listitem>
941 </varlistentry>
942
943 <varlistentry id="sleep">
944 <term><command>sleep</command></term>
945 <listitem>
946 <para>Pauses for the given amount of time</para>
947 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sleep">
948 <primary sortas="b-sleep">sleep</primary>
949 </indexterm>
950 </listitem>
951 </varlistentry>
952
953 <varlistentry id="sort">
954 <term><command>sort</command></term>
955 <listitem>
956 <para>Sorts the lines from the given files</para>
957 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sort">
958 <primary sortas="b-sort">sort</primary>
959 </indexterm>
960 </listitem>
961 </varlistentry>
962
963 <varlistentry id="split">
964 <term><command>split</command></term>
965 <listitem>
966 <para>Splits the given file into pieces, by size or by number of
967 lines</para>
968 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils split">
969 <primary sortas="b-split">split</primary>
970 </indexterm>
971 </listitem>
972 </varlistentry>
973
974 <varlistentry id="stat">
975 <term><command>stat</command></term>
976 <listitem>
977 <para>Displays file or filesystem status</para>
978 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stat">
979 <primary sortas="b-stat">stat</primary>
980 </indexterm>
981 </listitem>
982 </varlistentry>
983
984 <varlistentry id="stdbuf">
985 <term><command>stdbuf</command></term>
986 <listitem>
987 <para>Runs commands with altered buffering operations for its standard
988 streams</para>
989 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stdbuf">
990 <primary sortas="b-stdbuf">stdbuf</primary>
991 </indexterm>
992 </listitem>
993 </varlistentry>
994
995 <varlistentry id="stty">
996 <term><command>stty</command></term>
997 <listitem>
998 <para>Sets or reports terminal line settings</para>
999 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stty">
1000 <primary sortas="b-stty">stty</primary>
1001 </indexterm>
1002 </listitem>
1003 </varlistentry>
1004
1005 <varlistentry id="sum">
1006 <term><command>sum</command></term>
1007 <listitem>
1008 <para>Prints checksum and block counts for each given file</para>
1009 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sum">
1010 <primary sortas="b-sum">sum</primary>
1011 </indexterm>
1012 </listitem>
1013 </varlistentry>
1014
1015 <varlistentry id="sync">
1016 <term><command>sync</command></term>
1017 <listitem>
1018 <para>Flushes file system buffers; it forces changed blocks to disk
1019 and updates the super block</para>
1020 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sync">
1021 <primary sortas="b-sync">sync</primary>
1022 </indexterm>
1023 </listitem>
1024 </varlistentry>
1025
1026 <varlistentry id="tac">
1027 <term><command>tac</command></term>
1028 <listitem>
1029 <para>Concatenates the given files in reverse</para>
1030 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tac">
1031 <primary sortas="b-tac">tac</primary>
1032 </indexterm>
1033 </listitem>
1034 </varlistentry>
1035
1036 <varlistentry id="tail">
1037 <term><command>tail</command></term>
1038 <listitem>
1039 <para>Prints the last ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each
1040 given file</para>
1041 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tail">
1042 <primary sortas="b-tail">tail</primary>
1043 </indexterm>
1044 </listitem>
1045 </varlistentry>
1046
1047 <varlistentry id="tee">
1048 <term><command>tee</command></term>
1049 <listitem>
1050 <para>Reads from standard input while writing both to standard output
1051 and to the given files</para>
1052 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tee">
1053 <primary sortas="b-tee">tee</primary>
1054 </indexterm>
1055 </listitem>
1056 </varlistentry>
1057
1058 <varlistentry id="test">
1059 <term><command>test</command></term>
1060 <listitem>
1061 <para>Compares values and checks file types</para>
1062 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils test">
1063 <primary sortas="b-test">test</primary>
1064 </indexterm>
1065 </listitem>
1066 </varlistentry>
1067
1068 <varlistentry id="timeout">
1069 <term><command>timeout</command></term>
1070 <listitem>
1071 <para>Runs a command with a time limit</para>
1072 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils timeout">
1073 <primary sortas="b-timeout">timeout</primary>
1074 </indexterm>
1075 </listitem>
1076 </varlistentry>
1077
1078 <varlistentry id="touch">
1079 <term><command>touch</command></term>
1080 <listitem>
1081 <para>Changes file timestamps, setting the access and modification
1082 times of the given files to the current time; files that do not exist
1083 are created with zero length</para>
1084 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils touch">
1085 <primary sortas="b-touch">touch</primary>
1086 </indexterm>
1087 </listitem>
1088 </varlistentry>
1089
1090 <varlistentry id="tr">
1091 <term><command>tr</command></term>
1092 <listitem>
1093 <para>Translates, squeezes, and deletes the given characters from
1094 standard input</para>
1095 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tr">
1096 <primary sortas="b-tr">tr</primary>
1097 </indexterm>
1098 </listitem>
1099 </varlistentry>
1100
1101 <varlistentry id="true">
1102 <term><command>true</command></term>
1103 <listitem>
1104 <para>Does nothing, successfully; it always exits with a status code
1105 indicating success</para>
1106 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils true">
1107 <primary sortas="b-true">true</primary>
1108 </indexterm>
1109 </listitem>
1110 </varlistentry>
1111
1112 <varlistentry id="truncate">
1113 <term><command>truncate</command></term>
1114 <listitem>
1115 <para>Shrinks or expands a file to the specified size</para>
1116 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils truncate">
1117 <primary sortas="b-truncate">truncate</primary>
1118 </indexterm>
1119 </listitem>
1120 </varlistentry>
1121
1122 <varlistentry id="tsort">
1123 <term><command>tsort</command></term>
1124 <listitem>
1125 <para>Performs a topological sort; it writes a completely ordered list
1126 according to the partial ordering in a given file</para>
1127 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tsort">
1128 <primary sortas="b-tsort">tsort</primary>
1129 </indexterm>
1130 </listitem>
1131 </varlistentry>
1132
1133 <varlistentry id="tty">
1134 <term><command>tty</command></term>
1135 <listitem>
1136 <para>Reports the file name of the terminal connected to standard
1137 input</para>
1138 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tty">
1139 <primary sortas="b-tty">tty</primary>
1140 </indexterm>
1141 </listitem>
1142 </varlistentry>
1143
1144 <varlistentry id="uname">
1145 <term><command>uname</command></term>
1146 <listitem>
1147 <para>Reports system information</para>
1148 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uname">
1149 <primary sortas="b-uname">uname</primary>
1150 </indexterm>
1151 </listitem>
1152 </varlistentry>
1153
1154 <varlistentry id="unexpand">
1155 <term><command>unexpand</command></term>
1156 <listitem>
1157 <para>Converts spaces to tabs</para>
1158 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unexpand">
1159 <primary sortas="b-unexpand">unexpand</primary>
1160 </indexterm>
1161 </listitem>
1162 </varlistentry>
1163
1164 <varlistentry id="uniq">
1165 <term><command>uniq</command></term>
1166 <listitem>
1167 <para>Discards all but one of successive identical lines</para>
1168 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uniq">
1169 <primary sortas="b-uniq">uniq</primary>
1170 </indexterm>
1171 </listitem>
1172 </varlistentry>
1173
1174 <varlistentry id="unlink">
1175 <term><command>unlink</command></term>
1176 <listitem>
1177 <para>Removes the given file</para>
1178 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unlink">
1179 <primary sortas="b-unlink">unlink</primary>
1180 </indexterm>
1181 </listitem>
1182 </varlistentry>
1183
1184 <varlistentry id="users">
1185 <term><command>users</command></term>
1186 <listitem>
1187 <para>Reports the names of the users currently logged on</para>
1188 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils users">
1189 <primary sortas="b-users">users</primary>
1190 </indexterm>
1191 </listitem>
1192 </varlistentry>
1193
1194 <varlistentry id="vdir">
1195 <term><command>vdir</command></term>
1196 <listitem>
1197 <para>Is the same as <command>ls -l</command></para>
1198 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils vdir">
1199 <primary sortas="b-vdir">vdir</primary>
1200 </indexterm>
1201 </listitem>
1202 </varlistentry>
1203
1204 <varlistentry id="wc">
1205 <term><command>wc</command></term>
1206 <listitem>
1207 <para>Reports the number of lines, words, and bytes for each given
1208 file, as well as a total line when more than one file is given</para>
1209 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils wc">
1210 <primary sortas="b-wc">wc</primary>
1211 </indexterm>
1212 </listitem>
1213 </varlistentry>
1214
1215 <varlistentry id="who">
1216 <term><command>who</command></term>
1217 <listitem>
1218 <para>Reports who is logged on</para>
1219 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils who">
1220 <primary sortas="b-who">who</primary>
1221 </indexterm>
1222 </listitem>
1223 </varlistentry>
1224
1225 <varlistentry id="whoami">
1226 <term><command>whoami</command></term>
1227 <listitem>
1228 <para>Reports the user name associated with the current effective
1229 user ID</para>
1230 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils whoami">
1231 <primary sortas="b-whoami">whoami</primary>
1232 </indexterm>
1233 </listitem>
1234 </varlistentry>
1235
1236 <varlistentry id="yes">
1237 <term><command>yes</command></term>
1238 <listitem>
1239 <para>Repeatedly outputs <quote>y</quote> or a given string until
1240 killed</para>
1241 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils yes">
1242 <primary sortas="b-yes">yes</primary>
1243 </indexterm>
1244 </listitem>
1245 </varlistentry>
1246
1247 <varlistentry id="libstdbuf">
1248 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libstdbuf</filename></term>
1249 <listitem>
1250 <para>Library used by <command>stdbuf</command></para>
1251 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils libstdbuf">
1252 <primary sortas="c-libstdbuf">libstdbuf</primary>
1253 </indexterm>
1254 </listitem>
1255 </varlistentry>
1256
1257 </variablelist>
1258
1259 </sect2>
1260
1261</sect1>
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