source: chapter07/creatingdirs.xml@ 52539e1

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Last change on this file since 52539e1 was 52539e1, checked in by Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs@…>, 17 months ago

Update to Python3-3.8.5.
Update to libcap-2.40.
Update to linux-5.7.9.

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/trunk/BOOK@12000 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-tools-creatingdirs">
9 <?dbhtml filename="creatingdirs.html"?>
10
11 <title>Creating Directories</title>
12
13 <para>It is time to create the full structure in the LFS file system. Create
14 a standard directory tree by issuing the following commands:</para>
15
16<screen><userinput>mkdir -pv /{bin,boot,etc/{opt,sysconfig},home,lib/firmware,mnt,opt}
17mkdir -pv /{media/{floppy,cdrom},srv,var}
18mkdir -pv /usr/{,local/}{bin,include,lib,sbin,src}
19mkdir -pv /usr/{,local/}share/{color,dict,doc,info,locale,man}
20mkdir -pv /usr/{,local/}share/{misc,terminfo,zoneinfo}
21mkdir -pv /usr/{,local/}share/man/man{1..8}
22install -dv -m 0750 /root
23install -dv -m 1777 /tmp /var/tmp
24
25mkdir -v /var/{log,mail,spool}
26ln -sv /run /var/run
27ln -sv /run/lock /var/lock
28mkdir -pv /var/{opt,cache,lib/{color,misc,locate},local}</userinput></screen>
29
30 <para>Directories are, by default, created with permission mode 755, but
31 this is not desirable for all directories. In the commands above, two
32 changes are made&mdash;one to the home directory of user <systemitem
33 class="username">root</systemitem>, and another to the directories for
34 temporary files.</para>
35
36 <para>The first mode change ensures that not just anybody can enter
37 the <filename class="directory">/root</filename> directory&mdash;the
38 same as a normal user would do with his or her home directory. The
39 second mode change makes sure that any user can write to the
40 <filename class="directory">/tmp</filename> and <filename
41 class="directory">/var/tmp</filename> directories, but cannot remove
42 another user's files from them. The latter is prohibited by the so-called
43 <quote>sticky bit,</quote> the highest bit (1) in the 1777 bit mask.</para>
44
45 <sect2>
46 <title>FHS Compliance Note</title>
47
48 <para>The directory tree is based on the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
49 (FHS) (available at <ulink
50 url="https://refspecs.linuxfoundation.org/fhs.shtml"/>). The FHS also specifies
51 the optional existence of some directories such as <filename
52 class="directory">/usr/local/games</filename> and <filename
53 class="directory">/usr/share/games</filename>. We create only the
54 directories that are needed. However, feel free to create these
55 directories. </para>
56
57 </sect2>
58
59</sect1>
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