source: chapter08/coreutils.xml@ 14bfa91

11.0 11.0-rc1 11.0-rc2 11.0-rc3 ml-11.0 multilib trunk xry111/git-transition xry111/glibc-2.34 xry111/tester-nohack xry111/usr-move
Last change on this file since 14bfa91 was 14bfa91, checked in by Xi Ruoyao <xry111@…>, 9 months ago

coreutils: remove trailing period in short desc

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/trunk/BOOK@12158 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-coreutils" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="coreutils.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>coreutils</productname>
13 <productnumber>&coreutils-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&coreutils-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Coreutils-&coreutils-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils">
20 <primary sortas="a-Coreutils">Coreutils</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the
27 basic system characteristics.</para>
28
29 <segmentedlist>
30 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
31 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
32
33 <seglistitem>
34 <seg>&coreutils-fin-sbu;</seg>
35 <seg>&coreutils-fin-du;</seg>
36 </seglistitem>
37 </segmentedlist>
38
39 </sect2>
40
41 <sect2 role="installation">
42 <title>Installation of Coreutils</title>
43
44 <para>POSIX requires that programs from Coreutils recognize character
45 boundaries correctly even in multibyte locales. The following patch fixes
46 this non-compliance and other internationalization-related bugs.</para>
47
48<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&coreutils-i18n-patch;</userinput></screen>
49
50 <note>
51 <para>In the past, many bugs were found in this patch. When reporting new
52 bugs to Coreutils maintainers, please check first if they are reproducible
53 without this patch.</para>
54 </note>
55
56 <!-- this has been fixed in upstream gnulib, when a new version of
57 coreutils is released, please check #4055 to see if the change has been
58 picked up in this package -->
59 <para>Suppress a test which on some machines can loop forever:</para>
60
61<screen><userinput remap="pre">sed -i '/test.lock/s/^/#/' gnulib-tests/gnulib.mk</userinput></screen>
62<!--
63<para>Fix a problem with autoconf-2.70 in an included gnulib .m4 file:</para>
64
65<screen><userinput remap="pre">echo '# deleted' > m4/std-gnu11.m4</userinput></screen>
66-->
67 <para>Now prepare Coreutils for compilation:</para>
68
69<screen><userinput remap="configure">autoreconf -fiv
70FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 ./configure \
71 --prefix=/usr \
72 --enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</userinput></screen>
73
74 <variablelist>
75 <title>The meaning of the configure options:</title>
76
77 <varlistentry>
78 <term><command>autoreconf</command></term>
79 <listitem>
80 <para>The patch for internationalization has modified the
81 building system of the package, so the configuration files have
82 to be regenerated.</para>
83 </listitem>
84 </varlistentry>
85
86 <varlistentry>
87 <term><envar>FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1</envar></term>
88 <listitem>
89 <para>This environment variable allows the package to be
90 built as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user.
91 </para>
92 </listitem>
93 </varlistentry>
94
95 <varlistentry>
96 <term><parameter>--enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</parameter></term>
97 <listitem>
98 <para>The purpose of this switch is to prevent Coreutils from
99 installing binaries that will be installed by other packages later.
100 </para>
101 </listitem>
102 </varlistentry>
103 </variablelist>
104
105 <para>Compile the package:</para>
106
107<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
108
109 <para>Skip down to <quote>Install the
110 package</quote> if not running the test suite.</para>
111
112 <para>Now the test suite is ready to be run. First, run the tests that are
113 meant to be run as user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>:</para>
114
115<screen><userinput remap="test">make NON_ROOT_USERNAME=tester check-root</userinput></screen>
116
117 <para>We're going to run the remainder of the tests as the
118 <systemitem class="username">tester</systemitem> user. Certain tests
119 require that the user be a member of more than one group. So that
120 these tests are not skipped, add a temporary group and make the
121 user <systemitem class="username">tester</systemitem> a part of it:</para>
122
123<screen><userinput remap="test">echo "dummy:x:102:tester" &gt;&gt; /etc/group</userinput></screen>
124
125 <para>Fix some of the permissions so that the non-root user can compile and
126 run the tests:</para>
127
128<screen><userinput remap="test">chown -Rv tester . </userinput></screen>
129
130 <para>Now run the tests:</para>
131
132<screen><userinput remap="test">su tester -c "PATH=$PATH make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check"</userinput></screen>
133
134 <para>The test-getlogin test is known to fail in the LFS chroot environment.</para>
135
136 <para>Remove the temporary group:</para>
137
138<screen><userinput remap="test">sed -i '/dummy/d' /etc/group</userinput></screen>
139 <para>Install the package:</para>
140
141<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
142
143 <para>Move programs to the locations specified by the FHS:</para>
144
145<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{cat,chgrp,chmod,chown,cp,date,dd,df,echo} /bin
146mv -v /usr/bin/{false,ln,ls,mkdir,mknod,mv,pwd,rm} /bin
147mv -v /usr/bin/{rmdir,stty,sync,true,uname} /bin
148mv -v /usr/bin/chroot /usr/sbin
149mv -v /usr/share/man/man1/chroot.1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8
150sed -i 's/"1"/"8"/' /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8</userinput></screen>
151
152 <para revision="sysv">Some of the scripts in the LFS-Bootscripts package
153 depend on <command>head</command>, <command>nice</command>,
154 <command>sleep</command>, and <command>touch</command>. As <filename
155 class="directory">/usr</filename> may not be available during the early and
156 late stages of booting, those binaries need to be on the root partition to
157 maintain FHS compliance:</para>
158
159<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{head,nice,sleep,touch} /bin</userinput></screen>
160
161 </sect2>
162
163 <sect2 id="contents-coreutils" role="content">
164 <title>Contents of Coreutils</title>
165
166 <segmentedlist>
167 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
168 <segtitle>Installed library</segtitle>
169 <segtitle>Installed directory</segtitle>
170
171 <seglistitem>
172 <seg>[, b2sum, base32, base64, basename, basenc, cat, chcon, chgrp, chmod, chown,
173 chroot, cksum, comm, cp, csplit, cut, date, dd, df, dir, dircolors,
174 dirname, du, echo, env, expand, expr, factor, false, fmt, fold, groups,
175 head, hostid, id, install, join, link, ln, logname, ls, md5sum, mkdir,
176 mkfifo, mknod, mktemp, mv, nice, nl, nohup, nproc, numfmt, od, paste,
177 pathchk, pinky, pr, printenv, printf, ptx, pwd, readlink, realpath, rm,
178 rmdir, runcon, seq, sha1sum, sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum,
179 sha512sum, shred, shuf, sleep, sort, split, stat, stdbuf, stty, sum,
180 sync, tac, tail, tee, test, timeout, touch, tr, true, truncate, tsort,
181 tty, uname, unexpand, uniq, unlink, users, vdir, wc, who, whoami, and
182 yes</seg>
183 <seg>libstdbuf.so (in /usr/libexec/coreutils)</seg>
184 <seg>/usr/libexec/coreutils</seg>
185 </seglistitem>
186 </segmentedlist>
187
188 <variablelist>
189 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
190 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
191 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
192
193 <varlistentry id="lbracket">
194 <term><command>[</command></term>
195 <listitem>
196 <para>Is an actual command, /usr/bin/[, that is a synonym
197 for the <command>test</command> command</para>
198 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils lbracket">
199 <primary sortas="b-111">[</primary>
200 </indexterm>
201 </listitem>
202 </varlistentry>
203
204 <varlistentry id="base32">
205 <term><command>base32</command></term>
206 <listitem>
207 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base32 specification
208 (RFC 4648)</para>
209 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
210 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
211 </indexterm>
212 </listitem>
213 </varlistentry>
214
215 <varlistentry id="base64">
216 <term><command>base64</command></term>
217 <listitem>
218 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base64 specification
219 (RFC 4648)</para>
220 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
221 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
222 </indexterm>
223 </listitem>
224 </varlistentry>
225
226 <varlistentry id="b2sum">
227 <term><command>b2sum</command></term>
228 <listitem>
229 <para>Prints or checks BLAKE2 (512-bit) checksums</para>
230 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils b2sum">
231 <primary sortas="b-b2sum">b2sum</primary>
232 </indexterm>
233 </listitem>
234 </varlistentry>
235
236 <varlistentry id="basename">
237 <term><command>basename</command></term>
238 <listitem>
239 <para>Strips any path and a given suffix from a file name</para>
240 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basename">
241 <primary sortas="b-basename">basename</primary>
242 </indexterm>
243 </listitem>
244 </varlistentry>
245
246 <varlistentry id="basenc">
247 <term><command>basenc</command></term>
248 <listitem>
249 <para>Encodes or decodes data using various algorithms</para>
250 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basenc">
251 <primary sortas="b-basenc">basenc</primary>
252 </indexterm>
253 </listitem>
254 </varlistentry>
255
256 <varlistentry id="cat">
257 <term><command>cat</command></term>
258 <listitem>
259 <para>Concatenates files to standard output</para>
260 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cat">
261 <primary sortas="b-cat">cat</primary>
262 </indexterm>
263 </listitem>
264 </varlistentry>
265
266 <varlistentry id="chcon">
267 <term><command>chcon</command></term>
268 <listitem>
269 <para>Changes security context for files and directories</para>
270 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chcon">
271 <primary sortas="b-chcon">chcon</primary>
272 </indexterm>
273 </listitem>
274 </varlistentry>
275
276 <varlistentry id="chgrp">
277 <term><command>chgrp</command></term>
278 <listitem>
279 <para>Changes the group ownership of files and directories</para>
280 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chgrp">
281 <primary sortas="b-chgrp">chgrp</primary>
282 </indexterm>
283 </listitem>
284 </varlistentry>
285
286 <varlistentry id="chmod">
287 <term><command>chmod</command></term>
288 <listitem>
289 <para>Changes the permissions of each file to the given mode; the mode
290 can be either a symbolic representation of the changes to make or an
291 octal number representing the new permissions</para>
292 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chmod">
293 <primary sortas="b-chmod">chmod</primary>
294 </indexterm>
295 </listitem>
296 </varlistentry>
297
298 <varlistentry id="chown">
299 <term><command>chown</command></term>
300 <listitem>
301 <para>Changes the user and/or group ownership of files and
302 directories</para>
303 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chown">
304 <primary sortas="b-chown">chown</primary>
305 </indexterm>
306 </listitem>
307 </varlistentry>
308
309 <varlistentry id="chroot">
310 <term><command>chroot</command></term>
311 <listitem>
312 <para>Runs a command with the specified directory as the
313 <filename class="directory">/</filename> directory</para>
314 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chroot">
315 <primary sortas="b-chroot">chroot</primary>
316 </indexterm>
317 </listitem>
318 </varlistentry>
319
320 <varlistentry id="cksum">
321 <term><command>cksum</command></term>
322 <listitem>
323 <para>Prints the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum and the byte
324 counts of each specified file</para>
325 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cksum">
326 <primary sortas="b-cksum">cksum</primary>
327 </indexterm>
328 </listitem>
329 </varlistentry>
330
331 <varlistentry id="comm">
332 <term><command>comm</command></term>
333 <listitem>
334 <para>Compares two sorted files, outputting in three columns the lines
335 that are unique and the lines that are common</para>
336 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils comm">
337 <primary sortas="b-comm">comm</primary>
338 </indexterm>
339 </listitem>
340 </varlistentry>
341
342 <varlistentry id="cp">
343 <term><command>cp</command></term>
344 <listitem>
345 <para>Copies files</para>
346 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cp">
347 <primary sortas="b-cp">cp</primary>
348 </indexterm>
349 </listitem>
350 </varlistentry>
351
352 <varlistentry id="csplit">
353 <term><command>csplit</command></term>
354 <listitem>
355 <para>Splits a given file into several new files, separating them
356 according to given patterns or line numbers and outputting the byte
357 count of each new file</para>
358 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils csplit">
359 <primary sortas="b-csplit">csplit</primary>
360 </indexterm>
361 </listitem>
362 </varlistentry>
363
364 <varlistentry id="cut">
365 <term><command>cut</command></term>
366 <listitem>
367 <para>Prints sections of lines, selecting the parts according to given
368 fields or positions</para>
369 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cut">
370 <primary sortas="b-cut">cut</primary>
371 </indexterm>
372 </listitem>
373 </varlistentry>
374
375 <varlistentry id="date">
376 <term><command>date</command></term>
377 <listitem>
378 <para>Displays the current time in the given format, or sets the
379 system date</para>
380 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils date">
381 <primary sortas="b-date">date</primary>
382 </indexterm>
383 </listitem>
384 </varlistentry>
385
386 <varlistentry id="dd">
387 <term><command>dd</command> </term>
388 <listitem>
389 <para>Copies a file using the given block size and count, while
390 optionally performing conversions on it</para>
391 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dd">
392 <primary sortas="b-dd">dd</primary>
393 </indexterm>
394 </listitem>
395 </varlistentry>
396
397 <varlistentry id="df">
398 <term><command>df</command></term>
399 <listitem>
400 <para>Reports the amount of disk space available (and used) on all
401 mounted file systems, or only on the file systems holding the selected
402 files</para>
403 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils df">
404 <primary sortas="b-df">df</primary>
405 </indexterm>
406 </listitem>
407 </varlistentry>
408
409 <varlistentry id="dir">
410 <term><command>dir</command></term>
411 <listitem>
412 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory (the same as
413 the <command>ls</command> command)</para>
414 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dir">
415 <primary sortas="b-dir">dir</primary>
416 </indexterm>
417 </listitem>
418 </varlistentry>
419
420 <varlistentry id="dircolors">
421 <term><command>dircolors</command></term>
422 <listitem>
423 <para>Outputs commands to set the <envar>LS_COLOR</envar>
424 environment variable to change the color scheme used by
425 <command>ls</command></para>
426 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dircolors">
427 <primary sortas="b-dircolors">dircolors</primary>
428 </indexterm>
429 </listitem>
430 </varlistentry>
431
432 <varlistentry id="dirname">
433 <term><command>dirname</command></term>
434 <listitem>
435 <para>Strips the non-directory suffix from a file name</para>
436 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dirname">
437 <primary sortas="b-dirname">dirname</primary>
438 </indexterm>
439 </listitem>
440 </varlistentry>
441
442 <varlistentry id="du">
443 <term><command>du</command></term>
444 <listitem>
445 <para>Reports the amount of disk space used by the current directory,
446 by each of the given directories (including all subdirectories) or by
447 each of the given files</para>
448 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils du">
449 <primary sortas="b-du">du</primary>
450 </indexterm>
451 </listitem>
452 </varlistentry>
453
454 <varlistentry id="echo">
455 <term><command>echo</command></term>
456 <listitem>
457 <para>Displays the given strings</para>
458 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils echo">
459 <primary sortas="b-echo">echo</primary>
460 </indexterm>
461 </listitem>
462 </varlistentry>
463
464 <varlistentry id="env">
465 <term><command>env</command></term>
466 <listitem>
467 <para>Runs a command in a modified environment</para>
468 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils env">
469 <primary sortas="b-env">env</primary>
470 </indexterm>
471 </listitem>
472 </varlistentry>
473
474 <varlistentry id="expand">
475 <term><command>expand</command></term>
476 <listitem>
477 <para>Converts tabs to spaces</para>
478 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expand">
479 <primary sortas="b-expand">expand</primary>
480 </indexterm>
481 </listitem>
482 </varlistentry>
483
484 <varlistentry id="expr">
485 <term><command>expr</command></term>
486 <listitem>
487 <para>Evaluates expressions</para>
488 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expr">
489 <primary sortas="b-expr">expr</primary>
490 </indexterm>
491 </listitem>
492 </varlistentry>
493
494 <varlistentry id="factor">
495 <term><command>factor</command></term>
496 <listitem>
497 <para>Prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers</para>
498 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils factor">
499 <primary sortas="b-factor">factor</primary>
500 </indexterm>
501 </listitem>
502 </varlistentry>
503
504 <varlistentry id="false">
505 <term><command>false</command></term>
506 <listitem>
507 <para>Does nothing, unsuccessfully; it always exits with a status code
508 indicating failure</para>
509 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils false">
510 <primary sortas="b-false">false</primary>
511 </indexterm>
512 </listitem>
513 </varlistentry>
514
515 <varlistentry id="fmt">
516 <term><command>fmt</command></term>
517 <listitem>
518 <para>Reformats the paragraphs in the given files</para>
519 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fmt">
520 <primary sortas="b-fmt">fmt</primary>
521 </indexterm>
522 </listitem>
523 </varlistentry>
524
525 <varlistentry id="fold">
526 <term><command>fold</command></term>
527 <listitem>
528 <para>Wraps the lines in the given files</para>
529 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fold">
530 <primary sortas="b-fold">fold</primary>
531 </indexterm>
532 </listitem>
533 </varlistentry>
534
535 <varlistentry id="groups">
536 <term><command>groups</command></term>
537 <listitem>
538 <para>Reports a user's group memberships</para>
539 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils groups">
540 <primary sortas="b-groups">groups</primary>
541 </indexterm>
542 </listitem>
543 </varlistentry>
544
545 <varlistentry id="head">
546 <term><command>head</command></term>
547 <listitem>
548 <para>Prints the first ten lines (or the given number of lines)
549 of each given file</para>
550 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils head">
551 <primary sortas="b-head">head</primary>
552 </indexterm>
553 </listitem>
554 </varlistentry>
555
556 <varlistentry id="hostid">
557 <term><command>hostid</command></term>
558 <listitem>
559 <para>Reports the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) of the host</para>
560 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils hostid">
561 <primary sortas="b-hostid">hostid</primary>
562 </indexterm>
563 </listitem>
564 </varlistentry>
565
566 <varlistentry id="id">
567 <term><command>id</command></term>
568 <listitem>
569 <para>Reports the effective user ID, group ID, and group memberships
570 of the current user or specified user</para>
571 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils id">
572 <primary sortas="b-id">id</primary>
573 </indexterm>
574 </listitem>
575 </varlistentry>
576
577 <varlistentry id="install">
578 <term><command>install</command> </term>
579 <listitem>
580 <para>Copies files while setting their permission modes and, if
581 possible, their owner and group</para>
582 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils install">
583 <primary sortas="b-install">install</primary>
584 </indexterm>
585 </listitem>
586 </varlistentry>
587
588 <varlistentry id="join">
589 <term><command>join</command></term>
590 <listitem>
591 <para>Joins the lines that have identical join fields from two
592 separate files</para>
593 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils join">
594 <primary sortas="b-join">join</primary>
595 </indexterm>
596 </listitem>
597 </varlistentry>
598
599 <varlistentry id="link">
600 <term><command>link</command></term>
601 <listitem>
602 <para>Creates a hard link with the given name to a file</para>
603 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils link">
604 <primary sortas="b-link">link</primary>
605 </indexterm>
606 </listitem>
607 </varlistentry>
608
609 <varlistentry id="ln">
610 <term><command>ln</command></term>
611 <listitem>
612 <para>Makes hard links or soft (symbolic) links between files</para>
613 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ln">
614 <primary sortas="b-ln">ln</primary>
615 </indexterm>
616 </listitem>
617 </varlistentry>
618
619 <varlistentry id="logname">
620 <term><command>logname</command></term>
621 <listitem>
622 <para>Reports the current user's login name</para>
623 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils logname">
624 <primary sortas="b-logname">logname</primary>
625 </indexterm>
626 </listitem>
627 </varlistentry>
628
629 <varlistentry id="ls">
630 <term><command>ls</command></term>
631 <listitem>
632 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory</para>
633 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ls">
634 <primary sortas="b-ls">ls</primary>
635 </indexterm>
636 </listitem>
637 </varlistentry>
638
639 <varlistentry id="md5sum">
640 <term><command>md5sum</command></term>
641 <listitem>
642 <para>Reports or checks Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums</para>
643 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils md5sum">
644 <primary sortas="b-md5sum">md5sum</primary>
645 </indexterm>
646 </listitem>
647 </varlistentry>
648
649 <varlistentry id="mkdir">
650 <term><command>mkdir</command></term>
651 <listitem>
652 <para>Creates directories with the given names</para>
653 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkdir">
654 <primary sortas="b-mkdir">mkdir</primary>
655 </indexterm>
656 </listitem>
657 </varlistentry>
658
659 <varlistentry id="mkfifo">
660 <term><command>mkfifo</command></term>
661 <listitem>
662 <para>Creates First-In, First-Outs (FIFOs), a "named
663 pipe" in UNIX parlance, with the given names</para>
664 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkfifo">
665 <primary sortas="b-mkfifo">mkfifo</primary>
666 </indexterm>
667 </listitem>
668 </varlistentry>
669
670 <varlistentry id="mknod">
671 <term><command>mknod</command></term>
672 <listitem>
673 <para>Creates device nodes with the given names; a device node is a
674 character special file, a block special file, or a FIFO</para>
675 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mknod">
676 <primary sortas="b-mknod">mknod</primary>
677 </indexterm>
678 </listitem>
679 </varlistentry>
680
681 <varlistentry id="mktemp">
682 <term><command>mktemp</command></term>
683 <listitem>
684 <para>Creates temporary files in a secure manner; it is used in scripts</para>
685 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mktemp">
686 <primary sortas="b-mktemp">mktemp</primary>
687 </indexterm>
688 </listitem>
689 </varlistentry>
690
691 <varlistentry id="mv">
692 <term><command>mv</command></term>
693 <listitem>
694 <para>Moves or renames files or directories</para>
695 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mv">
696 <primary sortas="b-mv">mv</primary>
697 </indexterm>
698 </listitem>
699 </varlistentry>
700
701 <varlistentry id="nice">
702 <term><command>nice</command></term>
703 <listitem>
704 <para>Runs a program with modified scheduling priority</para>
705 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nice">
706 <primary sortas="b-nice">nice</primary>
707 </indexterm>
708 </listitem>
709 </varlistentry>
710
711 <varlistentry id="nl">
712 <term><command>nl</command></term>
713 <listitem>
714 <para>Numbers the lines from the given files</para>
715 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nl">
716 <primary sortas="b-nl">nl</primary>
717 </indexterm>
718 </listitem>
719 </varlistentry>
720
721 <varlistentry id="nohup">
722 <term><command>nohup</command></term>
723 <listitem>
724 <para>Runs a command immune to hangups, with its output redirected to
725 a log file</para>
726 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nohup">
727 <primary sortas="b-nohup">nohup</primary>
728 </indexterm>
729 </listitem>
730 </varlistentry>
731
732 <varlistentry id="nproc">
733 <term><command>nproc</command></term>
734 <listitem>
735 <para>Prints the number of processing units available to a
736 process</para>
737 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nproc">
738 <primary sortas="b-nproc">nproc</primary>
739 </indexterm>
740 </listitem>
741 </varlistentry>
742
743 <varlistentry id="numfmt">
744 <term><command>numfmt</command></term>
745 <listitem>
746 <para>Converts numbers to or from human-readable strings</para>
747 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils numfmt">
748 <primary sortas="b-numfmt">numfmt</primary>
749 </indexterm>
750 </listitem>
751 </varlistentry>
752
753 <varlistentry id="od">
754 <term><command>od</command></term>
755 <listitem>
756 <para>Dumps files in octal and other formats</para>
757 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils od">
758 <primary sortas="b-od">od</primary>
759 </indexterm>
760 </listitem>
761 </varlistentry>
762
763 <varlistentry id="paste">
764 <term><command>paste</command></term>
765 <listitem>
766 <para>Merges the given files, joining sequentially corresponding lines
767 side by side, separated by tab characters</para>
768 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils paste">
769 <primary sortas="b-paste">paste</primary>
770 </indexterm>
771 </listitem>
772 </varlistentry>
773
774 <varlistentry id="pathchk">
775 <term><command>pathchk</command></term>
776 <listitem>
777 <para>Checks if file names are valid or portable</para>
778 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pathchk">
779 <primary sortas="b-pathchk">pathchk</primary>
780 </indexterm>
781 </listitem>
782 </varlistentry>
783
784 <varlistentry id="pinky">
785 <term><command>pinky</command></term>
786 <listitem>
787 <para>Is a lightweight finger client; it reports some information
788 about the given users</para>
789 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pinky">
790 <primary sortas="b-pinky">pinky</primary>
791 </indexterm>
792 </listitem>
793 </varlistentry>
794
795 <varlistentry id="pr">
796 <term><command>pr</command></term>
797 <listitem>
798 <para>Paginates and columnates files for printing</para>
799 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pr">
800 <primary sortas="b-pr">pr</primary>
801 </indexterm>
802 </listitem>
803 </varlistentry>
804
805 <varlistentry id="printenv">
806 <term><command>printenv</command></term>
807 <listitem>
808 <para>Prints the environment</para>
809 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printenv">
810 <primary sortas="b-printenv">printenv</primary>
811 </indexterm>
812 </listitem>
813 </varlistentry>
814
815 <varlistentry id="printf">
816 <term><command>printf</command></term>
817 <listitem>
818 <para>Prints the given arguments according to the given format, much
819 like the C printf function</para>
820 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printf">
821 <primary sortas="b-printf">printf</primary>
822 </indexterm>
823 </listitem>
824 </varlistentry>
825
826 <varlistentry id="ptx">
827 <term><command>ptx</command></term>
828 <listitem>
829 <para>Produces a permuted index from the contents of the given files,
830 with each keyword in its context</para>
831 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ptx">
832 <primary sortas="b-ptx">ptx</primary>
833 </indexterm>
834 </listitem>
835 </varlistentry>
836
837 <varlistentry id="pwd">
838 <term><command>pwd</command></term>
839 <listitem>
840 <para>Reports the name of the current working directory</para>
841 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pwd">
842 <primary sortas="b-pwd">pwd</primary>
843 </indexterm>
844 </listitem>
845 </varlistentry>
846
847 <varlistentry id="readlink">
848 <term><command>readlink</command></term>
849 <listitem>
850 <para>Reports the value of the given symbolic link</para>
851 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils readlink">
852 <primary sortas="b-readlink">readlink</primary>
853 </indexterm>
854 </listitem>
855 </varlistentry>
856
857 <varlistentry id="realpath">
858 <term><command>realpath</command></term>
859 <listitem>
860 <para>Prints the resolved path</para>
861 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils realpath">
862 <primary sortas="b-realpath">realpath</primary>
863 </indexterm>
864 </listitem>
865 </varlistentry>
866
867 <varlistentry id="rm">
868 <term><command>rm</command></term>
869 <listitem>
870 <para>Removes files or directories</para>
871 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rm">
872 <primary sortas="b-rm">rm</primary>
873 </indexterm>
874 </listitem>
875 </varlistentry>
876
877 <varlistentry id="rmdir">
878 <term><command>rmdir</command></term>
879 <listitem>
880 <para>Removes directories if they are empty</para>
881 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rmdir">
882 <primary sortas="b-rmdir">rmdir</primary>
883 </indexterm>
884 </listitem>
885 </varlistentry>
886
887 <varlistentry id="runcon">
888 <term><command>runcon</command></term>
889 <listitem>
890 <para>Runs a command with specified security context</para>
891 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils runcon">
892 <primary sortas="b-runcon">runcon</primary>
893 </indexterm>
894 </listitem>
895 </varlistentry>
896
897 <varlistentry id="seq">
898 <term><command>seq</command></term>
899 <listitem>
900 <para>Prints a sequence of numbers within a given range and with a
901 given increment</para>
902 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils seq">
903 <primary sortas="b-seq">seq</primary>
904 </indexterm>
905 </listitem>
906 </varlistentry>
907
908 <varlistentry id="sha1sum">
909 <term><command>sha1sum</command></term>
910 <listitem>
911 <para>Prints or checks 160-bit Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1)
912 checksums</para>
913 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha1sum">
914 <primary sortas="b-sha1sum">sha1sum</primary>
915 </indexterm>
916 </listitem>
917 </varlistentry>
918
919 <varlistentry id="sha224sum">
920 <term><command>sha224sum</command></term>
921 <listitem>
922 <para>Prints or checks 224-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
923 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha224sum">
924 <primary sortas="b-sha224sum">sha224sum</primary>
925 </indexterm>
926 </listitem>
927 </varlistentry>
928
929 <varlistentry id="sha256sum">
930 <term><command>sha256sum</command></term>
931 <listitem>
932 <para>Prints or checks 256-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
933 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha256sum">
934 <primary sortas="b-sha256sum">sha256sum</primary>
935 </indexterm>
936 </listitem>
937 </varlistentry>
938
939 <varlistentry id="sha384sum">
940 <term><command>sha384sum</command></term>
941 <listitem>
942 <para>Prints or checks 384-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
943 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha384sum">
944 <primary sortas="b-sha384sum">sha384sum</primary>
945 </indexterm>
946 </listitem>
947 </varlistentry>
948
949 <varlistentry id="sha512sum">
950 <term><command>sha512sum</command></term>
951 <listitem>
952 <para>Prints or checks 512-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
953 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha512sum">
954 <primary sortas="b-sha512sum">sha512sum</primary>
955 </indexterm>
956 </listitem>
957 </varlistentry>
958
959 <varlistentry id="shred">
960 <term><command>shred</command></term>
961 <listitem>
962 <para>Overwrites the given files repeatedly with complex patterns,
963 making it difficult to recover the data</para>
964 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shred">
965 <primary sortas="b-shred">shred</primary>
966 </indexterm>
967 </listitem>
968 </varlistentry>
969
970 <varlistentry id="shuf">
971 <term><command>shuf</command></term>
972 <listitem>
973 <para>Shuffles lines of text</para>
974 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shuf">
975 <primary sortas="b-shuf">shuf</primary>
976 </indexterm>
977 </listitem>
978 </varlistentry>
979
980 <varlistentry id="sleep">
981 <term><command>sleep</command></term>
982 <listitem>
983 <para>Pauses for the given amount of time</para>
984 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sleep">
985 <primary sortas="b-sleep">sleep</primary>
986 </indexterm>
987 </listitem>
988 </varlistentry>
989
990 <varlistentry id="sort">
991 <term><command>sort</command></term>
992 <listitem>
993 <para>Sorts the lines from the given files</para>
994 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sort">
995 <primary sortas="b-sort">sort</primary>
996 </indexterm>
997 </listitem>
998 </varlistentry>
999
1000 <varlistentry id="split">
1001 <term><command>split</command></term>
1002 <listitem>
1003 <para>Splits the given file into pieces, by size or by number of
1004 lines</para>
1005 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils split">
1006 <primary sortas="b-split">split</primary>
1007 </indexterm>
1008 </listitem>
1009 </varlistentry>
1010
1011 <varlistentry id="stat">
1012 <term><command>stat</command></term>
1013 <listitem>
1014 <para>Displays file or filesystem status</para>
1015 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stat">
1016 <primary sortas="b-stat">stat</primary>
1017 </indexterm>
1018 </listitem>
1019 </varlistentry>
1020
1021 <varlistentry id="stdbuf">
1022 <term><command>stdbuf</command></term>
1023 <listitem>
1024 <para>Runs commands with altered buffering operations for its standard
1025 streams</para>
1026 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stdbuf">
1027 <primary sortas="b-stdbuf">stdbuf</primary>
1028 </indexterm>
1029 </listitem>
1030 </varlistentry>
1031
1032 <varlistentry id="stty">
1033 <term><command>stty</command></term>
1034 <listitem>
1035 <para>Sets or reports terminal line settings</para>
1036 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stty">
1037 <primary sortas="b-stty">stty</primary>
1038 </indexterm>
1039 </listitem>
1040 </varlistentry>
1041
1042 <varlistentry id="sum">
1043 <term><command>sum</command></term>
1044 <listitem>
1045 <para>Prints checksum and block counts for each given file</para>
1046 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sum">
1047 <primary sortas="b-sum">sum</primary>
1048 </indexterm>
1049 </listitem>
1050 </varlistentry>
1051
1052 <varlistentry id="sync">
1053 <term><command>sync</command></term>
1054 <listitem>
1055 <para>Flushes file system buffers; it forces changed blocks to disk
1056 and updates the super block</para>
1057 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sync">
1058 <primary sortas="b-sync">sync</primary>
1059 </indexterm>
1060 </listitem>
1061 </varlistentry>
1062
1063 <varlistentry id="tac">
1064 <term><command>tac</command></term>
1065 <listitem>
1066 <para>Concatenates the given files in reverse</para>
1067 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tac">
1068 <primary sortas="b-tac">tac</primary>
1069 </indexterm>
1070 </listitem>
1071 </varlistentry>
1072
1073 <varlistentry id="tail">
1074 <term><command>tail</command></term>
1075 <listitem>
1076 <para>Prints the last ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each
1077 given file</para>
1078 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tail">
1079 <primary sortas="b-tail">tail</primary>
1080 </indexterm>
1081 </listitem>
1082 </varlistentry>
1083
1084 <varlistentry id="tee">
1085 <term><command>tee</command></term>
1086 <listitem>
1087 <para>Reads from standard input while writing both to standard output
1088 and to the given files</para>
1089 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tee">
1090 <primary sortas="b-tee">tee</primary>
1091 </indexterm>
1092 </listitem>
1093 </varlistentry>
1094
1095 <varlistentry id="test">
1096 <term><command>test</command></term>
1097 <listitem>
1098 <para>Compares values and checks file types</para>
1099 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils test">
1100 <primary sortas="b-test">test</primary>
1101 </indexterm>
1102 </listitem>
1103 </varlistentry>
1104
1105 <varlistentry id="timeout">
1106 <term><command>timeout</command></term>
1107 <listitem>
1108 <para>Runs a command with a time limit</para>
1109 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils timeout">
1110 <primary sortas="b-timeout">timeout</primary>
1111 </indexterm>
1112 </listitem>
1113 </varlistentry>
1114
1115 <varlistentry id="touch">
1116 <term><command>touch</command></term>
1117 <listitem>
1118 <para>Changes file timestamps, setting the access and modification
1119 times of the given files to the current time; files that do not exist
1120 are created with zero length</para>
1121 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils touch">
1122 <primary sortas="b-touch">touch</primary>
1123 </indexterm>
1124 </listitem>
1125 </varlistentry>
1126
1127 <varlistentry id="tr">
1128 <term><command>tr</command></term>
1129 <listitem>
1130 <para>Translates, squeezes, and deletes the given characters from
1131 standard input</para>
1132 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tr">
1133 <primary sortas="b-tr">tr</primary>
1134 </indexterm>
1135 </listitem>
1136 </varlistentry>
1137
1138 <varlistentry id="true">
1139 <term><command>true</command></term>
1140 <listitem>
1141 <para>Does nothing, successfully; it always exits with a status code
1142 indicating success</para>
1143 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils true">
1144 <primary sortas="b-true">true</primary>
1145 </indexterm>
1146 </listitem>
1147 </varlistentry>
1148
1149 <varlistentry id="truncate">
1150 <term><command>truncate</command></term>
1151 <listitem>
1152 <para>Shrinks or expands a file to the specified size</para>
1153 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils truncate">
1154 <primary sortas="b-truncate">truncate</primary>
1155 </indexterm>
1156 </listitem>
1157 </varlistentry>
1158
1159 <varlistentry id="tsort">
1160 <term><command>tsort</command></term>
1161 <listitem>
1162 <para>Performs a topological sort; it writes a completely ordered list
1163 according to the partial ordering in a given file</para>
1164 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tsort">
1165 <primary sortas="b-tsort">tsort</primary>
1166 </indexterm>
1167 </listitem>
1168 </varlistentry>
1169
1170 <varlistentry id="tty">
1171 <term><command>tty</command></term>
1172 <listitem>
1173 <para>Reports the file name of the terminal connected to standard
1174 input</para>
1175 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tty">
1176 <primary sortas="b-tty">tty</primary>
1177 </indexterm>
1178 </listitem>
1179 </varlistentry>
1180
1181 <varlistentry id="uname">
1182 <term><command>uname</command></term>
1183 <listitem>
1184 <para>Reports system information</para>
1185 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uname">
1186 <primary sortas="b-uname">uname</primary>
1187 </indexterm>
1188 </listitem>
1189 </varlistentry>
1190
1191 <varlistentry id="unexpand">
1192 <term><command>unexpand</command></term>
1193 <listitem>
1194 <para>Converts spaces to tabs</para>
1195 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unexpand">
1196 <primary sortas="b-unexpand">unexpand</primary>
1197 </indexterm>
1198 </listitem>
1199 </varlistentry>
1200
1201 <varlistentry id="uniq">
1202 <term><command>uniq</command></term>
1203 <listitem>
1204 <para>Discards all but one of successive identical lines</para>
1205 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uniq">
1206 <primary sortas="b-uniq">uniq</primary>
1207 </indexterm>
1208 </listitem>
1209 </varlistentry>
1210
1211 <varlistentry id="unlink">
1212 <term><command>unlink</command></term>
1213 <listitem>
1214 <para>Removes the given file</para>
1215 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unlink">
1216 <primary sortas="b-unlink">unlink</primary>
1217 </indexterm>
1218 </listitem>
1219 </varlistentry>
1220
1221 <varlistentry id="users">
1222 <term><command>users</command></term>
1223 <listitem>
1224 <para>Reports the names of the users currently logged on</para>
1225 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils users">
1226 <primary sortas="b-users">users</primary>
1227 </indexterm>
1228 </listitem>
1229 </varlistentry>
1230
1231 <varlistentry id="vdir">
1232 <term><command>vdir</command></term>
1233 <listitem>
1234 <para>Is the same as <command>ls -l</command></para>
1235 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils vdir">
1236 <primary sortas="b-vdir">vdir</primary>
1237 </indexterm>
1238 </listitem>
1239 </varlistentry>
1240
1241 <varlistentry id="wc">
1242 <term><command>wc</command></term>
1243 <listitem>
1244 <para>Reports the number of lines, words, and bytes for each given
1245 file, as well as a total line when more than one file is given</para>
1246 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils wc">
1247 <primary sortas="b-wc">wc</primary>
1248 </indexterm>
1249 </listitem>
1250 </varlistentry>
1251
1252 <varlistentry id="who">
1253 <term><command>who</command></term>
1254 <listitem>
1255 <para>Reports who is logged on</para>
1256 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils who">
1257 <primary sortas="b-who">who</primary>
1258 </indexterm>
1259 </listitem>
1260 </varlistentry>
1261
1262 <varlistentry id="whoami">
1263 <term><command>whoami</command></term>
1264 <listitem>
1265 <para>Reports the user name associated with the current effective
1266 user ID</para>
1267 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils whoami">
1268 <primary sortas="b-whoami">whoami</primary>
1269 </indexterm>
1270 </listitem>
1271 </varlistentry>
1272
1273 <varlistentry id="yes">
1274 <term><command>yes</command></term>
1275 <listitem>
1276 <para>Repeatedly outputs <quote>y</quote> or a given string until
1277 killed</para>
1278 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils yes">
1279 <primary sortas="b-yes">yes</primary>
1280 </indexterm>
1281 </listitem>
1282 </varlistentry>
1283
1284 <varlistentry id="libstdbuf">
1285 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libstdbuf</filename></term>
1286 <listitem>
1287 <para>Library used by <command>stdbuf</command></para>
1288 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils libstdbuf">
1289 <primary sortas="c-libstdbuf">libstdbuf</primary>
1290 </indexterm>
1291 </listitem>
1292 </varlistentry>
1293
1294 </variablelist>
1295
1296 </sect2>
1297
1298</sect1>
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