source: chapter06/glibc.xml@ f783741

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Last change on this file since f783741 was f783741, checked in by Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs@…>, 3 years ago

Restore documenting a glibc failure

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-glibc" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="glibc.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>glibc</productname>
13 <productnumber>&glibc-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&glibc-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Glibc-&glibc-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc">
20 <primary sortas="a-Glibc">Glibc</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Glibc package contains the main C library. This library provides
27 the basic routines for allocating memory, searching directories, opening and
28 closing files, reading and writing files, string handling, pattern matching,
29 arithmetic, and so on.</para>
30
31 <segmentedlist>
32 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
33 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
34
35 <seglistitem>
36 <seg>&glibc-ch6-sbu;</seg>
37 <seg>&glibc-ch6-du;</seg>
38 </seglistitem>
39 </segmentedlist>
40
41 </sect2>
42
43 <sect2 role="installation">
44 <title>Installation of Glibc</title>
45
46 <note><para>The Glibc build system is self-contained and will install
47 perfectly, even though the compiler specs file and linker are still
48 pointing to <filename class="directory">/tools</filename>. The specs
49 and linker cannot be adjusted before the Glibc install because the
50 Glibc autoconf tests would give false results and defeat the goal
51 of achieving a clean build.</para></note>
52
53 <para>Some of the Glibc programs use the non-FHS compilant
54 <filename class="directory">/var/db</filename> directory to store
55 their runtime data. Apply the following patch to make such programs
56 store their runtime data in the FHS-compliant locations:</para>
57
58<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&glibc-fhs-patch;</userinput></screen>
59<!--
60 <para>Fix a minor security issue with glob functions:</para>
61
62<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&glibc-glob-patch;</userinput></screen>
63-->
64 <para>First create a compatibility symlink to avoid references to /tools in
65 our final glibc:</para>
66
67<screen><userinput remap="pre">ln -sfv /tools/lib/gcc /usr/lib</userinput></screen>
68
69 <para>Determine the GCC include directory and create a symlink for LSB
70 compliance. Additionally, for x86_64, create a compatibility symlink
71 required for the dynamic loader to function correctly:</para>
72
73<screen><userinput remap="pre">case $(uname -m) in
74 i?86) GCC_INCDIR=/usr/lib/gcc/$(uname -m)-pc-linux-gnu/&gcc-version;/include
75 ln -sfv ld-linux.so.2 /lib/ld-lsb.so.3
76 ;;
77 x86_64) GCC_INCDIR=/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/&gcc-version;/include
78 ln -sfv ../lib/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 /lib64
79 ln -sfv ../lib/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 /lib64/ld-lsb-x86-64.so.3
80 ;;
81esac</userinput></screen>
82
83 <para>Remove a file that may be left over from a previous build attempt:
84 </para>
85
86<screen><userinput remap="pre">rm -f /usr/include/limits.h</userinput></screen>
87
88 <para>The Glibc documentation recommends building Glibc
89 in a dedicated build directory:</para>
90
91<screen><userinput remap="pre">mkdir -v build
92cd build</userinput></screen>
93
94 <para>Prepare Glibc for compilation:</para>
95
96<screen><userinput remap="configure">CC="gcc -isystem $GCC_INCDIR -isystem /usr/include" \
97../configure --prefix=/usr \
98 --disable-werror \
99 --enable-kernel=&min-kernel; \
100 --enable-stack-protector=strong \
101 libc_cv_slibdir=/lib
102unset GCC_INCDIR</userinput></screen>
103
104 <variablelist>
105 <title>The meaning of the options and new configure parameters:</title>
106
107 <varlistentry>
108 <term><parameter>CC="gcc -isystem $GCC_INCDIR -isystem /usr/include"</parameter></term>
109 <listitem>
110 <para>Setting the location of both gcc and system include directories
111 avoids introduction of invalid paths in debugging symbols.</para>
112 </listitem>
113 </varlistentry>
114
115 <varlistentry>
116 <term><parameter>--disable-werror</parameter></term>
117 <listitem>
118 <para>This option disables the -Werror option passed to
119 GCC. This is necessary for running the test suite.</para>
120 </listitem>
121 </varlistentry>
122
123 <varlistentry>
124 <term><parameter>--enable-stack-protector=strong</parameter></term>
125 <listitem>
126 <para>This option increases system security by adding
127 extra code to check for buffer overflows, such as stack
128 smashing attacks.</para>
129 </listitem>
130 </varlistentry>
131
132 <varlistentry>
133 <term><parameter>libc_cv_slibdir=/lib</parameter></term>
134 <listitem>
135 <para>This variable sets the correct library for all
136 systems. We do not want lib64 to be used.</para>
137 </listitem>
138 </varlistentry>
139
140 </variablelist>
141
142 <para>Compile the package:</para>
143
144<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
145
146 <important>
147 <para>In this section, the test suite for Glibc is considered critical.
148 Do not skip it under any circumstance.</para>
149 </important>
150
151 <para>Generally a few tests do not pass. The test failures listed below
152 are usually safe to ignore.</para>
153
154<!-- Use remap="make" here to work around a jhalfs issue. -->
155<screen><userinput remap="make">case $(uname -m) in
156 i?86) ln -sfnv $PWD/elf/ld-linux.so.2 /lib ;;
157 x86_64) ln -sfnv $PWD/elf/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 /lib ;;
158esac</userinput></screen>
159
160 <note><para>The symbolic link above is needed to run the tests at this
161 stage of building in the chroot envirnment. It will be overwritten
162 in the install phase below.</para></note>
163
164<screen><userinput remap="test">make check</userinput></screen>
165
166 <para>You may see some test failures. The Glibc test suite is
167 somewhat dependent on the host system. This is a list of the most common
168 issues seen for some versions of LFS:</para>
169
170 <itemizedlist>
171
172 <listitem>
173 <para><emphasis>misc/tst-ttyname</emphasis>
174 is known to fail in the LFS chroot environment.</para>
175 </listitem>
176
177 <listitem>
178 <para><emphasis>inet/tst-idna_name_classify</emphasis>
179 is known to fail in the LFS chroot environment.</para>
180 </listitem>
181
182 <listitem>
183 <para><emphasis>posix/tst-getaddrinfo4</emphasis> and
184 <emphasis>posix/tst-getaddrinfo5</emphasis>
185 may fail on some architectures.</para>
186 </listitem>
187
188 <listitem>
189 <para>The <emphasis>nss/tst-nss-files-hosts-multi</emphasis>
190 test may fail for reasons that have not been determined.</para>
191 </listitem>
192
193 <listitem>
194 <para>The <emphasis>rt/tst-cputimer{1,2,3}</emphasis> tests depend on
195 the host system kernel. Kernels 4.14.91&ndash;4.14.96,
196 4.19.13&ndash;4.19.18, and 4.20.0&ndash;4.20.5 are known to
197 cause these tests to fail.
198 </para>
199 </listitem>
200
201 <listitem>
202 <para>The math tests sometimes fail when running on
203 systems where the CPU is not a relatively new Intel or
204 AMD processor.</para>
205 </listitem>
206<!--
207 <listitem>
208 <para>The
209 <emphasis>nptl/tst-thread-affinity-{pthread,pthread2,sched}</emphasis>
210 tests may fail for reasons that have not been determined. </para>
211 </listitem>
212
213 <listitem>
214 <para>Other tests known to fail on some architectures are
215 malloc/tst-malloc-usable and nptl/tst-cleanupx4. </para>
216 </listitem>
217-->
218 </itemizedlist>
219
220 <para>Though it is a harmless message, the install stage of Glibc will
221 complain about the absence of <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename>.
222 Prevent this warning with:</para>
223
224<screen><userinput remap="install">touch /etc/ld.so.conf</userinput></screen>
225
226 <para>Fix the generated Makefile to skip an unneeded sanity check
227 that fails in the LFS partial environment:
228 </para>
229
230<screen><userinput remap="install">sed '/test-installation/s@$(PERL)@echo not running@' -i ../Makefile</userinput></screen>
231
232 <para>Install the package:</para>
233
234<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
235
236 <para>Install the configuration file and runtime directory for
237 <command>nscd</command>:</para>
238
239<screen><userinput remap="install">cp -v ../nscd/nscd.conf /etc/nscd.conf
240mkdir -pv /var/cache/nscd</userinput></screen>
241
242 <para revision="systemd">Install the systemd support files for
243 <command>nscd</command>:</para>
244
245 <screen revision="systemd"><userinput remap="install">install -v -Dm644 ../nscd/nscd.tmpfiles /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/nscd.conf
246install -v -Dm644 ../nscd/nscd.service /lib/systemd/system/nscd.service</userinput></screen>
247
248 <para>Next, install the locales that can make the system respond in a
249 different language. None of the locales are required, but if some of them
250 are missing, the test suites of future packages would skip important
251 testcases.</para>
252
253 <para>Individual locales can be installed using the
254 <command>localedef</command> program. E.g., the first
255 <command>localedef</command> command below combines the
256 <filename>/usr/share/i18n/locales/cs_CZ</filename>
257 charset-independent locale definition with the
258 <filename>/usr/share/i18n/charmaps/UTF-8.gz</filename>
259 charmap definition and appends the result to the
260 <filename>/usr/lib/locale/locale-archive</filename> file.
261 The following instructions will install the minimum set of
262 locales necessary for the optimal coverage of tests:</para>
263
264<screen role="nodump"><userinput remap="locale-test">mkdir -pv /usr/lib/locale
265localedef -i POSIX -f UTF-8 C.UTF-8 2> /dev/null || true
266localedef -i cs_CZ -f UTF-8 cs_CZ.UTF-8
267localedef -i de_DE -f ISO-8859-1 de_DE
268localedef -i de_DE@euro -f ISO-8859-15 de_DE@euro
269localedef -i de_DE -f UTF-8 de_DE.UTF-8
270localedef -i el_GR -f ISO-8859-7 el_GR
271localedef -i en_GB -f UTF-8 en_GB.UTF-8
272localedef -i en_HK -f ISO-8859-1 en_HK
273localedef -i en_PH -f ISO-8859-1 en_PH
274localedef -i en_US -f ISO-8859-1 en_US
275localedef -i en_US -f UTF-8 en_US.UTF-8
276localedef -i es_MX -f ISO-8859-1 es_MX
277localedef -i fa_IR -f UTF-8 fa_IR
278localedef -i fr_FR -f ISO-8859-1 fr_FR
279localedef -i fr_FR@euro -f ISO-8859-15 fr_FR@euro
280localedef -i fr_FR -f UTF-8 fr_FR.UTF-8
281localedef -i it_IT -f ISO-8859-1 it_IT
282localedef -i it_IT -f UTF-8 it_IT.UTF-8
283localedef -i ja_JP -f EUC-JP ja_JP
284localedef -i ja_JP -f SHIFT_JIS ja_JP.SIJS 2> /dev/null || true
285localedef -i ja_JP -f UTF-8 ja_JP.UTF-8
286localedef -i ru_RU -f KOI8-R ru_RU.KOI8-R
287localedef -i ru_RU -f UTF-8 ru_RU.UTF-8
288localedef -i tr_TR -f UTF-8 tr_TR.UTF-8
289localedef -i zh_CN -f GB18030 zh_CN.GB18030
290localedef -i zh_HK -f BIG5-HKSCS zh_HK.BIG5-HKSCS</userinput></screen>
291
292 <para>In addition, install the locale for your own country, language and
293 character set.</para>
294
295 <para>Alternatively, install all locales listed in the
296 <filename>glibc-&glibc-version;/localedata/SUPPORTED</filename> file
297 (it includes every locale listed above and many more) at once with the
298 following time-consuming command:</para>
299
300<screen><userinput remap="locale-full">make localedata/install-locales</userinput></screen>
301
302 <para>Then use the <command>localedef</command> command to create and
303 install locales not listed in the
304 <filename>glibc-&glibc-version;/localedata/SUPPORTED</filename> file
305 in the unlikely case you need them.</para>
306
307 <note><para>Glibc now uses libidn2 when resolving internationalized
308 domain names. This is a run time dependency. If this capability
309 is needed, the instructions for installing libidn2 are in the
310 <ulink url="&blfs-book;general/libidn2.html">BLFS libidn2 page</ulink>.
311 </para></note>
312
313 </sect2>
314
315 <sect2 id="conf-glibc" role="configuration">
316 <title>Configuring Glibc</title>
317
318 <indexterm zone="conf-glibc">
319 <primary sortas="e-/etc/nsswitch.conf">/etc/nsswitch.conf</primary>
320 </indexterm>
321
322 <indexterm zone="conf-glibc">
323 <primary sortas="e-/etc/localtime">/etc/localtime</primary>
324 </indexterm>
325
326 <sect3>
327 <title>Adding nsswitch.conf</title>
328
329 <para>The <filename>/etc/nsswitch.conf</filename> file needs to be created
330 because the Glibc defaults do not work well in a networked environment.
331 </para>
332
333 <para>Create a new file <filename>/etc/nsswitch.conf</filename> by running the
334 following:</para>
335
336<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/nsswitch.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
337<literal># Begin /etc/nsswitch.conf
338
339passwd: files
340group: files
341shadow: files
342
343hosts: files dns
344networks: files
345
346protocols: files
347services: files
348ethers: files
349rpc: files
350
351# End /etc/nsswitch.conf</literal>
352EOF</userinput></screen>
353
354 </sect3>
355
356 <sect3>
357 <title>Adding time zone data</title>
358
359 <para>Install and set up the time zone data with the following:</para>
360<screen><userinput>tar -xf ../../tzdata&tzdata-version;.tar.gz
361
362ZONEINFO=/usr/share/zoneinfo
363mkdir -pv $ZONEINFO/{posix,right}
364
365for tz in etcetera southamerica northamerica europe africa antarctica \
366 asia australasia backward pacificnew systemv; do
367 zic -L /dev/null -d $ZONEINFO ${tz}
368 zic -L /dev/null -d $ZONEINFO/posix ${tz}
369 zic -L leapseconds -d $ZONEINFO/right ${tz}
370done
371
372cp -v zone.tab zone1970.tab iso3166.tab $ZONEINFO
373zic -d $ZONEINFO -p America/New_York
374unset ZONEINFO</userinput></screen>
375
376 <variablelist>
377 <title>The meaning of the zic commands:</title>
378
379 <varlistentry>
380 <term><parameter>zic -L /dev/null ...</parameter></term>
381 <listitem>
382 <para>This creates posix time zones, without any leap seconds. It is
383 conventional to put these in both
384 <filename class="directory">zoneinfo</filename> and
385 <filename class="directory">zoneinfo/posix</filename>. It is
386 necessary to put the POSIX time zones in
387 <filename class="directory">zoneinfo</filename>, otherwise various
388 test-suites will report errors. On an embedded system, where space is
389 tight and you do not intend to ever update the time zones, you could save
390 1.9MB by not using the <filename class="directory">posix</filename>
391 directory, but some applications or test-suites might produce some
392 failures.</para>
393 </listitem>
394 </varlistentry>
395 <varlistentry>
396 <term><parameter>zic -L leapseconds ...</parameter></term>
397 <listitem>
398 <para>This creates right time zones, including leap seconds. On an
399 embedded system, where space is tight and you do not intend to
400 ever update the time zones, or care about the correct time, you could
401 save 1.9MB by omitting the <filename class="directory">right</filename>
402 directory.</para>
403 </listitem>
404 </varlistentry>
405 <varlistentry>
406 <term><parameter>zic ... -p ...</parameter></term>
407 <listitem>
408 <para>This creates the <filename>posixrules</filename> file. We use
409 New York because POSIX requires the daylight savings time rules
410 to be in accordance with US rules.</para>
411 </listitem>
412 </varlistentry>
413 </variablelist>
414
415
416 <para>One way to determine the local time zone is to run the following
417 script:</para>
418
419<screen role="nodump"><userinput>tzselect</userinput></screen>
420
421 <para>After answering a few questions about the location, the script will
422 output the name of the time zone (e.g.,
423 <emphasis>America/Edmonton</emphasis>). There are also some other possible
424 time zones listed in <filename
425 class='directory'>/usr/share/zoneinfo</filename> such as
426 <emphasis>Canada/Eastern</emphasis> or <emphasis>EST5EDT</emphasis> that
427 are not identified by the script but can be used.</para>
428
429 <para>Then create the <filename>/etc/localtime</filename> file by
430 running:</para>
431
432<screen revision="sysv"><userinput>cp -v /usr/share/zoneinfo/<replaceable>&lt;xxx&gt;</replaceable> /etc/localtime</userinput></screen>
433
434<screen revision="systemd"><userinput>ln -sfv /usr/share/zoneinfo/<replaceable>&lt;xxx&gt;</replaceable> /etc/localtime</userinput></screen>
435
436 <para>Replace <replaceable>&lt;xxx&gt;</replaceable> with the name of the
437 time zone selected (e.g., Canada/Eastern).</para>
438
439 </sect3>
440
441 <sect3 id="conf-ld" role="configuration">
442 <title>Configuring the Dynamic Loader</title>
443
444 <indexterm zone="conf-ld">
445 <primary sortas="e-/etc/ld.so.conf">/etc/ld.so.conf</primary>
446 </indexterm>
447
448 <para>By default, the dynamic loader (<filename
449 class="libraryfile">/lib/ld-linux.so.2</filename>) searches through
450 <filename class="directory">/lib</filename> and <filename
451 class="directory">/usr/lib</filename> for dynamic libraries that are
452 needed by programs as they are run. However, if there are libraries in
453 directories other than <filename class="directory">/lib</filename> and
454 <filename class="directory">/usr/lib</filename>, these need to be added
455 to the <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename> file in order for the
456 dynamic loader to find them. Two directories that are commonly known
457 to contain additional libraries are <filename
458 class="directory">/usr/local/lib</filename> and <filename
459 class="directory">/opt/lib</filename>, so add those directories to the
460 dynamic loader's search path.</para>
461
462 <para>Create a new file <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename> by running the
463 following:</para>
464
465<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/ld.so.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
466<literal># Begin /etc/ld.so.conf
467/usr/local/lib
468/opt/lib
469</literal>
470EOF</userinput></screen>
471
472 <para>If desired, the dynamic loader can also search a directory and
473 include the contents of files found there. Generally the files in
474 this include directory are one line specifying the desired library path.
475 To add this capability run the following commands:</para>
476
477<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt;&gt; /etc/ld.so.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
478<literal># Add an include directory
479include /etc/ld.so.conf.d/*.conf
480</literal>
481EOF
482mkdir -pv /etc/ld.so.conf.d</userinput></screen>
483
484 </sect3>
485 </sect2>
486
487 <sect2 id="contents-glibc" role="content">
488 <title>Contents of Glibc</title>
489
490 <segmentedlist>
491 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
492 <segtitle>Installed libraries</segtitle>
493 <segtitle>Installed directories</segtitle>
494
495 <seglistitem>
496 <seg>catchsegv, gencat, getconf, getent, iconv, iconvconfig, ldconfig,
497 ldd, lddlibc4, locale, localedef, makedb, mtrace, nscd,
498 pldd, sln, sotruss, sprof, tzselect, xtrace,
499 zdump, and zic</seg>
500 <seg>ld-&glibc-version;.so, libBrokenLocale.{a,so}, libSegFault.so, libanl.{a,so},
501 libc.{a,so}, libc_nonshared.a, libcidn.so,
502 libcrypt.{a,so}, libdl.{a,so}, libg.a, libieee.a, libm.{a,so},
503 libmcheck.a, libmemusage.so, libnsl.{a,so}, libnss_compat.so,
504 libnss_dns.so, libnss_files.so, libnss_hesiod.so, libnss_nis.so,
505 libnss_nisplus.so, libpthread.{a,so},
506 libpthread_nonshared.a, libresolv.{a,so}, librpcsvc.a, librt.{a,so},
507 libthread_db.so, and libutil.{a,so}</seg>
508 <seg>/usr/include/arpa, /usr/include/bits, /usr/include/gnu,
509 /usr/include/net, /usr/include/netash, /usr/include/netatalk,
510 /usr/include/netax25, /usr/include/neteconet, /usr/include/netinet,
511 /usr/include/netipx, /usr/include/netiucv, /usr/include/netpacket,
512 /usr/include/netrom, /usr/include/netrose, /usr/include/nfs,
513 /usr/include/protocols, /usr/include/rpc, /usr/include/rpcsvc,
514 /usr/include/sys, /usr/lib/audit, /usr/lib/gconv, /usr/lib/locale,
515 /usr/libexec/getconf, /usr/share/i18n, /usr/share/zoneinfo,
516 /var/cache/nscd, and /var/lib/nss_db</seg>
517 </seglistitem>
518 </segmentedlist>
519
520 <variablelist>
521 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
522 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
523 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
524
525 <varlistentry id="catchsegv">
526 <term><command>catchsegv</command></term>
527 <listitem>
528 <para>Can be used to create a stack trace when a program
529 terminates with a segmentation fault</para>
530 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc catchsegv">
531 <primary sortas="b-catchsegv">catchsegv</primary>
532 </indexterm>
533 </listitem>
534 </varlistentry>
535
536 <varlistentry id="gencat">
537 <term><command>gencat</command></term>
538 <listitem>
539 <para>Generates message catalogues</para>
540 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc gencat">
541 <primary sortas="b-gencat">gencat</primary>
542 </indexterm>
543 </listitem>
544 </varlistentry>
545
546 <varlistentry id="getconf">
547 <term><command>getconf</command></term>
548 <listitem>
549 <para>Displays the system configuration values for file system
550 specific variables</para>
551 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc getconf">
552 <primary sortas="b-getconf">getconf</primary>
553 </indexterm>
554 </listitem>
555 </varlistentry>
556
557 <varlistentry id="getent">
558 <term><command>getent</command></term>
559 <listitem>
560 <para>Gets entries from an administrative database</para>
561 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc getent">
562 <primary sortas="b-getent">getent</primary>
563 </indexterm>
564 </listitem>
565 </varlistentry>
566
567 <varlistentry id="iconv">
568 <term><command>iconv</command></term>
569 <listitem>
570 <para>Performs character set conversion</para>
571 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc iconv">
572 <primary sortas="b-iconv">iconv</primary>
573 </indexterm>
574 </listitem>
575 </varlistentry>
576
577 <varlistentry id="iconvconfig">
578 <term><command>iconvconfig</command></term>
579 <listitem>
580 <para>Creates fastloading <command>iconv</command> module configuration
581 files</para>
582 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc iconvconfig">
583 <primary sortas="b-iconvconfig">iconvconfig</primary>
584 </indexterm>
585 </listitem>
586 </varlistentry>
587
588 <varlistentry id="ldconfig">
589 <term><command>ldconfig</command></term>
590 <listitem>
591 <para>Configures the dynamic linker runtime bindings</para>
592 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ldconfig">
593 <primary sortas="b-ldconfig">ldconfig</primary>
594 </indexterm>
595 </listitem>
596 </varlistentry>
597
598 <varlistentry id="ldd">
599 <term><command>ldd</command></term>
600 <listitem>
601 <para>Reports which shared libraries are required
602 by each given program or shared library</para>
603 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ldd">
604 <primary sortas="b-ldd">ldd</primary>
605 </indexterm>
606 </listitem>
607 </varlistentry>
608
609 <varlistentry id="lddlibc4">
610 <term><command>lddlibc4</command></term>
611 <listitem>
612 <para>Assists <command>ldd</command> with object files</para>
613 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc lddlibc4">
614 <primary sortas="b-lddlibc4">lddlibc4</primary>
615 </indexterm>
616 </listitem>
617 </varlistentry>
618
619 <varlistentry id="locale">
620 <term><command>locale</command></term>
621 <listitem>
622 <para>Prints various information about the current locale</para>
623 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc locale">
624 <primary sortas="b-locale">locale</primary>
625 </indexterm>
626 </listitem>
627 </varlistentry>
628
629 <varlistentry id="localedef">
630 <term><command>localedef</command></term>
631 <listitem>
632 <para>Compiles locale specifications</para>
633 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc localedef">
634 <primary sortas="b-localedef">localedef</primary>
635 </indexterm>
636 </listitem>
637 </varlistentry>
638
639 <varlistentry id="makedb">
640 <term><command>makedb</command></term>
641 <listitem>
642 <para>Creates a simple database from textual input</para>
643 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc makedb">
644 <primary sortas="b-makedb">makedb</primary>
645 </indexterm>
646 </listitem>
647 </varlistentry>
648
649 <varlistentry id="mtrace">
650 <term><command>mtrace</command></term>
651 <listitem>
652 <para>Reads and interprets a memory trace file and displays a summary
653 in human-readable format</para>
654 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc mtrace">
655 <primary sortas="b-mtrace">mtrace</primary>
656 </indexterm>
657 </listitem>
658 </varlistentry>
659
660 <varlistentry id="nscd">
661 <term><command>nscd</command></term>
662 <listitem>
663 <para>A daemon that provides a cache for the most common name
664 service requests</para>
665 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc nscd">
666 <primary sortas="b-nscd">nscd</primary>
667 </indexterm>
668 </listitem>
669 </varlistentry>
670
671 <varlistentry id="pldd">
672 <term><command>pldd</command></term>
673 <listitem>
674 <para>Lists dynamic shared objects used by running processes</para>
675 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc pldd">
676 <primary sortas="b-pldd">pldd</primary>
677 </indexterm>
678 </listitem>
679 </varlistentry>
680
681 <varlistentry id="sln">
682 <term><command>sln</command></term>
683 <listitem>
684 <para>A statically linked <command>ln</command> program</para>
685 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc sln">
686 <primary sortas="b-sln">sln</primary>
687 </indexterm>
688 </listitem>
689 </varlistentry>
690
691 <varlistentry id="sotruss">
692 <term><command>sotruss</command></term>
693 <listitem>
694 <para>Traces shared library procedure calls of a specified command</para>
695 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc sotruss">
696 <primary sortas="b-sotruss">sotruss</primary>
697 </indexterm>
698 </listitem>
699 </varlistentry>
700
701 <varlistentry id="sprof">
702 <term><command>sprof</command></term>
703 <listitem>
704 <para>Reads and displays shared object profiling data</para>
705 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc sprof">
706 <primary sortas="b-sprof">sprof</primary>
707 </indexterm>
708 </listitem>
709 </varlistentry>
710
711 <varlistentry id="tzselect">
712 <term><command>tzselect</command></term>
713 <listitem>
714 <para>Asks the user about the location of the system and reports
715 the corresponding time zone description</para>
716 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc tzselect">
717 <primary sortas="b-tzselect">tzselect</primary>
718 </indexterm>
719 </listitem>
720 </varlistentry>
721
722 <varlistentry id="xtrace">
723 <term><command>xtrace</command></term>
724 <listitem>
725 <para>Traces the execution of a program by printing the currently
726 executed function</para>
727 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc xtrace">
728 <primary sortas="b-xtrace">xtrace</primary>
729 </indexterm>
730 </listitem>
731 </varlistentry>
732
733 <varlistentry id="zdump">
734 <term><command>zdump</command></term>
735 <listitem>
736 <para>The time zone dumper</para>
737 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc zdump">
738 <primary sortas="b-zdump">zdump</primary>
739 </indexterm>
740 </listitem>
741 </varlistentry>
742
743 <varlistentry id="zic">
744 <term><command>zic</command></term>
745 <listitem>
746 <para>The time zone compiler</para>
747 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc zic">
748 <primary sortas="b-zic">zic</primary>
749 </indexterm>
750 </listitem>
751 </varlistentry>
752
753 <varlistentry id="ld.so">
754 <term><filename class="libraryfile">ld-&glibc-version;.so</filename></term>
755 <listitem>
756 <para>The helper program for shared library executables</para>
757 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ld.so">
758 <primary sortas="c-ld.so">ld-&glibc-version;.so</primary>
759 </indexterm>
760 </listitem>
761 </varlistentry>
762
763 <varlistentry id="libBrokenLocale">
764 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libBrokenLocale</filename></term>
765 <listitem>
766 <para>Used internally by Glibc as a gross hack to get broken programs
767 (e.g., some Motif applications) running. See comments in
768 <filename>glibc-&glibc-version;/locale/broken_cur_max.c</filename>
769 for more information</para>
770 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libBrokenLocale">
771 <primary sortas="c-libBrokenLocale">libBrokenLocale</primary>
772 </indexterm>
773 </listitem>
774 </varlistentry>
775
776 <varlistentry id="libSegFault">
777 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libSegFault</filename></term>
778 <listitem>
779 <para>The segmentation fault signal handler, used by
780 <command>catchsegv</command></para>
781 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libSegFault">
782 <primary sortas="c-libSegFault">libSegFault</primary>
783 </indexterm>
784 </listitem>
785 </varlistentry>
786
787 <varlistentry id="libanl">
788 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libanl</filename></term>
789 <listitem>
790 <para>An asynchronous name lookup library</para>
791 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libanl">
792 <primary sortas="c-libanl">libanl</primary>
793 </indexterm>
794 </listitem>
795 </varlistentry>
796
797 <varlistentry id="libc">
798 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libc</filename></term>
799 <listitem>
800 <para>The main C library</para>
801 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libc">
802 <primary sortas="c-libc">libc</primary>
803 </indexterm>
804 </listitem>
805 </varlistentry>
806
807 <varlistentry id="libcidn">
808 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libcidn</filename></term>
809 <listitem>
810 <para>Used internally by Glibc for handling internationalized domain
811 names in the <function>getaddrinfo()</function> function</para>
812 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libcidn">
813 <primary sortas="c-libcidn">libcidn</primary>
814 </indexterm>
815 </listitem>
816 </varlistentry>
817
818 <varlistentry id="libcrypt">
819 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libcrypt</filename></term>
820 <listitem>
821 <para>The cryptography library</para>
822 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libcrypt">
823 <primary sortas="c-libcrypt">libcrypt</primary>
824 </indexterm>
825 </listitem>
826 </varlistentry>
827
828 <varlistentry id="libdl">
829 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libdl</filename></term>
830 <listitem>
831 <para>The dynamic linking interface library</para>
832 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libdl">
833 <primary sortas="c-libdl">libdl</primary>
834 </indexterm>
835 </listitem>
836 </varlistentry>
837
838 <varlistentry id="libg">
839 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libg</filename></term>
840 <listitem>
841 <para>Dummy library containing no functions. Previously was a runtime
842 library for <command>g++</command></para>
843 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libg">
844 <primary sortas="c-libg">libg</primary>
845 </indexterm>
846 </listitem>
847 </varlistentry>
848
849 <varlistentry id="libieee">
850 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libieee</filename></term>
851 <listitem>
852 <para>Linking in this module forces error handling rules for math
853 functions as defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic
854 Engineers (IEEE). The default is POSIX.1 error handling</para>
855 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libieee">
856 <primary sortas="c-libieee">libieee</primary>
857 </indexterm>
858 </listitem>
859 </varlistentry>
860
861 <varlistentry id="libm">
862 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libm</filename></term>
863 <listitem>
864 <para>The mathematical library</para>
865 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libm">
866 <primary sortas="c-libm">libm</primary>
867 </indexterm>
868 </listitem>
869 </varlistentry>
870
871 <varlistentry id="libmcheck">
872 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libmcheck</filename></term>
873 <listitem>
874 <para>Turns on memory allocation checking when linked to</para>
875 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libmcheck">
876 <primary sortas="c-libmcheck">libmcheck</primary>
877 </indexterm>
878 </listitem>
879 </varlistentry>
880
881 <varlistentry id="libmemusage">
882 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libmemusage</filename></term>
883 <listitem>
884 <para>Used by <command>memusage</command> to help collect
885 information about the memory usage of a program</para>
886 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libmemusage">
887 <primary sortas="c-libmemusage">libmemusage</primary>
888 </indexterm>
889 </listitem>
890 </varlistentry>
891
892 <varlistentry id="libnsl">
893 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libnsl</filename></term>
894 <listitem>
895 <para>The network services library</para>
896 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libnsl">
897 <primary sortas="c-libnsl">libnsl</primary>
898 </indexterm>
899 </listitem>
900 </varlistentry>
901
902 <varlistentry id="libnss">
903 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libnss</filename></term>
904 <listitem>
905 <para>The Name Service Switch libraries, containing functions for
906 resolving host names, user names, group names, aliases, services,
907 protocols, etc.</para>
908 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libnss">
909 <primary sortas="c-libnss">libnss</primary>
910 </indexterm>
911 </listitem>
912 </varlistentry>
913
914 <varlistentry id="libpthread">
915 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libpthread</filename></term>
916 <listitem>
917 <para>The POSIX threads library</para>
918 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libpthread">
919 <primary sortas="c-libpthread">libpthread</primary>
920 </indexterm>
921 </listitem>
922 </varlistentry>
923
924 <varlistentry id="libresolv">
925 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libresolv</filename></term>
926 <listitem>
927 <para>Contains functions for creating, sending, and interpreting
928 packets to the Internet domain name servers</para>
929 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libresolv">
930 <primary sortas="c-libresolv">libresolv</primary>
931 </indexterm>
932 </listitem>
933 </varlistentry>
934
935 <varlistentry id="librpcsvc">
936 <term><filename class="libraryfile">librpcsvc</filename></term>
937 <listitem>
938 <para>Contains functions providing miscellaneous RPC services</para>
939 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc librpcsvc">
940 <primary sortas="c-librpcsvc">librpcsvc</primary>
941 </indexterm>
942 </listitem>
943 </varlistentry>
944
945 <varlistentry id="librt">
946 <term><filename class="libraryfile">librt</filename></term>
947 <listitem>
948 <para>Contains functions providing most of the interfaces specified
949 by the POSIX.1b Realtime Extension</para>
950 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc librt">
951 <primary sortas="c-librt">librt</primary>
952 </indexterm>
953 </listitem>
954 </varlistentry>
955
956 <varlistentry id="libthread_db">
957 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libthread_db</filename></term>
958 <listitem>
959 <para>Contains functions useful for building debuggers for
960 multi-threaded programs</para>
961 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libthread_db">
962 <primary sortas="c-libthread_db">libthread_db</primary>
963 </indexterm>
964 </listitem>
965 </varlistentry>
966
967 <varlistentry id="libutil">
968 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libutil</filename></term>
969 <listitem>
970 <para>Contains code for <quote>standard</quote> functions used in
971 many different Unix utilities</para>
972 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libutil">
973 <primary sortas="c-libutil">libutil</primary>
974 </indexterm>
975 </listitem>
976 </varlistentry>
977
978 </variablelist>
979
980 </sect2>
981
982</sect1>
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