source: chapter08/binutils.xml@ d94f2d0

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Last change on this file since d94f2d0 was d94f2d0, checked in by Pierre Labastie <pierre.labastie@…>, 4 months ago

Clean chapter 8 binutils xml and text

Remove old commented instructions
Remove a sed and a test failure explanation: both have been fixed
in binutils-2.39

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 15.8 KB
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-binutils" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="binutils.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>binutils</productname>
13 <productnumber>&binutils-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&binutils-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Binutils-&binutils-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils">
20 <primary sortas="a-Binutils">Binutils</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other
27 tools for handling object files.</para>
28
29 <segmentedlist>
30 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
31 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
32
33 <seglistitem>
34 <seg>&binutils-fin-sbu;</seg>
35 <seg>&binutils-fin-du;</seg>
36 </seglistitem>
37 </segmentedlist>
38
39 </sect2>
40
41 <sect2 role="installation">
42 <title>Installation of Binutils</title>
43
44 <para>Verify that the PTYs are working properly inside the chroot
45 environment by performing a simple test:</para>
46
47<screen><userinput remap="test">expect -c "spawn ls"</userinput></screen>
48
49 <para>This command should output the following:</para>
50
51<screen><computeroutput>spawn ls</computeroutput></screen>
52
53 <para>If, instead, the output includes the message below, then the environment
54 is not set up for proper PTY operation. This issue needs to be resolved before
55 running the test suites for Binutils and GCC:</para>
56
57<screen><computeroutput>The system has no more ptys.
58Ask your system administrator to create more.</computeroutput></screen>
59<!-- Fixed in binutils-2.39
60 <para>
61 Now make a fix identified upstream that affects building some packages:
62 </para>
63
64<screen><userinput remap="pre">sed -e '/R_386_TLS_LE /i \ || (TYPE) == R_386_TLS_IE \\' \
65 -i ./bfd/elfxx-x86.h</userinput></screen>
66-->
67 <para>The Binutils documentation recommends building Binutils
68 in a dedicated build directory:</para>
69
70<screen><userinput remap="pre">mkdir -v build
71cd build</userinput></screen>
72
73 <para>Prepare Binutils for compilation:</para>
74
75<screen><userinput remap="configure">../configure --prefix=/usr \
76 --sysconfdir=/etc \
77 --enable-gold \
78 --enable-ld=default \
79 --enable-plugins \
80 --enable-shared \
81 --disable-werror \
82 --enable-64-bit-bfd \
83 --with-system-zlib</userinput></screen>
84 <variablelist>
85 <title>The meaning of the configure parameters:</title>
86
87 <varlistentry>
88 <term><parameter>--enable-gold</parameter></term>
89 <listitem>
90 <para>Build the gold linker and install it as ld.gold (along side the
91 default linker).</para>
92 </listitem>
93 </varlistentry>
94
95 <varlistentry>
96 <term><parameter>--enable-ld=default</parameter></term>
97 <listitem>
98 <para>Build the original bfd linker and install it as both ld (the
99 default linker) and ld.bfd.</para>
100 </listitem>
101 </varlistentry>
102
103 <varlistentry>
104 <term><parameter>--enable-plugins</parameter></term>
105 <listitem>
106 <para>Enables plugin support for the linker.</para>
107 </listitem>
108 </varlistentry>
109
110 <varlistentry>
111 <term><parameter>--enable-64-bit-bfd</parameter></term>
112 <listitem>
113 <para>Enables 64-bit support (on hosts with narrower word sizes).
114 May not be needed on 64-bit systems, but does no harm.</para>
115 </listitem>
116 </varlistentry>
117
118 <varlistentry>
119 <term><parameter>--with-system-zlib</parameter></term>
120 <listitem>
121 <para>Use the installed zlib library rather than building the
122 included version.</para>
123 </listitem>
124 </varlistentry>
125
126 </variablelist>
127
128 <para>Compile the package:</para>
129
130<screen><userinput remap="make">make tooldir=/usr</userinput></screen>
131
132 <variablelist>
133 <title>The meaning of the make parameter:</title>
134
135 <varlistentry>
136 <term><parameter>tooldir=/usr</parameter></term>
137 <listitem>
138 <para>Normally, the tooldir (the directory where the executables will
139 ultimately be located) is set to <filename
140 class="directory">$(exec_prefix)/$(target_alias)</filename>. For
141 example, x86_64 machines would expand that to <filename
142 class="directory">/usr/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu</filename>. Because this is
143 a custom system, this target-specific directory in <filename
144 class="directory">/usr</filename> is not required. <filename
145 class="directory">$(exec_prefix)/$(target_alias)</filename> would be
146 used if the system was used to cross-compile (for example, compiling a
147 package on an Intel machine that generates code that can be executed
148 on PowerPC machines).</para>
149 </listitem>
150 </varlistentry>
151
152 </variablelist>
153
154 <important>
155 <para>The test suite for Binutils in this section is considered critical.
156 Do not skip it under any circumstances.</para>
157 </important>
158
159 <para>Test the results:</para>
160
161<screen><userinput remap="test">make -k check</userinput></screen>
162
163 <!-- Fixed in 2.39
164 https://sourceware.org/git/?p=binutils-gdb.git;a=commit;h=01ae03b
165 <para>One gold test, <filename>pr17704a_test</filename>, is known to
166 fail if <parameter>CONFIG_IA32_EMULATION</parameter> is disabled in the
167 kernel configuration of the host system.</para>
168 -->
169 <para>Install the package:</para>
170
171<screen><userinput remap="install">make tooldir=/usr install</userinput></screen>
172
173 <para>Remove useless static libraries:</para>
174
175<screen><userinput remap="install">rm -fv /usr/lib/lib{bfd,ctf,ctf-nobfd,opcodes}.a</userinput></screen>
176
177 </sect2>
178
179 <sect2 id="contents-binutils" role="content">
180 <title>Contents of Binutils</title>
181
182 <segmentedlist>
183 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
184 <segtitle>Installed libraries</segtitle>
185 <segtitle>Installed directory</segtitle>
186
187 <seglistitem>
188 <seg>addr2line, ar, as, c++filt, dwp, elfedit, gprof, gprofng, ld, ld.bfd, ld.gold, nm,
189 objcopy, objdump, ranlib, readelf, size, strings, and strip</seg>
190 <seg>libbfd.so, libctf.so, libctf-nobfd.so, and libopcodes.so</seg>
191 <seg>/usr/lib/ldscripts</seg>
192 </seglistitem>
193 </segmentedlist>
194
195 <variablelist>
196 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
197 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
198 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
199
200 <varlistentry id="addr2line">
201 <term><command>addr2line</command></term>
202 <listitem>
203 <para>Translates program addresses to file names and line numbers;
204 given an address and the name of an executable, it uses the debugging
205 information in the executable to determine which source file and line
206 number are associated with the address</para>
207 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils addr2line">
208 <primary sortas="b-addr2line">addr2line</primary>
209 </indexterm>
210 </listitem>
211 </varlistentry>
212
213 <varlistentry id="ar">
214 <term><command>ar</command></term>
215 <listitem>
216 <para>Creates, modifies, and extracts from archives</para>
217 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ar">
218 <primary sortas="b-ar">ar</primary>
219 </indexterm>
220 </listitem>
221 </varlistentry>
222
223 <varlistentry id="as">
224 <term><command>as</command></term>
225 <listitem>
226 <para>An assembler that assembles the output of <command>gcc</command>
227 into object files</para>
228 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils as">
229 <primary sortas="b-as">as</primary>
230 </indexterm>
231 </listitem>
232 </varlistentry>
233
234 <varlistentry id="c-filt">
235 <term><command>c++filt</command></term>
236 <listitem>
237 <para>Used by the linker to de-mangle C++ and Java symbols and to keep
238 overloaded functions from clashing</para>
239 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils c-filt">
240 <primary sortas="b-c++filt">c++filt</primary>
241 </indexterm>
242 </listitem>
243 </varlistentry>
244
245 <varlistentry id="dwp">
246 <term><command>dwp</command></term>
247 <listitem>
248 <para>The DWARF packaging utility</para>
249 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils dwp">
250 <primary sortas="dwp">dwp</primary>
251 </indexterm>
252 </listitem>
253 </varlistentry>
254
255 <varlistentry id="elfedit">
256 <term><command>elfedit</command></term>
257 <listitem>
258 <para>Updates the ELF header of ELF files</para>
259 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils elfedit">
260 <primary sortas="b-elfedit">elfedit</primary>
261 </indexterm>
262 </listitem>
263 </varlistentry>
264
265 <varlistentry id="gprof">
266 <term><command>gprof</command></term>
267 <listitem>
268 <para>Displays call graph profile data</para>
269 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils gprof">
270 <primary sortas="b-gprof">gprof</primary>
271 </indexterm>
272 </listitem>
273 </varlistentry>
274
275 <varlistentry id="gprofng">
276 <term><command>gprofng</command></term>
277 <listitem>
278 <para>Gather and analyze performance data</para>
279 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils gprofng">
280 <primary sortas="b-gprofng">gprofng</primary>
281 </indexterm>
282 </listitem>
283 </varlistentry>
284
285 <varlistentry id="ld">
286 <term><command>ld</command></term>
287 <listitem>
288 <para>A linker that combines a number of object and archive files
289 into a single file, relocating their data and tying up symbol
290 references</para>
291 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ld">
292 <primary sortas="b-ld">ld</primary>
293 </indexterm>
294 </listitem>
295 </varlistentry>
296
297 <varlistentry id="ld.gold">
298 <term><command>ld.gold</command></term>
299 <listitem>
300 <para>A cut down version of ld that only supports the
301 elf object file format</para>
302 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ld.gold">
303 <primary sortas="b-ld.gold">ld.gold</primary>
304 </indexterm>
305 </listitem>
306 </varlistentry>
307
308 <varlistentry id="ld.bfd">
309 <term><command>ld.bfd</command></term>
310 <listitem>
311 <para>Hard link to <command>ld</command></para>
312 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ld.bfd">
313 <primary sortas="b-ld.bfd">ld.bfd</primary>
314 </indexterm>
315 </listitem>
316 </varlistentry>
317
318 <varlistentry id="nm">
319 <term><command>nm</command></term>
320 <listitem>
321 <para>Lists the symbols occurring in a given object file</para>
322 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils nm">
323 <primary sortas="b-nm">nm</primary>
324 </indexterm>
325 </listitem>
326 </varlistentry>
327
328 <varlistentry id="objcopy">
329 <term><command>objcopy</command></term>
330 <listitem>
331 <para>Translates one type of object file into another</para>
332 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils objcopy">
333 <primary sortas="b-objcopy">objcopy</primary>
334 </indexterm>
335 </listitem>
336 </varlistentry>
337
338 <varlistentry id="objdump">
339 <term><command>objdump</command></term>
340 <listitem>
341 <para>Displays information about the given object file, with options
342 controlling the particular information to display; the information
343 shown is useful to programmers who are working on the compilation
344 tools</para>
345 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils objdump">
346 <primary sortas="b-objdump">objdump</primary>
347 </indexterm>
348 </listitem>
349 </varlistentry>
350
351 <varlistentry id="ranlib">
352 <term><command>ranlib</command></term>
353 <listitem>
354 <para>Generates an index of the contents of an archive and stores it
355 in the archive; the index lists all of the symbols defined by archive
356 members that are relocatable object files</para>
357 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ranlib">
358 <primary sortas="b-ranlib">ranlib</primary>
359 </indexterm>
360 </listitem>
361 </varlistentry>
362
363 <varlistentry id="readelf">
364 <term><command>readelf</command></term>
365 <listitem>
366 <para>Displays information about ELF type binaries</para>
367 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils readelf">
368 <primary sortas="b-readelf">readelf</primary>
369 </indexterm>
370 </listitem>
371 </varlistentry>
372
373 <varlistentry id="size">
374 <term><command>size</command></term>
375 <listitem>
376 <para>Lists the section sizes and the total size for the given
377 object files</para>
378 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils size">
379 <primary sortas="b-size">size</primary>
380 </indexterm>
381 </listitem>
382 </varlistentry>
383
384 <varlistentry id="strings">
385 <term><command>strings</command></term>
386 <listitem>
387 <para>Outputs, for each given file, the sequences of printable
388 characters that are of at least the specified length (defaulting to
389 four); for object files, it prints, by default, only the strings from
390 the initializing and loading sections while for other types of files, it
391 scans the entire file</para>
392 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils strings">
393 <primary sortas="b-strings">strings</primary>
394 </indexterm>
395 </listitem>
396 </varlistentry>
397
398 <varlistentry id="strip">
399 <term><command>strip</command></term>
400 <listitem>
401 <para>Discards symbols from object files</para>
402 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils strip">
403 <primary sortas="b-strip">strip</primary>
404 </indexterm>
405 </listitem>
406 </varlistentry>
407
408 <varlistentry id="libbfd">
409 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libbfd</filename></term>
410 <listitem>
411 <para>The Binary File Descriptor library</para>
412 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils libbfd">
413 <primary sortas="c-libbfd">libbfd</primary>
414 </indexterm>
415 </listitem>
416 </varlistentry>
417
418 <varlistentry id="libctf">
419 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libctf</filename></term>
420 <listitem>
421 <para>The Compat ANSI-C Type Format debugging support library</para>
422 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils libctf">
423 <primary sortas="c-libctf">libctf</primary>
424 </indexterm>
425 </listitem>
426 </varlistentry>
427
428 <varlistentry id="libctf-nobfd">
429 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libctf-nobfd</filename></term>
430 <listitem>
431 <para>A libctf variant which does not use libbfd functionality</para>
432 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils libctf-nobfd">
433 <primary sortas="c-libctf-nobfd">libctf-nobfd</primary>
434 </indexterm>
435 </listitem>
436 </varlistentry>
437
438 <varlistentry id="libopcodes">
439 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libopcodes</filename></term>
440 <listitem>
441 <para>A library for dealing with opcodes&mdash;the <quote>readable
442 text</quote> versions of instructions for the processor;
443 it is used for building utilities like
444 <command>objdump</command></para>
445 <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils libopcodes">
446 <primary sortas="c-libopcodes">libopcodes</primary>
447 </indexterm>
448 </listitem>
449 </varlistentry>
450
451 </variablelist>
452
453 </sect2>
454
455</sect1>
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