source: chapter06/gcc.xml@ 131c907

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Last change on this file since 131c907 was 131c907, checked in by DJ Lucas <dj@…>, 6 years ago

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-gcc" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="gcc.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>gcc</productname>
13 <productnumber>&gcc-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&gcc-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>GCC-&gcc-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc">
20 <primary sortas="a-GCC">GCC</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The GCC package contains the GNU compiler collection, which includes
27 the C and C++ compilers.</para>
28
29 <segmentedlist>
30 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
31 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
32
33 <seglistitem>
34 <seg>&gcc-ch6-sbu;</seg>
35 <seg>&gcc-ch6-du;</seg>
36 </seglistitem>
37 </segmentedlist>
38
39 </sect2>
40
41 <sect2 role="installation">
42 <title>Installation of GCC</title>
43<!--
44 <para>First apply some fixes from the upstream repository:</para>
45
46<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&gcc-upstream-patch;</userinput></screen>
47-->
48 <para>The GCC documentation recommends building GCC outside of the source
49 directory in a dedicated build directory:</para>
50
51<screen><userinput remap="pre">mkdir -v ../gcc-build
52cd ../gcc-build</userinput></screen>
53
54 <para>Prepare GCC for compilation:</para>
55
56<screen><userinput remap="configure">SED=sed \
57../gcc-&gcc-version;/configure \
58 --prefix=/usr \
59 --enable-languages=c,c++ \
60 --disable-multilib \
61 --disable-bootstrap \
62 --with-system-zlib</userinput></screen>
63
64 <para>Note that for other languages, there are some prerequisites that
65 are not yet available. See the
66 <ulink url="&blfs-book;general/gcc.html">BLFS Book</ulink>
67 for instructions on how to build all of GCC's supported languages.</para>
68
69 <variablelist>
70 <title>The meaning of the new configure option:</title>
71
72 <varlistentry>
73 <term><envar>SED=sed</envar></term>
74 <listitem>
75 <para>Setting this environment variable prevents a hard-coded
76 path to /tools/bin/sed.</para>
77 </listitem>
78 </varlistentry>
79
80 <varlistentry>
81 <term><parameter>--with-system-zlib</parameter></term>
82 <listitem>
83 <para>This switch tells GCC to link to the system installed copy of
84 the Zlib library, rather than its own internal copy.</para>
85 </listitem>
86 </varlistentry>
87 </variablelist>
88
89 <para>Compile the package:</para>
90
91<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
92
93 <important>
94 <para>In this section, the test suite for GCC is considered
95 critical. Do not skip it under any circumstance.</para>
96 </important>
97
98 <para>One set of tests in the GCC test suite is known to exhaust the stack,
99 so increase the stack size prior to running the tests:</para>
100
101<screen><userinput remap="test">ulimit -s 32768</userinput></screen>
102
103 <para>Test the results, but do not stop at errors:</para>
104
105<screen><userinput remap="test">make -k check</userinput></screen>
106
107 <para>To receive a summary of the test suite results, run:</para>
108
109<screen><userinput remap="test">../gcc-&gcc-version;/contrib/test_summary</userinput></screen>
110
111 <para>For only the summaries, pipe the output through
112 <userinput>grep -A7 Summ</userinput>.</para>
113
114 <para>Results can be compared with those located at <ulink
115 url="&test-results;"/> and <ulink url="http://gcc.gnu.org/ml/gcc-testresults/"/>.</para>
116
117 <para>A few unexpected failures cannot always be avoided. The GCC developers
118 are usually aware of these issues, but have not resolved them yet.
119 In particular, two tests in the libstdc++ test suite are known to fail
120 when running as the root user as we do here.
121 Unless the test results are vastly different from those at the above URL,
122 it is safe to continue.</para>
123
124 <para>Install the package:</para>
125
126<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
127
128 <para>Some packages expect the C preprocessor to be installed in the
129 <filename class="directory">/lib</filename> directory.
130 To support those packages, create this symlink:</para>
131
132<screen><userinput remap="install">ln -sv ../usr/bin/cpp /lib</userinput></screen>
133
134 <para>Many packages use the name <command>cc</command> to call the C
135 compiler. To satisfy those packages, create a symlink:</para>
136
137<screen><userinput remap="install">ln -sv gcc /usr/bin/cc</userinput></screen>
138
139 <para>Add a compatibility symlink to enable building programs with
140 Link Time Optimization (LTO):</para>
141
142<screen><userinput remap="install">install -v -dm755 /usr/lib/bfd-plugins
143ln -sfv ../../libexec/gcc/$(gcc -dumpmachine)/&gcc-version;/liblto_plugin.so \
144 /usr/lib/bfd-plugins/</userinput></screen>
145
146 <para>Now that our final toolchain is in place, it is important to again ensure
147 that compiling and linking will work as expected. We do this by performing
148 the same sanity checks as we did earlier in the chapter:</para>
149
150 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
151 href="adjusting.xml"
152 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='a'])"/>
153
154 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
155 href="adjusting.xml"
156 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='b'])"/>
157
158 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
159 href="adjusting.xml"
160 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='c'])"/>
161
162 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
163 href="adjusting.xml"
164 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='d'])"/>
165
166 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
167 href="adjusting.xml"
168 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='e'])"/>
169
170 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
171 href="adjusting.xml"
172 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='f'])"/>
173
174<screen><computeroutput>/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/&gcc-version;/../../../crt1.o succeeded
175/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/&gcc-version;/../../../crti.o succeeded
176/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/&gcc-version;/../../../crtn.o succeeded</computeroutput></screen>
177
178 <para>Depending on your machine architecture, the above may differ slightly,
179 the difference usually being the name of the directory
180 after <filename class="directory">/usr/lib/gcc</filename>. If your machine is
181 a 64-bit system, you may also see a directory named <filename class="directory">lib64</filename>
182 towards the end of the string. The important thing to
183 look for here is that <command>gcc</command> has found all three
184 <filename>crt*.o</filename> files under the
185 <filename class="directory">/usr/lib</filename> directory.</para>
186
187 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
188 href="adjusting.xml"
189 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='g'])"/>
190
191<screen><userinput>grep -B4 '^ /usr/include' dummy.log</userinput></screen>
192
193 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
194 href="adjusting.xml"
195 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='h'])"/>
196
197<screen><computeroutput>#include &lt;...&gt; search starts here:
198 /usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/&gcc-version;/include
199 /usr/local/include
200 /usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/&gcc-version;/include-fixed
201 /usr/include</computeroutput></screen>
202
203 <para>Again, note that the directory named after your target triplet may be
204 different than the above, depending on your architecture.</para>
205
206 <note><para>As of version 4.3.0, GCC now unconditionally installs the
207 <filename>limits.h</filename> file into the private
208 <filename class="directory">include-fixed</filename> directory, and that
209 directory is required to be in place.</para></note>
210
211 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
212 href="adjusting.xml"
213 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='i'])"/>
214
215 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
216 href="adjusting.xml"
217 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='j'])"/>
218
219 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
220 href="adjusting.xml"
221 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='k'])"/>
222
223<screen><computeroutput>SEARCH_DIR("/usr/i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib32")
224SEARCH_DIR("/usr/local/lib32")
225SEARCH_DIR("/lib32")
226SEARCH_DIR("/usr/lib32")
227SEARCH_DIR("/usr/i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib")
228SEARCH_DIR("/usr/local/lib")
229SEARCH_DIR("/lib")
230SEARCH_DIR("/usr/lib");</computeroutput></screen>
231
232 <para>A 64-bit system may see a few different directories. For example, here
233 is the output from an x86_64 machine:</para>
234
235<screen><computeroutput>SEARCH_DIR("/usr/x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib64")
236SEARCH_DIR("/usr/local/lib64")
237SEARCH_DIR("/lib64")
238SEARCH_DIR("/usr/lib64")
239SEARCH_DIR("/usr/x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib")
240SEARCH_DIR("/usr/local/lib")
241SEARCH_DIR("/lib")
242SEARCH_DIR("/usr/lib");</computeroutput></screen>
243
244 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
245 href="adjusting.xml"
246 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='l'])"/>
247
248 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
249 href="adjusting.xml"
250 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='m'])"/>
251
252 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
253 href="adjusting.xml"
254 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='n'])"/>
255
256 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
257 href="adjusting.xml"
258 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='o'])"/>
259
260 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
261 href="adjusting.xml"
262 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='p'])"/>
263
264 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
265 href="adjusting.xml"
266 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='q'])"/>
267
268 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
269 href="adjusting.xml"
270 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='r'])"/>
271
272 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
273 href="adjusting.xml"
274 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='s'])"/>
275
276 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
277 href="adjusting.xml"
278 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='t'])"/>
279
280 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
281 href="adjusting.xml"
282 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='u'])"/>
283
284 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
285 href="adjusting.xml"
286 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='v'])"/>
287
288 <para>Finally, move a misplaced file:</para>
289
290<screen><userinput remap="install">mkdir -pv /usr/share/gdb/auto-load/usr/lib
291mv -v /usr/lib/*gdb.py /usr/share/gdb/auto-load/usr/lib</userinput></screen>
292
293 </sect2>
294
295 <sect2 id="contents-gcc" role="content">
296 <title>Contents of GCC</title>
297
298 <segmentedlist>
299 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
300 <segtitle>Installed libraries</segtitle>
301 <segtitle>Installed directories</segtitle>
302
303 <seglistitem>
304 <seg>c++, cc (link to gcc), cpp, g++, gcc,
305 gcc-ar, gcc-nm, gcc-ranlib, and gcov</seg>
306
307 <seg>libasan.{a,so}, libatomic.{a,so}, libgcc.a, libgcc_eh.a,
308 libgcc_s.so, libgcov.a, libgomp.{a,so}, libiberty.a, libitm.{a,so},
309 liblto_plugin.so,
310 libquadmath.{a,so}, libssp.{a,so},
311 libssp_nonshared.a, libstdc++.{a,so}, libsupc++.a, and libtsan.{a,so}</seg>
312
313 <seg>/usr/include/c++, /usr/lib/gcc, /usr/libexec/gcc, and
314 /usr/share/gcc-&gcc-version;</seg>
315 </seglistitem>
316 </segmentedlist>
317
318 <variablelist>
319 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
320 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
321 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
322
323 <varlistentry id="c">
324 <term><command>c++</command></term>
325 <listitem>
326 <para>The C++ compiler</para>
327 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc c">
328 <primary sortas="b-c++">c++</primary>
329 </indexterm>
330 </listitem>
331 </varlistentry>
332
333 <varlistentry id="cc">
334 <term><command>cc</command></term>
335 <listitem>
336 <para>The C compiler</para>
337 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc cc">
338 <primary sortas="b-cc">cc</primary>
339 </indexterm>
340 </listitem>
341 </varlistentry>
342
343 <varlistentry id="cpp">
344 <term><command>cpp</command></term>
345 <listitem>
346 <para>The C preprocessor; it is used by the compiler to expand the
347 #include, #define, and similar statements in the source files</para>
348 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc cpp">
349 <primary sortas="b-cpp">cpp</primary>
350 </indexterm>
351 </listitem>
352 </varlistentry>
353
354 <varlistentry id="g">
355 <term><command>g++</command></term>
356 <listitem>
357 <para>The C++ compiler</para>
358 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc g">
359 <primary sortas="b-g++">g++</primary>
360 </indexterm>
361 </listitem>
362 </varlistentry>
363
364 <varlistentry id="gcc">
365 <term><command>gcc</command></term>
366 <listitem>
367 <para>The C compiler</para>
368 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc gcc">
369 <primary sortas="b-gcc">gcc</primary>
370 </indexterm>
371 </listitem>
372 </varlistentry>
373
374 <varlistentry id="gcc-ar">
375 <term><command>gcc-ar</command></term>
376 <listitem>
377 <para>A wrapper around <command>ar</command> that adds a
378 plugin to the command line. This program is only used
379 to add "link time optimization" and is not useful with the
380 default build options</para>
381 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc gcc-ar">
382 <primary sortas="b-gcc-ar">gc-ar</primary>
383 </indexterm>
384 </listitem>
385 </varlistentry>
386
387 <varlistentry id="gcc-nm">
388 <term><command>gcc-nm</command></term>
389 <listitem>
390 <para>A wrapper around <command>nm</command> that adds a
391 plugin to the command line. This program is only used
392 to add "link time optimization" and is not useful with the
393 default build options</para>
394 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc gcc-nm">
395 <primary sortas="b-gcc-nm">gc-nm</primary>
396 </indexterm>
397 </listitem>
398 </varlistentry>
399
400 <varlistentry id="gcc-ranlib">
401 <term><command>gcc-ranlib</command></term>
402 <listitem>
403 <para>A wrapper around <command>ranlib</command> that adds a
404 plugin to the command line. This program is only used
405 to add "link time optimization" and is not useful with the
406 default build options</para>
407 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc gcc-ranlib">
408 <primary sortas="b-gcc-ranlib">gc-ranlib</primary>
409 </indexterm>
410 </listitem>
411 </varlistentry>
412
413 <varlistentry id="gcov">
414 <term><command>gcov</command></term>
415 <listitem>
416 <para>A coverage testing tool; it is used to analyze programs to
417 determine where optimizations will have the most effect</para>
418 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc gcov">
419 <primary sortas="b-gcov">gcov</primary>
420 </indexterm>
421 </listitem>
422 </varlistentry>
423
424 <varlistentry id="libasan">
425 <term><command>libasan</command></term>
426 <listitem>
427 <para>The Address Sanitizer runtime library</para>
428 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libasan">
429 <primary sortas="b-libasan">libasan</primary>
430 </indexterm>
431 </listitem>
432 </varlistentry>
433
434 <varlistentry id="libgcc">
435 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libgcc</filename></term>
436 <listitem>
437 <para>Contains run-time support for <command>gcc</command></para>
438 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libgcc">
439 <primary sortas="c-libgcc">libgcc</primary>
440 </indexterm>
441 </listitem>
442 </varlistentry>
443
444 <varlistentry id="libgcov">
445 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libgcov</filename></term>
446 <listitem>
447 <para>This library is linked in to a program when GCC is instructed
448 to enable profiling</para>
449 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libgcov">
450 <primary sortas="c-libgcov">libgcov</primary>
451 </indexterm>
452 </listitem>
453 </varlistentry>
454
455 <varlistentry id="libgomp">
456 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libgomp</filename></term>
457 <listitem>
458 <para>GNU implementation of the OpenMP API for multi-platform
459 shared-memory parallel programming in C/C++ and Fortran</para>
460 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libgomp">
461 <primary sortas="c-libgomp">libgomp</primary>
462 </indexterm>
463 </listitem>
464 </varlistentry>
465
466 <varlistentry id="libiberty">
467 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libiberty</filename></term>
468 <listitem>
469 <para>Contains routines used by various GNU programs, including
470 <command>getopt</command>, <command>obstack</command>,
471 <command>strerror</command>, <command>strtol</command>, and
472 <command>strtoul</command></para>
473 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libiberty">
474 <primary sortas="c-libiberty">libiberty</primary>
475 </indexterm>
476 </listitem>
477 </varlistentry>
478
479 <varlistentry id="liblto_plugin">
480 <term><filename class="libraryfile">liblto_plugin</filename></term>
481 <listitem>
482 <para>GCC's Link Time Optimization (LTO) plugin allows GCC to perform
483 optimizations across compilation units</para>
484 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc liblto_plugin">
485 <primary sortas="c-liblto_plugin">liblto_plugin</primary>
486 </indexterm>
487 </listitem>
488 </varlistentry>
489
490 <varlistentry id="libquadmath">
491 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libquadmath</filename></term>
492 <listitem>
493 <para>GCC Quad Precision Math Library API</para>
494 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libquadmath">
495 <primary sortas="c-libquadmath">libquadmath</primary>
496 </indexterm>
497 </listitem>
498 </varlistentry>
499
500 <varlistentry id="libssp">
501 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libssp</filename></term>
502 <listitem>
503 <para>Contains routines supporting GCC's stack-smashing protection
504 functionality</para>
505 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libssp">
506 <primary sortas="c-libssp">libssp</primary>
507 </indexterm>
508 </listitem>
509 </varlistentry>
510
511 <varlistentry id="libstdc">
512 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libstdc++</filename></term>
513 <listitem>
514 <para>The standard C++ library</para>
515 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libstdc">
516 <primary sortas="c-libstdc++">libstdc++</primary>
517 </indexterm>
518 </listitem>
519 </varlistentry>
520
521 <varlistentry id="libsupc">
522 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libsupc++</filename></term>
523 <listitem>
524 <para>Provides supporting routines for the C++ programming
525 language</para>
526 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libsupc">
527 <primary sortas="c-libsupc++">libsupc++</primary>
528 </indexterm>
529 </listitem>
530 </varlistentry>
531
532 <varlistentry id="libtsan">
533 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libtsan</filename></term>
534 <listitem>
535 <para>The Thread Sanitizer runtime library</para>
536 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libtsan">
537 <primary sortas="c-libtsan">libtsan</primary>
538 </indexterm>
539 </listitem>
540 </varlistentry>
541
542 </variablelist>
543
544 </sect2>
545
546</sect1>
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