source: chapter06/glibc.xml@ 1b3fac7

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Last change on this file since 1b3fac7 was 1b3fac7, checked in by Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs@…>, 3 years ago

Update to binutils-2.32

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/trunk/BOOK@11508 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-glibc" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="glibc.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>glibc</productname>
13 <productnumber>&glibc-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&glibc-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Glibc-&glibc-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc">
20 <primary sortas="a-Glibc">Glibc</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Glibc package contains the main C library. This library provides
27 the basic routines for allocating memory, searching directories, opening and
28 closing files, reading and writing files, string handling, pattern matching,
29 arithmetic, and so on.</para>
30
31 <segmentedlist>
32 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
33 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
34
35 <seglistitem>
36 <seg>&glibc-ch6-sbu;</seg>
37 <seg>&glibc-ch6-du;</seg>
38 </seglistitem>
39 </segmentedlist>
40
41 </sect2>
42
43 <sect2 role="installation">
44 <title>Installation of Glibc</title>
45
46 <note><para>The Glibc build system is self-contained and will install
47 perfectly, even though the compiler specs file and linker are still
48 pointing to <filename class="directory">/tools</filename>. The specs
49 and linker cannot be adjusted before the Glibc install because the
50 Glibc autoconf tests would give false results and defeat the goal
51 of achieving a clean build.</para></note>
52
53 <para>Some of the Glibc programs use the non-FHS compilant
54 <filename class="directory">/var/db</filename> directory to store
55 their runtime data. Apply the following patch to make such programs
56 store their runtime data in the FHS-compliant locations:</para>
57
58<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&glibc-fhs-patch;</userinput></screen>
59<!--
60 <para>Fix a minor security issue with glob functions:</para>
61
62<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&glibc-glob-patch;</userinput></screen>
63-->
64 <para>First create a compatibility symlink to avoid references to /tools in
65 our final glibc:</para>
66
67<screen><userinput remap="pre">ln -sfv /tools/lib/gcc /usr/lib</userinput></screen>
68
69 <para>Determine the GCC include directory and create a symlink for LSB
70 compliance. Additionally, for x86_64, create a compatibility symlink
71 required for the dynamic loader to function correctly:</para>
72
73<screen><userinput remap="pre">case $(uname -m) in
74 i?86) GCC_INCDIR=/usr/lib/gcc/$(uname -m)-pc-linux-gnu/&gcc-version;/include
75 ln -sfv ld-linux.so.2 /lib/ld-lsb.so.3
76 ;;
77 x86_64) GCC_INCDIR=/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/&gcc-version;/include
78 ln -sfv ../lib/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 /lib64
79 ln -sfv ../lib/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 /lib64/ld-lsb-x86-64.so.3
80 ;;
81esac</userinput></screen>
82
83 <para>Remove a file that may be left over from a previous build attempt:
84 </para>
85
86<screen><userinput remap="pre">rm -f /usr/include/limits.h</userinput></screen>
87
88 <para>The Glibc documentation recommends building Glibc
89 in a dedicated build directory:</para>
90
91<screen><userinput remap="pre">mkdir -v build
92cd build</userinput></screen>
93
94 <para>Prepare Glibc for compilation:</para>
95
96<screen><userinput remap="configure">CC="gcc -isystem $GCC_INCDIR -isystem /usr/include" \
97../configure --prefix=/usr \
98 --disable-werror \
99 --enable-kernel=&min-kernel; \
100 --enable-stack-protector=strong \
101 libc_cv_slibdir=/lib
102unset GCC_INCDIR</userinput></screen>
103
104 <variablelist>
105 <title>The meaning of the options and new configure parameters:</title>
106
107 <varlistentry>
108 <term><parameter>CC="gcc -isystem $GCC_INCDIR -isystem /usr/include"</parameter></term>
109 <listitem>
110 <para>Setting the location of both gcc and system include directories
111 avoids introduction of invalid paths in debugging symbols.</para>
112 </listitem>
113 </varlistentry>
114
115 <varlistentry>
116 <term><parameter>--disable-werror</parameter></term>
117 <listitem>
118 <para>This option disables the -Werror option passed to
119 GCC. This is necessary for running the test suite.</para>
120 </listitem>
121 </varlistentry>
122
123 <varlistentry>
124 <term><parameter>--enable-stack-protector=strong</parameter></term>
125 <listitem>
126 <para>This option increases system security by adding
127 extra code to check for buffer overflows, such as stack
128 smashing attacks.</para>
129 </listitem>
130 </varlistentry>
131
132 <varlistentry>
133 <term><parameter>libc_cv_slibdir=/lib</parameter></term>
134 <listitem>
135 <para>This variable sets the correct library for all
136 systems. We do not want lib64 to be used.</para>
137 </listitem>
138 </varlistentry>
139
140 </variablelist>
141
142 <para>Compile the package:</para>
143
144<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
145
146 <important>
147 <para>In this section, the test suite for Glibc is considered critical.
148 Do not skip it under any circumstance.</para>
149 </important>
150
151 <para>Generally a few tests do not pass. The test failures listed below
152 are usually safe to ignore.</para>
153
154<screen><userinput remap="test">case $(uname -m) in
155 i?86) ln -sfnv $PWD/elf/ld-linux.so.2 /lib ;;
156 x86_64) ln -sfnv $PWD/elf/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 /lib ;;
157esac
158
159make check</userinput></screen>
160
161 <note><para>The symbolic link above is needed to run the tests at this
162 stage of building in the chroot envirnment. It will be overwritten
163 in the install phase below.</para></note>
164
165 <para>You may see some test failures. The Glibc test suite is
166 somewhat dependent on the host system. This is a list of the most common
167 issues seen for some versions of LFS:</para>
168
169 <itemizedlist>
170
171 <listitem>
172 <para><emphasis>misc/tst-ttyname</emphasis>
173 is known to fail in the LFS chroot environment.</para>
174 </listitem>
175<!--
176 <listitem>
177 <para><emphasis>inet/tst-idna_name_classify</emphasis>
178 is known to fail in the LFS chroot environment.</para>
179 </listitem>
180-->
181 <listitem>
182 <para><emphasis>posix/tst-getaddrinfo4</emphasis> and
183 <emphasis>posix/tst-getaddrinfo5</emphasis>
184 may fail on some architectures.</para>
185 </listitem>
186
187 <listitem>
188 <para>The <emphasis>nss/tst-nss-files-hosts-multi</emphasis>
189 test may fail for reasons that have not been determined.</para>
190 </listitem>
191
192 <listitem>
193 <para>The <emphasis>rt/tst-cputimer{1,2,3}</emphasis> tests depend on
194 the host system kernel. Kernels 4.14.91&ndash;4.14.96,
195 4.19.13&ndash;4.19.18, and 4.20.0&ndash;4.20.5 are known to
196 casue these tests to fail.
197 </para>
198 </listitem>
199
200 <listitem>
201 <para>The math tests sometimes fail when running on
202 systems where the CPU is not a relatively new Intel or
203 AMD processor.</para>
204 </listitem>
205<!--
206 <listitem>
207 <para>The
208 <emphasis>nptl/tst-thread-affinity-{pthread,pthread2,sched}</emphasis>
209 tests may fail for reasons that have not been determined. </para>
210 </listitem>
211
212 <listitem>
213 <para>Other tests known to fail on some architectures are
214 malloc/tst-malloc-usable and nptl/tst-cleanupx4. </para>
215 </listitem>
216-->
217 </itemizedlist>
218
219 <para>Though it is a harmless message, the install stage of Glibc will
220 complain about the absence of <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename>.
221 Prevent this warning with:</para>
222
223<screen><userinput remap="install">touch /etc/ld.so.conf</userinput></screen>
224
225 <para>Fix the generated Makefile to skip an unneeded sanity check
226 that fails in the LFS partial environment:
227 </para>
228
229<screen><userinput remap="install">sed '/test-installation/s@$(PERL)@echo not running@' -i ../Makefile</userinput></screen>
230
231 <para>Install the package:</para>
232
233<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
234
235 <para>Install the configuration file and runtime directory for
236 <command>nscd</command>:</para>
237
238<screen><userinput remap="install">cp -v ../nscd/nscd.conf /etc/nscd.conf
239mkdir -pv /var/cache/nscd</userinput></screen>
240
241 <para revision="systemd">Install the systemd support files for
242 <command>nscd</command>:</para>
243
244 <screen revision="systemd"><userinput remap="install">install -v -Dm644 ../nscd/nscd.tmpfiles /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/nscd.conf
245install -v -Dm644 ../nscd/nscd.service /lib/systemd/system/nscd.service</userinput></screen>
246
247 <para>Next, install the locales that can make the system respond in a
248 different language. None of the locales are required, but if some of them
249 are missing, the test suites of future packages would skip important
250 testcases.</para>
251
252 <para>Individual locales can be installed using the
253 <command>localedef</command> program. E.g., the first
254 <command>localedef</command> command below combines the
255 <filename>/usr/share/i18n/locales/cs_CZ</filename>
256 charset-independent locale definition with the
257 <filename>/usr/share/i18n/charmaps/UTF-8.gz</filename>
258 charmap definition and appends the result to the
259 <filename>/usr/lib/locale/locale-archive</filename> file.
260 The following instructions will install the minimum set of
261 locales necessary for the optimal coverage of tests:</para>
262
263<screen role="nodump"><userinput remap="locale-test">mkdir -pv /usr/lib/locale
264localedef -i cs_CZ -f UTF-8 cs_CZ.UTF-8
265localedef -i de_DE -f ISO-8859-1 de_DE
266localedef -i de_DE@euro -f ISO-8859-15 de_DE@euro
267localedef -i de_DE -f UTF-8 de_DE.UTF-8
268localedef -i en_GB -f UTF-8 en_GB.UTF-8
269localedef -i en_HK -f ISO-8859-1 en_HK
270localedef -i en_PH -f ISO-8859-1 en_PH
271localedef -i en_US -f ISO-8859-1 en_US
272localedef -i en_US -f UTF-8 en_US.UTF-8
273localedef -i es_MX -f ISO-8859-1 es_MX
274localedef -i fa_IR -f UTF-8 fa_IR
275localedef -i fr_FR -f ISO-8859-1 fr_FR
276localedef -i fr_FR@euro -f ISO-8859-15 fr_FR@euro
277localedef -i fr_FR -f UTF-8 fr_FR.UTF-8
278localedef -i it_IT -f ISO-8859-1 it_IT
279localedef -i it_IT -f UTF-8 it_IT.UTF-8
280localedef -i ja_JP -f EUC-JP ja_JP
281localedef -i ru_RU -f KOI8-R ru_RU.KOI8-R
282localedef -i ru_RU -f UTF-8 ru_RU.UTF-8
283localedef -i tr_TR -f UTF-8 tr_TR.UTF-8
284localedef -i zh_CN -f GB18030 zh_CN.GB18030</userinput></screen>
285
286 <para>In addition, install the locale for your own country, language and
287 character set.</para>
288
289 <para>Alternatively, install all locales listed in the
290 <filename>glibc-&glibc-version;/localedata/SUPPORTED</filename> file
291 (it includes every locale listed above and many more) at once with the
292 following time-consuming command:</para>
293
294<screen><userinput remap="locale-full">make localedata/install-locales</userinput></screen>
295
296 <para>Then use the <command>localedef</command> command to create and
297 install locales not listed in the
298 <filename>glibc-&glibc-version;/localedata/SUPPORTED</filename> file
299 in the unlikely case you need them.</para>
300
301 <note><para>Glibc now uses libidn2 when resolving internationalized
302 domain names. This is a run time dependency. If this capability
303 is needed, the instrucions for installing libidn2 are in the
304 <ulink url="&blfs-book;general/libidn2.html">BLFS libidn2 page</ulink>.
305 </para></note>
306
307 </sect2>
308
309 <sect2 id="conf-glibc" role="configuration">
310 <title>Configuring Glibc</title>
311
312 <indexterm zone="conf-glibc">
313 <primary sortas="e-/etc/nsswitch.conf">/etc/nsswitch.conf</primary>
314 </indexterm>
315
316 <indexterm zone="conf-glibc">
317 <primary sortas="e-/etc/localtime">/etc/localtime</primary>
318 </indexterm>
319
320 <sect3>
321 <title>Adding nsswitch.conf</title>
322
323 <para>The <filename>/etc/nsswitch.conf</filename> file needs to be created
324 because the Glibc defaults do not work well in a networked environment.
325 </para>
326
327 <para>Create a new file <filename>/etc/nsswitch.conf</filename> by running the
328 following:</para>
329
330<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/nsswitch.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
331<literal># Begin /etc/nsswitch.conf
332
333passwd: files
334group: files
335shadow: files
336
337hosts: files dns
338networks: files
339
340protocols: files
341services: files
342ethers: files
343rpc: files
344
345# End /etc/nsswitch.conf</literal>
346EOF</userinput></screen>
347
348 </sect3>
349
350 <sect3>
351 <title>Adding time zone data</title>
352
353 <para>Install and set up the time zone data with the following:</para>
354<screen><userinput>tar -xf ../../tzdata&tzdata-version;.tar.gz
355
356ZONEINFO=/usr/share/zoneinfo
357mkdir -pv $ZONEINFO/{posix,right}
358
359for tz in etcetera southamerica northamerica europe africa antarctica \
360 asia australasia backward pacificnew systemv; do
361 zic -L /dev/null -d $ZONEINFO -y "sh yearistype.sh" ${tz}
362 zic -L /dev/null -d $ZONEINFO/posix -y "sh yearistype.sh" ${tz}
363 zic -L leapseconds -d $ZONEINFO/right -y "sh yearistype.sh" ${tz}
364done
365
366cp -v zone.tab zone1970.tab iso3166.tab $ZONEINFO
367zic -d $ZONEINFO -p America/New_York
368unset ZONEINFO</userinput></screen>
369
370 <variablelist>
371 <title>The meaning of the zic commands:</title>
372
373 <varlistentry>
374 <term><parameter>zic -L /dev/null ...</parameter></term>
375 <listitem>
376 <para>This creates posix time zones, without any leap seconds. It is
377 conventional to put these in both
378 <filename class="directory">zoneinfo</filename> and
379 <filename class="directory">zoneinfo/posix</filename>. It is
380 necessary to put the POSIX time zones in
381 <filename class="directory">zoneinfo</filename>, otherwise various
382 test-suites will report errors. On an embedded system, where space is
383 tight and you do not intend to ever update the time zones, you could save
384 1.9MB by not using the <filename class="directory">posix</filename>
385 directory, but some applications or test-suites might produce some
386 failures.</para>
387 </listitem>
388 </varlistentry>
389 <varlistentry>
390 <term><parameter>zic -L leapseconds ...</parameter></term>
391 <listitem>
392 <para>This creates right time zones, including leap seconds. On an
393 embedded system, where space is tight and you do not intend to
394 ever update the time zones, or care about the correct time, you could
395 save 1.9MB by omitting the <filename class="directory">right</filename>
396 directory.</para>
397 </listitem>
398 </varlistentry>
399 <varlistentry>
400 <term><parameter>zic ... -p ...</parameter></term>
401 <listitem>
402 <para>This creates the <filename>posixrules</filename> file. We use
403 New York because POSIX requires the daylight savings time rules
404 to be in accordance with US rules.</para>
405 </listitem>
406 </varlistentry>
407 </variablelist>
408
409
410 <para>One way to determine the local time zone is to run the following
411 script:</para>
412
413<screen role="nodump"><userinput>tzselect</userinput></screen>
414
415 <para>After answering a few questions about the location, the script will
416 output the name of the time zone (e.g.,
417 <emphasis>America/Edmonton</emphasis>). There are also some other possible
418 time zones listed in <filename
419 class='directory'>/usr/share/zoneinfo</filename> such as
420 <emphasis>Canada/Eastern</emphasis> or <emphasis>EST5EDT</emphasis> that
421 are not identified by the script but can be used.</para>
422
423 <para>Then create the <filename>/etc/localtime</filename> file by
424 running:</para>
425
426<screen revision="sysv"><userinput>cp -v /usr/share/zoneinfo/<replaceable>&lt;xxx&gt;</replaceable> /etc/localtime</userinput></screen>
427
428<screen revision="systemd"><userinput>ln -sfv /usr/share/zoneinfo/<replaceable>&lt;xxx&gt;</replaceable> /etc/localtime</userinput></screen>
429
430 <para>Replace <replaceable>&lt;xxx&gt;</replaceable> with the name of the
431 time zone selected (e.g., Canada/Eastern).</para>
432
433 </sect3>
434
435 <sect3 id="conf-ld" role="configuration">
436 <title>Configuring the Dynamic Loader</title>
437
438 <indexterm zone="conf-ld">
439 <primary sortas="e-/etc/ld.so.conf">/etc/ld.so.conf</primary>
440 </indexterm>
441
442 <para>By default, the dynamic loader (<filename
443 class="libraryfile">/lib/ld-linux.so.2</filename>) searches through
444 <filename class="directory">/lib</filename> and <filename
445 class="directory">/usr/lib</filename> for dynamic libraries that are
446 needed by programs as they are run. However, if there are libraries in
447 directories other than <filename class="directory">/lib</filename> and
448 <filename class="directory">/usr/lib</filename>, these need to be added
449 to the <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename> file in order for the
450 dynamic loader to find them. Two directories that are commonly known
451 to contain additional libraries are <filename
452 class="directory">/usr/local/lib</filename> and <filename
453 class="directory">/opt/lib</filename>, so add those directories to the
454 dynamic loader's search path.</para>
455
456 <para>Create a new file <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename> by running the
457 following:</para>
458
459<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/ld.so.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
460<literal># Begin /etc/ld.so.conf
461/usr/local/lib
462/opt/lib
463</literal>
464EOF</userinput></screen>
465
466 <para>If desired, the dynamic loader can also search a directory and
467 include the contents of files found there. Generally the files in
468 this include directory are one line specifying the desired library path.
469 To add this capability run the following commands:</para>
470
471<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt;&gt; /etc/ld.so.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
472<literal># Add an include directory
473include /etc/ld.so.conf.d/*.conf
474</literal>
475EOF
476mkdir -pv /etc/ld.so.conf.d</userinput></screen>
477
478 </sect3>
479 </sect2>
480
481 <sect2 id="contents-glibc" role="content">
482 <title>Contents of Glibc</title>
483
484 <segmentedlist>
485 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
486 <segtitle>Installed libraries</segtitle>
487 <segtitle>Installed directories</segtitle>
488
489 <seglistitem>
490 <seg>catchsegv, gencat, getconf, getent, iconv, iconvconfig, ldconfig,
491 ldd, lddlibc4, locale, localedef, makedb, mtrace, nscd,
492 pldd, sln, sotruss, sprof, tzselect, xtrace,
493 zdump, and zic</seg>
494 <seg>ld-&glibc-version;.so, libBrokenLocale.{a,so}, libSegFault.so, libanl.{a,so},
495 libc.{a,so}, libc_nonshared.a, libcidn.so,
496 libcrypt.{a,so}, libdl.{a,so}, libg.a, libieee.a, libm.{a,so},
497 libmcheck.a, libmemusage.so, libnsl.{a,so}, libnss_compat.so,
498 libnss_dns.so, libnss_files.so, libnss_hesiod.so, libnss_nis.so,
499 libnss_nisplus.so, libpthread.{a,so},
500 libpthread_nonshared.a, libresolv.{a,so}, librpcsvc.a, librt.{a,so},
501 libthread_db.so, and libutil.{a,so}</seg>
502 <seg>/usr/include/arpa, /usr/include/bits, /usr/include/gnu,
503 /usr/include/net, /usr/include/netash, /usr/include/netatalk,
504 /usr/include/netax25, /usr/include/neteconet, /usr/include/netinet,
505 /usr/include/netipx, /usr/include/netiucv, /usr/include/netpacket,
506 /usr/include/netrom, /usr/include/netrose, /usr/include/nfs,
507 /usr/include/protocols, /usr/include/rpc, /usr/include/rpcsvc,
508 /usr/include/sys, /usr/lib/audit, /usr/lib/gconv, /usr/lib/locale,
509 /usr/libexec/getconf, /usr/share/i18n, /usr/share/zoneinfo,
510 /var/cache/nscd, and /var/lib/nss_db</seg>
511 </seglistitem>
512 </segmentedlist>
513
514 <variablelist>
515 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
516 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
517 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
518
519 <varlistentry id="catchsegv">
520 <term><command>catchsegv</command></term>
521 <listitem>
522 <para>Can be used to create a stack trace when a program
523 terminates with a segmentation fault</para>
524 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc catchsegv">
525 <primary sortas="b-catchsegv">catchsegv</primary>
526 </indexterm>
527 </listitem>
528 </varlistentry>
529
530 <varlistentry id="gencat">
531 <term><command>gencat</command></term>
532 <listitem>
533 <para>Generates message catalogues</para>
534 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc gencat">
535 <primary sortas="b-gencat">gencat</primary>
536 </indexterm>
537 </listitem>
538 </varlistentry>
539
540 <varlistentry id="getconf">
541 <term><command>getconf</command></term>
542 <listitem>
543 <para>Displays the system configuration values for file system
544 specific variables</para>
545 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc getconf">
546 <primary sortas="b-getconf">getconf</primary>
547 </indexterm>
548 </listitem>
549 </varlistentry>
550
551 <varlistentry id="getent">
552 <term><command>getent</command></term>
553 <listitem>
554 <para>Gets entries from an administrative database</para>
555 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc getent">
556 <primary sortas="b-getent">getent</primary>
557 </indexterm>
558 </listitem>
559 </varlistentry>
560
561 <varlistentry id="iconv">
562 <term><command>iconv</command></term>
563 <listitem>
564 <para>Performs character set conversion</para>
565 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc iconv">
566 <primary sortas="b-iconv">iconv</primary>
567 </indexterm>
568 </listitem>
569 </varlistentry>
570
571 <varlistentry id="iconvconfig">
572 <term><command>iconvconfig</command></term>
573 <listitem>
574 <para>Creates fastloading <command>iconv</command> module configuration
575 files</para>
576 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc iconvconfig">
577 <primary sortas="b-iconvconfig">iconvconfig</primary>
578 </indexterm>
579 </listitem>
580 </varlistentry>
581
582 <varlistentry id="ldconfig">
583 <term><command>ldconfig</command></term>
584 <listitem>
585 <para>Configures the dynamic linker runtime bindings</para>
586 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ldconfig">
587 <primary sortas="b-ldconfig">ldconfig</primary>
588 </indexterm>
589 </listitem>
590 </varlistentry>
591
592 <varlistentry id="ldd">
593 <term><command>ldd</command></term>
594 <listitem>
595 <para>Reports which shared libraries are required
596 by each given program or shared library</para>
597 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ldd">
598 <primary sortas="b-ldd">ldd</primary>
599 </indexterm>
600 </listitem>
601 </varlistentry>
602
603 <varlistentry id="lddlibc4">
604 <term><command>lddlibc4</command></term>
605 <listitem>
606 <para>Assists <command>ldd</command> with object files</para>
607 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc lddlibc4">
608 <primary sortas="b-lddlibc4">lddlibc4</primary>
609 </indexterm>
610 </listitem>
611 </varlistentry>
612
613 <varlistentry id="locale">
614 <term><command>locale</command></term>
615 <listitem>
616 <para>Prints various information about the current locale</para>
617 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc locale">
618 <primary sortas="b-locale">locale</primary>
619 </indexterm>
620 </listitem>
621 </varlistentry>
622
623 <varlistentry id="localedef">
624 <term><command>localedef</command></term>
625 <listitem>
626 <para>Compiles locale specifications</para>
627 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc localedef">
628 <primary sortas="b-localedef">localedef</primary>
629 </indexterm>
630 </listitem>
631 </varlistentry>
632
633 <varlistentry id="makedb">
634 <term><command>makedb</command></term>
635 <listitem>
636 <para>Creates a simple database from textual input</para>
637 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc makedb">
638 <primary sortas="b-makedb">makedb</primary>
639 </indexterm>
640 </listitem>
641 </varlistentry>
642
643 <varlistentry id="mtrace">
644 <term><command>mtrace</command></term>
645 <listitem>
646 <para>Reads and interprets a memory trace file and displays a summary
647 in human-readable format</para>
648 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc mtrace">
649 <primary sortas="b-mtrace">mtrace</primary>
650 </indexterm>
651 </listitem>
652 </varlistentry>
653
654 <varlistentry id="nscd">
655 <term><command>nscd</command></term>
656 <listitem>
657 <para>A daemon that provides a cache for the most common name
658 service requests</para>
659 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc nscd">
660 <primary sortas="b-nscd">nscd</primary>
661 </indexterm>
662 </listitem>
663 </varlistentry>
664
665 <varlistentry id="pldd">
666 <term><command>pldd</command></term>
667 <listitem>
668 <para>Lists dynamic shared objects used by running processes</para>
669 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc pldd">
670 <primary sortas="b-pldd">pldd</primary>
671 </indexterm>
672 </listitem>
673 </varlistentry>
674
675 <varlistentry id="sln">
676 <term><command>sln</command></term>
677 <listitem>
678 <para>A statically linked <command>ln</command> program</para>
679 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc sln">
680 <primary sortas="b-sln">sln</primary>
681 </indexterm>
682 </listitem>
683 </varlistentry>
684
685 <varlistentry id="sotruss">
686 <term><command>sotruss</command></term>
687 <listitem>
688 <para>Traces shared library procedure calls of a specified command</para>
689 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc sotruss">
690 <primary sortas="b-sotruss">sotruss</primary>
691 </indexterm>
692 </listitem>
693 </varlistentry>
694
695 <varlistentry id="sprof">
696 <term><command>sprof</command></term>
697 <listitem>
698 <para>Reads and displays shared object profiling data</para>
699 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc sprof">
700 <primary sortas="b-sprof">sprof</primary>
701 </indexterm>
702 </listitem>
703 </varlistentry>
704
705 <varlistentry id="tzselect">
706 <term><command>tzselect</command></term>
707 <listitem>
708 <para>Asks the user about the location of the system and reports
709 the corresponding time zone description</para>
710 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc tzselect">
711 <primary sortas="b-tzselect">tzselect</primary>
712 </indexterm>
713 </listitem>
714 </varlistentry>
715
716 <varlistentry id="xtrace">
717 <term><command>xtrace</command></term>
718 <listitem>
719 <para>Traces the execution of a program by printing the currently
720 executed function</para>
721 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc xtrace">
722 <primary sortas="b-xtrace">xtrace</primary>
723 </indexterm>
724 </listitem>
725 </varlistentry>
726
727 <varlistentry id="zdump">
728 <term><command>zdump</command></term>
729 <listitem>
730 <para>The time zone dumper</para>
731 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc zdump">
732 <primary sortas="b-zdump">zdump</primary>
733 </indexterm>
734 </listitem>
735 </varlistentry>
736
737 <varlistentry id="zic">
738 <term><command>zic</command></term>
739 <listitem>
740 <para>The time zone compiler</para>
741 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc zic">
742 <primary sortas="b-zic">zic</primary>
743 </indexterm>
744 </listitem>
745 </varlistentry>
746
747 <varlistentry id="ld.so">
748 <term><filename class="libraryfile">ld-&glibc-version;.so</filename></term>
749 <listitem>
750 <para>The helper program for shared library executables</para>
751 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ld.so">
752 <primary sortas="c-ld.so">ld-&glibc-version;.so</primary>
753 </indexterm>
754 </listitem>
755 </varlistentry>
756
757 <varlistentry id="libBrokenLocale">
758 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libBrokenLocale</filename></term>
759 <listitem>
760 <para>Used internally by Glibc as a gross hack to get broken programs
761 (e.g., some Motif applications) running. See comments in
762 <filename>glibc-&glibc-version;/locale/broken_cur_max.c</filename>
763 for more information</para>
764 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libBrokenLocale">
765 <primary sortas="c-libBrokenLocale">libBrokenLocale</primary>
766 </indexterm>
767 </listitem>
768 </varlistentry>
769
770 <varlistentry id="libSegFault">
771 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libSegFault</filename></term>
772 <listitem>
773 <para>The segmentation fault signal handler, used by
774 <command>catchsegv</command></para>
775 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libSegFault">
776 <primary sortas="c-libSegFault">libSegFault</primary>
777 </indexterm>
778 </listitem>
779 </varlistentry>
780
781 <varlistentry id="libanl">
782 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libanl</filename></term>
783 <listitem>
784 <para>An asynchronous name lookup library</para>
785 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libanl">
786 <primary sortas="c-libanl">libanl</primary>
787 </indexterm>
788 </listitem>
789 </varlistentry>
790
791 <varlistentry id="libc">
792 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libc</filename></term>
793 <listitem>
794 <para>The main C library</para>
795 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libc">
796 <primary sortas="c-libc">libc</primary>
797 </indexterm>
798 </listitem>
799 </varlistentry>
800
801 <varlistentry id="libcidn">
802 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libcidn</filename></term>
803 <listitem>
804 <para>Used internally by Glibc for handling internationalized domain
805 names in the <function>getaddrinfo()</function> function</para>
806 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libcidn">
807 <primary sortas="c-libcidn">libcidn</primary>
808 </indexterm>
809 </listitem>
810 </varlistentry>
811
812 <varlistentry id="libcrypt">
813 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libcrypt</filename></term>
814 <listitem>
815 <para>The cryptography library</para>
816 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libcrypt">
817 <primary sortas="c-libcrypt">libcrypt</primary>
818 </indexterm>
819 </listitem>
820 </varlistentry>
821
822 <varlistentry id="libdl">
823 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libdl</filename></term>
824 <listitem>
825 <para>The dynamic linking interface library</para>
826 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libdl">
827 <primary sortas="c-libdl">libdl</primary>
828 </indexterm>
829 </listitem>
830 </varlistentry>
831
832 <varlistentry id="libg">
833 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libg</filename></term>
834 <listitem>
835 <para>Dummy library containing no functions. Previously was a runtime
836 library for <command>g++</command></para>
837 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libg">
838 <primary sortas="c-libg">libg</primary>
839 </indexterm>
840 </listitem>
841 </varlistentry>
842
843 <varlistentry id="libieee">
844 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libieee</filename></term>
845 <listitem>
846 <para>Linking in this module forces error handling rules for math
847 functions as defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic
848 Engineers (IEEE). The default is POSIX.1 error handling</para>
849 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libieee">
850 <primary sortas="c-libieee">libieee</primary>
851 </indexterm>
852 </listitem>
853 </varlistentry>
854
855 <varlistentry id="libm">
856 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libm</filename></term>
857 <listitem>
858 <para>The mathematical library</para>
859 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libm">
860 <primary sortas="c-libm">libm</primary>
861 </indexterm>
862 </listitem>
863 </varlistentry>
864
865 <varlistentry id="libmcheck">
866 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libmcheck</filename></term>
867 <listitem>
868 <para>Turns on memory allocation checking when linked to</para>
869 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libmcheck">
870 <primary sortas="c-libmcheck">libmcheck</primary>
871 </indexterm>
872 </listitem>
873 </varlistentry>
874
875 <varlistentry id="libmemusage">
876 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libmemusage</filename></term>
877 <listitem>
878 <para>Used by <command>memusage</command> to help collect
879 information about the memory usage of a program</para>
880 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libmemusage">
881 <primary sortas="c-libmemusage">libmemusage</primary>
882 </indexterm>
883 </listitem>
884 </varlistentry>
885
886 <varlistentry id="libnsl">
887 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libnsl</filename></term>
888 <listitem>
889 <para>The network services library</para>
890 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libnsl">
891 <primary sortas="c-libnsl">libnsl</primary>
892 </indexterm>
893 </listitem>
894 </varlistentry>
895
896 <varlistentry id="libnss">
897 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libnss</filename></term>
898 <listitem>
899 <para>The Name Service Switch libraries, containing functions for
900 resolving host names, user names, group names, aliases, services,
901 protocols, etc.</para>
902 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libnss">
903 <primary sortas="c-libnss">libnss</primary>
904 </indexterm>
905 </listitem>
906 </varlistentry>
907
908 <varlistentry id="libpthread">
909 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libpthread</filename></term>
910 <listitem>
911 <para>The POSIX threads library</para>
912 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libpthread">
913 <primary sortas="c-libpthread">libpthread</primary>
914 </indexterm>
915 </listitem>
916 </varlistentry>
917
918 <varlistentry id="libresolv">
919 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libresolv</filename></term>
920 <listitem>
921 <para>Contains functions for creating, sending, and interpreting
922 packets to the Internet domain name servers</para>
923 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libresolv">
924 <primary sortas="c-libresolv">libresolv</primary>
925 </indexterm>
926 </listitem>
927 </varlistentry>
928
929 <varlistentry id="librpcsvc">
930 <term><filename class="libraryfile">librpcsvc</filename></term>
931 <listitem>
932 <para>Contains functions providing miscellaneous RPC services</para>
933 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc librpcsvc">
934 <primary sortas="c-librpcsvc">librpcsvc</primary>
935 </indexterm>
936 </listitem>
937 </varlistentry>
938
939 <varlistentry id="librt">
940 <term><filename class="libraryfile">librt</filename></term>
941 <listitem>
942 <para>Contains functions providing most of the interfaces specified
943 by the POSIX.1b Realtime Extension</para>
944 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc librt">
945 <primary sortas="c-librt">librt</primary>
946 </indexterm>
947 </listitem>
948 </varlistentry>
949
950 <varlistentry id="libthread_db">
951 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libthread_db</filename></term>
952 <listitem>
953 <para>Contains functions useful for building debuggers for
954 multi-threaded programs</para>
955 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libthread_db">
956 <primary sortas="c-libthread_db">libthread_db</primary>
957 </indexterm>
958 </listitem>
959 </varlistentry>
960
961 <varlistentry id="libutil">
962 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libutil</filename></term>
963 <listitem>
964 <para>Contains code for <quote>standard</quote> functions used in
965 many different Unix utilities</para>
966 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libutil">
967 <primary sortas="c-libutil">libutil</primary>
968 </indexterm>
969 </listitem>
970 </varlistentry>
971
972 </variablelist>
973
974 </sect2>
975
976</sect1>
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