source: chapter07/creatingdirs.xml@ 295e337

11.3 11.3-rc1 multilib trunk xry111/arm64 xry111/clfs-ng xry111/glibc-2.37 xry111/kcfg-revise
Last change on this file since 295e337 was 295e337, checked in by Pierre Labastie <pierre.labastie@…>, 4 months ago

Add note and warning about /usr/lib64

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
8<sect1 id="ch-tools-creatingdirs">
9 <?dbhtml filename="creatingdirs.html"?>
11 <title>Creating Directories</title>
13 <para>It is time to create the full directory structure in the LFS file system.</para>
15 <note><para>Some of the directories mentioned in this section may have
16 already been created earlier with explicit instructions, or when installing some
17 packages. They are repeated below for completeness.</para></note>
19 <para>Create some root-level directories that are not in the limited set
20 required in the previous chapters by issuing the following command:</para>
22<screen><userinput>mkdir -pv /{boot,home,mnt,opt,srv}</userinput></screen>
24 <para>Create the required set of subdirectories below the root-level by
25 issuing the following commands:</para>
27<screen><userinput>mkdir -pv /etc/{opt,sysconfig}
28mkdir -pv /lib/firmware
29mkdir -pv /media/{floppy,cdrom}
30mkdir -pv /usr/{,local/}{include,src}
31mkdir -pv /usr/local/{bin,lib,sbin}
32mkdir -pv /usr/{,local/}share/{color,dict,doc,info,locale,man}
33mkdir -pv /usr/{,local/}share/{misc,terminfo,zoneinfo}
34mkdir -pv /usr/{,local/}share/man/man{1..8}
35mkdir -pv /var/{cache,local,log,mail,opt,spool}
36mkdir -pv /var/lib/{color,misc,locate}
38ln -sfv /run /var/run
39ln -sfv /run/lock /var/lock
41install -dv -m 0750 /root
42install -dv -m 1777 /tmp /var/tmp</userinput></screen>
44 <para>Directories are, by default, created with permission mode 755, but
45 this is not desirable everywhere. In the commands above, two
46 changes are made&mdash;one to the home directory of user <systemitem
47 class="username">root</systemitem>, and another to the directories for
48 temporary files.</para>
50 <para>The first mode change ensures that not just anybody can enter
51 the <filename class="directory">/root</filename> directory&mdash;just
52 like a normal user would do with his or her own home directory. The
53 second mode change makes sure that any user can write to the
54 <filename class="directory">/tmp</filename> and <filename
55 class="directory">/var/tmp</filename> directories, but cannot remove
56 another user's files from them. The latter is prohibited by the so-called
57 <quote>sticky bit,</quote> the highest bit (1) in the 1777 bit mask.</para>
59 <sect2>
60 <title>FHS Compliance Note</title>
62 <para>This directory tree is based on the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
63 (FHS) (available at <ulink
64 url=""/>). The FHS also specifies
65 the optional existence of additional directories such as <filename
66 class="directory">/usr/local/games</filename> and <filename
67 class="directory">/usr/share/games</filename>. In LFS, we create only the
68 directories that are really necessary. However, feel free to create more
69 directories, if you wish. </para>
71 <warning>
72 <para>
73 The FHS does not enforce the existence of the directory
74 <filename class="directory">/usr/lib64</filename>, and the LFS editors
75 have decided not to use it. For the instructions in LFS and BLFS to work,
76 it is imperative that this directory be non-existent. You should often
77 check that it does not exist, because it is easy to inadvertently
78 create it, which will likely break your system.
79 </para>
80 </warning>
82 </sect2>
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