source: chapter08/coreutils.xml@ c573b97

xry111/usr-move
Last change on this file since c573b97 was c573b97, checked in by Xi Ruoyao <xry111@…>, 7 months ago

usr-move: some adjustments of file location are no longer needed for systemd

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-coreutils" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="coreutils.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>coreutils</productname>
13 <productnumber>&coreutils-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&coreutils-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Coreutils-&coreutils-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils">
20 <primary sortas="a-Coreutils">Coreutils</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the
27 basic system characteristics.</para>
28
29 <segmentedlist>
30 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
31 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
32
33 <seglistitem>
34 <seg>&coreutils-fin-sbu;</seg>
35 <seg>&coreutils-fin-du;</seg>
36 </seglistitem>
37 </segmentedlist>
38
39 </sect2>
40
41 <sect2 role="installation">
42 <title>Installation of Coreutils</title>
43
44 <para>POSIX requires that programs from Coreutils recognize character
45 boundaries correctly even in multibyte locales. The following patch fixes
46 this non-compliance and other internationalization-related bugs.</para>
47
48<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&coreutils-i18n-patch;</userinput></screen>
49
50 <note>
51 <para>In the past, many bugs were found in this patch. When reporting new
52 bugs to Coreutils maintainers, please check first if they are reproducible
53 without this patch.</para>
54 </note>
55
56 <!-- this has been fixed in upstream gnulib, when a new version of
57 coreutils is released, please check #4055 to see if the change has been
58 picked up in this package -->
59 <para>Suppress a test which on some machines can loop forever:</para>
60
61<screen><userinput remap="pre">sed -i '/test.lock/s/^/#/' gnulib-tests/gnulib.mk</userinput></screen>
62<!--
63<para>Fix a problem with autoconf-2.70 in an included gnulib .m4 file:</para>
64
65<screen><userinput remap="pre">echo '# deleted' > m4/std-gnu11.m4</userinput></screen>
66-->
67 <para>Now prepare Coreutils for compilation:</para>
68
69<screen><userinput remap="configure">autoreconf -fiv
70FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 ./configure \
71 --prefix=/usr \
72 --enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</userinput></screen>
73
74 <variablelist>
75 <title>The meaning of the configure options:</title>
76
77 <varlistentry>
78 <term><command>autoreconf</command></term>
79 <listitem>
80 <para>The patch for internationalization has modified the
81 building system of the package, so the configuration files have
82 to be regenerated.</para>
83 </listitem>
84 </varlistentry>
85
86 <varlistentry>
87 <term><envar>FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1</envar></term>
88 <listitem>
89 <para>This environment variable allows the package to be
90 built as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user.
91 </para>
92 </listitem>
93 </varlistentry>
94
95 <varlistentry>
96 <term><parameter>--enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</parameter></term>
97 <listitem>
98 <para>The purpose of this switch is to prevent Coreutils from
99 installing binaries that will be installed by other packages later.
100 </para>
101 </listitem>
102 </varlistentry>
103 </variablelist>
104
105 <para>Compile the package:</para>
106
107<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
108
109 <para>Skip down to <quote>Install the
110 package</quote> if not running the test suite.</para>
111
112 <para>Now the test suite is ready to be run. First, run the tests that are
113 meant to be run as user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>:</para>
114
115<screen><userinput remap="test">make NON_ROOT_USERNAME=tester check-root</userinput></screen>
116
117 <para>We're going to run the remainder of the tests as the
118 <systemitem class="username">tester</systemitem> user. Certain tests
119 require that the user be a member of more than one group. So that
120 these tests are not skipped, add a temporary group and make the
121 user <systemitem class="username">tester</systemitem> a part of it:</para>
122
123<screen><userinput remap="test">echo "dummy:x:102:tester" &gt;&gt; /etc/group</userinput></screen>
124
125 <para>Fix some of the permissions so that the non-root user can compile and
126 run the tests:</para>
127
128<screen><userinput remap="test">chown -Rv tester . </userinput></screen>
129
130 <para>Now run the tests:</para>
131
132<screen><userinput remap="test">su tester -c "PATH=$PATH make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check"</userinput></screen>
133
134 <para>The test-getlogin test is known to fail in the LFS chroot environment.</para>
135
136 <para>Remove the temporary group:</para>
137
138<screen><userinput remap="test">sed -i '/dummy/d' /etc/group</userinput></screen>
139 <para>Install the package:</para>
140
141<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
142
143 <para>Move programs to the locations specified by the FHS:</para>
144
145<screen revision="sysv"><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{cat,chgrp,chmod,chown,cp,date,dd,df,echo} /bin
146mv -v /usr/bin/{false,ln,ls,mkdir,mknod,mv,pwd,rm} /bin
147mv -v /usr/bin/{rmdir,stty,sync,true,uname} /bin</userinput></screen>
148
149<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/chroot /usr/sbin
150mv -v /usr/share/man/man1/chroot.1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8
151sed -i 's/"1"/"8"/' /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8</userinput></screen>
152
153 <para revision="sysv">Some of the scripts in the LFS-Bootscripts package
154 depend on <command>head</command>, <command>nice</command>,
155 <command>sleep</command>, and <command>touch</command>. As <filename
156 class="directory">/usr</filename> may not be available during the early and
157 late stages of booting, those binaries need to be on the root partition to
158 maintain FHS compliance:</para>
159
160<screen revision="sysv"><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/{head,nice,sleep,touch} /bin</userinput></screen>
161
162 </sect2>
163
164 <sect2 id="contents-coreutils" role="content">
165 <title>Contents of Coreutils</title>
166
167 <segmentedlist>
168 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
169 <segtitle>Installed library</segtitle>
170 <segtitle>Installed directory</segtitle>
171
172 <seglistitem>
173 <seg>[, b2sum, base32, base64, basename, basenc, cat, chcon, chgrp, chmod, chown,
174 chroot, cksum, comm, cp, csplit, cut, date, dd, df, dir, dircolors,
175 dirname, du, echo, env, expand, expr, factor, false, fmt, fold, groups,
176 head, hostid, id, install, join, link, ln, logname, ls, md5sum, mkdir,
177 mkfifo, mknod, mktemp, mv, nice, nl, nohup, nproc, numfmt, od, paste,
178 pathchk, pinky, pr, printenv, printf, ptx, pwd, readlink, realpath, rm,
179 rmdir, runcon, seq, sha1sum, sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum,
180 sha512sum, shred, shuf, sleep, sort, split, stat, stdbuf, stty, sum,
181 sync, tac, tail, tee, test, timeout, touch, tr, true, truncate, tsort,
182 tty, uname, unexpand, uniq, unlink, users, vdir, wc, who, whoami, and
183 yes</seg>
184 <seg>libstdbuf.so (in /usr/libexec/coreutils)</seg>
185 <seg>/usr/libexec/coreutils</seg>
186 </seglistitem>
187 </segmentedlist>
188
189 <variablelist>
190 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
191 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
192 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
193
194 <varlistentry id="lbracket">
195 <term><command>[</command></term>
196 <listitem>
197 <para>Is an actual command, /usr/bin/[, that is a synonym
198 for the <command>test</command> command</para>
199 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils lbracket">
200 <primary sortas="b-111">[</primary>
201 </indexterm>
202 </listitem>
203 </varlistentry>
204
205 <varlistentry id="base32">
206 <term><command>base32</command></term>
207 <listitem>
208 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base32 specification
209 (RFC 4648)</para>
210 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
211 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
212 </indexterm>
213 </listitem>
214 </varlistentry>
215
216 <varlistentry id="base64">
217 <term><command>base64</command></term>
218 <listitem>
219 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base64 specification
220 (RFC 4648)</para>
221 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
222 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
223 </indexterm>
224 </listitem>
225 </varlistentry>
226
227 <varlistentry id="b2sum">
228 <term><command>b2sum</command></term>
229 <listitem>
230 <para>Prints or checks BLAKE2 (512-bit) checksums</para>
231 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils b2sum">
232 <primary sortas="b-b2sum">b2sum</primary>
233 </indexterm>
234 </listitem>
235 </varlistentry>
236
237 <varlistentry id="basename">
238 <term><command>basename</command></term>
239 <listitem>
240 <para>Strips any path and a given suffix from a file name</para>
241 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basename">
242 <primary sortas="b-basename">basename</primary>
243 </indexterm>
244 </listitem>
245 </varlistentry>
246
247 <varlistentry id="basenc">
248 <term><command>basenc</command></term>
249 <listitem>
250 <para>Encodes or decodes data using various algorithms</para>
251 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basenc">
252 <primary sortas="b-basenc">basenc</primary>
253 </indexterm>
254 </listitem>
255 </varlistentry>
256
257 <varlistentry id="cat">
258 <term><command>cat</command></term>
259 <listitem>
260 <para>Concatenates files to standard output</para>
261 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cat">
262 <primary sortas="b-cat">cat</primary>
263 </indexterm>
264 </listitem>
265 </varlistentry>
266
267 <varlistentry id="chcon">
268 <term><command>chcon</command></term>
269 <listitem>
270 <para>Changes security context for files and directories</para>
271 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chcon">
272 <primary sortas="b-chcon">chcon</primary>
273 </indexterm>
274 </listitem>
275 </varlistentry>
276
277 <varlistentry id="chgrp">
278 <term><command>chgrp</command></term>
279 <listitem>
280 <para>Changes the group ownership of files and directories</para>
281 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chgrp">
282 <primary sortas="b-chgrp">chgrp</primary>
283 </indexterm>
284 </listitem>
285 </varlistentry>
286
287 <varlistentry id="chmod">
288 <term><command>chmod</command></term>
289 <listitem>
290 <para>Changes the permissions of each file to the given mode; the mode
291 can be either a symbolic representation of the changes to make or an
292 octal number representing the new permissions</para>
293 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chmod">
294 <primary sortas="b-chmod">chmod</primary>
295 </indexterm>
296 </listitem>
297 </varlistentry>
298
299 <varlistentry id="chown">
300 <term><command>chown</command></term>
301 <listitem>
302 <para>Changes the user and/or group ownership of files and
303 directories</para>
304 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chown">
305 <primary sortas="b-chown">chown</primary>
306 </indexterm>
307 </listitem>
308 </varlistentry>
309
310 <varlistentry id="chroot">
311 <term><command>chroot</command></term>
312 <listitem>
313 <para>Runs a command with the specified directory as the
314 <filename class="directory">/</filename> directory</para>
315 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chroot">
316 <primary sortas="b-chroot">chroot</primary>
317 </indexterm>
318 </listitem>
319 </varlistentry>
320
321 <varlistentry id="cksum">
322 <term><command>cksum</command></term>
323 <listitem>
324 <para>Prints the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum and the byte
325 counts of each specified file</para>
326 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cksum">
327 <primary sortas="b-cksum">cksum</primary>
328 </indexterm>
329 </listitem>
330 </varlistentry>
331
332 <varlistentry id="comm">
333 <term><command>comm</command></term>
334 <listitem>
335 <para>Compares two sorted files, outputting in three columns the lines
336 that are unique and the lines that are common</para>
337 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils comm">
338 <primary sortas="b-comm">comm</primary>
339 </indexterm>
340 </listitem>
341 </varlistentry>
342
343 <varlistentry id="cp">
344 <term><command>cp</command></term>
345 <listitem>
346 <para>Copies files</para>
347 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cp">
348 <primary sortas="b-cp">cp</primary>
349 </indexterm>
350 </listitem>
351 </varlistentry>
352
353 <varlistentry id="csplit">
354 <term><command>csplit</command></term>
355 <listitem>
356 <para>Splits a given file into several new files, separating them
357 according to given patterns or line numbers and outputting the byte
358 count of each new file</para>
359 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils csplit">
360 <primary sortas="b-csplit">csplit</primary>
361 </indexterm>
362 </listitem>
363 </varlistentry>
364
365 <varlistentry id="cut">
366 <term><command>cut</command></term>
367 <listitem>
368 <para>Prints sections of lines, selecting the parts according to given
369 fields or positions</para>
370 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cut">
371 <primary sortas="b-cut">cut</primary>
372 </indexterm>
373 </listitem>
374 </varlistentry>
375
376 <varlistentry id="date">
377 <term><command>date</command></term>
378 <listitem>
379 <para>Displays the current time in the given format, or sets the
380 system date</para>
381 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils date">
382 <primary sortas="b-date">date</primary>
383 </indexterm>
384 </listitem>
385 </varlistentry>
386
387 <varlistentry id="dd">
388 <term><command>dd</command> </term>
389 <listitem>
390 <para>Copies a file using the given block size and count, while
391 optionally performing conversions on it</para>
392 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dd">
393 <primary sortas="b-dd">dd</primary>
394 </indexterm>
395 </listitem>
396 </varlistentry>
397
398 <varlistentry id="df">
399 <term><command>df</command></term>
400 <listitem>
401 <para>Reports the amount of disk space available (and used) on all
402 mounted file systems, or only on the file systems holding the selected
403 files</para>
404 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils df">
405 <primary sortas="b-df">df</primary>
406 </indexterm>
407 </listitem>
408 </varlistentry>
409
410 <varlistentry id="dir">
411 <term><command>dir</command></term>
412 <listitem>
413 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory (the same as
414 the <command>ls</command> command)</para>
415 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dir">
416 <primary sortas="b-dir">dir</primary>
417 </indexterm>
418 </listitem>
419 </varlistentry>
420
421 <varlistentry id="dircolors">
422 <term><command>dircolors</command></term>
423 <listitem>
424 <para>Outputs commands to set the <envar>LS_COLOR</envar>
425 environment variable to change the color scheme used by
426 <command>ls</command></para>
427 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dircolors">
428 <primary sortas="b-dircolors">dircolors</primary>
429 </indexterm>
430 </listitem>
431 </varlistentry>
432
433 <varlistentry id="dirname">
434 <term><command>dirname</command></term>
435 <listitem>
436 <para>Strips the non-directory suffix from a file name</para>
437 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dirname">
438 <primary sortas="b-dirname">dirname</primary>
439 </indexterm>
440 </listitem>
441 </varlistentry>
442
443 <varlistentry id="du">
444 <term><command>du</command></term>
445 <listitem>
446 <para>Reports the amount of disk space used by the current directory,
447 by each of the given directories (including all subdirectories) or by
448 each of the given files</para>
449 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils du">
450 <primary sortas="b-du">du</primary>
451 </indexterm>
452 </listitem>
453 </varlistentry>
454
455 <varlistentry id="echo">
456 <term><command>echo</command></term>
457 <listitem>
458 <para>Displays the given strings</para>
459 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils echo">
460 <primary sortas="b-echo">echo</primary>
461 </indexterm>
462 </listitem>
463 </varlistentry>
464
465 <varlistentry id="env">
466 <term><command>env</command></term>
467 <listitem>
468 <para>Runs a command in a modified environment</para>
469 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils env">
470 <primary sortas="b-env">env</primary>
471 </indexterm>
472 </listitem>
473 </varlistentry>
474
475 <varlistentry id="expand">
476 <term><command>expand</command></term>
477 <listitem>
478 <para>Converts tabs to spaces</para>
479 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expand">
480 <primary sortas="b-expand">expand</primary>
481 </indexterm>
482 </listitem>
483 </varlistentry>
484
485 <varlistentry id="expr">
486 <term><command>expr</command></term>
487 <listitem>
488 <para>Evaluates expressions</para>
489 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expr">
490 <primary sortas="b-expr">expr</primary>
491 </indexterm>
492 </listitem>
493 </varlistentry>
494
495 <varlistentry id="factor">
496 <term><command>factor</command></term>
497 <listitem>
498 <para>Prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers</para>
499 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils factor">
500 <primary sortas="b-factor">factor</primary>
501 </indexterm>
502 </listitem>
503 </varlistentry>
504
505 <varlistentry id="false">
506 <term><command>false</command></term>
507 <listitem>
508 <para>Does nothing, unsuccessfully; it always exits with a status code
509 indicating failure</para>
510 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils false">
511 <primary sortas="b-false">false</primary>
512 </indexterm>
513 </listitem>
514 </varlistentry>
515
516 <varlistentry id="fmt">
517 <term><command>fmt</command></term>
518 <listitem>
519 <para>Reformats the paragraphs in the given files</para>
520 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fmt">
521 <primary sortas="b-fmt">fmt</primary>
522 </indexterm>
523 </listitem>
524 </varlistentry>
525
526 <varlistentry id="fold">
527 <term><command>fold</command></term>
528 <listitem>
529 <para>Wraps the lines in the given files</para>
530 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fold">
531 <primary sortas="b-fold">fold</primary>
532 </indexterm>
533 </listitem>
534 </varlistentry>
535
536 <varlistentry id="groups">
537 <term><command>groups</command></term>
538 <listitem>
539 <para>Reports a user's group memberships</para>
540 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils groups">
541 <primary sortas="b-groups">groups</primary>
542 </indexterm>
543 </listitem>
544 </varlistentry>
545
546 <varlistentry id="head">
547 <term><command>head</command></term>
548 <listitem>
549 <para>Prints the first ten lines (or the given number of lines)
550 of each given file</para>
551 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils head">
552 <primary sortas="b-head">head</primary>
553 </indexterm>
554 </listitem>
555 </varlistentry>
556
557 <varlistentry id="hostid">
558 <term><command>hostid</command></term>
559 <listitem>
560 <para>Reports the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) of the host</para>
561 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils hostid">
562 <primary sortas="b-hostid">hostid</primary>
563 </indexterm>
564 </listitem>
565 </varlistentry>
566
567 <varlistentry id="id">
568 <term><command>id</command></term>
569 <listitem>
570 <para>Reports the effective user ID, group ID, and group memberships
571 of the current user or specified user</para>
572 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils id">
573 <primary sortas="b-id">id</primary>
574 </indexterm>
575 </listitem>
576 </varlistentry>
577
578 <varlistentry id="install">
579 <term><command>install</command> </term>
580 <listitem>
581 <para>Copies files while setting their permission modes and, if
582 possible, their owner and group</para>
583 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils install">
584 <primary sortas="b-install">install</primary>
585 </indexterm>
586 </listitem>
587 </varlistentry>
588
589 <varlistentry id="join">
590 <term><command>join</command></term>
591 <listitem>
592 <para>Joins the lines that have identical join fields from two
593 separate files</para>
594 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils join">
595 <primary sortas="b-join">join</primary>
596 </indexterm>
597 </listitem>
598 </varlistentry>
599
600 <varlistentry id="link">
601 <term><command>link</command></term>
602 <listitem>
603 <para>Creates a hard link with the given name to a file</para>
604 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils link">
605 <primary sortas="b-link">link</primary>
606 </indexterm>
607 </listitem>
608 </varlistentry>
609
610 <varlistentry id="ln">
611 <term><command>ln</command></term>
612 <listitem>
613 <para>Makes hard links or soft (symbolic) links between files</para>
614 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ln">
615 <primary sortas="b-ln">ln</primary>
616 </indexterm>
617 </listitem>
618 </varlistentry>
619
620 <varlistentry id="logname">
621 <term><command>logname</command></term>
622 <listitem>
623 <para>Reports the current user's login name</para>
624 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils logname">
625 <primary sortas="b-logname">logname</primary>
626 </indexterm>
627 </listitem>
628 </varlistentry>
629
630 <varlistentry id="ls">
631 <term><command>ls</command></term>
632 <listitem>
633 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory</para>
634 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ls">
635 <primary sortas="b-ls">ls</primary>
636 </indexterm>
637 </listitem>
638 </varlistentry>
639
640 <varlistentry id="md5sum">
641 <term><command>md5sum</command></term>
642 <listitem>
643 <para>Reports or checks Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums</para>
644 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils md5sum">
645 <primary sortas="b-md5sum">md5sum</primary>
646 </indexterm>
647 </listitem>
648 </varlistentry>
649
650 <varlistentry id="mkdir">
651 <term><command>mkdir</command></term>
652 <listitem>
653 <para>Creates directories with the given names</para>
654 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkdir">
655 <primary sortas="b-mkdir">mkdir</primary>
656 </indexterm>
657 </listitem>
658 </varlistentry>
659
660 <varlistentry id="mkfifo">
661 <term><command>mkfifo</command></term>
662 <listitem>
663 <para>Creates First-In, First-Outs (FIFOs), a "named
664 pipe" in UNIX parlance, with the given names</para>
665 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkfifo">
666 <primary sortas="b-mkfifo">mkfifo</primary>
667 </indexterm>
668 </listitem>
669 </varlistentry>
670
671 <varlistentry id="mknod">
672 <term><command>mknod</command></term>
673 <listitem>
674 <para>Creates device nodes with the given names; a device node is a
675 character special file, a block special file, or a FIFO</para>
676 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mknod">
677 <primary sortas="b-mknod">mknod</primary>
678 </indexterm>
679 </listitem>
680 </varlistentry>
681
682 <varlistentry id="mktemp">
683 <term><command>mktemp</command></term>
684 <listitem>
685 <para>Creates temporary files in a secure manner; it is used in scripts</para>
686 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mktemp">
687 <primary sortas="b-mktemp">mktemp</primary>
688 </indexterm>
689 </listitem>
690 </varlistentry>
691
692 <varlistentry id="mv">
693 <term><command>mv</command></term>
694 <listitem>
695 <para>Moves or renames files or directories</para>
696 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mv">
697 <primary sortas="b-mv">mv</primary>
698 </indexterm>
699 </listitem>
700 </varlistentry>
701
702 <varlistentry id="nice">
703 <term><command>nice</command></term>
704 <listitem>
705 <para>Runs a program with modified scheduling priority</para>
706 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nice">
707 <primary sortas="b-nice">nice</primary>
708 </indexterm>
709 </listitem>
710 </varlistentry>
711
712 <varlistentry id="nl">
713 <term><command>nl</command></term>
714 <listitem>
715 <para>Numbers the lines from the given files</para>
716 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nl">
717 <primary sortas="b-nl">nl</primary>
718 </indexterm>
719 </listitem>
720 </varlistentry>
721
722 <varlistentry id="nohup">
723 <term><command>nohup</command></term>
724 <listitem>
725 <para>Runs a command immune to hangups, with its output redirected to
726 a log file</para>
727 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nohup">
728 <primary sortas="b-nohup">nohup</primary>
729 </indexterm>
730 </listitem>
731 </varlistentry>
732
733 <varlistentry id="nproc">
734 <term><command>nproc</command></term>
735 <listitem>
736 <para>Prints the number of processing units available to a
737 process</para>
738 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nproc">
739 <primary sortas="b-nproc">nproc</primary>
740 </indexterm>
741 </listitem>
742 </varlistentry>
743
744 <varlistentry id="numfmt">
745 <term><command>numfmt</command></term>
746 <listitem>
747 <para>Converts numbers to or from human-readable strings</para>
748 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils numfmt">
749 <primary sortas="b-numfmt">numfmt</primary>
750 </indexterm>
751 </listitem>
752 </varlistentry>
753
754 <varlistentry id="od">
755 <term><command>od</command></term>
756 <listitem>
757 <para>Dumps files in octal and other formats</para>
758 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils od">
759 <primary sortas="b-od">od</primary>
760 </indexterm>
761 </listitem>
762 </varlistentry>
763
764 <varlistentry id="paste">
765 <term><command>paste</command></term>
766 <listitem>
767 <para>Merges the given files, joining sequentially corresponding lines
768 side by side, separated by tab characters</para>
769 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils paste">
770 <primary sortas="b-paste">paste</primary>
771 </indexterm>
772 </listitem>
773 </varlistentry>
774
775 <varlistentry id="pathchk">
776 <term><command>pathchk</command></term>
777 <listitem>
778 <para>Checks if file names are valid or portable</para>
779 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pathchk">
780 <primary sortas="b-pathchk">pathchk</primary>
781 </indexterm>
782 </listitem>
783 </varlistentry>
784
785 <varlistentry id="pinky">
786 <term><command>pinky</command></term>
787 <listitem>
788 <para>Is a lightweight finger client; it reports some information
789 about the given users</para>
790 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pinky">
791 <primary sortas="b-pinky">pinky</primary>
792 </indexterm>
793 </listitem>
794 </varlistentry>
795
796 <varlistentry id="pr">
797 <term><command>pr</command></term>
798 <listitem>
799 <para>Paginates and columnates files for printing</para>
800 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pr">
801 <primary sortas="b-pr">pr</primary>
802 </indexterm>
803 </listitem>
804 </varlistentry>
805
806 <varlistentry id="printenv">
807 <term><command>printenv</command></term>
808 <listitem>
809 <para>Prints the environment</para>
810 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printenv">
811 <primary sortas="b-printenv">printenv</primary>
812 </indexterm>
813 </listitem>
814 </varlistentry>
815
816 <varlistentry id="printf">
817 <term><command>printf</command></term>
818 <listitem>
819 <para>Prints the given arguments according to the given format, much
820 like the C printf function</para>
821 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printf">
822 <primary sortas="b-printf">printf</primary>
823 </indexterm>
824 </listitem>
825 </varlistentry>
826
827 <varlistentry id="ptx">
828 <term><command>ptx</command></term>
829 <listitem>
830 <para>Produces a permuted index from the contents of the given files,
831 with each keyword in its context</para>
832 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ptx">
833 <primary sortas="b-ptx">ptx</primary>
834 </indexterm>
835 </listitem>
836 </varlistentry>
837
838 <varlistentry id="pwd">
839 <term><command>pwd</command></term>
840 <listitem>
841 <para>Reports the name of the current working directory</para>
842 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pwd">
843 <primary sortas="b-pwd">pwd</primary>
844 </indexterm>
845 </listitem>
846 </varlistentry>
847
848 <varlistentry id="readlink">
849 <term><command>readlink</command></term>
850 <listitem>
851 <para>Reports the value of the given symbolic link</para>
852 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils readlink">
853 <primary sortas="b-readlink">readlink</primary>
854 </indexterm>
855 </listitem>
856 </varlistentry>
857
858 <varlistentry id="realpath">
859 <term><command>realpath</command></term>
860 <listitem>
861 <para>Prints the resolved path</para>
862 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils realpath">
863 <primary sortas="b-realpath">realpath</primary>
864 </indexterm>
865 </listitem>
866 </varlistentry>
867
868 <varlistentry id="rm">
869 <term><command>rm</command></term>
870 <listitem>
871 <para>Removes files or directories</para>
872 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rm">
873 <primary sortas="b-rm">rm</primary>
874 </indexterm>
875 </listitem>
876 </varlistentry>
877
878 <varlistentry id="rmdir">
879 <term><command>rmdir</command></term>
880 <listitem>
881 <para>Removes directories if they are empty</para>
882 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rmdir">
883 <primary sortas="b-rmdir">rmdir</primary>
884 </indexterm>
885 </listitem>
886 </varlistentry>
887
888 <varlistentry id="runcon">
889 <term><command>runcon</command></term>
890 <listitem>
891 <para>Runs a command with specified security context</para>
892 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils runcon">
893 <primary sortas="b-runcon">runcon</primary>
894 </indexterm>
895 </listitem>
896 </varlistentry>
897
898 <varlistentry id="seq">
899 <term><command>seq</command></term>
900 <listitem>
901 <para>Prints a sequence of numbers within a given range and with a
902 given increment</para>
903 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils seq">
904 <primary sortas="b-seq">seq</primary>
905 </indexterm>
906 </listitem>
907 </varlistentry>
908
909 <varlistentry id="sha1sum">
910 <term><command>sha1sum</command></term>
911 <listitem>
912 <para>Prints or checks 160-bit Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1)
913 checksums</para>
914 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha1sum">
915 <primary sortas="b-sha1sum">sha1sum</primary>
916 </indexterm>
917 </listitem>
918 </varlistentry>
919
920 <varlistentry id="sha224sum">
921 <term><command>sha224sum</command></term>
922 <listitem>
923 <para>Prints or checks 224-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
924 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha224sum">
925 <primary sortas="b-sha224sum">sha224sum</primary>
926 </indexterm>
927 </listitem>
928 </varlistentry>
929
930 <varlistentry id="sha256sum">
931 <term><command>sha256sum</command></term>
932 <listitem>
933 <para>Prints or checks 256-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
934 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha256sum">
935 <primary sortas="b-sha256sum">sha256sum</primary>
936 </indexterm>
937 </listitem>
938 </varlistentry>
939
940 <varlistentry id="sha384sum">
941 <term><command>sha384sum</command></term>
942 <listitem>
943 <para>Prints or checks 384-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
944 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha384sum">
945 <primary sortas="b-sha384sum">sha384sum</primary>
946 </indexterm>
947 </listitem>
948 </varlistentry>
949
950 <varlistentry id="sha512sum">
951 <term><command>sha512sum</command></term>
952 <listitem>
953 <para>Prints or checks 512-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
954 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha512sum">
955 <primary sortas="b-sha512sum">sha512sum</primary>
956 </indexterm>
957 </listitem>
958 </varlistentry>
959
960 <varlistentry id="shred">
961 <term><command>shred</command></term>
962 <listitem>
963 <para>Overwrites the given files repeatedly with complex patterns,
964 making it difficult to recover the data</para>
965 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shred">
966 <primary sortas="b-shred">shred</primary>
967 </indexterm>
968 </listitem>
969 </varlistentry>
970
971 <varlistentry id="shuf">
972 <term><command>shuf</command></term>
973 <listitem>
974 <para>Shuffles lines of text</para>
975 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shuf">
976 <primary sortas="b-shuf">shuf</primary>
977 </indexterm>
978 </listitem>
979 </varlistentry>
980
981 <varlistentry id="sleep">
982 <term><command>sleep</command></term>
983 <listitem>
984 <para>Pauses for the given amount of time</para>
985 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sleep">
986 <primary sortas="b-sleep">sleep</primary>
987 </indexterm>
988 </listitem>
989 </varlistentry>
990
991 <varlistentry id="sort">
992 <term><command>sort</command></term>
993 <listitem>
994 <para>Sorts the lines from the given files</para>
995 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sort">
996 <primary sortas="b-sort">sort</primary>
997 </indexterm>
998 </listitem>
999 </varlistentry>
1000
1001 <varlistentry id="split">
1002 <term><command>split</command></term>
1003 <listitem>
1004 <para>Splits the given file into pieces, by size or by number of
1005 lines</para>
1006 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils split">
1007 <primary sortas="b-split">split</primary>
1008 </indexterm>
1009 </listitem>
1010 </varlistentry>
1011
1012 <varlistentry id="stat">
1013 <term><command>stat</command></term>
1014 <listitem>
1015 <para>Displays file or filesystem status</para>
1016 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stat">
1017 <primary sortas="b-stat">stat</primary>
1018 </indexterm>
1019 </listitem>
1020 </varlistentry>
1021
1022 <varlistentry id="stdbuf">
1023 <term><command>stdbuf</command></term>
1024 <listitem>
1025 <para>Runs commands with altered buffering operations for its standard
1026 streams</para>
1027 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stdbuf">
1028 <primary sortas="b-stdbuf">stdbuf</primary>
1029 </indexterm>
1030 </listitem>
1031 </varlistentry>
1032
1033 <varlistentry id="stty">
1034 <term><command>stty</command></term>
1035 <listitem>
1036 <para>Sets or reports terminal line settings</para>
1037 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stty">
1038 <primary sortas="b-stty">stty</primary>
1039 </indexterm>
1040 </listitem>
1041 </varlistentry>
1042
1043 <varlistentry id="sum">
1044 <term><command>sum</command></term>
1045 <listitem>
1046 <para>Prints checksum and block counts for each given file</para>
1047 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sum">
1048 <primary sortas="b-sum">sum</primary>
1049 </indexterm>
1050 </listitem>
1051 </varlistentry>
1052
1053 <varlistentry id="sync">
1054 <term><command>sync</command></term>
1055 <listitem>
1056 <para>Flushes file system buffers; it forces changed blocks to disk
1057 and updates the super block</para>
1058 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sync">
1059 <primary sortas="b-sync">sync</primary>
1060 </indexterm>
1061 </listitem>
1062 </varlistentry>
1063
1064 <varlistentry id="tac">
1065 <term><command>tac</command></term>
1066 <listitem>
1067 <para>Concatenates the given files in reverse</para>
1068 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tac">
1069 <primary sortas="b-tac">tac</primary>
1070 </indexterm>
1071 </listitem>
1072 </varlistentry>
1073
1074 <varlistentry id="tail">
1075 <term><command>tail</command></term>
1076 <listitem>
1077 <para>Prints the last ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each
1078 given file</para>
1079 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tail">
1080 <primary sortas="b-tail">tail</primary>
1081 </indexterm>
1082 </listitem>
1083 </varlistentry>
1084
1085 <varlistentry id="tee">
1086 <term><command>tee</command></term>
1087 <listitem>
1088 <para>Reads from standard input while writing both to standard output
1089 and to the given files</para>
1090 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tee">
1091 <primary sortas="b-tee">tee</primary>
1092 </indexterm>
1093 </listitem>
1094 </varlistentry>
1095
1096 <varlistentry id="test">
1097 <term><command>test</command></term>
1098 <listitem>
1099 <para>Compares values and checks file types</para>
1100 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils test">
1101 <primary sortas="b-test">test</primary>
1102 </indexterm>
1103 </listitem>
1104 </varlistentry>
1105
1106 <varlistentry id="timeout">
1107 <term><command>timeout</command></term>
1108 <listitem>
1109 <para>Runs a command with a time limit</para>
1110 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils timeout">
1111 <primary sortas="b-timeout">timeout</primary>
1112 </indexterm>
1113 </listitem>
1114 </varlistentry>
1115
1116 <varlistentry id="touch">
1117 <term><command>touch</command></term>
1118 <listitem>
1119 <para>Changes file timestamps, setting the access and modification
1120 times of the given files to the current time; files that do not exist
1121 are created with zero length</para>
1122 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils touch">
1123 <primary sortas="b-touch">touch</primary>
1124 </indexterm>
1125 </listitem>
1126 </varlistentry>
1127
1128 <varlistentry id="tr">
1129 <term><command>tr</command></term>
1130 <listitem>
1131 <para>Translates, squeezes, and deletes the given characters from
1132 standard input</para>
1133 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tr">
1134 <primary sortas="b-tr">tr</primary>
1135 </indexterm>
1136 </listitem>
1137 </varlistentry>
1138
1139 <varlistentry id="true">
1140 <term><command>true</command></term>
1141 <listitem>
1142 <para>Does nothing, successfully; it always exits with a status code
1143 indicating success</para>
1144 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils true">
1145 <primary sortas="b-true">true</primary>
1146 </indexterm>
1147 </listitem>
1148 </varlistentry>
1149
1150 <varlistentry id="truncate">
1151 <term><command>truncate</command></term>
1152 <listitem>
1153 <para>Shrinks or expands a file to the specified size</para>
1154 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils truncate">
1155 <primary sortas="b-truncate">truncate</primary>
1156 </indexterm>
1157 </listitem>
1158 </varlistentry>
1159
1160 <varlistentry id="tsort">
1161 <term><command>tsort</command></term>
1162 <listitem>
1163 <para>Performs a topological sort; it writes a completely ordered list
1164 according to the partial ordering in a given file</para>
1165 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tsort">
1166 <primary sortas="b-tsort">tsort</primary>
1167 </indexterm>
1168 </listitem>
1169 </varlistentry>
1170
1171 <varlistentry id="tty">
1172 <term><command>tty</command></term>
1173 <listitem>
1174 <para>Reports the file name of the terminal connected to standard
1175 input</para>
1176 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tty">
1177 <primary sortas="b-tty">tty</primary>
1178 </indexterm>
1179 </listitem>
1180 </varlistentry>
1181
1182 <varlistentry id="uname">
1183 <term><command>uname</command></term>
1184 <listitem>
1185 <para>Reports system information</para>
1186 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uname">
1187 <primary sortas="b-uname">uname</primary>
1188 </indexterm>
1189 </listitem>
1190 </varlistentry>
1191
1192 <varlistentry id="unexpand">
1193 <term><command>unexpand</command></term>
1194 <listitem>
1195 <para>Converts spaces to tabs</para>
1196 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unexpand">
1197 <primary sortas="b-unexpand">unexpand</primary>
1198 </indexterm>
1199 </listitem>
1200 </varlistentry>
1201
1202 <varlistentry id="uniq">
1203 <term><command>uniq</command></term>
1204 <listitem>
1205 <para>Discards all but one of successive identical lines</para>
1206 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uniq">
1207 <primary sortas="b-uniq">uniq</primary>
1208 </indexterm>
1209 </listitem>
1210 </varlistentry>
1211
1212 <varlistentry id="unlink">
1213 <term><command>unlink</command></term>
1214 <listitem>
1215 <para>Removes the given file</para>
1216 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unlink">
1217 <primary sortas="b-unlink">unlink</primary>
1218 </indexterm>
1219 </listitem>
1220 </varlistentry>
1221
1222 <varlistentry id="users">
1223 <term><command>users</command></term>
1224 <listitem>
1225 <para>Reports the names of the users currently logged on</para>
1226 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils users">
1227 <primary sortas="b-users">users</primary>
1228 </indexterm>
1229 </listitem>
1230 </varlistentry>
1231
1232 <varlistentry id="vdir">
1233 <term><command>vdir</command></term>
1234 <listitem>
1235 <para>Is the same as <command>ls -l</command></para>
1236 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils vdir">
1237 <primary sortas="b-vdir">vdir</primary>
1238 </indexterm>
1239 </listitem>
1240 </varlistentry>
1241
1242 <varlistentry id="wc">
1243 <term><command>wc</command></term>
1244 <listitem>
1245 <para>Reports the number of lines, words, and bytes for each given
1246 file, as well as a total line when more than one file is given</para>
1247 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils wc">
1248 <primary sortas="b-wc">wc</primary>
1249 </indexterm>
1250 </listitem>
1251 </varlistentry>
1252
1253 <varlistentry id="who">
1254 <term><command>who</command></term>
1255 <listitem>
1256 <para>Reports who is logged on</para>
1257 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils who">
1258 <primary sortas="b-who">who</primary>
1259 </indexterm>
1260 </listitem>
1261 </varlistentry>
1262
1263 <varlistentry id="whoami">
1264 <term><command>whoami</command></term>
1265 <listitem>
1266 <para>Reports the user name associated with the current effective
1267 user ID</para>
1268 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils whoami">
1269 <primary sortas="b-whoami">whoami</primary>
1270 </indexterm>
1271 </listitem>
1272 </varlistentry>
1273
1274 <varlistentry id="yes">
1275 <term><command>yes</command></term>
1276 <listitem>
1277 <para>Repeatedly outputs <quote>y</quote> or a given string until
1278 killed</para>
1279 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils yes">
1280 <primary sortas="b-yes">yes</primary>
1281 </indexterm>
1282 </listitem>
1283 </varlistentry>
1284
1285 <varlistentry id="libstdbuf">
1286 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libstdbuf</filename></term>
1287 <listitem>
1288 <para>Library used by <command>stdbuf</command></para>
1289 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils libstdbuf">
1290 <primary sortas="c-libstdbuf">libstdbuf</primary>
1291 </indexterm>
1292 </listitem>
1293 </varlistentry>
1294
1295 </variablelist>
1296
1297 </sect2>
1298
1299</sect1>
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