source: chapter06/gcc.xml@ 751a13d

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Last change on this file since 751a13d was 751a13d, checked in by Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs@…>, 4 years ago

Touch up discussions of regression test failures in a few packages

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/trunk/BOOK@11368 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-gcc" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="gcc.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>gcc</productname>
13 <productnumber>&gcc-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&gcc-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>GCC-&gcc-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc">
20 <primary sortas="a-GCC">GCC</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The GCC package contains the GNU compiler collection, which includes
27 the C and C++ compilers.</para>
28
29 <segmentedlist>
30 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
31 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
32
33 <seglistitem>
34 <seg>&gcc-ch6-sbu;</seg>
35 <seg>&gcc-ch6-du;</seg>
36 </seglistitem>
37 </segmentedlist>
38
39 </sect2>
40
41 <sect2 role="installation">
42 <title>Installation of GCC</title>
43
44 <para>If building on x86_64, change the default directory name for 64-bit
45 libraries to <quote>lib</quote>:</para>
46
47<screen><userinput remap="pre">case $(uname -m) in
48 x86_64)
49 sed -e '/m64=/s/lib64/lib/' \
50 -i.orig gcc/config/i386/t-linux64
51 ;;
52esac</userinput></screen>
53
54 <para>Remove the symlink created earlier as the final gcc includes will be
55 installed here:</para>
56
57<screen><userinput remap="pre">rm -f /usr/lib/gcc</userinput></screen>
58
59 <para>The GCC documentation recommends building GCC in a dedicated build directory:</para>
60
61<screen><userinput remap="pre">mkdir -v build
62cd build</userinput></screen>
63
64 <para>Prepare GCC for compilation:</para>
65
66<screen><userinput remap="configure">SED=sed \
67../configure --prefix=/usr \
68 --enable-languages=c,c++ \
69 --disable-multilib \
70 --disable-bootstrap \
71 --with-system-zlib</userinput></screen>
72
73 <para>Note that for other languages, there are some prerequisites that
74 are not yet available. See the
75 <ulink url="&blfs-book;general/gcc.html">BLFS Book</ulink>
76 for instructions on how to build all of GCC's supported languages.</para>
77
78 <variablelist>
79 <title>The meaning of the new configure parameters:</title>
80
81 <varlistentry>
82 <term><envar>SED=sed</envar></term>
83 <listitem>
84 <para>Setting this environment variable prevents a hard-coded
85 path to /tools/bin/sed.</para>
86 </listitem>
87 </varlistentry>
88
89 <varlistentry>
90 <term><parameter>--with-system-zlib</parameter></term>
91 <listitem>
92 <para>This switch tells GCC to link to the system installed copy of
93 the Zlib library, rather than its own internal copy.</para>
94 </listitem>
95 </varlistentry>
96 </variablelist>
97
98 <para>Compile the package:</para>
99
100<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
101
102 <important>
103 <para>In this section, the test suite for GCC is considered
104 critical. Do not skip it under any circumstance.</para>
105 </important>
106
107 <para>One set of tests in the GCC test suite is known to exhaust the stack,
108 so increase the stack size prior to running the tests:</para>
109
110<screen><userinput remap="test">ulimit -s 32768</userinput></screen>
111
112 <para>Test the results, but do not stop at errors:</para>
113
114<screen><userinput remap="test">make -k check</userinput></screen>
115
116 <para>To receive a summary of the test suite results, run:</para>
117
118<screen><userinput remap="test">../contrib/test_summary</userinput></screen>
119
120 <para>For only the summaries, pipe the output through
121 <userinput>grep -A7 Summ</userinput>.</para>
122
123 <para>Results can be compared with those located at <ulink
124 url="&test-results;"/> and
125 <ulink url="http://gcc.gnu.org/ml/gcc-testresults/"/>.</para>
126
127 <para>A few unexpected failures cannot always be avoided. The GCC developers
128 are usually aware of these issues, but have not resolved them yet.
129 In particular, six tests in the libstdc++ test suite are known to fail
130 when running as the root user as we do here.
131 Unless the test results are vastly different from those at the above URL,
132 it is safe to continue.</para>
133
134 <note><para>
135 On some combinations of kernel configuration and AMD processors
136 there may be more than 1100 failures in the gcc.target/i386/mpx
137 tests (which are designed to test the MPX option on recent
138 Intel processors). These can safely be ignored on AMD
139 processors.
140 </para></note>
141
142 <para>Install the package:</para>
143
144<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
145
146 <para>Create a symlink required by the <ulink
147 url="http://refspecs.linuxfoundation.org/FHS_3.0/fhs/ch03s09.html">FHS</ulink>
148 for "historical" reasons.</para>
149
150<screen><userinput remap="install">ln -sv ../usr/bin/cpp /lib</userinput></screen>
151
152 <para>Many packages use the name <command>cc</command> to call the C
153 compiler. To satisfy those packages, create a symlink:</para>
154
155<screen><userinput remap="install">ln -sv gcc /usr/bin/cc</userinput></screen>
156
157 <para>Add a compatibility symlink to enable building programs with
158 Link Time Optimization (LTO):</para>
159
160<screen><userinput remap="install">install -v -dm755 /usr/lib/bfd-plugins
161ln -sfv ../../libexec/gcc/$(gcc -dumpmachine)/&gcc-version;/liblto_plugin.so \
162 /usr/lib/bfd-plugins/</userinput></screen>
163
164 <para>Now that our final toolchain is in place, it is important to again ensure
165 that compiling and linking will work as expected. We do this by performing
166 the same sanity checks as we did earlier in the chapter:</para>
167
168 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
169 href="adjusting.xml"
170 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='a'])"/>
171
172 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
173 href="adjusting.xml"
174 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='b'])"/>
175
176 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
177 href="adjusting.xml"
178 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='c'])"/>
179
180 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
181 href="adjusting.xml"
182 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='d'])"/>
183
184 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
185 href="adjusting.xml"
186 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='e'])"/>
187
188 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
189 href="adjusting.xml"
190 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='f'])"/>
191
192<screen><computeroutput>/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/&gcc-version;/../../../../lib/crt1.o succeeded
193/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/&gcc-version;/../../../../lib/crti.o succeeded
194/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/&gcc-version;/../../../../lib/crtn.o succeeded</computeroutput></screen>
195
196 <para>Depending on your machine architecture, the above may differ slightly,
197 the difference usually being the name of the directory
198 after <filename class="directory">/usr/lib/gcc</filename>. The important
199 thing to look for here is that <command>gcc</command> has found all three
200 <filename>crt*.o</filename> files under the
201 <filename class="directory">/usr/lib</filename> directory.</para>
202
203 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
204 href="adjusting.xml"
205 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='g'])"/>
206
207<screen><userinput>grep -B4 '^ /usr/include' dummy.log</userinput></screen>
208
209 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
210 href="adjusting.xml"
211 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='h'])"/>
212
213<screen><computeroutput>#include &lt;...&gt; search starts here:
214 /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/&gcc-version;/include
215 /usr/local/include
216 /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/&gcc-version;/include-fixed
217 /usr/include</computeroutput></screen>
218
219 <para>Again, note that the directory named after your target triplet may be
220 different than the above, depending on your architecture.</para>
221
222<!-- This appears to be obsolete
223
224 <note><para>As of version 4.3.0, GCC now unconditionally installs the
225 <filename>limits.h</filename> file into the private
226 <filename class="directory">include-fixed</filename> directory, and that
227 directory is required to be in place.</para></note>
228-->
229
230 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
231 href="adjusting.xml"
232 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='i'])"/>
233
234 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
235 href="adjusting.xml"
236 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='j'])"/>
237
238 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
239 href="adjusting.xml"
240 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='k'])"/>
241
242<screen><computeroutput>SEARCH_DIR("/usr/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/lib64")
243SEARCH_DIR("/usr/local/lib64")
244SEARCH_DIR("/lib64")
245SEARCH_DIR("/usr/lib64")
246SEARCH_DIR("/usr/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/lib")
247SEARCH_DIR("/usr/local/lib")
248SEARCH_DIR("/lib")
249SEARCH_DIR("/usr/lib");</computeroutput></screen>
250
251 <para>A 32-bit system may see a few different directories. For example, here
252 is the output from an i686 machine:</para>
253
254<screen><computeroutput>SEARCH_DIR("/usr/i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib32")
255SEARCH_DIR("/usr/local/lib32")
256SEARCH_DIR("/lib32")
257SEARCH_DIR("/usr/lib32")
258SEARCH_DIR("/usr/i686-pc-linux-gnu/lib")
259SEARCH_DIR("/usr/local/lib")
260SEARCH_DIR("/lib")
261SEARCH_DIR("/usr/lib");</computeroutput></screen>
262
263 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
264 href="adjusting.xml"
265 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='l'])"/>
266
267 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
268 href="adjusting.xml"
269 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='m'])"/>
270
271 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
272 href="adjusting.xml"
273 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='n'])"/>
274
275 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
276 href="adjusting.xml"
277 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='o'])"/>
278
279 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
280 href="adjusting.xml"
281 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='p'])"/>
282
283 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
284 href="adjusting.xml"
285 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='q'])"/>
286
287 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
288 href="adjusting.xml"
289 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='r'])"/>
290
291 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
292 href="adjusting.xml"
293 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='s'])"/>
294
295 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
296 href="adjusting.xml"
297 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='t'])"/>
298
299 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
300 href="adjusting.xml"
301 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='u'])"/>
302
303 <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude"
304 href="adjusting.xml"
305 xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='v'])"/>
306
307 <para>Finally, move a misplaced file:</para>
308
309<screen><userinput remap="install">mkdir -pv /usr/share/gdb/auto-load/usr/lib
310mv -v /usr/lib/*gdb.py /usr/share/gdb/auto-load/usr/lib</userinput></screen>
311
312 </sect2>
313
314 <sect2 id="contents-gcc" role="content">
315 <title>Contents of GCC</title>
316
317 <segmentedlist>
318 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
319 <segtitle>Installed libraries</segtitle>
320 <segtitle>Installed directories</segtitle>
321
322 <seglistitem>
323 <seg>c++, cc (link to gcc), cpp, g++, gcc,
324 gcc-ar, gcc-nm, gcc-ranlib, and gcov</seg>
325
326 <seg>libasan.{a,so}, libatomic.{a,so}, libgcc.a, libgcc_eh.a,
327 libgcc_s.so, libgcov.a, libgomp.{a,so}, libiberty.a, libitm.{a,so},
328 liblto_plugin.so,
329 libquadmath.{a,so}, libssp.{a,so},
330 libssp_nonshared.a, libstdc++.{a,so}, libsupc++.a, and libtsan.{a,so}</seg>
331
332 <seg>/usr/include/c++, /usr/lib/gcc, /usr/libexec/gcc, and
333 /usr/share/gcc-&gcc-version;</seg>
334 </seglistitem>
335 </segmentedlist>
336
337 <variablelist>
338 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
339 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
340 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
341
342 <varlistentry id="c">
343 <term><command>c++</command></term>
344 <listitem>
345 <para>The C++ compiler</para>
346 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc c">
347 <primary sortas="b-c++">c++</primary>
348 </indexterm>
349 </listitem>
350 </varlistentry>
351
352 <varlistentry id="cc">
353 <term><command>cc</command></term>
354 <listitem>
355 <para>The C compiler</para>
356 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc cc">
357 <primary sortas="b-cc">cc</primary>
358 </indexterm>
359 </listitem>
360 </varlistentry>
361
362 <varlistentry id="cpp">
363 <term><command>cpp</command></term>
364 <listitem>
365 <para>The C preprocessor; it is used by the compiler to expand the
366 #include, #define, and similar statements in the source files</para>
367 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc cpp">
368 <primary sortas="b-cpp">cpp</primary>
369 </indexterm>
370 </listitem>
371 </varlistentry>
372
373 <varlistentry id="g">
374 <term><command>g++</command></term>
375 <listitem>
376 <para>The C++ compiler</para>
377 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc g">
378 <primary sortas="b-g++">g++</primary>
379 </indexterm>
380 </listitem>
381 </varlistentry>
382
383 <varlistentry id="gcc">
384 <term><command>gcc</command></term>
385 <listitem>
386 <para>The C compiler</para>
387 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc gcc">
388 <primary sortas="b-gcc">gcc</primary>
389 </indexterm>
390 </listitem>
391 </varlistentry>
392
393 <varlistentry id="gcc-ar">
394 <term><command>gcc-ar</command></term>
395 <listitem>
396 <para>A wrapper around <command>ar</command> that adds a
397 plugin to the command line. This program is only used
398 to add "link time optimization" and is not useful with the
399 default build options</para>
400 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc gcc-ar">
401 <primary sortas="b-gcc-ar">gc-ar</primary>
402 </indexterm>
403 </listitem>
404 </varlistentry>
405
406 <varlistentry id="gcc-nm">
407 <term><command>gcc-nm</command></term>
408 <listitem>
409 <para>A wrapper around <command>nm</command> that adds a
410 plugin to the command line. This program is only used
411 to add "link time optimization" and is not useful with the
412 default build options</para>
413 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc gcc-nm">
414 <primary sortas="b-gcc-nm">gc-nm</primary>
415 </indexterm>
416 </listitem>
417 </varlistentry>
418
419 <varlistentry id="gcc-ranlib">
420 <term><command>gcc-ranlib</command></term>
421 <listitem>
422 <para>A wrapper around <command>ranlib</command> that adds a
423 plugin to the command line. This program is only used
424 to add "link time optimization" and is not useful with the
425 default build options</para>
426 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc gcc-ranlib">
427 <primary sortas="b-gcc-ranlib">gc-ranlib</primary>
428 </indexterm>
429 </listitem>
430 </varlistentry>
431
432 <varlistentry id="gcov">
433 <term><command>gcov</command></term>
434 <listitem>
435 <para>A coverage testing tool; it is used to analyze programs to
436 determine where optimizations will have the most effect</para>
437 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc gcov">
438 <primary sortas="b-gcov">gcov</primary>
439 </indexterm>
440 </listitem>
441 </varlistentry>
442
443 <varlistentry id="libasan">
444 <term><command>libasan</command></term>
445 <listitem>
446 <para>The Address Sanitizer runtime library</para>
447 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libasan">
448 <primary sortas="b-libasan">libasan</primary>
449 </indexterm>
450 </listitem>
451 </varlistentry>
452
453 <varlistentry id="libgcc">
454 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libgcc</filename></term>
455 <listitem>
456 <para>Contains run-time support for <command>gcc</command></para>
457 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libgcc">
458 <primary sortas="c-libgcc">libgcc</primary>
459 </indexterm>
460 </listitem>
461 </varlistentry>
462
463 <varlistentry id="libgcov">
464 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libgcov</filename></term>
465 <listitem>
466 <para>This library is linked in to a program when GCC is instructed
467 to enable profiling</para>
468 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libgcov">
469 <primary sortas="c-libgcov">libgcov</primary>
470 </indexterm>
471 </listitem>
472 </varlistentry>
473
474 <varlistentry id="libgomp">
475 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libgomp</filename></term>
476 <listitem>
477 <para>GNU implementation of the OpenMP API for multi-platform
478 shared-memory parallel programming in C/C++ and Fortran</para>
479 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libgomp">
480 <primary sortas="c-libgomp">libgomp</primary>
481 </indexterm>
482 </listitem>
483 </varlistentry>
484
485 <varlistentry id="libiberty">
486 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libiberty</filename></term>
487 <listitem>
488 <para>Contains routines used by various GNU programs, including
489 <command>getopt</command>, <command>obstack</command>,
490 <command>strerror</command>, <command>strtol</command>, and
491 <command>strtoul</command></para>
492 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libiberty">
493 <primary sortas="c-libiberty">libiberty</primary>
494 </indexterm>
495 </listitem>
496 </varlistentry>
497
498 <varlistentry id="liblto_plugin">
499 <term><filename class="libraryfile">liblto_plugin</filename></term>
500 <listitem>
501 <para>GCC's Link Time Optimization (LTO) plugin allows GCC to perform
502 optimizations across compilation units</para>
503 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc liblto_plugin">
504 <primary sortas="c-liblto_plugin">liblto_plugin</primary>
505 </indexterm>
506 </listitem>
507 </varlistentry>
508
509 <varlistentry id="libquadmath">
510 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libquadmath</filename></term>
511 <listitem>
512 <para>GCC Quad Precision Math Library API</para>
513 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libquadmath">
514 <primary sortas="c-libquadmath">libquadmath</primary>
515 </indexterm>
516 </listitem>
517 </varlistentry>
518
519 <varlistentry id="libssp">
520 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libssp</filename></term>
521 <listitem>
522 <para>Contains routines supporting GCC's stack-smashing protection
523 functionality</para>
524 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libssp">
525 <primary sortas="c-libssp">libssp</primary>
526 </indexterm>
527 </listitem>
528 </varlistentry>
529
530 <varlistentry id="libstdc">
531 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libstdc++</filename></term>
532 <listitem>
533 <para>The standard C++ library</para>
534 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libstdc">
535 <primary sortas="c-libstdc++">libstdc++</primary>
536 </indexterm>
537 </listitem>
538 </varlistentry>
539
540 <varlistentry id="libsupc">
541 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libsupc++</filename></term>
542 <listitem>
543 <para>Provides supporting routines for the C++ programming
544 language</para>
545 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libsupc">
546 <primary sortas="c-libsupc++">libsupc++</primary>
547 </indexterm>
548 </listitem>
549 </varlistentry>
550
551 <varlistentry id="libtsan">
552 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libtsan</filename></term>
553 <listitem>
554 <para>The Thread Sanitizer runtime library</para>
555 <indexterm zone="ch-system-gcc libtsan">
556 <primary sortas="c-libtsan">libtsan</primary>
557 </indexterm>
558 </listitem>
559 </varlistentry>
560
561 </variablelist>
562
563 </sect2>
564
565</sect1>
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