source: chapter07/networkd.xml@ a542116

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Last change on this file since a542116 was a542116, checked in by Pierre Labastie <pieere@…>, 5 years ago

Remove the role="nodump" for the staic /etc/hosts in systemd, so that jhalfs
can generate that file

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/trunk/BOOK@11207 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 10.7 KB
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-scripts-network" revision="systemd">
9 <?dbhtml filename="network.html"?>
10
11 <title>General Network Configuration</title>
12
13 <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-network">
14 <primary sortas="d-network">network</primary>
15 <secondary>configuring</secondary></indexterm>
16
17 <para>This section only applies if a network card is to be
18 configured.</para>
19
20 <sect2>
21 <title>Network Interface Configuration Files</title>
22
23 <para>Starting with version 209, systemd ships a network configuration
24 daemon called <command>systemd-networkd</command> which can be used for
25 basic network configuration. Additionally, since version 213, DNS name
26 resolution can be handled by <command>systemd-resolved</command> in place
27 of a static <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename> file. Both services are
28 enabled by default.</para>
29
30 <para>Configuration files for <command>systemd-networkd</command> (and
31 <command>systemd-resolved</command>) can be placed in
32 <filename class="directory">/usr/lib/systemd/network</filename>
33 or <filename class="directory">/etc/systemd/network</filename>. Files in
34 <filename class="directory">/etc/systemd/network</filename> have a
35 higher priority than the ones in
36 <filename class="directory">/usr/lib/systemd/network</filename>.
37 There are three types of configuration files:
38 <filename class="extension">.link</filename>,
39 <filename class="extension">.netdev</filename> and
40 <filename class="extension">.network</filename> files. For detailed
41 descriptions and example contents of these configuration files, consult
42 the <filename>systemd-link(5)</filename>,
43 <filename>systemd-netdev(5)</filename> and
44 <filename>systemd-network(5)</filename> manual pages.</para>
45
46 <note><para>Udev may assign network card interface names based
47 on system physical characteristics such as enp2s1. If you are
48 not sure what your interface name is, you can always run
49 <command>ip link</command> after you have booted your system.
50 </para></note>
51
52 <sect3 id="systemd-networkd-static">
53 <title>Static IP Configuration</title>
54
55 <para>The command below creates a basic configuration file for a
56 Static IP setup (using both systemd-networkd and
57 systemd-resolved):</para>
58
59<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/systemd/network/10-eth0-static.network &lt;&lt; "EOF"
60<literal>[Match]
61Name=eth0
62
63[Network]
64Address=192.168.0.2/24
65Gateway=192.168.0.1
66DNS=192.168.0.1
67Domains=<replaceable>&lt;Your Domain Name&gt;</replaceable></literal>
68EOF</userinput></screen>
69
70 <para>Multiple DNS entries can be added if you have more than one DNS
71 server. Do not include DNS or Domains entries if you intend to use a
72 static <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename> file.</para>
73
74 </sect3>
75
76 <sect3 id="systemd-networkd-dhcp">
77 <title>DHCP Configuration</title>
78
79 <para>The command below creates a basic configuration file for an IPv4
80 DHCP setup:</para>
81
82<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/systemd/network/10-eth0-dhcp.network &lt;&lt; "EOF"
83<literal>[Match]
84Name=eth0
85
86[Network]
87DHCP=ipv4
88
89[DHCP]
90UseDomains=true</literal>
91EOF</userinput></screen>
92
93 </sect3>
94
95 </sect2>
96
97 <sect2 id="resolv.conf">
98 <title>Creating the /etc/resolv.conf File</title>
99
100 <indexterm zone="resolv.conf">
101 <primary sortas="e-/etc/resolv.conf">/etc/resolv.conf</primary>
102 </indexterm>
103
104 <para>If the system is going to be connected to the Internet, it will
105 need some means of Domain Name Service (DNS) name resolution to
106 resolve Internet domain names to IP addresses, and vice versa. This is
107 best achieved by placing the IP address of the DNS server, available
108 from the ISP or network administrator, into
109 <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename>.</para>
110
111 <sect3 id="resolv-conf-systemd-resolved">
112 <title>systemd-resolved Configuration</title>
113
114 <note><para>If using another means to configure your network
115 interfaces (ex: ppp, network-manager, etc.), or if using any type of
116 local resolver (ex: bind, dnsmasq, etc.), or any other software that
117 generates an <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename> (ex: resolvconf), the
118 <command>systemd-resolved</command> service should not be
119 used.</para></note>
120
121 <para>When using <command>systemd-resolved</command> for DNS
122 configuration, it creates the file
123 <filename>/run/systemd/resolve/resolv.conf</filename>. Create a
124 symlink in <filename>/etc</filename> to use the generated file:</para>
125
126<screen><userinput>ln -sfv /run/systemd/resolve/resolv.conf /etc/resolv.conf</userinput></screen>
127
128 </sect3>
129
130 <sect3 id="resolv-conf-static">
131 <title>Static resolv.conf Configuration</title>
132
133 <para>If a static <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename> is desired,
134 create it by running the following command:</para>
135
136<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/resolv.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
137<literal># Begin /etc/resolv.conf
138
139domain <replaceable>&lt;Your Domain Name&gt;</replaceable>
140nameserver <replaceable>&lt;IP address of your primary nameserver&gt;</replaceable>
141nameserver <replaceable>&lt;IP address of your secondary nameserver&gt;</replaceable>
142
143# End /etc/resolv.conf</literal>
144EOF</userinput></screen>
145
146 <para>The <varname>domain</varname> statement can be omitted
147 or replaced with a <varname>search</varname> statement. See the man page
148 for resolv.conf for more details.</para>
149
150 <para>Replace
151 <replaceable>&lt;IP address of the nameserver&gt;</replaceable>
152 with the IP address of the DNS most appropriate for the setup. There will
153 often be more than one entry (requirements demand secondary servers for
154 fallback capability). If you only need or want one DNS server, remove the
155 second <emphasis>nameserver</emphasis> line from the file. The IP address
156 may also be a router on the local network.</para>
157
158 <note><para>The Google Public IPv4 DNS addresses are
159 <parameter>8.8.8.8</parameter> and <parameter>8.8.4.4</parameter>
160 for IPv4, and <parameter>2001:4860:4860::8888</parameter> and
161 <parameter>2001:4860:4860::8844</parameter> for IPv6.</para></note>
162
163 </sect3>
164
165 </sect2>
166
167 <sect2 id="ch-scripts-hostname">
168 <title>Configuring the system hostname</title>
169
170 <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-hostname">
171 <primary sortas="d-hostname">hostname</primary>
172 <secondary>configuring</secondary>
173 </indexterm>
174
175 <para>During the boot process, the file <filename>/etc/hostname</filename>
176 is used for establishing the system's hostname.</para>
177
178 <para>Create the <filename>/etc/hostname</filename> file and enter a
179 hostname by running:</para>
180
181<screen><userinput>echo "<replaceable>&lt;lfs&gt;</replaceable>" &gt; /etc/hostname</userinput></screen>
182
183 <para><replaceable>&lt;lfs&gt;</replaceable> needs to be replaced with the
184 name given to the computer. Do not enter the Fully Qualified Domain Name
185 (FQDN) here. That information is put in the
186 <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> file.</para>
187
188 </sect2>
189
190 <sect2 id="ch-scripts-hosts">
191 <title>Customizing the /etc/hosts File</title>
192
193 <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-hosts">
194 <primary sortas="e-/etc/hosts">/etc/hosts</primary>
195 </indexterm>
196
197 <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-hosts">
198 <primary sortas="d-localnet">localnet</primary>
199 <secondary>/etc/hosts</secondary>
200 </indexterm>
201
202 <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-hosts">
203 <primary sortas="d-network">network</primary>
204 <secondary>/etc/hosts</secondary>
205 </indexterm>
206
207 <para>Decide on a fully-qualified domain name (FQDN), and possible aliases
208 for use in the <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> file. If using static
209 addresses, you'll also need to decide on an IP address. The syntax
210 for a hosts file entry is:</para>
211
212<screen><literal>IP_address myhost.example.org aliases</literal></screen>
213
214 <para>Unless the computer is to be visible to the Internet (i.e., there is
215 a registered domain and a valid block of assigned IP addresses&mdash;most
216 users do not have this), make sure that the IP address is in the private
217 network IP address range. Valid ranges are:</para>
218
219<screen><literal>Private Network Address Range Normal Prefix
22010.0.0.1 - 10.255.255.254 8
221172.x.0.1 - 172.x.255.254 16
222192.168.y.1 - 192.168.y.254 24</literal></screen>
223
224 <para>x can be any number in the range 16-31. y can be any number in the
225 range 0-255.</para>
226
227 <para>A valid private IP address could be 192.168.1.1. A valid FQDN for
228 this IP could be lfs.example.org.</para>
229
230 <para>Even if not using a network card, a valid FQDN is still required.
231 This is necessary for certain programs to operate correctly.</para>
232
233 <para>If using DHCP, DHCPv6, IPv6 Autoconfiguration, or if a network card
234 is not going to be configured, create the <filename>/etc/hosts</filename>
235 file by running the following command:</para>
236
237<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/hosts &lt;&lt; "EOF"
238<literal># Begin /etc/hosts
239
240127.0.0.1 localhost
241127.0.1.1 <replaceable>&lt;FQDN&gt;</replaceable> <replaceable>&lt;HOSTNAME&gt;</replaceable>
242::1 localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
243ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
244ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
245
246# End /etc/hosts</literal>
247EOF</userinput></screen>
248
249 <para>The ::1 entry is the IPv6 counterpart of 127.0.0.1 and represents
250 the IPv6 loopback interface. 127.0.1.1 is a loopback entry reserved
251 specifically for the FQDN.</para>
252
253 <para>If using a static address, create the <filename>/etc/hosts</filename>
254 file by running this command instead:</para>
255
256<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/hosts &lt;&lt; "EOF"
257<literal># Begin /etc/hosts
258
259127.0.0.1 localhost
260127.0.1.1 <replaceable>&lt;FQDN&gt;</replaceable> <replaceable>&lt;HOSTNAME&gt;</replaceable>
261<replaceable>&lt;192.168.0.2&gt;</replaceable> <replaceable>&lt;FQDN&gt;</replaceable> <replaceable>&lt;HOSTNAME&gt;</replaceable> <replaceable>[alias1] [alias2] ...</replaceable>
262::1 localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
263ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
264ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
265
266# End /etc/hosts</literal>
267EOF</userinput></screen>
268
269 <para>The <replaceable>&lt;192.168.0.2&gt;</replaceable>,
270 <replaceable>&lt;FQDN&gt;</replaceable>, and
271 <replaceable>&lt;HOSTNAME&gt;</replaceable> values need to be
272 changed for specific uses or requirements (if assigned an IP address by a
273 network/system administrator and the machine will be connected to an
274 existing network). The optional alias name(s) can be omitted.</para>
275
276 </sect2>
277
278</sect1>
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