source: chapter06/glibc.xml@ 082bbce

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Last change on this file since 082bbce was 082bbce, checked in by Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs@…>, 3 years ago

Update to bison-3.3.2.
Update to meson-0.49.2.
Remove obsolete optio in zic commands in glibc page.
Separate symlink creation for glibc tests to avoid jhalfs build problem.

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/trunk/BOOK@11511 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

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File size: 35.8 KB
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-glibc" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="glibc.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>glibc</productname>
13 <productnumber>&glibc-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&glibc-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Glibc-&glibc-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc">
20 <primary sortas="a-Glibc">Glibc</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Glibc package contains the main C library. This library provides
27 the basic routines for allocating memory, searching directories, opening and
28 closing files, reading and writing files, string handling, pattern matching,
29 arithmetic, and so on.</para>
30
31 <segmentedlist>
32 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
33 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
34
35 <seglistitem>
36 <seg>&glibc-ch6-sbu;</seg>
37 <seg>&glibc-ch6-du;</seg>
38 </seglistitem>
39 </segmentedlist>
40
41 </sect2>
42
43 <sect2 role="installation">
44 <title>Installation of Glibc</title>
45
46 <note><para>The Glibc build system is self-contained and will install
47 perfectly, even though the compiler specs file and linker are still
48 pointing to <filename class="directory">/tools</filename>. The specs
49 and linker cannot be adjusted before the Glibc install because the
50 Glibc autoconf tests would give false results and defeat the goal
51 of achieving a clean build.</para></note>
52
53 <para>Some of the Glibc programs use the non-FHS compilant
54 <filename class="directory">/var/db</filename> directory to store
55 their runtime data. Apply the following patch to make such programs
56 store their runtime data in the FHS-compliant locations:</para>
57
58<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&glibc-fhs-patch;</userinput></screen>
59<!--
60 <para>Fix a minor security issue with glob functions:</para>
61
62<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&glibc-glob-patch;</userinput></screen>
63-->
64 <para>First create a compatibility symlink to avoid references to /tools in
65 our final glibc:</para>
66
67<screen><userinput remap="pre">ln -sfv /tools/lib/gcc /usr/lib</userinput></screen>
68
69 <para>Determine the GCC include directory and create a symlink for LSB
70 compliance. Additionally, for x86_64, create a compatibility symlink
71 required for the dynamic loader to function correctly:</para>
72
73<screen><userinput remap="pre">case $(uname -m) in
74 i?86) GCC_INCDIR=/usr/lib/gcc/$(uname -m)-pc-linux-gnu/&gcc-version;/include
75 ln -sfv ld-linux.so.2 /lib/ld-lsb.so.3
76 ;;
77 x86_64) GCC_INCDIR=/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/&gcc-version;/include
78 ln -sfv ../lib/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 /lib64
79 ln -sfv ../lib/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 /lib64/ld-lsb-x86-64.so.3
80 ;;
81esac</userinput></screen>
82
83 <para>Remove a file that may be left over from a previous build attempt:
84 </para>
85
86<screen><userinput remap="pre">rm -f /usr/include/limits.h</userinput></screen>
87
88 <para>The Glibc documentation recommends building Glibc
89 in a dedicated build directory:</para>
90
91<screen><userinput remap="pre">mkdir -v build
92cd build</userinput></screen>
93
94 <para>Prepare Glibc for compilation:</para>
95
96<screen><userinput remap="configure">CC="gcc -isystem $GCC_INCDIR -isystem /usr/include" \
97../configure --prefix=/usr \
98 --disable-werror \
99 --enable-kernel=&min-kernel; \
100 --enable-stack-protector=strong \
101 libc_cv_slibdir=/lib
102unset GCC_INCDIR</userinput></screen>
103
104 <variablelist>
105 <title>The meaning of the options and new configure parameters:</title>
106
107 <varlistentry>
108 <term><parameter>CC="gcc -isystem $GCC_INCDIR -isystem /usr/include"</parameter></term>
109 <listitem>
110 <para>Setting the location of both gcc and system include directories
111 avoids introduction of invalid paths in debugging symbols.</para>
112 </listitem>
113 </varlistentry>
114
115 <varlistentry>
116 <term><parameter>--disable-werror</parameter></term>
117 <listitem>
118 <para>This option disables the -Werror option passed to
119 GCC. This is necessary for running the test suite.</para>
120 </listitem>
121 </varlistentry>
122
123 <varlistentry>
124 <term><parameter>--enable-stack-protector=strong</parameter></term>
125 <listitem>
126 <para>This option increases system security by adding
127 extra code to check for buffer overflows, such as stack
128 smashing attacks.</para>
129 </listitem>
130 </varlistentry>
131
132 <varlistentry>
133 <term><parameter>libc_cv_slibdir=/lib</parameter></term>
134 <listitem>
135 <para>This variable sets the correct library for all
136 systems. We do not want lib64 to be used.</para>
137 </listitem>
138 </varlistentry>
139
140 </variablelist>
141
142 <para>Compile the package:</para>
143
144<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
145
146 <important>
147 <para>In this section, the test suite for Glibc is considered critical.
148 Do not skip it under any circumstance.</para>
149 </important>
150
151 <para>Generally a few tests do not pass. The test failures listed below
152 are usually safe to ignore.</para>
153
154<!-- Use remap="make" here to work around a jhalfs issue. -->
155<screen><userinput remap="make">case $(uname -m) in
156 i?86) ln -sfnv $PWD/elf/ld-linux.so.2 /lib ;;
157 x86_64) ln -sfnv $PWD/elf/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 /lib ;;
158esac</userinput></screen>
159
160 <note><para>The symbolic link above is needed to run the tests at this
161 stage of building in the chroot envirnment. It will be overwritten
162 in the install phase below.</para></note>
163
164<screen><userinput remap="test">make check</userinput></screen>
165
166 <para>You may see some test failures. The Glibc test suite is
167 somewhat dependent on the host system. This is a list of the most common
168 issues seen for some versions of LFS:</para>
169
170 <itemizedlist>
171
172 <listitem>
173 <para><emphasis>misc/tst-ttyname</emphasis>
174 is known to fail in the LFS chroot environment.</para>
175 </listitem>
176<!--
177 <listitem>
178 <para><emphasis>inet/tst-idna_name_classify</emphasis>
179 is known to fail in the LFS chroot environment.</para>
180 </listitem>
181-->
182 <listitem>
183 <para><emphasis>posix/tst-getaddrinfo4</emphasis> and
184 <emphasis>posix/tst-getaddrinfo5</emphasis>
185 may fail on some architectures.</para>
186 </listitem>
187
188 <listitem>
189 <para>The <emphasis>nss/tst-nss-files-hosts-multi</emphasis>
190 test may fail for reasons that have not been determined.</para>
191 </listitem>
192
193 <listitem>
194 <para>The <emphasis>rt/tst-cputimer{1,2,3}</emphasis> tests depend on
195 the host system kernel. Kernels 4.14.91&ndash;4.14.96,
196 4.19.13&ndash;4.19.18, and 4.20.0&ndash;4.20.5 are known to
197 casue these tests to fail.
198 </para>
199 </listitem>
200
201 <listitem>
202 <para>The math tests sometimes fail when running on
203 systems where the CPU is not a relatively new Intel or
204 AMD processor.</para>
205 </listitem>
206<!--
207 <listitem>
208 <para>The
209 <emphasis>nptl/tst-thread-affinity-{pthread,pthread2,sched}</emphasis>
210 tests may fail for reasons that have not been determined. </para>
211 </listitem>
212
213 <listitem>
214 <para>Other tests known to fail on some architectures are
215 malloc/tst-malloc-usable and nptl/tst-cleanupx4. </para>
216 </listitem>
217-->
218 </itemizedlist>
219
220 <para>Though it is a harmless message, the install stage of Glibc will
221 complain about the absence of <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename>.
222 Prevent this warning with:</para>
223
224<screen><userinput remap="install">touch /etc/ld.so.conf</userinput></screen>
225
226 <para>Fix the generated Makefile to skip an unneeded sanity check
227 that fails in the LFS partial environment:
228 </para>
229
230<screen><userinput remap="install">sed '/test-installation/s@$(PERL)@echo not running@' -i ../Makefile</userinput></screen>
231
232 <para>Install the package:</para>
233
234<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
235
236 <para>Install the configuration file and runtime directory for
237 <command>nscd</command>:</para>
238
239<screen><userinput remap="install">cp -v ../nscd/nscd.conf /etc/nscd.conf
240mkdir -pv /var/cache/nscd</userinput></screen>
241
242 <para revision="systemd">Install the systemd support files for
243 <command>nscd</command>:</para>
244
245 <screen revision="systemd"><userinput remap="install">install -v -Dm644 ../nscd/nscd.tmpfiles /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/nscd.conf
246install -v -Dm644 ../nscd/nscd.service /lib/systemd/system/nscd.service</userinput></screen>
247
248 <para>Next, install the locales that can make the system respond in a
249 different language. None of the locales are required, but if some of them
250 are missing, the test suites of future packages would skip important
251 testcases.</para>
252
253 <para>Individual locales can be installed using the
254 <command>localedef</command> program. E.g., the first
255 <command>localedef</command> command below combines the
256 <filename>/usr/share/i18n/locales/cs_CZ</filename>
257 charset-independent locale definition with the
258 <filename>/usr/share/i18n/charmaps/UTF-8.gz</filename>
259 charmap definition and appends the result to the
260 <filename>/usr/lib/locale/locale-archive</filename> file.
261 The following instructions will install the minimum set of
262 locales necessary for the optimal coverage of tests:</para>
263
264<screen role="nodump"><userinput remap="locale-test">mkdir -pv /usr/lib/locale
265localedef -i cs_CZ -f UTF-8 cs_CZ.UTF-8
266localedef -i de_DE -f ISO-8859-1 de_DE
267localedef -i de_DE@euro -f ISO-8859-15 de_DE@euro
268localedef -i de_DE -f UTF-8 de_DE.UTF-8
269localedef -i en_GB -f UTF-8 en_GB.UTF-8
270localedef -i en_HK -f ISO-8859-1 en_HK
271localedef -i en_PH -f ISO-8859-1 en_PH
272localedef -i en_US -f ISO-8859-1 en_US
273localedef -i en_US -f UTF-8 en_US.UTF-8
274localedef -i es_MX -f ISO-8859-1 es_MX
275localedef -i fa_IR -f UTF-8 fa_IR
276localedef -i fr_FR -f ISO-8859-1 fr_FR
277localedef -i fr_FR@euro -f ISO-8859-15 fr_FR@euro
278localedef -i fr_FR -f UTF-8 fr_FR.UTF-8
279localedef -i it_IT -f ISO-8859-1 it_IT
280localedef -i it_IT -f UTF-8 it_IT.UTF-8
281localedef -i ja_JP -f EUC-JP ja_JP
282localedef -i ru_RU -f KOI8-R ru_RU.KOI8-R
283localedef -i ru_RU -f UTF-8 ru_RU.UTF-8
284localedef -i tr_TR -f UTF-8 tr_TR.UTF-8
285localedef -i zh_CN -f GB18030 zh_CN.GB18030</userinput></screen>
286
287 <para>In addition, install the locale for your own country, language and
288 character set.</para>
289
290 <para>Alternatively, install all locales listed in the
291 <filename>glibc-&glibc-version;/localedata/SUPPORTED</filename> file
292 (it includes every locale listed above and many more) at once with the
293 following time-consuming command:</para>
294
295<screen><userinput remap="locale-full">make localedata/install-locales</userinput></screen>
296
297 <para>Then use the <command>localedef</command> command to create and
298 install locales not listed in the
299 <filename>glibc-&glibc-version;/localedata/SUPPORTED</filename> file
300 in the unlikely case you need them.</para>
301
302 <note><para>Glibc now uses libidn2 when resolving internationalized
303 domain names. This is a run time dependency. If this capability
304 is needed, the instrucions for installing libidn2 are in the
305 <ulink url="&blfs-book;general/libidn2.html">BLFS libidn2 page</ulink>.
306 </para></note>
307
308 </sect2>
309
310 <sect2 id="conf-glibc" role="configuration">
311 <title>Configuring Glibc</title>
312
313 <indexterm zone="conf-glibc">
314 <primary sortas="e-/etc/nsswitch.conf">/etc/nsswitch.conf</primary>
315 </indexterm>
316
317 <indexterm zone="conf-glibc">
318 <primary sortas="e-/etc/localtime">/etc/localtime</primary>
319 </indexterm>
320
321 <sect3>
322 <title>Adding nsswitch.conf</title>
323
324 <para>The <filename>/etc/nsswitch.conf</filename> file needs to be created
325 because the Glibc defaults do not work well in a networked environment.
326 </para>
327
328 <para>Create a new file <filename>/etc/nsswitch.conf</filename> by running the
329 following:</para>
330
331<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/nsswitch.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
332<literal># Begin /etc/nsswitch.conf
333
334passwd: files
335group: files
336shadow: files
337
338hosts: files dns
339networks: files
340
341protocols: files
342services: files
343ethers: files
344rpc: files
345
346# End /etc/nsswitch.conf</literal>
347EOF</userinput></screen>
348
349 </sect3>
350
351 <sect3>
352 <title>Adding time zone data</title>
353
354 <para>Install and set up the time zone data with the following:</para>
355<screen><userinput>tar -xf ../../tzdata&tzdata-version;.tar.gz
356
357ZONEINFO=/usr/share/zoneinfo
358mkdir -pv $ZONEINFO/{posix,right}
359
360for tz in etcetera southamerica northamerica europe africa antarctica \
361 asia australasia backward pacificnew systemv; do
362 zic -L /dev/null -d $ZONEINFO ${tz}
363 zic -L /dev/null -d $ZONEINFO/posix ${tz}
364 zic -L leapseconds -d $ZONEINFO/right ${tz}
365done
366
367cp -v zone.tab zone1970.tab iso3166.tab $ZONEINFO
368zic -d $ZONEINFO -p America/New_York
369unset ZONEINFO</userinput></screen>
370
371 <variablelist>
372 <title>The meaning of the zic commands:</title>
373
374 <varlistentry>
375 <term><parameter>zic -L /dev/null ...</parameter></term>
376 <listitem>
377 <para>This creates posix time zones, without any leap seconds. It is
378 conventional to put these in both
379 <filename class="directory">zoneinfo</filename> and
380 <filename class="directory">zoneinfo/posix</filename>. It is
381 necessary to put the POSIX time zones in
382 <filename class="directory">zoneinfo</filename>, otherwise various
383 test-suites will report errors. On an embedded system, where space is
384 tight and you do not intend to ever update the time zones, you could save
385 1.9MB by not using the <filename class="directory">posix</filename>
386 directory, but some applications or test-suites might produce some
387 failures.</para>
388 </listitem>
389 </varlistentry>
390 <varlistentry>
391 <term><parameter>zic -L leapseconds ...</parameter></term>
392 <listitem>
393 <para>This creates right time zones, including leap seconds. On an
394 embedded system, where space is tight and you do not intend to
395 ever update the time zones, or care about the correct time, you could
396 save 1.9MB by omitting the <filename class="directory">right</filename>
397 directory.</para>
398 </listitem>
399 </varlistentry>
400 <varlistentry>
401 <term><parameter>zic ... -p ...</parameter></term>
402 <listitem>
403 <para>This creates the <filename>posixrules</filename> file. We use
404 New York because POSIX requires the daylight savings time rules
405 to be in accordance with US rules.</para>
406 </listitem>
407 </varlistentry>
408 </variablelist>
409
410
411 <para>One way to determine the local time zone is to run the following
412 script:</para>
413
414<screen role="nodump"><userinput>tzselect</userinput></screen>
415
416 <para>After answering a few questions about the location, the script will
417 output the name of the time zone (e.g.,
418 <emphasis>America/Edmonton</emphasis>). There are also some other possible
419 time zones listed in <filename
420 class='directory'>/usr/share/zoneinfo</filename> such as
421 <emphasis>Canada/Eastern</emphasis> or <emphasis>EST5EDT</emphasis> that
422 are not identified by the script but can be used.</para>
423
424 <para>Then create the <filename>/etc/localtime</filename> file by
425 running:</para>
426
427<screen revision="sysv"><userinput>cp -v /usr/share/zoneinfo/<replaceable>&lt;xxx&gt;</replaceable> /etc/localtime</userinput></screen>
428
429<screen revision="systemd"><userinput>ln -sfv /usr/share/zoneinfo/<replaceable>&lt;xxx&gt;</replaceable> /etc/localtime</userinput></screen>
430
431 <para>Replace <replaceable>&lt;xxx&gt;</replaceable> with the name of the
432 time zone selected (e.g., Canada/Eastern).</para>
433
434 </sect3>
435
436 <sect3 id="conf-ld" role="configuration">
437 <title>Configuring the Dynamic Loader</title>
438
439 <indexterm zone="conf-ld">
440 <primary sortas="e-/etc/ld.so.conf">/etc/ld.so.conf</primary>
441 </indexterm>
442
443 <para>By default, the dynamic loader (<filename
444 class="libraryfile">/lib/ld-linux.so.2</filename>) searches through
445 <filename class="directory">/lib</filename> and <filename
446 class="directory">/usr/lib</filename> for dynamic libraries that are
447 needed by programs as they are run. However, if there are libraries in
448 directories other than <filename class="directory">/lib</filename> and
449 <filename class="directory">/usr/lib</filename>, these need to be added
450 to the <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename> file in order for the
451 dynamic loader to find them. Two directories that are commonly known
452 to contain additional libraries are <filename
453 class="directory">/usr/local/lib</filename> and <filename
454 class="directory">/opt/lib</filename>, so add those directories to the
455 dynamic loader's search path.</para>
456
457 <para>Create a new file <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename> by running the
458 following:</para>
459
460<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/ld.so.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
461<literal># Begin /etc/ld.so.conf
462/usr/local/lib
463/opt/lib
464</literal>
465EOF</userinput></screen>
466
467 <para>If desired, the dynamic loader can also search a directory and
468 include the contents of files found there. Generally the files in
469 this include directory are one line specifying the desired library path.
470 To add this capability run the following commands:</para>
471
472<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt;&gt; /etc/ld.so.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
473<literal># Add an include directory
474include /etc/ld.so.conf.d/*.conf
475</literal>
476EOF
477mkdir -pv /etc/ld.so.conf.d</userinput></screen>
478
479 </sect3>
480 </sect2>
481
482 <sect2 id="contents-glibc" role="content">
483 <title>Contents of Glibc</title>
484
485 <segmentedlist>
486 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
487 <segtitle>Installed libraries</segtitle>
488 <segtitle>Installed directories</segtitle>
489
490 <seglistitem>
491 <seg>catchsegv, gencat, getconf, getent, iconv, iconvconfig, ldconfig,
492 ldd, lddlibc4, locale, localedef, makedb, mtrace, nscd,
493 pldd, sln, sotruss, sprof, tzselect, xtrace,
494 zdump, and zic</seg>
495 <seg>ld-&glibc-version;.so, libBrokenLocale.{a,so}, libSegFault.so, libanl.{a,so},
496 libc.{a,so}, libc_nonshared.a, libcidn.so,
497 libcrypt.{a,so}, libdl.{a,so}, libg.a, libieee.a, libm.{a,so},
498 libmcheck.a, libmemusage.so, libnsl.{a,so}, libnss_compat.so,
499 libnss_dns.so, libnss_files.so, libnss_hesiod.so, libnss_nis.so,
500 libnss_nisplus.so, libpthread.{a,so},
501 libpthread_nonshared.a, libresolv.{a,so}, librpcsvc.a, librt.{a,so},
502 libthread_db.so, and libutil.{a,so}</seg>
503 <seg>/usr/include/arpa, /usr/include/bits, /usr/include/gnu,
504 /usr/include/net, /usr/include/netash, /usr/include/netatalk,
505 /usr/include/netax25, /usr/include/neteconet, /usr/include/netinet,
506 /usr/include/netipx, /usr/include/netiucv, /usr/include/netpacket,
507 /usr/include/netrom, /usr/include/netrose, /usr/include/nfs,
508 /usr/include/protocols, /usr/include/rpc, /usr/include/rpcsvc,
509 /usr/include/sys, /usr/lib/audit, /usr/lib/gconv, /usr/lib/locale,
510 /usr/libexec/getconf, /usr/share/i18n, /usr/share/zoneinfo,
511 /var/cache/nscd, and /var/lib/nss_db</seg>
512 </seglistitem>
513 </segmentedlist>
514
515 <variablelist>
516 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
517 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
518 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
519
520 <varlistentry id="catchsegv">
521 <term><command>catchsegv</command></term>
522 <listitem>
523 <para>Can be used to create a stack trace when a program
524 terminates with a segmentation fault</para>
525 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc catchsegv">
526 <primary sortas="b-catchsegv">catchsegv</primary>
527 </indexterm>
528 </listitem>
529 </varlistentry>
530
531 <varlistentry id="gencat">
532 <term><command>gencat</command></term>
533 <listitem>
534 <para>Generates message catalogues</para>
535 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc gencat">
536 <primary sortas="b-gencat">gencat</primary>
537 </indexterm>
538 </listitem>
539 </varlistentry>
540
541 <varlistentry id="getconf">
542 <term><command>getconf</command></term>
543 <listitem>
544 <para>Displays the system configuration values for file system
545 specific variables</para>
546 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc getconf">
547 <primary sortas="b-getconf">getconf</primary>
548 </indexterm>
549 </listitem>
550 </varlistentry>
551
552 <varlistentry id="getent">
553 <term><command>getent</command></term>
554 <listitem>
555 <para>Gets entries from an administrative database</para>
556 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc getent">
557 <primary sortas="b-getent">getent</primary>
558 </indexterm>
559 </listitem>
560 </varlistentry>
561
562 <varlistentry id="iconv">
563 <term><command>iconv</command></term>
564 <listitem>
565 <para>Performs character set conversion</para>
566 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc iconv">
567 <primary sortas="b-iconv">iconv</primary>
568 </indexterm>
569 </listitem>
570 </varlistentry>
571
572 <varlistentry id="iconvconfig">
573 <term><command>iconvconfig</command></term>
574 <listitem>
575 <para>Creates fastloading <command>iconv</command> module configuration
576 files</para>
577 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc iconvconfig">
578 <primary sortas="b-iconvconfig">iconvconfig</primary>
579 </indexterm>
580 </listitem>
581 </varlistentry>
582
583 <varlistentry id="ldconfig">
584 <term><command>ldconfig</command></term>
585 <listitem>
586 <para>Configures the dynamic linker runtime bindings</para>
587 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ldconfig">
588 <primary sortas="b-ldconfig">ldconfig</primary>
589 </indexterm>
590 </listitem>
591 </varlistentry>
592
593 <varlistentry id="ldd">
594 <term><command>ldd</command></term>
595 <listitem>
596 <para>Reports which shared libraries are required
597 by each given program or shared library</para>
598 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ldd">
599 <primary sortas="b-ldd">ldd</primary>
600 </indexterm>
601 </listitem>
602 </varlistentry>
603
604 <varlistentry id="lddlibc4">
605 <term><command>lddlibc4</command></term>
606 <listitem>
607 <para>Assists <command>ldd</command> with object files</para>
608 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc lddlibc4">
609 <primary sortas="b-lddlibc4">lddlibc4</primary>
610 </indexterm>
611 </listitem>
612 </varlistentry>
613
614 <varlistentry id="locale">
615 <term><command>locale</command></term>
616 <listitem>
617 <para>Prints various information about the current locale</para>
618 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc locale">
619 <primary sortas="b-locale">locale</primary>
620 </indexterm>
621 </listitem>
622 </varlistentry>
623
624 <varlistentry id="localedef">
625 <term><command>localedef</command></term>
626 <listitem>
627 <para>Compiles locale specifications</para>
628 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc localedef">
629 <primary sortas="b-localedef">localedef</primary>
630 </indexterm>
631 </listitem>
632 </varlistentry>
633
634 <varlistentry id="makedb">
635 <term><command>makedb</command></term>
636 <listitem>
637 <para>Creates a simple database from textual input</para>
638 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc makedb">
639 <primary sortas="b-makedb">makedb</primary>
640 </indexterm>
641 </listitem>
642 </varlistentry>
643
644 <varlistentry id="mtrace">
645 <term><command>mtrace</command></term>
646 <listitem>
647 <para>Reads and interprets a memory trace file and displays a summary
648 in human-readable format</para>
649 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc mtrace">
650 <primary sortas="b-mtrace">mtrace</primary>
651 </indexterm>
652 </listitem>
653 </varlistentry>
654
655 <varlistentry id="nscd">
656 <term><command>nscd</command></term>
657 <listitem>
658 <para>A daemon that provides a cache for the most common name
659 service requests</para>
660 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc nscd">
661 <primary sortas="b-nscd">nscd</primary>
662 </indexterm>
663 </listitem>
664 </varlistentry>
665
666 <varlistentry id="pldd">
667 <term><command>pldd</command></term>
668 <listitem>
669 <para>Lists dynamic shared objects used by running processes</para>
670 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc pldd">
671 <primary sortas="b-pldd">pldd</primary>
672 </indexterm>
673 </listitem>
674 </varlistentry>
675
676 <varlistentry id="sln">
677 <term><command>sln</command></term>
678 <listitem>
679 <para>A statically linked <command>ln</command> program</para>
680 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc sln">
681 <primary sortas="b-sln">sln</primary>
682 </indexterm>
683 </listitem>
684 </varlistentry>
685
686 <varlistentry id="sotruss">
687 <term><command>sotruss</command></term>
688 <listitem>
689 <para>Traces shared library procedure calls of a specified command</para>
690 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc sotruss">
691 <primary sortas="b-sotruss">sotruss</primary>
692 </indexterm>
693 </listitem>
694 </varlistentry>
695
696 <varlistentry id="sprof">
697 <term><command>sprof</command></term>
698 <listitem>
699 <para>Reads and displays shared object profiling data</para>
700 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc sprof">
701 <primary sortas="b-sprof">sprof</primary>
702 </indexterm>
703 </listitem>
704 </varlistentry>
705
706 <varlistentry id="tzselect">
707 <term><command>tzselect</command></term>
708 <listitem>
709 <para>Asks the user about the location of the system and reports
710 the corresponding time zone description</para>
711 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc tzselect">
712 <primary sortas="b-tzselect">tzselect</primary>
713 </indexterm>
714 </listitem>
715 </varlistentry>
716
717 <varlistentry id="xtrace">
718 <term><command>xtrace</command></term>
719 <listitem>
720 <para>Traces the execution of a program by printing the currently
721 executed function</para>
722 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc xtrace">
723 <primary sortas="b-xtrace">xtrace</primary>
724 </indexterm>
725 </listitem>
726 </varlistentry>
727
728 <varlistentry id="zdump">
729 <term><command>zdump</command></term>
730 <listitem>
731 <para>The time zone dumper</para>
732 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc zdump">
733 <primary sortas="b-zdump">zdump</primary>
734 </indexterm>
735 </listitem>
736 </varlistentry>
737
738 <varlistentry id="zic">
739 <term><command>zic</command></term>
740 <listitem>
741 <para>The time zone compiler</para>
742 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc zic">
743 <primary sortas="b-zic">zic</primary>
744 </indexterm>
745 </listitem>
746 </varlistentry>
747
748 <varlistentry id="ld.so">
749 <term><filename class="libraryfile">ld-&glibc-version;.so</filename></term>
750 <listitem>
751 <para>The helper program for shared library executables</para>
752 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ld.so">
753 <primary sortas="c-ld.so">ld-&glibc-version;.so</primary>
754 </indexterm>
755 </listitem>
756 </varlistentry>
757
758 <varlistentry id="libBrokenLocale">
759 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libBrokenLocale</filename></term>
760 <listitem>
761 <para>Used internally by Glibc as a gross hack to get broken programs
762 (e.g., some Motif applications) running. See comments in
763 <filename>glibc-&glibc-version;/locale/broken_cur_max.c</filename>
764 for more information</para>
765 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libBrokenLocale">
766 <primary sortas="c-libBrokenLocale">libBrokenLocale</primary>
767 </indexterm>
768 </listitem>
769 </varlistentry>
770
771 <varlistentry id="libSegFault">
772 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libSegFault</filename></term>
773 <listitem>
774 <para>The segmentation fault signal handler, used by
775 <command>catchsegv</command></para>
776 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libSegFault">
777 <primary sortas="c-libSegFault">libSegFault</primary>
778 </indexterm>
779 </listitem>
780 </varlistentry>
781
782 <varlistentry id="libanl">
783 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libanl</filename></term>
784 <listitem>
785 <para>An asynchronous name lookup library</para>
786 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libanl">
787 <primary sortas="c-libanl">libanl</primary>
788 </indexterm>
789 </listitem>
790 </varlistentry>
791
792 <varlistentry id="libc">
793 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libc</filename></term>
794 <listitem>
795 <para>The main C library</para>
796 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libc">
797 <primary sortas="c-libc">libc</primary>
798 </indexterm>
799 </listitem>
800 </varlistentry>
801
802 <varlistentry id="libcidn">
803 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libcidn</filename></term>
804 <listitem>
805 <para>Used internally by Glibc for handling internationalized domain
806 names in the <function>getaddrinfo()</function> function</para>
807 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libcidn">
808 <primary sortas="c-libcidn">libcidn</primary>
809 </indexterm>
810 </listitem>
811 </varlistentry>
812
813 <varlistentry id="libcrypt">
814 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libcrypt</filename></term>
815 <listitem>
816 <para>The cryptography library</para>
817 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libcrypt">
818 <primary sortas="c-libcrypt">libcrypt</primary>
819 </indexterm>
820 </listitem>
821 </varlistentry>
822
823 <varlistentry id="libdl">
824 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libdl</filename></term>
825 <listitem>
826 <para>The dynamic linking interface library</para>
827 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libdl">
828 <primary sortas="c-libdl">libdl</primary>
829 </indexterm>
830 </listitem>
831 </varlistentry>
832
833 <varlistentry id="libg">
834 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libg</filename></term>
835 <listitem>
836 <para>Dummy library containing no functions. Previously was a runtime
837 library for <command>g++</command></para>
838 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libg">
839 <primary sortas="c-libg">libg</primary>
840 </indexterm>
841 </listitem>
842 </varlistentry>
843
844 <varlistentry id="libieee">
845 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libieee</filename></term>
846 <listitem>
847 <para>Linking in this module forces error handling rules for math
848 functions as defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic
849 Engineers (IEEE). The default is POSIX.1 error handling</para>
850 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libieee">
851 <primary sortas="c-libieee">libieee</primary>
852 </indexterm>
853 </listitem>
854 </varlistentry>
855
856 <varlistentry id="libm">
857 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libm</filename></term>
858 <listitem>
859 <para>The mathematical library</para>
860 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libm">
861 <primary sortas="c-libm">libm</primary>
862 </indexterm>
863 </listitem>
864 </varlistentry>
865
866 <varlistentry id="libmcheck">
867 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libmcheck</filename></term>
868 <listitem>
869 <para>Turns on memory allocation checking when linked to</para>
870 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libmcheck">
871 <primary sortas="c-libmcheck">libmcheck</primary>
872 </indexterm>
873 </listitem>
874 </varlistentry>
875
876 <varlistentry id="libmemusage">
877 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libmemusage</filename></term>
878 <listitem>
879 <para>Used by <command>memusage</command> to help collect
880 information about the memory usage of a program</para>
881 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libmemusage">
882 <primary sortas="c-libmemusage">libmemusage</primary>
883 </indexterm>
884 </listitem>
885 </varlistentry>
886
887 <varlistentry id="libnsl">
888 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libnsl</filename></term>
889 <listitem>
890 <para>The network services library</para>
891 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libnsl">
892 <primary sortas="c-libnsl">libnsl</primary>
893 </indexterm>
894 </listitem>
895 </varlistentry>
896
897 <varlistentry id="libnss">
898 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libnss</filename></term>
899 <listitem>
900 <para>The Name Service Switch libraries, containing functions for
901 resolving host names, user names, group names, aliases, services,
902 protocols, etc.</para>
903 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libnss">
904 <primary sortas="c-libnss">libnss</primary>
905 </indexterm>
906 </listitem>
907 </varlistentry>
908
909 <varlistentry id="libpthread">
910 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libpthread</filename></term>
911 <listitem>
912 <para>The POSIX threads library</para>
913 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libpthread">
914 <primary sortas="c-libpthread">libpthread</primary>
915 </indexterm>
916 </listitem>
917 </varlistentry>
918
919 <varlistentry id="libresolv">
920 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libresolv</filename></term>
921 <listitem>
922 <para>Contains functions for creating, sending, and interpreting
923 packets to the Internet domain name servers</para>
924 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libresolv">
925 <primary sortas="c-libresolv">libresolv</primary>
926 </indexterm>
927 </listitem>
928 </varlistentry>
929
930 <varlistentry id="librpcsvc">
931 <term><filename class="libraryfile">librpcsvc</filename></term>
932 <listitem>
933 <para>Contains functions providing miscellaneous RPC services</para>
934 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc librpcsvc">
935 <primary sortas="c-librpcsvc">librpcsvc</primary>
936 </indexterm>
937 </listitem>
938 </varlistentry>
939
940 <varlistentry id="librt">
941 <term><filename class="libraryfile">librt</filename></term>
942 <listitem>
943 <para>Contains functions providing most of the interfaces specified
944 by the POSIX.1b Realtime Extension</para>
945 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc librt">
946 <primary sortas="c-librt">librt</primary>
947 </indexterm>
948 </listitem>
949 </varlistentry>
950
951 <varlistentry id="libthread_db">
952 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libthread_db</filename></term>
953 <listitem>
954 <para>Contains functions useful for building debuggers for
955 multi-threaded programs</para>
956 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libthread_db">
957 <primary sortas="c-libthread_db">libthread_db</primary>
958 </indexterm>
959 </listitem>
960 </varlistentry>
961
962 <varlistentry id="libutil">
963 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libutil</filename></term>
964 <listitem>
965 <para>Contains code for <quote>standard</quote> functions used in
966 many different Unix utilities</para>
967 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libutil">
968 <primary sortas="c-libutil">libutil</primary>
969 </indexterm>
970 </listitem>
971 </varlistentry>
972
973 </variablelist>
974
975 </sect2>
976
977</sect1>
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