source: chapter08/coreutils.xml@ 6a156bab

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Last change on this file since 6a156bab was 6a156bab, checked in by Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs@…>, 18 months ago

Mostly text updates in Chapter 8.
There are a couple of minor command changes.

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/branches/cross2@11924 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-coreutils" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="coreutils.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>coreutils</productname>
13 <productnumber>&coreutils-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&coreutils-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Coreutils-&coreutils-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils">
20 <primary sortas="a-Coreutils">Coreutils</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the
27 basic system characteristics.</para>
28
29 <segmentedlist>
30 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
31 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
32
33 <seglistitem>
34 <seg>&coreutils-fin-sbu;</seg>
35 <seg>&coreutils-fin-du;</seg>
36 </seglistitem>
37 </segmentedlist>
38
39 </sect2>
40
41 <sect2 role="installation">
42 <title>Installation of Coreutils</title>
43
44 <para>POSIX requires that programs from Coreutils recognize character
45 boundaries correctly even in multibyte locales. The following patch fixes
46 this non-compliance and other internationalization-related bugs.</para>
47
48<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&coreutils-i18n-patch;</userinput></screen>
49
50 <note>
51 <para>In the past, many bugs were found in this patch. When reporting new
52 bugs to Coreutils maintainers, please check first if they are reproducible
53 without this patch.</para>
54 </note>
55
56 <!-- this has been fixed in upstream gnulib, when a new version of
57 coreutils is released, please check #4055 to see if the change has been
58 picked up in this package -->
59 <para>Suppress a test which on some machines can loop forever:</para>
60
61<screen><userinput remap="pre">sed -i '/test.lock/s/^/#/' gnulib-tests/gnulib.mk</userinput></screen>
62
63 <para>Now prepare Coreutils for compilation:</para>
64
65<screen><userinput remap="configure">autoreconf -fiv
66FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 ./configure \
67 --prefix=/usr \
68 --enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</userinput></screen>
69
70 <variablelist>
71 <title>The meaning of the configure options:</title>
72
73 <varlistentry>
74 <term><command>autoreconf</command></term>
75 <listitem>
76 <para>This command updates generated configuration files
77 consistent with the latest version of automake.
78 </para>
79 </listitem>
80 </varlistentry>
81
82 <varlistentry>
83 <term><envar>FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1</envar></term>
84 <listitem>
85 <para>This environment variable allows the package to be
86 built as the root user.
87 </para>
88 </listitem>
89 </varlistentry>
90
91 <varlistentry>
92 <term><parameter>--enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</parameter></term>
93 <listitem>
94 <para>The purpose of this switch is to prevent Coreutils from
95 installing binaries that will be installed by other packages later.
96 </para>
97 </listitem>
98 </varlistentry>
99 </variablelist>
100
101 <para>Compile the package:</para>
102
103<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
104
105 <para>Skip down to <quote>Install the
106 package</quote> if not running the test suite.</para>
107
108 <para>Now the test suite is ready to be run. First, run the tests that are
109 meant to be run as user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>:</para>
110
111<screen><userinput remap="test">make NON_ROOT_USERNAME=tester check-root</userinput></screen>
112
113 <para>We're going to run the remainder of the tests as the
114 <systemitem class="username">tester</systemitem> user. Certain tests
115 require that the user be a member of more than one group. So that
116 these tests are not skipped, add a temporary group and make the
117 user <systemitem class="username">tester</systemitem> a part of it:</para>
118
119<screen><userinput remap="test">echo "dummy:x:102:tester" &gt;&gt; /etc/group</userinput></screen>
120
121 <para>Fix some of the permissions so that the non-root user can compile and
122 run the tests:</para>
123
124<screen><userinput remap="test">chown -Rv tester . </userinput></screen>
125
126 <para>Now run the tests:</para>
127
128<screen><userinput remap="test">su tester -c "PATH=$PATH make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check"</userinput></screen>
129
130 <para>Remove the temporary group:</para>
131
132<screen><userinput remap="test">sed -i '/dummy/d' /etc/group</userinput></screen>
133 <para>Install the package:</para>
134
135<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
136
137 <para>Move programs to the locations specified by the FHS:</para>
138
139<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{cat,chgrp,chmod,chown,cp,date,dd,df,echo} /bin
140mv -v /usr/bin/{false,ln,ls,mkdir,mknod,mv,pwd,rm} /bin
141mv -v /usr/bin/{rmdir,stty,sync,true,uname} /bin
142mv -v /usr/bin/chroot /usr/sbin
143mv -v /usr/share/man/man1/chroot.1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8
144sed -i 's/"1"/"8"' /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8</userinput></screen>
145
146 <para revision="sysv">Some of the scripts in the LFS-Bootscripts package
147 depend on <command>head</command>, <command>nice</command>,
148 <command>sleep</command>, and <command>touch</command>. As <filename
149 class="directory">/usr</filename> may not be available during the early and
150 late stages of booting, those binaries need to be on the root partition to
151 maintain FHS compliance:</para>
152
153<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{head,nice,sleep,touch} /bin</userinput></screen>
154
155 </sect2>
156
157 <sect2 id="contents-coreutils" role="content">
158 <title>Contents of Coreutils</title>
159
160 <segmentedlist>
161 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
162 <segtitle>Installed library</segtitle>
163 <segtitle>Installed directory</segtitle>
164
165 <seglistitem>
166 <seg>[, b2sum, base32, base64, basename, basenc, cat, chcon, chgrp, chmod, chown,
167 chroot, cksum, comm, cp, csplit, cut, date, dd, df, dir, dircolors,
168 dirname, du, echo, env, expand, expr, factor, false, fmt, fold, groups,
169 head, hostid, id, install, join, link, ln, logname, ls, md5sum, mkdir,
170 mkfifo, mknod, mktemp, mv, nice, nl, nohup, nproc, numfmt, od, paste,
171 pathchk, pinky, pr, printenv, printf, ptx, pwd, readlink, realpath, rm,
172 rmdir, runcon, seq, sha1sum, sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum,
173 sha512sum, shred, shuf, sleep, sort, split, stat, stdbuf, stty, sum,
174 sync, tac, tail, tee, test, timeout, touch, tr, true, truncate, tsort,
175 tty, uname, unexpand, uniq, unlink, users, vdir, wc, who, whoami, and
176 yes</seg>
177 <seg>libstdbuf.so (in /usr/libexec/coreutils)</seg>
178 <seg>/usr/libexec/coreutils</seg>
179 </seglistitem>
180 </segmentedlist>
181
182 <variablelist>
183 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
184 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
185 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
186
187 <varlistentry id="lbracket">
188 <term><command>[</command></term>
189 <listitem>
190 <para>Is an actual command, /usr/bin/[, that is a synonym
191 for the <command>test</command> command.</para>
192 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils lbracket">
193 <primary sortas="b-111">[</primary>
194 </indexterm>
195 </listitem>
196 </varlistentry>
197
198 <varlistentry id="base32">
199 <term><command>base32</command></term>
200 <listitem>
201 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base32 specification
202 (RFC 4648)</para>
203 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
204 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
205 </indexterm>
206 </listitem>
207 </varlistentry>
208
209 <varlistentry id="base64">
210 <term><command>base64</command></term>
211 <listitem>
212 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base64 specification
213 (RFC 4648)</para>
214 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
215 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
216 </indexterm>
217 </listitem>
218 </varlistentry>
219
220 <varlistentry id="b2sum">
221 <term><command>b2sum</command></term>
222 <listitem>
223 <para>Prints or checks BLAKE2 (512-bit) checksums</para>
224 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils b2sum">
225 <primary sortas="b-b2sum">b2sum</primary>
226 </indexterm>
227 </listitem>
228 </varlistentry>
229
230 <varlistentry id="basename">
231 <term><command>basename</command></term>
232 <listitem>
233 <para>Strips any path and a given suffix from a file name</para>
234 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basename">
235 <primary sortas="b-basename">basename</primary>
236 </indexterm>
237 </listitem>
238 </varlistentry>
239
240 <varlistentry id="basenc">
241 <term><command>basenc</command></term>
242 <listitem>
243 <para>Encodes or decodes data using various algorithms</para>
244 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basenc">
245 <primary sortas="b-basenc">basenc</primary>
246 </indexterm>
247 </listitem>
248 </varlistentry>
249
250 <varlistentry id="cat">
251 <term><command>cat</command></term>
252 <listitem>
253 <para>Concatenates files to standard output</para>
254 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cat">
255 <primary sortas="b-cat">cat</primary>
256 </indexterm>
257 </listitem>
258 </varlistentry>
259
260 <varlistentry id="chcon">
261 <term><command>chcon</command></term>
262 <listitem>
263 <para>Changes security context for files and directories</para>
264 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chcon">
265 <primary sortas="b-chcon">chcon</primary>
266 </indexterm>
267 </listitem>
268 </varlistentry>
269
270 <varlistentry id="chgrp">
271 <term><command>chgrp</command></term>
272 <listitem>
273 <para>Changes the group ownership of files and directories</para>
274 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chgrp">
275 <primary sortas="b-chgrp">chgrp</primary>
276 </indexterm>
277 </listitem>
278 </varlistentry>
279
280 <varlistentry id="chmod">
281 <term><command>chmod</command></term>
282 <listitem>
283 <para>Changes the permissions of each file to the given mode; the mode
284 can be either a symbolic representation of the changes to make or an
285 octal number representing the new permissions</para>
286 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chmod">
287 <primary sortas="b-chmod">chmod</primary>
288 </indexterm>
289 </listitem>
290 </varlistentry>
291
292 <varlistentry id="chown">
293 <term><command>chown</command></term>
294 <listitem>
295 <para>Changes the user and/or group ownership of files and
296 directories</para>
297 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chown">
298 <primary sortas="b-chown">chown</primary>
299 </indexterm>
300 </listitem>
301 </varlistentry>
302
303 <varlistentry id="chroot">
304 <term><command>chroot</command></term>
305 <listitem>
306 <para>Runs a command with the specified directory as the
307 <filename class="directory">/</filename> directory</para>
308 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chroot">
309 <primary sortas="b-chroot">chroot</primary>
310 </indexterm>
311 </listitem>
312 </varlistentry>
313
314 <varlistentry id="cksum">
315 <term><command>cksum</command></term>
316 <listitem>
317 <para>Prints the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum and the byte
318 counts of each specified file</para>
319 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cksum">
320 <primary sortas="b-cksum">cksum</primary>
321 </indexterm>
322 </listitem>
323 </varlistentry>
324
325 <varlistentry id="comm">
326 <term><command>comm</command></term>
327 <listitem>
328 <para>Compares two sorted files, outputting in three columns the lines
329 that are unique and the lines that are common</para>
330 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils comm">
331 <primary sortas="b-comm">comm</primary>
332 </indexterm>
333 </listitem>
334 </varlistentry>
335
336 <varlistentry id="cp">
337 <term><command>cp</command></term>
338 <listitem>
339 <para>Copies files</para>
340 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cp">
341 <primary sortas="b-cp">cp</primary>
342 </indexterm>
343 </listitem>
344 </varlistentry>
345
346 <varlistentry id="csplit">
347 <term><command>csplit</command></term>
348 <listitem>
349 <para>Splits a given file into several new files, separating them
350 according to given patterns or line numbers and outputting the byte
351 count of each new file</para>
352 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils csplit">
353 <primary sortas="b-csplit">csplit</primary>
354 </indexterm>
355 </listitem>
356 </varlistentry>
357
358 <varlistentry id="cut">
359 <term><command>cut</command></term>
360 <listitem>
361 <para>Prints sections of lines, selecting the parts according to given
362 fields or positions</para>
363 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cut">
364 <primary sortas="b-cut">cut</primary>
365 </indexterm>
366 </listitem>
367 </varlistentry>
368
369 <varlistentry id="date">
370 <term><command>date</command></term>
371 <listitem>
372 <para>Displays the current time in the given format, or sets the
373 system date</para>
374 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils date">
375 <primary sortas="b-date">date</primary>
376 </indexterm>
377 </listitem>
378 </varlistentry>
379
380 <varlistentry id="dd">
381 <term><command>dd</command> </term>
382 <listitem>
383 <para>Copies a file using the given block size and count, while
384 optionally performing conversions on it</para>
385 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dd">
386 <primary sortas="b-dd">dd</primary>
387 </indexterm>
388 </listitem>
389 </varlistentry>
390
391 <varlistentry id="df">
392 <term><command>df</command></term>
393 <listitem>
394 <para>Reports the amount of disk space available (and used) on all
395 mounted file systems, or only on the file systems holding the selected
396 files</para>
397 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils df">
398 <primary sortas="b-df">df</primary>
399 </indexterm>
400 </listitem>
401 </varlistentry>
402
403 <varlistentry id="dir">
404 <term><command>dir</command></term>
405 <listitem>
406 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory (the same as
407 the <command>ls</command> command)</para>
408 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dir">
409 <primary sortas="b-dir">dir</primary>
410 </indexterm>
411 </listitem>
412 </varlistentry>
413
414 <varlistentry id="dircolors">
415 <term><command>dircolors</command></term>
416 <listitem>
417 <para>Outputs commands to set the <envar>LS_COLOR</envar>
418 environment variable to change the color scheme used by
419 <command>ls</command></para>
420 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dircolors">
421 <primary sortas="b-dircolors">dircolors</primary>
422 </indexterm>
423 </listitem>
424 </varlistentry>
425
426 <varlistentry id="dirname">
427 <term><command>dirname</command></term>
428 <listitem>
429 <para>Strips the non-directory suffix from a file name</para>
430 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dirname">
431 <primary sortas="b-dirname">dirname</primary>
432 </indexterm>
433 </listitem>
434 </varlistentry>
435
436 <varlistentry id="du">
437 <term><command>du</command></term>
438 <listitem>
439 <para>Reports the amount of disk space used by the current directory,
440 by each of the given directories (including all subdirectories) or by
441 each of the given files</para>
442 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils du">
443 <primary sortas="b-du">du</primary>
444 </indexterm>
445 </listitem>
446 </varlistentry>
447
448 <varlistentry id="echo">
449 <term><command>echo</command></term>
450 <listitem>
451 <para>Displays the given strings</para>
452 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils echo">
453 <primary sortas="b-echo">echo</primary>
454 </indexterm>
455 </listitem>
456 </varlistentry>
457
458 <varlistentry id="env">
459 <term><command>env</command></term>
460 <listitem>
461 <para>Runs a command in a modified environment</para>
462 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils env">
463 <primary sortas="b-env">env</primary>
464 </indexterm>
465 </listitem>
466 </varlistentry>
467
468 <varlistentry id="expand">
469 <term><command>expand</command></term>
470 <listitem>
471 <para>Converts tabs to spaces</para>
472 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expand">
473 <primary sortas="b-expand">expand</primary>
474 </indexterm>
475 </listitem>
476 </varlistentry>
477
478 <varlistentry id="expr">
479 <term><command>expr</command></term>
480 <listitem>
481 <para>Evaluates expressions</para>
482 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expr">
483 <primary sortas="b-expr">expr</primary>
484 </indexterm>
485 </listitem>
486 </varlistentry>
487
488 <varlistentry id="factor">
489 <term><command>factor</command></term>
490 <listitem>
491 <para>Prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers</para>
492 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils factor">
493 <primary sortas="b-factor">factor</primary>
494 </indexterm>
495 </listitem>
496 </varlistentry>
497
498 <varlistentry id="false">
499 <term><command>false</command></term>
500 <listitem>
501 <para>Does nothing, unsuccessfully; it always exits with a status code
502 indicating failure</para>
503 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils false">
504 <primary sortas="b-false">false</primary>
505 </indexterm>
506 </listitem>
507 </varlistentry>
508
509 <varlistentry id="fmt">
510 <term><command>fmt</command></term>
511 <listitem>
512 <para>Reformats the paragraphs in the given files</para>
513 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fmt">
514 <primary sortas="b-fmt">fmt</primary>
515 </indexterm>
516 </listitem>
517 </varlistentry>
518
519 <varlistentry id="fold">
520 <term><command>fold</command></term>
521 <listitem>
522 <para>Wraps the lines in the given files</para>
523 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fold">
524 <primary sortas="b-fold">fold</primary>
525 </indexterm>
526 </listitem>
527 </varlistentry>
528
529 <varlistentry id="groups">
530 <term><command>groups</command></term>
531 <listitem>
532 <para>Reports a user's group memberships</para>
533 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils groups">
534 <primary sortas="b-groups">groups</primary>
535 </indexterm>
536 </listitem>
537 </varlistentry>
538
539 <varlistentry id="head">
540 <term><command>head</command></term>
541 <listitem>
542 <para>Prints the first ten lines (or the given number of lines)
543 of each given file</para>
544 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils head">
545 <primary sortas="b-head">head</primary>
546 </indexterm>
547 </listitem>
548 </varlistentry>
549
550 <varlistentry id="hostid">
551 <term><command>hostid</command></term>
552 <listitem>
553 <para>Reports the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) of the host</para>
554 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils hostid">
555 <primary sortas="b-hostid">hostid</primary>
556 </indexterm>
557 </listitem>
558 </varlistentry>
559
560 <varlistentry id="id">
561 <term><command>id</command></term>
562 <listitem>
563 <para>Reports the effective user ID, group ID, and group memberships
564 of the current user or specified user</para>
565 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils id">
566 <primary sortas="b-id">id</primary>
567 </indexterm>
568 </listitem>
569 </varlistentry>
570
571 <varlistentry id="install">
572 <term><command>install</command> </term>
573 <listitem>
574 <para>Copies files while setting their permission modes and, if
575 possible, their owner and group</para>
576 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils install">
577 <primary sortas="b-install">install</primary>
578 </indexterm>
579 </listitem>
580 </varlistentry>
581
582 <varlistentry id="join">
583 <term><command>join</command></term>
584 <listitem>
585 <para>Joins the lines that have identical join fields from two
586 separate files</para>
587 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils join">
588 <primary sortas="b-join">join</primary>
589 </indexterm>
590 </listitem>
591 </varlistentry>
592
593 <varlistentry id="link">
594 <term><command>link</command></term>
595 <listitem>
596 <para>Creates a hard link with the given name to a file</para>
597 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils link">
598 <primary sortas="b-link">link</primary>
599 </indexterm>
600 </listitem>
601 </varlistentry>
602
603 <varlistentry id="ln">
604 <term><command>ln</command></term>
605 <listitem>
606 <para>Makes hard links or soft (symbolic) links between files</para>
607 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ln">
608 <primary sortas="b-ln">ln</primary>
609 </indexterm>
610 </listitem>
611 </varlistentry>
612
613 <varlistentry id="logname">
614 <term><command>logname</command></term>
615 <listitem>
616 <para>Reports the current user's login name</para>
617 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils logname">
618 <primary sortas="b-logname">logname</primary>
619 </indexterm>
620 </listitem>
621 </varlistentry>
622
623 <varlistentry id="ls">
624 <term><command>ls</command></term>
625 <listitem>
626 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory</para>
627 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ls">
628 <primary sortas="b-ls">ls</primary>
629 </indexterm>
630 </listitem>
631 </varlistentry>
632
633 <varlistentry id="md5sum">
634 <term><command>md5sum</command></term>
635 <listitem>
636 <para>Reports or checks Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums</para>
637 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils md5sum">
638 <primary sortas="b-md5sum">md5sum</primary>
639 </indexterm>
640 </listitem>
641 </varlistentry>
642
643 <varlistentry id="mkdir">
644 <term><command>mkdir</command></term>
645 <listitem>
646 <para>Creates directories with the given names</para>
647 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkdir">
648 <primary sortas="b-mkdir">mkdir</primary>
649 </indexterm>
650 </listitem>
651 </varlistentry>
652
653 <varlistentry id="mkfifo">
654 <term><command>mkfifo</command></term>
655 <listitem>
656 <para>Creates First-In, First-Outs (FIFOs), a "named
657 pipe" in UNIX parlance, with the given names</para>
658 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkfifo">
659 <primary sortas="b-mkfifo">mkfifo</primary>
660 </indexterm>
661 </listitem>
662 </varlistentry>
663
664 <varlistentry id="mknod">
665 <term><command>mknod</command></term>
666 <listitem>
667 <para>Creates device nodes with the given names; a device node is a
668 character special file, a block special file, or a FIFO</para>
669 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mknod">
670 <primary sortas="b-mknod">mknod</primary>
671 </indexterm>
672 </listitem>
673 </varlistentry>
674
675 <varlistentry id="mktemp">
676 <term><command>mktemp</command></term>
677 <listitem>
678 <para>Creates temporary files in a secure manner; it is used in scripts</para>
679 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mktemp">
680 <primary sortas="b-mktemp">mktemp</primary>
681 </indexterm>
682 </listitem>
683 </varlistentry>
684
685 <varlistentry id="mv">
686 <term><command>mv</command></term>
687 <listitem>
688 <para>Moves or renames files or directories</para>
689 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mv">
690 <primary sortas="b-mv">mv</primary>
691 </indexterm>
692 </listitem>
693 </varlistentry>
694
695 <varlistentry id="nice">
696 <term><command>nice</command></term>
697 <listitem>
698 <para>Runs a program with modified scheduling priority</para>
699 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nice">
700 <primary sortas="b-nice">nice</primary>
701 </indexterm>
702 </listitem>
703 </varlistentry>
704
705 <varlistentry id="nl">
706 <term><command>nl</command></term>
707 <listitem>
708 <para>Numbers the lines from the given files</para>
709 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nl">
710 <primary sortas="b-nl">nl</primary>
711 </indexterm>
712 </listitem>
713 </varlistentry>
714
715 <varlistentry id="nohup">
716 <term><command>nohup</command></term>
717 <listitem>
718 <para>Runs a command immune to hangups, with its output redirected to
719 a log file</para>
720 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nohup">
721 <primary sortas="b-nohup">nohup</primary>
722 </indexterm>
723 </listitem>
724 </varlistentry>
725
726 <varlistentry id="nproc">
727 <term><command>nproc</command></term>
728 <listitem>
729 <para>Prints the number of processing units available to a
730 process</para>
731 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nproc">
732 <primary sortas="b-nproc">nproc</primary>
733 </indexterm>
734 </listitem>
735 </varlistentry>
736
737 <varlistentry id="numfmt">
738 <term><command>numfmt</command></term>
739 <listitem>
740 <para>Converts numbers to or from human-readable strings</para>
741 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils numfmt">
742 <primary sortas="b-numfmt">numfmt</primary>
743 </indexterm>
744 </listitem>
745 </varlistentry>
746
747 <varlistentry id="od">
748 <term><command>od</command></term>
749 <listitem>
750 <para>Dumps files in octal and other formats</para>
751 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils od">
752 <primary sortas="b-od">od</primary>
753 </indexterm>
754 </listitem>
755 </varlistentry>
756
757 <varlistentry id="paste">
758 <term><command>paste</command></term>
759 <listitem>
760 <para>Merges the given files, joining sequentially corresponding lines
761 side by side, separated by tab characters</para>
762 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils paste">
763 <primary sortas="b-paste">paste</primary>
764 </indexterm>
765 </listitem>
766 </varlistentry>
767
768 <varlistentry id="pathchk">
769 <term><command>pathchk</command></term>
770 <listitem>
771 <para>Checks if file names are valid or portable</para>
772 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pathchk">
773 <primary sortas="b-pathchk">pathchk</primary>
774 </indexterm>
775 </listitem>
776 </varlistentry>
777
778 <varlistentry id="pinky">
779 <term><command>pinky</command></term>
780 <listitem>
781 <para>Is a lightweight finger client; it reports some information
782 about the given users</para>
783 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pinky">
784 <primary sortas="b-pinky">pinky</primary>
785 </indexterm>
786 </listitem>
787 </varlistentry>
788
789 <varlistentry id="pr">
790 <term><command>pr</command></term>
791 <listitem>
792 <para>Paginates and columnates files for printing</para>
793 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pr">
794 <primary sortas="b-pr">pr</primary>
795 </indexterm>
796 </listitem>
797 </varlistentry>
798
799 <varlistentry id="printenv">
800 <term><command>printenv</command></term>
801 <listitem>
802 <para>Prints the environment</para>
803 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printenv">
804 <primary sortas="b-printenv">printenv</primary>
805 </indexterm>
806 </listitem>
807 </varlistentry>
808
809 <varlistentry id="printf">
810 <term><command>printf</command></term>
811 <listitem>
812 <para>Prints the given arguments according to the given format, much
813 like the C printf function</para>
814 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printf">
815 <primary sortas="b-printf">printf</primary>
816 </indexterm>
817 </listitem>
818 </varlistentry>
819
820 <varlistentry id="ptx">
821 <term><command>ptx</command></term>
822 <listitem>
823 <para>Produces a permuted index from the contents of the given files,
824 with each keyword in its context</para>
825 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ptx">
826 <primary sortas="b-ptx">ptx</primary>
827 </indexterm>
828 </listitem>
829 </varlistentry>
830
831 <varlistentry id="pwd">
832 <term><command>pwd</command></term>
833 <listitem>
834 <para>Reports the name of the current working directory</para>
835 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pwd">
836 <primary sortas="b-pwd">pwd</primary>
837 </indexterm>
838 </listitem>
839 </varlistentry>
840
841 <varlistentry id="readlink">
842 <term><command>readlink</command></term>
843 <listitem>
844 <para>Reports the value of the given symbolic link</para>
845 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils readlink">
846 <primary sortas="b-readlink">readlink</primary>
847 </indexterm>
848 </listitem>
849 </varlistentry>
850
851 <varlistentry id="realpath">
852 <term><command>realpath</command></term>
853 <listitem>
854 <para>Prints the resolved path</para>
855 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils realpath">
856 <primary sortas="b-realpath">realpath</primary>
857 </indexterm>
858 </listitem>
859 </varlistentry>
860
861 <varlistentry id="rm">
862 <term><command>rm</command></term>
863 <listitem>
864 <para>Removes files or directories</para>
865 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rm">
866 <primary sortas="b-rm">rm</primary>
867 </indexterm>
868 </listitem>
869 </varlistentry>
870
871 <varlistentry id="rmdir">
872 <term><command>rmdir</command></term>
873 <listitem>
874 <para>Removes directories if they are empty</para>
875 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rmdir">
876 <primary sortas="b-rmdir">rmdir</primary>
877 </indexterm>
878 </listitem>
879 </varlistentry>
880
881 <varlistentry id="runcon">
882 <term><command>runcon</command></term>
883 <listitem>
884 <para>Runs a command with specified security context</para>
885 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils runcon">
886 <primary sortas="b-runcon">runcon</primary>
887 </indexterm>
888 </listitem>
889 </varlistentry>
890
891 <varlistentry id="seq">
892 <term><command>seq</command></term>
893 <listitem>
894 <para>Prints a sequence of numbers within a given range and with a
895 given increment</para>
896 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils seq">
897 <primary sortas="b-seq">seq</primary>
898 </indexterm>
899 </listitem>
900 </varlistentry>
901
902 <varlistentry id="sha1sum">
903 <term><command>sha1sum</command></term>
904 <listitem>
905 <para>Prints or checks 160-bit Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1)
906 checksums</para>
907 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha1sum">
908 <primary sortas="b-sha1sum">sha1sum</primary>
909 </indexterm>
910 </listitem>
911 </varlistentry>
912
913 <varlistentry id="sha224sum">
914 <term><command>sha224sum</command></term>
915 <listitem>
916 <para>Prints or checks 224-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
917 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha224sum">
918 <primary sortas="b-sha224sum">sha224sum</primary>
919 </indexterm>
920 </listitem>
921 </varlistentry>
922
923 <varlistentry id="sha256sum">
924 <term><command>sha256sum</command></term>
925 <listitem>
926 <para>Prints or checks 256-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
927 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha256sum">
928 <primary sortas="b-sha256sum">sha256sum</primary>
929 </indexterm>
930 </listitem>
931 </varlistentry>
932
933 <varlistentry id="sha384sum">
934 <term><command>sha384sum</command></term>
935 <listitem>
936 <para>Prints or checks 384-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
937 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha384sum">
938 <primary sortas="b-sha384sum">sha384sum</primary>
939 </indexterm>
940 </listitem>
941 </varlistentry>
942
943 <varlistentry id="sha512sum">
944 <term><command>sha512sum</command></term>
945 <listitem>
946 <para>Prints or checks 512-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
947 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha512sum">
948 <primary sortas="b-sha512sum">sha512sum</primary>
949 </indexterm>
950 </listitem>
951 </varlistentry>
952
953 <varlistentry id="shred">
954 <term><command>shred</command></term>
955 <listitem>
956 <para>Overwrites the given files repeatedly with complex patterns,
957 making it difficult to recover the data</para>
958 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shred">
959 <primary sortas="b-shred">shred</primary>
960 </indexterm>
961 </listitem>
962 </varlistentry>
963
964 <varlistentry id="shuf">
965 <term><command>shuf</command></term>
966 <listitem>
967 <para>Shuffles lines of text</para>
968 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shuf">
969 <primary sortas="b-shuf">shuf</primary>
970 </indexterm>
971 </listitem>
972 </varlistentry>
973
974 <varlistentry id="sleep">
975 <term><command>sleep</command></term>
976 <listitem>
977 <para>Pauses for the given amount of time</para>
978 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sleep">
979 <primary sortas="b-sleep">sleep</primary>
980 </indexterm>
981 </listitem>
982 </varlistentry>
983
984 <varlistentry id="sort">
985 <term><command>sort</command></term>
986 <listitem>
987 <para>Sorts the lines from the given files</para>
988 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sort">
989 <primary sortas="b-sort">sort</primary>
990 </indexterm>
991 </listitem>
992 </varlistentry>
993
994 <varlistentry id="split">
995 <term><command>split</command></term>
996 <listitem>
997 <para>Splits the given file into pieces, by size or by number of
998 lines</para>
999 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils split">
1000 <primary sortas="b-split">split</primary>
1001 </indexterm>
1002 </listitem>
1003 </varlistentry>
1004
1005 <varlistentry id="stat">
1006 <term><command>stat</command></term>
1007 <listitem>
1008 <para>Displays file or filesystem status</para>
1009 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stat">
1010 <primary sortas="b-stat">stat</primary>
1011 </indexterm>
1012 </listitem>
1013 </varlistentry>
1014
1015 <varlistentry id="stdbuf">
1016 <term><command>stdbuf</command></term>
1017 <listitem>
1018 <para>Runs commands with altered buffering operations for its standard
1019 streams</para>
1020 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stdbuf">
1021 <primary sortas="b-stdbuf">stdbuf</primary>
1022 </indexterm>
1023 </listitem>
1024 </varlistentry>
1025
1026 <varlistentry id="stty">
1027 <term><command>stty</command></term>
1028 <listitem>
1029 <para>Sets or reports terminal line settings</para>
1030 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stty">
1031 <primary sortas="b-stty">stty</primary>
1032 </indexterm>
1033 </listitem>
1034 </varlistentry>
1035
1036 <varlistentry id="sum">
1037 <term><command>sum</command></term>
1038 <listitem>
1039 <para>Prints checksum and block counts for each given file</para>
1040 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sum">
1041 <primary sortas="b-sum">sum</primary>
1042 </indexterm>
1043 </listitem>
1044 </varlistentry>
1045
1046 <varlistentry id="sync">
1047 <term><command>sync</command></term>
1048 <listitem>
1049 <para>Flushes file system buffers; it forces changed blocks to disk
1050 and updates the super block</para>
1051 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sync">
1052 <primary sortas="b-sync">sync</primary>
1053 </indexterm>
1054 </listitem>
1055 </varlistentry>
1056
1057 <varlistentry id="tac">
1058 <term><command>tac</command></term>
1059 <listitem>
1060 <para>Concatenates the given files in reverse</para>
1061 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tac">
1062 <primary sortas="b-tac">tac</primary>
1063 </indexterm>
1064 </listitem>
1065 </varlistentry>
1066
1067 <varlistentry id="tail">
1068 <term><command>tail</command></term>
1069 <listitem>
1070 <para>Prints the last ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each
1071 given file</para>
1072 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tail">
1073 <primary sortas="b-tail">tail</primary>
1074 </indexterm>
1075 </listitem>
1076 </varlistentry>
1077
1078 <varlistentry id="tee">
1079 <term><command>tee</command></term>
1080 <listitem>
1081 <para>Reads from standard input while writing both to standard output
1082 and to the given files</para>
1083 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tee">
1084 <primary sortas="b-tee">tee</primary>
1085 </indexterm>
1086 </listitem>
1087 </varlistentry>
1088
1089 <varlistentry id="test">
1090 <term><command>test</command></term>
1091 <listitem>
1092 <para>Compares values and checks file types</para>
1093 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils test">
1094 <primary sortas="b-test">test</primary>
1095 </indexterm>
1096 </listitem>
1097 </varlistentry>
1098
1099 <varlistentry id="timeout">
1100 <term><command>timeout</command></term>
1101 <listitem>
1102 <para>Runs a command with a time limit</para>
1103 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils timeout">
1104 <primary sortas="b-timeout">timeout</primary>
1105 </indexterm>
1106 </listitem>
1107 </varlistentry>
1108
1109 <varlistentry id="touch">
1110 <term><command>touch</command></term>
1111 <listitem>
1112 <para>Changes file timestamps, setting the access and modification
1113 times of the given files to the current time; files that do not exist
1114 are created with zero length</para>
1115 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils touch">
1116 <primary sortas="b-touch">touch</primary>
1117 </indexterm>
1118 </listitem>
1119 </varlistentry>
1120
1121 <varlistentry id="tr">
1122 <term><command>tr</command></term>
1123 <listitem>
1124 <para>Translates, squeezes, and deletes the given characters from
1125 standard input</para>
1126 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tr">
1127 <primary sortas="b-tr">tr</primary>
1128 </indexterm>
1129 </listitem>
1130 </varlistentry>
1131
1132 <varlistentry id="true">
1133 <term><command>true</command></term>
1134 <listitem>
1135 <para>Does nothing, successfully; it always exits with a status code
1136 indicating success</para>
1137 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils true">
1138 <primary sortas="b-true">true</primary>
1139 </indexterm>
1140 </listitem>
1141 </varlistentry>
1142
1143 <varlistentry id="truncate">
1144 <term><command>truncate</command></term>
1145 <listitem>
1146 <para>Shrinks or expands a file to the specified size</para>
1147 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils truncate">
1148 <primary sortas="b-truncate">truncate</primary>
1149 </indexterm>
1150 </listitem>
1151 </varlistentry>
1152
1153 <varlistentry id="tsort">
1154 <term><command>tsort</command></term>
1155 <listitem>
1156 <para>Performs a topological sort; it writes a completely ordered list
1157 according to the partial ordering in a given file</para>
1158 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tsort">
1159 <primary sortas="b-tsort">tsort</primary>
1160 </indexterm>
1161 </listitem>
1162 </varlistentry>
1163
1164 <varlistentry id="tty">
1165 <term><command>tty</command></term>
1166 <listitem>
1167 <para>Reports the file name of the terminal connected to standard
1168 input</para>
1169 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tty">
1170 <primary sortas="b-tty">tty</primary>
1171 </indexterm>
1172 </listitem>
1173 </varlistentry>
1174
1175 <varlistentry id="uname">
1176 <term><command>uname</command></term>
1177 <listitem>
1178 <para>Reports system information</para>
1179 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uname">
1180 <primary sortas="b-uname">uname</primary>
1181 </indexterm>
1182 </listitem>
1183 </varlistentry>
1184
1185 <varlistentry id="unexpand">
1186 <term><command>unexpand</command></term>
1187 <listitem>
1188 <para>Converts spaces to tabs</para>
1189 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unexpand">
1190 <primary sortas="b-unexpand">unexpand</primary>
1191 </indexterm>
1192 </listitem>
1193 </varlistentry>
1194
1195 <varlistentry id="uniq">
1196 <term><command>uniq</command></term>
1197 <listitem>
1198 <para>Discards all but one of successive identical lines</para>
1199 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uniq">
1200 <primary sortas="b-uniq">uniq</primary>
1201 </indexterm>
1202 </listitem>
1203 </varlistentry>
1204
1205 <varlistentry id="unlink">
1206 <term><command>unlink</command></term>
1207 <listitem>
1208 <para>Removes the given file</para>
1209 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unlink">
1210 <primary sortas="b-unlink">unlink</primary>
1211 </indexterm>
1212 </listitem>
1213 </varlistentry>
1214
1215 <varlistentry id="users">
1216 <term><command>users</command></term>
1217 <listitem>
1218 <para>Reports the names of the users currently logged on</para>
1219 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils users">
1220 <primary sortas="b-users">users</primary>
1221 </indexterm>
1222 </listitem>
1223 </varlistentry>
1224
1225 <varlistentry id="vdir">
1226 <term><command>vdir</command></term>
1227 <listitem>
1228 <para>Is the same as <command>ls -l</command></para>
1229 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils vdir">
1230 <primary sortas="b-vdir">vdir</primary>
1231 </indexterm>
1232 </listitem>
1233 </varlistentry>
1234
1235 <varlistentry id="wc">
1236 <term><command>wc</command></term>
1237 <listitem>
1238 <para>Reports the number of lines, words, and bytes for each given
1239 file, as well as a total line when more than one file is given</para>
1240 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils wc">
1241 <primary sortas="b-wc">wc</primary>
1242 </indexterm>
1243 </listitem>
1244 </varlistentry>
1245
1246 <varlistentry id="who">
1247 <term><command>who</command></term>
1248 <listitem>
1249 <para>Reports who is logged on</para>
1250 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils who">
1251 <primary sortas="b-who">who</primary>
1252 </indexterm>
1253 </listitem>
1254 </varlistentry>
1255
1256 <varlistentry id="whoami">
1257 <term><command>whoami</command></term>
1258 <listitem>
1259 <para>Reports the user name associated with the current effective
1260 user ID</para>
1261 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils whoami">
1262 <primary sortas="b-whoami">whoami</primary>
1263 </indexterm>
1264 </listitem>
1265 </varlistentry>
1266
1267 <varlistentry id="yes">
1268 <term><command>yes</command></term>
1269 <listitem>
1270 <para>Repeatedly outputs <quote>y</quote> or a given string until
1271 killed</para>
1272 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils yes">
1273 <primary sortas="b-yes">yes</primary>
1274 </indexterm>
1275 </listitem>
1276 </varlistentry>
1277
1278 <varlistentry id="libstdbuf">
1279 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libstdbuf</filename></term>
1280 <listitem>
1281 <para>Library used by <command>stdbuf</command></para>
1282 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils libstdbuf">
1283 <primary sortas="c-libstdbuf">libstdbuf</primary>
1284 </indexterm>
1285 </listitem>
1286 </varlistentry>
1287
1288 </variablelist>
1289
1290 </sect2>
1291
1292</sect1>
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