source: chapter06/createfiles.xml@ 5bf238b

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Last change on this file since 5bf238b was 5bf238b, checked in by Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs@…>, 6 years ago

Update to mpfr-3.1.4.
Update to linux-4.4.4.
Update to pkg-config-0.29.1.
Update to tcl-6.8.5.
Remove --disable-profile from Glibc instructions.
Create /var/log/faillog.
Remove --enable-obsolete-rpc from Chapter 5 glibc

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/trunk/BOOK@11034 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-createfiles">
9 <?dbhtml filename="createfiles.html"?>
10
11 <title>Creating Essential Files and Symlinks</title>
12
13 <indexterm zone="ch-system-createfiles">
14 <primary sortas="e-/etc/passwd">/etc/passwd</primary>
15 </indexterm>
16
17 <indexterm zone="ch-system-createfiles">
18 <primary sortas="e-/etc/group">/etc/group</primary>
19 </indexterm>
20
21 <indexterm zone="ch-system-createfiles">
22 <primary sortas="e-/var/run/utmp">/var/run/utmp</primary>
23 </indexterm>
24
25 <indexterm zone="ch-system-createfiles">
26 <primary sortas="e-/var/log/btmp">/var/log/btmp</primary>
27 </indexterm>
28
29 <indexterm zone="ch-system-createfiles">
30 <primary sortas="e-/var/log/lastlog">/var/log/lastlog</primary>
31 </indexterm>
32
33 <indexterm zone="ch-system-createfiles">
34 <primary sortas="e-/var/log/wtmp">/var/log/wtmp</primary>
35 </indexterm>
36
37 <para>Some programs use hard-wired paths to programs which do not exist yet. In
38 order to satisfy these programs, create a number of symbolic links which will be
39 replaced by real files throughout the course of this chapter after the software
40 has been installed:</para>
41
42<screen><userinput>ln -sv /tools/bin/{bash,cat,echo,pwd,stty} /bin
43ln -sv /tools/bin/perl /usr/bin
44ln -sv /tools/lib/libgcc_s.so{,.1} /usr/lib
45ln -sv /tools/lib/libstdc++.so{,.6} /usr/lib
46sed 's/tools/usr/' /tools/lib/libstdc++.la > /usr/lib/libstdc++.la
47ln -sv bash /bin/sh</userinput></screen>
48
49 <variablelist>
50 <title>The purpose of each link:</title>
51
52 <varlistentry>
53 <term><parameter><filename>/bin/bash</filename></parameter></term>
54 <listitem>
55 <para>Many <command>bash</command> scripts specify
56 <filename>/bin/bash</filename>.</para>
57 </listitem>
58 </varlistentry>
59
60 <varlistentry>
61 <term><parameter><filename>/bin/cat</filename></parameter></term>
62 <listitem>
63 <para>This pathname is hard-coded into Glibc's configure script.</para>
64 </listitem>
65 </varlistentry>
66
67 <varlistentry>
68 <term><parameter><filename>/bin/echo</filename></parameter></term>
69 <listitem>
70 <para>This is to satisfy one of the tests in Glibc's test suite, which
71 expects <filename>/bin/echo</filename>.</para>
72 </listitem>
73 </varlistentry>
74
75 <varlistentry>
76 <term><parameter><filename>/bin/pwd</filename></parameter></term>
77 <listitem>
78 <para>Some <command>configure</command> scripts, particularly Glibc's,
79 have this pathname hard-coded.</para>
80 </listitem>
81 </varlistentry>
82
83 <varlistentry>
84 <term><parameter><filename>/bin/stty</filename></parameter></term>
85 <listitem>
86 <para>This pathname is hard-coded into Expect, therefore it is needed
87 for Binutils and GCC test suites to pass.</para>
88 </listitem>
89 </varlistentry>
90
91 <varlistentry>
92 <term><parameter><filename>/usr/bin/perl</filename></parameter></term>
93 <listitem>
94 <para>Many Perl scripts hard-code this path to the
95 <command>perl</command> program.</para>
96 </listitem>
97 </varlistentry>
98
99 <varlistentry>
100 <term><parameter><filename>/usr/lib/libgcc_s.so{,.1}</filename></parameter></term>
101 <listitem>
102 <para>Glibc needs this for the pthreads library to work.</para>
103 </listitem>
104 </varlistentry>
105
106 <varlistentry>
107 <term><parameter><filename>/usr/lib/libstdc++{,.6}</filename></parameter></term>
108 <listitem>
109 <para>This is needed by several tests in Glibc's test suite, as well as
110 for C++ support in GMP.</para>
111 </listitem>
112 </varlistentry>
113
114 <varlistentry>
115 <term><parameter><filename>/usr/lib/libstdc++.la</filename></parameter></term>
116 <listitem>
117 <para>This prevents a <filename class="directory">/tools</filename>
118 reference that would otherwise be in
119 <filename>/usr/lib/libstdc++.la</filename> after GCC is installed.</para>
120 </listitem>
121 </varlistentry>
122
123 <varlistentry>
124 <term><parameter><filename>/bin/sh</filename></parameter></term>
125 <listitem>
126 <para>Many shell scripts hard-code <filename>/bin/sh</filename>.</para>
127 </listitem>
128 </varlistentry>
129
130 </variablelist>
131
132 <para>Historically, Linux maintains a list of the mounted file systems in the
133 file <filename>/etc/mtab</filename>. Modern kernels maintain this list
134 internally and exposes it to the user via the <filename
135 class="directory">/proc</filename> filesystem. To satisfy utilities that
136 expect the presence of <filename>/etc/mtab</filename>, create the following
137 symbolic link:</para>
138
139<screen><userinput>ln -sv /proc/self/mounts /etc/mtab</userinput></screen>
140
141 <para>In order for user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> to be
142 able to login and for the name <quote>root</quote> to be recognized, there
143 must be relevant entries in the <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> and
144 <filename>/etc/group</filename> files.</para>
145
146 <para>Create the <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> file by running the following
147 command:</para>
148
149<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/passwd &lt;&lt; "EOF"
150<literal>root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
151bin:x:1:1:bin:/dev/null:/bin/false
152daemon:x:6:6:Daemon User:/dev/null:/bin/false
153messagebus:x:18:18:D-Bus Message Daemon User:/var/run/dbus:/bin/false
154nobody:x:99:99:Unprivileged User:/dev/null:/bin/false</literal>
155EOF</userinput></screen>
156
157 <para>The actual password for <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>
158 (the <quote>x</quote> used here is just a placeholder) will be set later.</para>
159
160 <para>Create the <filename>/etc/group</filename> file by running the following
161 command:</para>
162
163<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/group &lt;&lt; "EOF"
164<literal>root:x:0:
165bin:x:1:daemon
166sys:x:2:
167kmem:x:3:
168tape:x:4:
169tty:x:5:
170daemon:x:6:
171floppy:x:7:
172disk:x:8:
173lp:x:9:
174dialout:x:10:
175audio:x:11:
176video:x:12:
177utmp:x:13:
178usb:x:14:
179cdrom:x:15:
180adm:x:16:
181messagebus:x:18:
182systemd-journal:x:23:
183input:x:24:
184mail:x:34:
185nogroup:x:99:
186users:x:999:</literal>
187EOF</userinput></screen>
188
189 <para>The created groups are not part of any standard&mdash;they are groups
190 decided on in part by the requirements of the Udev configuration in this
191 chapter, and in part by common convention employed by a number of existing
192 Linux distributions. In addition, some test suites rely on specific users
193 or groups. The Linux Standard Base (LSB, available at <ulink
194 url="http://www.linuxbase.org"/>) recommends only that, besides the group
195 <systemitem class="groupname">root</systemitem> with a Group ID (GID) of 0,
196 a group <systemitem class="groupname">bin</systemitem> with a GID of 1 be
197 present. All other group names and GIDs can be chosen freely by the system
198 administrator since well-written programs do not depend on GID numbers, but
199 rather use the group's name.</para>
200
201 <para>To remove the <quote>I have no name!</quote> prompt, start a new
202 shell. Since a full Glibc was installed in <xref
203 linkend="chapter-temporary-tools"/> and the
204 <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> and <filename>/etc/group</filename>
205 files have been created, user name and group name resolution will now
206 work:</para>
207
208<screen role="nodump"><userinput>exec /tools/bin/bash --login +h</userinput></screen>
209
210 <para>Note the use of the <parameter>+h</parameter> directive. This tells
211 <command>bash</command> not to use its internal path hashing. Without this
212 directive, <command>bash</command> would remember the paths to binaries it has
213 executed. To ensure the use of the newly compiled binaries as soon as they are
214 installed, the <parameter>+h</parameter> directive will be used for the duration
215 of this chapter.</para>
216
217 <para>The <command>login</command>, <command>agetty</command>, and
218 <command>init</command> programs (and others) use a number of log
219 files to record information such as who was logged into the system and
220 when. However, these programs will not write to the log files if they
221 do not already exist. Initialize the log files and give them
222 proper permissions:</para>
223
224<screen><userinput>touch /var/log/{btmp,lastlog,faillog,wtmp}
225chgrp -v utmp /var/log/lastlog
226chmod -v 664 /var/log/lastlog
227chmod -v 600 /var/log/btmp</userinput></screen>
228
229 <para>The <filename>/var/log/wtmp</filename> file records all logins and
230 logouts. The <filename>/var/log/lastlog</filename> file records when each
231 user last logged in. The <filename>/var/log/faillog</filename> file records
232 failed login attempts. The <filename>/var/log/btmp</filename> file records
233 the bad login attempts.</para>
234
235 <note><para>The <filename>/run/utmp</filename> file records the users that
236 are currently logged in. This file is created dynamically in the boot
237 scripts.</para></note>
238
239</sect1>
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