source: chapter06/coreutils.xml@ f168b8f

7.8-systemd 7.9-systemd 7.9-systemd-rc1 7.9-systemd-rc2 systemd
Last change on this file since f168b8f was f168b8f, checked in by Krejzi <krejzi@…>, 7 years ago

Merged trunk. Updated to dbus-1.8.20, systemd-222.

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/branches/systemd@10928 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-coreutils" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="coreutils.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>coreutils</productname>
13 <productnumber>&coreutils-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&coreutils-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Coreutils-&coreutils-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils">
20 <primary sortas="a-Coreutils">Coreutils</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the
27 basic system characteristics.</para>
28
29 <segmentedlist>
30 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
31 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
32
33 <seglistitem>
34 <seg>&coreutils-ch6-sbu;</seg>
35 <seg>&coreutils-ch6-du;</seg>
36 </seglistitem>
37 </segmentedlist>
38
39 </sect2>
40
41 <sect2 role="installation">
42 <title>Installation of Coreutils</title>
43<!--
44 <para>First, fix a segfault in <command>shuf</command> program:</para>
45
46<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&coreutils-shuf-segfault-patch;</userinput></screen>
47-->
48
49 <para>POSIX requires that programs from Coreutils recognize character
50 boundaries correctly even in multibyte locales. The following patch fixes
51 this non-compliance and other internationalization-related bugs.
52 <!--Afterwards make sure the timestamp for <filename>Makefile.in</filename> is
53 later than all other files to prevent a <command>make</command>
54 error:</para>-->
55 Afterwards disable a test that fails with the current version of perl.</para>
56
57<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&coreutils-i18n-patch;
58sed -i '/tests\/misc\/sort.pl/ d' Makefile.in</userinput></screen>
59
60<!--touch Makefile.in</userinput></screen>-->
61
62 <note>
63 <para>In the past, many bugs were found in this patch. When reporting new
64 bugs to Coreutils maintainers, please check first if they are reproducible
65 without this patch.</para>
66 </note>
67
68 <para>Now prepare Coreutils for compilation:</para>
69
70<screen><userinput remap="configure">FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 ./configure \
71 --prefix=/usr \
72 --enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</userinput></screen>
73
74 <variablelist>
75 <title>The meaning of the configure options:</title>
76
77 <varlistentry>
78 <term><envar>FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1</envar></term>
79 <listitem>
80 <para>This environment variable allows the package to be
81 built as the root user.
82 </para>
83 </listitem>
84 </varlistentry>
85
86 <varlistentry>
87 <term><parameter>--enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</parameter></term>
88 <listitem>
89 <para>The purpose of this switch is to prevent Coreutils from
90 installing binaries that will be installed by other packages later.
91 </para>
92 </listitem>
93 </varlistentry>
94 </variablelist>
95
96 <para>Compile the package:</para>
97
98<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
99
100 <para>Skip down to <quote>Install the
101 package</quote> if not running the test suite.</para>
102
103 <para>Now the test suite is ready to be run. First, run the tests that are
104 meant to be run as user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>:</para>
105
106<screen><userinput remap="test">make NON_ROOT_USERNAME=nobody check-root</userinput></screen>
107
108 <para>We're going to run the remainder of the tests as the
109 <systemitem class="username">nobody</systemitem> user. Certain tests,
110 however, require that the user be a member of more than one group. So that
111 these tests are not skipped we'll add a temporary group and make the
112 user <systemitem class="username">nobody</systemitem> a part of it:</para>
113
114<screen><userinput remap="test">echo "dummy:x:1000:nobody" &gt;&gt; /etc/group</userinput></screen>
115
116 <para>Fix some of the permissions so that the non-root user can compile and
117 run the tests:</para>
118
119<screen><userinput remap="test">chown -Rv nobody . </userinput></screen>
120
121 <para>Now run the tests. Make sure the PATH in the <userinput>su</userinput>
122 environment includes /tools/bin.</para>
123
124<screen><userinput remap="test">su nobody -s /bin/bash \
125 -c "PATH=$PATH make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check"</userinput></screen>
126
127 <para>The stty-pairs test is known to fail on a virtual console, but
128 passes if run in a X terminal.</para>
129
130 <para>Remove the temporary group:</para>
131
132<screen><userinput remap="test">sed -i '/dummy/d' /etc/group</userinput></screen>
133
134 <para>Install the package:</para>
135
136<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
137
138 <para>Move programs to the locations specified by the FHS:</para>
139
140<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{cat,chgrp,chmod,chown,cp,date,dd,df,echo} /bin
141mv -v /usr/bin/{false,ln,ls,mkdir,mknod,mv,pwd,rm} /bin
142mv -v /usr/bin/{rmdir,stty,sync,true,uname} /bin
143mv -v /usr/bin/chroot /usr/sbin
144mv -v /usr/share/man/man1/chroot.1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8
145sed -i s/\"1\"/\"8\"/1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8</userinput></screen>
146
147 <para>Some packages in BLFS and beyond expect the following
148 programs in <filename class="directory">/bin</filename>, so
149 make sure they are placed there:</para>
150
151<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{head,sleep,nice,test,[} /bin</userinput></screen>
152
153 </sect2>
154
155 <sect2 id="contents-coreutils" role="content">
156 <title>Contents of Coreutils</title>
157
158 <segmentedlist>
159 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
160 <segtitle>Installed library</segtitle>
161 <segtitle>Installed directory</segtitle>
162
163 <seglistitem>
164 <seg>[, base64, basename, cat, chcon, chgrp, chmod, chown, chroot, cksum,
165 comm, cp, csplit, cut, date, dd, df, dir, dircolors, dirname, du, echo,
166 env, expand, expr, factor, false, fmt, fold, groups, head, hostid,
167 id, install, join, link, ln, logname, ls, md5sum, mkdir, mkfifo, mknod,
168 mktemp, mv, nice, nl, nohup, nproc, numfmt, od, paste, pathchk, pinky, pr,
169 printenv, printf, ptx, pwd, readlink, realpath, rm, rmdir, runcon, seq,
170 sha1sum, sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum, sha512sum, shred, shuf, sleep,
171 sort, split, stat, stdbuf, stty, sum, sync, tac, tail, tee, test,
172 timeout, touch, tr, true, truncate, tsort, tty, uname, unexpand, uniq,
173 unlink, users, vdir, wc, who, whoami, and yes</seg>
174 <seg>libstdbuf.so</seg>
175 <seg>/usr/libexec/coreutils</seg>
176 </seglistitem>
177 </segmentedlist>
178
179 <variablelist>
180 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
181 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
182 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
183
184 <varlistentry id="base64">
185 <term><command>base64</command></term>
186 <listitem>
187 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base64 (RFC 3548)
188 specification</para>
189 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
190 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
191 </indexterm>
192 </listitem>
193 </varlistentry>
194
195 <varlistentry id="basename">
196 <term><command>basename</command></term>
197 <listitem>
198 <para>Strips any path and a given suffix from a file name</para>
199 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basename">
200 <primary sortas="b-basename">basename</primary>
201 </indexterm>
202 </listitem>
203 </varlistentry>
204
205 <varlistentry id="cat">
206 <term><command>cat</command></term>
207 <listitem>
208 <para>Concatenates files to standard output</para>
209 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cat">
210 <primary sortas="b-cat">cat</primary>
211 </indexterm>
212 </listitem>
213 </varlistentry>
214
215 <varlistentry id="chcon">
216 <term><command>chcon</command></term>
217 <listitem>
218 <para>Changes security context for files and directories</para>
219 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chcon">
220 <primary sortas="b-chcon">chcon</primary>
221 </indexterm>
222 </listitem>
223 </varlistentry>
224
225 <varlistentry id="chgrp">
226 <term><command>chgrp</command></term>
227 <listitem>
228 <para>Changes the group ownership of files and directories</para>
229 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chgrp">
230 <primary sortas="b-chgrp">chgrp</primary>
231 </indexterm>
232 </listitem>
233 </varlistentry>
234
235 <varlistentry id="chmod">
236 <term><command>chmod</command></term>
237 <listitem>
238 <para>Changes the permissions of each file to the given mode; the mode
239 can be either a symbolic representation of the changes to make or an
240 octal number representing the new permissions</para>
241 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chmod">
242 <primary sortas="b-chmod">chmod</primary>
243 </indexterm>
244 </listitem>
245 </varlistentry>
246
247 <varlistentry id="chown">
248 <term><command>chown</command></term>
249 <listitem>
250 <para>Changes the user and/or group ownership of files and
251 directories</para>
252 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chown">
253 <primary sortas="b-chown">chown</primary>
254 </indexterm>
255 </listitem>
256 </varlistentry>
257
258 <varlistentry id="chroot">
259 <term><command>chroot</command></term>
260 <listitem>
261 <para>Runs a command with the specified directory as the
262 <filename class="directory">/</filename> directory</para>
263 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chroot">
264 <primary sortas="b-chroot">chroot</primary>
265 </indexterm>
266 </listitem>
267 </varlistentry>
268
269 <varlistentry id="cksum">
270 <term><command>cksum</command></term>
271 <listitem>
272 <para>Prints the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum and the byte
273 counts of each specified file</para>
274 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cksum">
275 <primary sortas="b-cksum">cksum</primary>
276 </indexterm>
277 </listitem>
278 </varlistentry>
279
280 <varlistentry id="comm">
281 <term><command>comm</command></term>
282 <listitem>
283 <para>Compares two sorted files, outputting in three columns the lines
284 that are unique and the lines that are common</para>
285 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils comm">
286 <primary sortas="b-comm">comm</primary>
287 </indexterm>
288 </listitem>
289 </varlistentry>
290
291 <varlistentry id="cp">
292 <term><command>cp</command></term>
293 <listitem>
294 <para>Copies files</para>
295 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cp">
296 <primary sortas="b-cp">cp</primary>
297 </indexterm>
298 </listitem>
299 </varlistentry>
300
301 <varlistentry id="csplit">
302 <term><command>csplit</command></term>
303 <listitem>
304 <para>Splits a given file into several new files, separating them
305 according to given patterns or line numbers and outputting the byte
306 count of each new file</para>
307 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils csplit">
308 <primary sortas="b-csplit">csplit</primary>
309 </indexterm>
310 </listitem>
311 </varlistentry>
312
313 <varlistentry id="cut">
314 <term><command>cut</command></term>
315 <listitem>
316 <para>Prints sections of lines, selecting the parts according to given
317 fields or positions</para>
318 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cut">
319 <primary sortas="b-cut">cut</primary>
320 </indexterm>
321 </listitem>
322 </varlistentry>
323
324 <varlistentry id="date">
325 <term><command>date</command></term>
326 <listitem>
327 <para>Displays the current time in the given format, or sets the
328 system date</para>
329 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils date">
330 <primary sortas="b-date">date</primary>
331 </indexterm>
332 </listitem>
333 </varlistentry>
334
335 <varlistentry id="dd">
336 <term><command>dd</command> </term>
337 <listitem>
338 <para>Copies a file using the given block size and count, while
339 optionally performing conversions on it</para>
340 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dd">
341 <primary sortas="b-dd">dd</primary>
342 </indexterm>
343 </listitem>
344 </varlistentry>
345
346 <varlistentry id="df">
347 <term><command>df</command></term>
348 <listitem>
349 <para>Reports the amount of disk space available (and used) on all
350 mounted file systems, or only on the file systems holding the selected
351 files</para>
352 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils df">
353 <primary sortas="b-df">df</primary>
354 </indexterm>
355 </listitem>
356 </varlistentry>
357
358 <varlistentry id="dir">
359 <term><command>dir</command></term>
360 <listitem>
361 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory (the same as
362 the <command>ls</command> command)</para>
363 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dir">
364 <primary sortas="b-dir">dir</primary>
365 </indexterm>
366 </listitem>
367 </varlistentry>
368
369 <varlistentry id="dircolors">
370 <term><command>dircolors</command></term>
371 <listitem>
372 <para>Outputs commands to set the <envar>LS_COLOR</envar>
373 environment variable to change the color scheme used by
374 <command>ls</command></para>
375 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dircolors">
376 <primary sortas="b-dircolors">dircolors</primary>
377 </indexterm>
378 </listitem>
379 </varlistentry>
380
381 <varlistentry id="dirname">
382 <term><command>dirname</command></term>
383 <listitem>
384 <para>Strips the non-directory suffix from a file name</para>
385 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dirname">
386 <primary sortas="b-dirname">dirname</primary>
387 </indexterm>
388 </listitem>
389 </varlistentry>
390
391 <varlistentry id="du">
392 <term><command>du</command></term>
393 <listitem>
394 <para>Reports the amount of disk space used by the current directory,
395 by each of the given directories (including all subdirectories) or by
396 each of the given files</para>
397 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils du">
398 <primary sortas="b-du">du</primary>
399 </indexterm>
400 </listitem>
401 </varlistentry>
402
403 <varlistentry id="echo">
404 <term><command>echo</command></term>
405 <listitem>
406 <para>Displays the given strings</para>
407 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils echo">
408 <primary sortas="b-echo">echo</primary>
409 </indexterm>
410 </listitem>
411 </varlistentry>
412
413 <varlistentry id="env">
414 <term><command>env</command></term>
415 <listitem>
416 <para>Runs a command in a modified environment</para>
417 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils env">
418 <primary sortas="b-env">env</primary>
419 </indexterm>
420 </listitem>
421 </varlistentry>
422
423 <varlistentry id="expand">
424 <term><command>expand</command></term>
425 <listitem>
426 <para>Converts tabs to spaces</para>
427 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expand">
428 <primary sortas="b-expand">expand</primary>
429 </indexterm>
430 </listitem>
431 </varlistentry>
432
433 <varlistentry id="expr">
434 <term><command>expr</command></term>
435 <listitem>
436 <para>Evaluates expressions</para>
437 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expr">
438 <primary sortas="b-expr">expr</primary>
439 </indexterm>
440 </listitem>
441 </varlistentry>
442
443 <varlistentry id="factor">
444 <term><command>factor</command></term>
445 <listitem>
446 <para>Prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers</para>
447 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils factor">
448 <primary sortas="b-factor">factor</primary>
449 </indexterm>
450 </listitem>
451 </varlistentry>
452
453 <varlistentry id="false">
454 <term><command>false</command></term>
455 <listitem>
456 <para>Does nothing, unsuccessfully; it always exits with a status code
457 indicating failure</para>
458 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils false">
459 <primary sortas="b-false">false</primary>
460 </indexterm>
461 </listitem>
462 </varlistentry>
463
464 <varlistentry id="fmt">
465 <term><command>fmt</command></term>
466 <listitem>
467 <para>Reformats the paragraphs in the given files</para>
468 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fmt">
469 <primary sortas="b-fmt">fmt</primary>
470 </indexterm>
471 </listitem>
472 </varlistentry>
473
474 <varlistentry id="fold">
475 <term><command>fold</command></term>
476 <listitem>
477 <para>Wraps the lines in the given files</para>
478 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fold">
479 <primary sortas="b-fold">fold</primary>
480 </indexterm>
481 </listitem>
482 </varlistentry>
483
484 <varlistentry id="groups">
485 <term><command>groups</command></term>
486 <listitem>
487 <para>Reports a user's group memberships</para>
488 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils groups">
489 <primary sortas="b-groups">groups</primary>
490 </indexterm>
491 </listitem>
492 </varlistentry>
493
494 <varlistentry id="head">
495 <term><command>head</command></term>
496 <listitem>
497 <para>Prints the first ten lines (or the given number of lines)
498 of each given file</para>
499 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils head">
500 <primary sortas="b-head">head</primary>
501 </indexterm>
502 </listitem>
503 </varlistentry>
504
505 <varlistentry id="hostid">
506 <term><command>hostid</command></term>
507 <listitem>
508 <para>Reports the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) of the host</para>
509 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils hostid">
510 <primary sortas="b-hostid">hostid</primary>
511 </indexterm>
512 </listitem>
513 </varlistentry>
514
515 <varlistentry id="id">
516 <term><command>id</command></term>
517 <listitem>
518 <para>Reports the effective user ID, group ID, and group memberships
519 of the current user or specified user</para>
520 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils id">
521 <primary sortas="b-id">id</primary>
522 </indexterm>
523 </listitem>
524 </varlistentry>
525
526 <varlistentry id="install">
527 <term><command>install</command> </term>
528 <listitem>
529 <para>Copies files while setting their permission modes and, if
530 possible, their owner and group</para>
531 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils install">
532 <primary sortas="b-install">install</primary>
533 </indexterm>
534 </listitem>
535 </varlistentry>
536
537 <varlistentry id="join">
538 <term><command>join</command></term>
539 <listitem>
540 <para>Joins the lines that have identical join fields from two
541 separate files</para>
542 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils join">
543 <primary sortas="b-join">join</primary>
544 </indexterm>
545 </listitem>
546 </varlistentry>
547
548 <varlistentry id="link">
549 <term><command>link</command></term>
550 <listitem>
551 <para>Creates a hard link with the given name to a file</para>
552 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils link">
553 <primary sortas="b-link">link</primary>
554 </indexterm>
555 </listitem>
556 </varlistentry>
557
558 <varlistentry id="ln">
559 <term><command>ln</command></term>
560 <listitem>
561 <para>Makes hard links or soft (symbolic) links between files</para>
562 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ln">
563 <primary sortas="b-ln">ln</primary>
564 </indexterm>
565 </listitem>
566 </varlistentry>
567
568 <varlistentry id="logname">
569 <term><command>logname</command></term>
570 <listitem>
571 <para>Reports the current user's login name</para>
572 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils logname">
573 <primary sortas="b-logname">logname</primary>
574 </indexterm>
575 </listitem>
576 </varlistentry>
577
578 <varlistentry id="ls">
579 <term><command>ls</command></term>
580 <listitem>
581 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory</para>
582 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ls">
583 <primary sortas="b-ls">ls</primary>
584 </indexterm>
585 </listitem>
586 </varlistentry>
587
588 <varlistentry id="md5sum">
589 <term><command>md5sum</command></term>
590 <listitem>
591 <para>Reports or checks Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums</para>
592 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils md5sum">
593 <primary sortas="b-md5sum">md5sum</primary>
594 </indexterm>
595 </listitem>
596 </varlistentry>
597
598 <varlistentry id="mkdir">
599 <term><command>mkdir</command></term>
600 <listitem>
601 <para>Creates directories with the given names</para>
602 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkdir">
603 <primary sortas="b-mkdir">mkdir</primary>
604 </indexterm>
605 </listitem>
606 </varlistentry>
607
608 <varlistentry id="mkfifo">
609 <term><command>mkfifo</command></term>
610 <listitem>
611 <para>Creates First-In, First-Outs (FIFOs), a "named
612 pipe" in UNIX parlance, with the given names</para>
613 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkfifo">
614 <primary sortas="b-mkfifo">mkfifo</primary>
615 </indexterm>
616 </listitem>
617 </varlistentry>
618
619 <varlistentry id="mknod">
620 <term><command>mknod</command></term>
621 <listitem>
622 <para>Creates device nodes with the given names; a device node is a
623 character special file, a block special file, or a FIFO</para>
624 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mknod">
625 <primary sortas="b-mknod">mknod</primary>
626 </indexterm>
627 </listitem>
628 </varlistentry>
629
630 <varlistentry id="mktemp">
631 <term><command>mktemp</command></term>
632 <listitem>
633 <para>Creates temporary files in a secure manner; it is used in scripts</para>
634 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mktemp">
635 <primary sortas="b-mktemp">mktemp</primary>
636 </indexterm>
637 </listitem>
638 </varlistentry>
639
640 <varlistentry id="mv">
641 <term><command>mv</command></term>
642 <listitem>
643 <para>Moves or renames files or directories</para>
644 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mv">
645 <primary sortas="b-mv">mv</primary>
646 </indexterm>
647 </listitem>
648 </varlistentry>
649
650 <varlistentry id="nice">
651 <term><command>nice</command></term>
652 <listitem>
653 <para>Runs a program with modified scheduling priority</para>
654 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nice">
655 <primary sortas="b-nice">nice</primary>
656 </indexterm>
657 </listitem>
658 </varlistentry>
659
660 <varlistentry id="nl">
661 <term><command>nl</command></term>
662 <listitem>
663 <para>Numbers the lines from the given files</para>
664 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nl">
665 <primary sortas="b-nl">nl</primary>
666 </indexterm>
667 </listitem>
668 </varlistentry>
669
670 <varlistentry id="nohup">
671 <term><command>nohup</command></term>
672 <listitem>
673 <para>Runs a command immune to hangups, with its output redirected to
674 a log file</para>
675 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nohup">
676 <primary sortas="b-nohup">nohup</primary>
677 </indexterm>
678 </listitem>
679 </varlistentry>
680
681 <varlistentry id="nproc">
682 <term><command>nproc</command></term>
683 <listitem>
684 <para>Prints the number of processing units available to a
685 process</para>
686 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nproc">
687 <primary sortas="b-nproc">nproc</primary>
688 </indexterm>
689 </listitem>
690 </varlistentry>
691
692 <varlistentry id="numfmt">
693 <term><command>numfmt</command></term>
694 <listitem>
695 <para>Converts numbers to or from human-readable strings</para>
696 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils numfmt">
697 <primary sortas="b-numfmt">numfmt</primary>
698 </indexterm>
699 </listitem>
700 </varlistentry>
701
702 <varlistentry id="od">
703 <term><command>od</command></term>
704 <listitem>
705 <para>Dumps files in octal and other formats</para>
706 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils od">
707 <primary sortas="b-od">od</primary>
708 </indexterm>
709 </listitem>
710 </varlistentry>
711
712 <varlistentry id="paste">
713 <term><command>paste</command></term>
714 <listitem>
715 <para>Merges the given files, joining sequentially corresponding lines
716 side by side, separated by tab characters</para>
717 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils paste">
718 <primary sortas="b-paste">paste</primary>
719 </indexterm>
720 </listitem>
721 </varlistentry>
722
723 <varlistentry id="pathchk">
724 <term><command>pathchk</command></term>
725 <listitem>
726 <para>Checks if file names are valid or portable</para>
727 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pathchk">
728 <primary sortas="b-pathchk">pathchk</primary>
729 </indexterm>
730 </listitem>
731 </varlistentry>
732
733 <varlistentry id="pinky">
734 <term><command>pinky</command></term>
735 <listitem>
736 <para>Is a lightweight finger client; it reports some information
737 about the given users</para>
738 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pinky">
739 <primary sortas="b-pinky">pinky</primary>
740 </indexterm>
741 </listitem>
742 </varlistentry>
743
744 <varlistentry id="pr">
745 <term><command>pr</command></term>
746 <listitem>
747 <para>Paginates and columnates files for printing</para>
748 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pr">
749 <primary sortas="b-pr">pr</primary>
750 </indexterm>
751 </listitem>
752 </varlistentry>
753
754 <varlistentry id="printenv">
755 <term><command>printenv</command></term>
756 <listitem>
757 <para>Prints the environment</para>
758 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printenv">
759 <primary sortas="b-printenv">printenv</primary>
760 </indexterm>
761 </listitem>
762 </varlistentry>
763
764 <varlistentry id="printf">
765 <term><command>printf</command></term>
766 <listitem>
767 <para>Prints the given arguments according to the given format, much
768 like the C printf function</para>
769 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printf">
770 <primary sortas="b-printf">printf</primary>
771 </indexterm>
772 </listitem>
773 </varlistentry>
774
775 <varlistentry id="ptx">
776 <term><command>ptx</command></term>
777 <listitem>
778 <para>Produces a permuted index from the contents of the given files,
779 with each keyword in its context</para>
780 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ptx">
781 <primary sortas="b-ptx">ptx</primary>
782 </indexterm>
783 </listitem>
784 </varlistentry>
785
786 <varlistentry id="pwd">
787 <term><command>pwd</command></term>
788 <listitem>
789 <para>Reports the name of the current working directory</para>
790 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pwd">
791 <primary sortas="b-pwd">pwd</primary>
792 </indexterm>
793 </listitem>
794 </varlistentry>
795
796 <varlistentry id="readlink">
797 <term><command>readlink</command></term>
798 <listitem>
799 <para>Reports the value of the given symbolic link</para>
800 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils readlink">
801 <primary sortas="b-readlink">readlink</primary>
802 </indexterm>
803 </listitem>
804 </varlistentry>
805
806 <varlistentry id="realpath">
807 <term><command>realpath</command></term>
808 <listitem>
809 <para>Prints the resolved path</para>
810 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils realpath">
811 <primary sortas="b-realpath">realpath</primary>
812 </indexterm>
813 </listitem>
814 </varlistentry>
815
816 <varlistentry id="rm">
817 <term><command>rm</command></term>
818 <listitem>
819 <para>Removes files or directories</para>
820 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rm">
821 <primary sortas="b-rm">rm</primary>
822 </indexterm>
823 </listitem>
824 </varlistentry>
825
826 <varlistentry id="rmdir">
827 <term><command>rmdir</command></term>
828 <listitem>
829 <para>Removes directories if they are empty</para>
830 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rmdir">
831 <primary sortas="b-rmdir">rmdir</primary>
832 </indexterm>
833 </listitem>
834 </varlistentry>
835
836 <varlistentry id="runcon">
837 <term><command>runcon</command></term>
838 <listitem>
839 <para>Runs a command with specified security context</para>
840 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils runcon">
841 <primary sortas="b-runcon">runcon</primary>
842 </indexterm>
843 </listitem>
844 </varlistentry>
845
846 <varlistentry id="seq">
847 <term><command>seq</command></term>
848 <listitem>
849 <para>Prints a sequence of numbers within a given range and with a
850 given increment</para>
851 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils seq">
852 <primary sortas="b-seq">seq</primary>
853 </indexterm>
854 </listitem>
855 </varlistentry>
856
857 <varlistentry id="sha1sum">
858 <term><command>sha1sum</command></term>
859 <listitem>
860 <para>Prints or checks 160-bit Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1)
861 checksums</para>
862 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha1sum">
863 <primary sortas="b-sha1sum">sha1sum</primary>
864 </indexterm>
865 </listitem>
866 </varlistentry>
867
868 <varlistentry id="sha224sum">
869 <term><command>sha224sum</command></term>
870 <listitem>
871 <para>Prints or checks 224-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
872 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha224sum">
873 <primary sortas="b-sha224sum">sha224sum</primary>
874 </indexterm>
875 </listitem>
876 </varlistentry>
877
878 <varlistentry id="sha256sum">
879 <term><command>sha256sum</command></term>
880 <listitem>
881 <para>Prints or checks 256-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
882 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha256sum">
883 <primary sortas="b-sha256sum">sha256sum</primary>
884 </indexterm>
885 </listitem>
886 </varlistentry>
887
888 <varlistentry id="sha384sum">
889 <term><command>sha384sum</command></term>
890 <listitem>
891 <para>Prints or checks 384-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
892 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha384sum">
893 <primary sortas="b-sha384sum">sha384sum</primary>
894 </indexterm>
895 </listitem>
896 </varlistentry>
897
898 <varlistentry id="sha512sum">
899 <term><command>sha512sum</command></term>
900 <listitem>
901 <para>Prints or checks 512-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
902 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha512sum">
903 <primary sortas="b-sha512sum">sha512sum</primary>
904 </indexterm>
905 </listitem>
906 </varlistentry>
907
908 <varlistentry id="shred">
909 <term><command>shred</command></term>
910 <listitem>
911 <para>Overwrites the given files repeatedly with complex patterns,
912 making it difficult to recover the data</para>
913 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shred">
914 <primary sortas="b-shred">shred</primary>
915 </indexterm>
916 </listitem>
917 </varlistentry>
918
919 <varlistentry id="shuf">
920 <term><command>shuf</command></term>
921 <listitem>
922 <para>Shuffles lines of text</para>
923 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shuf">
924 <primary sortas="b-shuf">shuf</primary>
925 </indexterm>
926 </listitem>
927 </varlistentry>
928
929 <varlistentry id="sleep">
930 <term><command>sleep</command></term>
931 <listitem>
932 <para>Pauses for the given amount of time</para>
933 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sleep">
934 <primary sortas="b-sleep">sleep</primary>
935 </indexterm>
936 </listitem>
937 </varlistentry>
938
939 <varlistentry id="sort">
940 <term><command>sort</command></term>
941 <listitem>
942 <para>Sorts the lines from the given files</para>
943 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sort">
944 <primary sortas="b-sort">sort</primary>
945 </indexterm>
946 </listitem>
947 </varlistentry>
948
949 <varlistentry id="split">
950 <term><command>split</command></term>
951 <listitem>
952 <para>Splits the given file into pieces, by size or by number of
953 lines</para>
954 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils split">
955 <primary sortas="b-split">split</primary>
956 </indexterm>
957 </listitem>
958 </varlistentry>
959
960 <varlistentry id="stat">
961 <term><command>stat</command></term>
962 <listitem>
963 <para>Displays file or filesystem status</para>
964 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stat">
965 <primary sortas="b-stat">stat</primary>
966 </indexterm>
967 </listitem>
968 </varlistentry>
969
970 <varlistentry id="stdbuf">
971 <term><command>stdbuf</command></term>
972 <listitem>
973 <para>Runs commands with altered buffering operations for its standard
974 streams</para>
975 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stdbuf">
976 <primary sortas="b-stdbuf">stdbuf</primary>
977 </indexterm>
978 </listitem>
979 </varlistentry>
980
981 <varlistentry id="stty">
982 <term><command>stty</command></term>
983 <listitem>
984 <para>Sets or reports terminal line settings</para>
985 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stty">
986 <primary sortas="b-stty">stty</primary>
987 </indexterm>
988 </listitem>
989 </varlistentry>
990
991 <varlistentry id="sum">
992 <term><command>sum</command></term>
993 <listitem>
994 <para>Prints checksum and block counts for each given file</para>
995 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sum">
996 <primary sortas="b-sum">sum</primary>
997 </indexterm>
998 </listitem>
999 </varlistentry>
1000
1001 <varlistentry id="sync">
1002 <term><command>sync</command></term>
1003 <listitem>
1004 <para>Flushes file system buffers; it forces changed blocks to disk
1005 and updates the super block</para>
1006 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sync">
1007 <primary sortas="b-sync">sync</primary>
1008 </indexterm>
1009 </listitem>
1010 </varlistentry>
1011
1012 <varlistentry id="tac">
1013 <term><command>tac</command></term>
1014 <listitem>
1015 <para>Concatenates the given files in reverse</para>
1016 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tac">
1017 <primary sortas="b-tac">tac</primary>
1018 </indexterm>
1019 </listitem>
1020 </varlistentry>
1021
1022 <varlistentry id="tail">
1023 <term><command>tail</command></term>
1024 <listitem>
1025 <para>Prints the last ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each
1026 given file</para>
1027 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tail">
1028 <primary sortas="b-tail">tail</primary>
1029 </indexterm>
1030 </listitem>
1031 </varlistentry>
1032
1033 <varlistentry id="tee">
1034 <term><command>tee</command></term>
1035 <listitem>
1036 <para>Reads from standard input while writing both to standard output
1037 and to the given files</para>
1038 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tee">
1039 <primary sortas="b-tee">tee</primary>
1040 </indexterm>
1041 </listitem>
1042 </varlistentry>
1043
1044 <varlistentry id="test">
1045 <term><command>test</command></term>
1046 <listitem>
1047 <para>Compares values and checks file types</para>
1048 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils test">
1049 <primary sortas="b-test">test</primary>
1050 </indexterm>
1051 </listitem>
1052 </varlistentry>
1053
1054 <varlistentry id="timeout">
1055 <term><command>timeout</command></term>
1056 <listitem>
1057 <para>Runs a command with a time limit</para>
1058 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils timeout">
1059 <primary sortas="b-timeout">timeout</primary>
1060 </indexterm>
1061 </listitem>
1062 </varlistentry>
1063
1064 <varlistentry id="touch">
1065 <term><command>touch</command></term>
1066 <listitem>
1067 <para>Changes file timestamps, setting the access and modification
1068 times of the given files to the current time; files that do not exist
1069 are created with zero length</para>
1070 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils touch">
1071 <primary sortas="b-touch">touch</primary>
1072 </indexterm>
1073 </listitem>
1074 </varlistentry>
1075
1076 <varlistentry id="tr">
1077 <term><command>tr</command></term>
1078 <listitem>
1079 <para>Translates, squeezes, and deletes the given characters from
1080 standard input</para>
1081 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tr">
1082 <primary sortas="b-tr">tr</primary>
1083 </indexterm>
1084 </listitem>
1085 </varlistentry>
1086
1087 <varlistentry id="true">
1088 <term><command>true</command></term>
1089 <listitem>
1090 <para>Does nothing, successfully; it always exits with a status code
1091 indicating success</para>
1092 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils true">
1093 <primary sortas="b-true">true</primary>
1094 </indexterm>
1095 </listitem>
1096 </varlistentry>
1097
1098 <varlistentry id="truncate">
1099 <term><command>truncate</command></term>
1100 <listitem>
1101 <para>Shrinks or expands a file to the specified size</para>
1102 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils truncate">
1103 <primary sortas="b-truncate">truncate</primary>
1104 </indexterm>
1105 </listitem>
1106 </varlistentry>
1107
1108 <varlistentry id="tsort">
1109 <term><command>tsort</command></term>
1110 <listitem>
1111 <para>Performs a topological sort; it writes a completely ordered list
1112 according to the partial ordering in a given file</para>
1113 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tsort">
1114 <primary sortas="b-tsort">tsort</primary>
1115 </indexterm>
1116 </listitem>
1117 </varlistentry>
1118
1119 <varlistentry id="tty">
1120 <term><command>tty</command></term>
1121 <listitem>
1122 <para>Reports the file name of the terminal connected to standard
1123 input</para>
1124 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tty">
1125 <primary sortas="b-tty">tty</primary>
1126 </indexterm>
1127 </listitem>
1128 </varlistentry>
1129
1130 <varlistentry id="uname">
1131 <term><command>uname</command></term>
1132 <listitem>
1133 <para>Reports system information</para>
1134 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uname">
1135 <primary sortas="b-uname">uname</primary>
1136 </indexterm>
1137 </listitem>
1138 </varlistentry>
1139
1140 <varlistentry id="unexpand">
1141 <term><command>unexpand</command></term>
1142 <listitem>
1143 <para>Converts spaces to tabs</para>
1144 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unexpand">
1145 <primary sortas="b-unexpand">unexpand</primary>
1146 </indexterm>
1147 </listitem>
1148 </varlistentry>
1149
1150 <varlistentry id="uniq">
1151 <term><command>uniq</command></term>
1152 <listitem>
1153 <para>Discards all but one of successive identical lines</para>
1154 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uniq">
1155 <primary sortas="b-uniq">uniq</primary>
1156 </indexterm>
1157 </listitem>
1158 </varlistentry>
1159
1160 <varlistentry id="unlink">
1161 <term><command>unlink</command></term>
1162 <listitem>
1163 <para>Removes the given file</para>
1164 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unlink">
1165 <primary sortas="b-unlink">unlink</primary>
1166 </indexterm>
1167 </listitem>
1168 </varlistentry>
1169
1170 <varlistentry id="users">
1171 <term><command>users</command></term>
1172 <listitem>
1173 <para>Reports the names of the users currently logged on</para>
1174 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils users">
1175 <primary sortas="b-users">users</primary>
1176 </indexterm>
1177 </listitem>
1178 </varlistentry>
1179
1180 <varlistentry id="vdir">
1181 <term><command>vdir</command></term>
1182 <listitem>
1183 <para>Is the same as <command>ls -l</command></para>
1184 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils vdir">
1185 <primary sortas="b-vdir">vdir</primary>
1186 </indexterm>
1187 </listitem>
1188 </varlistentry>
1189
1190 <varlistentry id="wc">
1191 <term><command>wc</command></term>
1192 <listitem>
1193 <para>Reports the number of lines, words, and bytes for each given
1194 file, as well as a total line when more than one file is given</para>
1195 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils wc">
1196 <primary sortas="b-wc">wc</primary>
1197 </indexterm>
1198 </listitem>
1199 </varlistentry>
1200
1201 <varlistentry id="who">
1202 <term><command>who</command></term>
1203 <listitem>
1204 <para>Reports who is logged on</para>
1205 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils who">
1206 <primary sortas="b-who">who</primary>
1207 </indexterm>
1208 </listitem>
1209 </varlistentry>
1210
1211 <varlistentry id="whoami">
1212 <term><command>whoami</command></term>
1213 <listitem>
1214 <para>Reports the user name associated with the current effective
1215 user ID</para>
1216 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils whoami">
1217 <primary sortas="b-whoami">whoami</primary>
1218 </indexterm>
1219 </listitem>
1220 </varlistentry>
1221
1222 <varlistentry id="yes">
1223 <term><command>yes</command></term>
1224 <listitem>
1225 <para>Repeatedly outputs <quote>y</quote> or a given string until
1226 killed</para>
1227 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils yes">
1228 <primary sortas="b-yes">yes</primary>
1229 </indexterm>
1230 </listitem>
1231 </varlistentry>
1232
1233 <varlistentry id="libstdbuf">
1234 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libstdbuf</filename></term>
1235 <listitem>
1236 <para>Library used by <command>stdbuf</command></para>
1237 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils libstdbuf">
1238 <primary sortas="c-libstdbuf">libstdbuf</primary>
1239 </indexterm>
1240 </listitem>
1241 </varlistentry>
1242
1243 </variablelist>
1244
1245 </sect2>
1246
1247</sect1>
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