source: chapter07/sysd-custom.xml@ bf58c1e

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Last change on this file since bf58c1e was bf58c1e, checked in by Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs@…>, 8 years ago

Rewrite and reorganize Chapter 7.
Update systemd customization.

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-scripts-sysd-custom">
9 <?dbhtml filename="sysd-custom.html"?>
10
11 <title>Systemd Usage and Confiuration</title>
12
13 <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-sysd-custom">
14 <primary sortas="e-Systemd">Systemd Customization</primary>
15 </indexterm>
16
17 <sect2>
18 <title>Basic Configuration</title>
19
20 <para>The <filename>/etc/systemd/system.conf</filename> file contains a set
21 of items to control basic operations. The default file has all entries
22 commented out with the default settings indicated. This file is where the
23 log level may be changed as well as some basic journal settings.</para>
24
25 </sect2>
26
27 <sect2>
28 <title>Disabling Screen Clearing at Boot Time</title>
29
30 <para>The normal behavior for systemd is to clear the secreen at
31 the end of the boot sequence. If desired, this behavior may be
32 changed by the following:</para>
33
34<screen role="nodump"><userinput>mkdir -p /etc/systemd/system/getty@tty1.service.d
35
36cat > /etc/systemd/system/getty@tty1.service.d/noclear.conf &lt;&lt; EOF
37[Service]
38TTYVTDisallocate=no
39EOF</userinput></screen>
40
41 <para>The boot messages can always be revied by using the
42 <userinput>journalctl -b</userinput> command as the root user.</para>
43
44 </sect2>
45
46 <sect2>
47 <title>Disabling tmpfs for /tmp </title>
48
49 <para>By default, <filename class="directory">/tmp</filename> is created as
50 a tmpfs. If this is not desired, it can be overridden by the following:</para>
51
52<screen role="nodump"><userinput>ln -s /dev/null /etc/systemd/system/tmp.mount</userinput></screen>
53
54 <para>This is not necessary if there is a separate partition for /tmp
55 specified in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>.</para>
56 </sect2>
57
58 <sect2>
59 <title>Configuring Automatic File Creation and Deletion</title>
60
61 <para>There are several services that create or delete files or
62 directories:</para>
63
64 <itemizedlist>
65 <listitem><para>systemd-tmpfiles-clean.service</para></listitem>
66 <listitem><para>systemd-tmpfiles-setup-dev.service</para></listitem>
67 <listitem><para>systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service</para></listitem>
68 </itemizedlist>
69
70 <para>The system location for the configuration files is
71 <filename>/usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/*.conf</filename>. The local
72 configuration files are in <filename>/etc/tmpfiles.d/*.conf</filename>.
73 Files in /etc/tmpfiles.d override files with the same name in
74 /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d. See <userinput>man tmpfiles.d</userinput>
75 for file format details.</para>
76
77 </sect2>
78
79 <sect2>
80 <title>Adding Custom Units and Services</title>
81
82 <para>A custom service can be added by creating a directory and
83 configuration file in <filename class="directory">/etc/systemd/system/</filename>.
84 For example:</para>
85
86<screen role="nodump"><userinput>mkdir -p /etc/systemd/system/foobar.service.d
87
88cat > /etc/systemd/system/foobar.service.d/foobar.conf &lt;&lt; EOF
89[Service]
90Restart=always
91RestartSec=30
92EOF</userinput></screen>
93
94 <para>See the man page for systemd.unit for more information. After
95 creating the configuration file, run <userinput>systemctl
96 daemon-reload</userinput> and <userinput>systemctl restart
97 foobar</userinput> to activate a service or changes to a service.</para>
98
99 </sect2>
100
101 <sect2 id="ch-scripts-systemd-console">
102 <title>Setting Console Fonts and Keyboard</title>
103
104 <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-systemd-console">
105 <primary sortas="d-console">systemd console</primary>
106 <secondary>configuring</secondary>
107 </indexterm>
108
109 <para>This section discusses how to configure the
110 <command>systemd-vconsole-setup</command> system service, which configures
111 the virtual console font and console keymap.</para>
112
113 <para>The <command>systemd-vconsole-setup</command> service reads the
114 <filename>/etc/vconsole.conf</filename> file for configuration
115 information. Decide which keymap and screen font will be used. Various
116 language-specific HOWTOs can also help with this, see <ulink
117 url="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX/other-lang.html"/>.
118 Examine <command>localectl list-keymaps</command> output for a list of
119 valid console keymaps. Look in
120 <filename class="directory">/usr/share/consolefonts</filename>
121 directory for valid screen fonts.</para>
122
123 <para>The <filename>/etc/vconsole.conf</filename> file should contain lines
124 of the form: VARIABLE="value". The following variables are recognized:</para>
125
126 <variablelist>
127
128 <varlistentry>
129 <term>KEYMAP</term>
130 <listitem>
131 <para>This variable specifies the key mapping table for the keyboard. If
132 unset, it defaults to <literal>us</literal>.</para>
133 </listitem>
134 </varlistentry>
135
136 <varlistentry>
137 <term>KEYMAP_TOGGLE</term>
138 <listitem>
139 <para>This variable can be used to configure a second toggle keymap and
140 is unset by default.</para>
141 </listitem>
142 </varlistentry>
143 <varlistentry>
144 <term>FONT</term>
145 <listitem>
146 <para>This variable specifies the font used by the virtual
147 console.</para>
148 </listitem>
149 </varlistentry>
150 <varlistentry>
151 <term>FONT_MAP</term>
152 <listitem>
153 <para>This variable specifies the console map to be used.</para>
154 </listitem>
155 </varlistentry>
156
157 <varlistentry>
158 <term>FONT_UNIMAP</term>
159 <listitem>
160 <para>This variable specifies the unicode font map.</para>
161 </listitem>
162 </varlistentry>
163
164 </variablelist>
165
166 <para>An example for a German keyboard and console is given below:</para>
167
168<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/vconsole.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
169<literal>KEYMAP=de-latin1
170FONT=Lat2-Terminus16</literal>
171EOF</userinput></screen>
172
173 <para>You can change KEYMAP value at runtime by using the
174 <command>localectl</command> utility:</para>
175
176<screen role="nodump"><userinput>localectl set-keymap MAP</userinput></screen>
177
178 <note><para>Please note that <command>localectl</command> command can
179 be used only on a system booted with Systemd.</para></note>
180
181 </sect2>
182
183 <sect2>
184 <title>Clock Configuration</title>
185
186 <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-clock">
187 <primary sortas="d-clock">clock</primary>
188 <secondary>configuring</secondary></indexterm>
189
190 <para>This section discusses how to configure the
191 <command>systemd-timedated</command> system service, which configures
192 system clock and timezone.</para>
193
194 <para><command>systemd-timedated</command> reads
195 <filename>/etc/adjtime</filename>, and depending on the contents of the file,
196 it sets the clock to either UTC or local time. Create the
197 <filename>/etc/adjtime</filename> file with the following contents <emphasis>if your
198 hardware clock is set to local time</emphasis>:</para>
199
200<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/adjtime &lt;&lt; "EOF"
201<literal>0.0 0 0.0
2020
203LOCAL</literal>
204EOF</userinput></screen>
205
206 <para>If <filename>/etc/adjtime</filename> isn't present at first boot,
207 <command>systemd-timedated</command> will assume that hardware clock is
208 set to UTC and create the file using that setting.</para>
209
210 <para>You can also use the <command>timedatectl</command> utility to tell
211 <command>systemd-timedated</command> if your hardware clock is set to
212 UTC or local time:</para>
213
214<screen role="nodump"><userinput>timedatectl set-local-rtc 1</userinput></screen>
215
216 <para><command>timedatectl</command> can also be used to change system time and
217 time zone.</para>
218
219 <para>To change your current system time, issue:</para>
220
221<screen role="nodump"><userinput>timedatectl set-time YYYY:MM:DD HH:MM:SS</userinput></screen>
222
223 <para>Hardware clock will also be updated accordingly.</para>
224
225 <para>To change your current time zone, issue:</para>
226
227<screen role="nodump"><userinput>timedatectl set-timezone TIMEZONE</userinput></screen>
228
229 <para>You can get list of available time zones by running:</para>
230
231<screen role="nodump"><userinput>timedatectl list-timezones</userinput></screen>
232
233 <note><para>The <command>timedatectl</command> command can
234 be used only on a system booted with Systemd.</para></note>
235
236 </sect2>
237
238 <sect2>
239 <title>Debugging the Boot Sequence</title>
240
241 <para>There are several commands that can be used to help debug the systemd
242 boot process. Here are some examples:</para>
243
244 <itemizedlist>
245 <listitem><para>systemctl list-units -t service [--all]</para></listitem>
246 <listitem><para>systemctl list-units -t target [--all]</para></listitem>
247 <listitem><para>systemctl show -p Wants multi-user.target</para></listitem>
248 <listitem><para>systemctl status sshd.service</para></listitem>
249 </itemizedlist>
250
251 </sect2>
252
253</sect1>
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