source: chapter08/coreutils.xml@ d7a9421

11.0 11.0-rc1 11.0-rc2 11.0-rc3 11.1 11.1-rc1 arm ml-11.0 multilib s6-init trunk xry111/clfs-ng xry111/glibc-2.34 xry111/lfs-next xry111/tester-nohack
Last change on this file since d7a9421 was d7a9421, checked in by Douglas R. Reno <renodr@…>, 15 months ago

Merge Xi's changes into trunk
Update to meson-0.58.0
Update to systemd-248
Update to gcc-11.1.0
Update to linux-5.12.1
Update to iproute2-5.12.0
Update to Python-3.9.5
Make /bin, /sbin, and /lib symlinks to their counterparts in /usr.
Thanks again for a significant portion of this work goes to Xi, I only
really merged it and made a couple of modifications for my updates. To
LFS 11.x we go!

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 43.9 KB
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-coreutils" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="coreutils.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>coreutils</productname>
13 <productnumber>&coreutils-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&coreutils-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Coreutils-&coreutils-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils">
20 <primary sortas="a-Coreutils">Coreutils</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the
27 basic system characteristics.</para>
28
29 <segmentedlist>
30 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
31 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
32
33 <seglistitem>
34 <seg>&coreutils-fin-sbu;</seg>
35 <seg>&coreutils-fin-du;</seg>
36 </seglistitem>
37 </segmentedlist>
38
39 </sect2>
40
41 <sect2 role="installation">
42 <title>Installation of Coreutils</title>
43
44 <para>POSIX requires that programs from Coreutils recognize character
45 boundaries correctly even in multibyte locales. The following patch fixes
46 this non-compliance and other internationalization-related bugs.</para>
47
48<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&coreutils-i18n-patch;</userinput></screen>
49
50 <note>
51 <para>In the past, many bugs were found in this patch. When reporting new
52 bugs to Coreutils maintainers, please check first if they are reproducible
53 without this patch.</para>
54 </note>
55
56 <!-- this has been fixed in upstream gnulib, when a new version of
57 coreutils is released, please check #4055 to see if the change has been
58 picked up in this package -->
59 <para>Suppress a test which on some machines can loop forever:</para>
60
61<screen><userinput remap="pre">sed -i '/test.lock/s/^/#/' gnulib-tests/gnulib.mk</userinput></screen>
62<!--
63<para>Fix a problem with autoconf-2.70 in an included gnulib .m4 file:</para>
64
65<screen><userinput remap="pre">echo '# deleted' > m4/std-gnu11.m4</userinput></screen>
66-->
67 <para>Now prepare Coreutils for compilation:</para>
68
69<screen><userinput remap="configure">autoreconf -fiv
70FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1 ./configure \
71 --prefix=/usr \
72 --enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</userinput></screen>
73
74 <variablelist>
75 <title>The meaning of the configure options:</title>
76
77 <varlistentry>
78 <term><command>autoreconf</command></term>
79 <listitem>
80 <para>The patch for internationalization has modified the
81 building system of the package, so the configuration files have
82 to be regenerated.</para>
83 </listitem>
84 </varlistentry>
85
86 <varlistentry>
87 <term><envar>FORCE_UNSAFE_CONFIGURE=1</envar></term>
88 <listitem>
89 <para>This environment variable allows the package to be
90 built as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user.
91 </para>
92 </listitem>
93 </varlistentry>
94
95 <varlistentry>
96 <term><parameter>--enable-no-install-program=kill,uptime</parameter></term>
97 <listitem>
98 <para>The purpose of this switch is to prevent Coreutils from
99 installing binaries that will be installed by other packages later.
100 </para>
101 </listitem>
102 </varlistentry>
103 </variablelist>
104
105 <para>Compile the package:</para>
106
107<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
108
109 <para>Skip down to <quote>Install the
110 package</quote> if not running the test suite.</para>
111
112 <para>Now the test suite is ready to be run. First, run the tests that are
113 meant to be run as user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>:</para>
114
115<screen><userinput remap="test">make NON_ROOT_USERNAME=tester check-root</userinput></screen>
116
117 <para>We're going to run the remainder of the tests as the
118 <systemitem class="username">tester</systemitem> user. Certain tests
119 require that the user be a member of more than one group. So that
120 these tests are not skipped, add a temporary group and make the
121 user <systemitem class="username">tester</systemitem> a part of it:</para>
122
123<screen><userinput remap="test">echo "dummy:x:102:tester" &gt;&gt; /etc/group</userinput></screen>
124
125 <para>Fix some of the permissions so that the non-root user can compile and
126 run the tests:</para>
127
128<screen><userinput remap="test">chown -Rv tester . </userinput></screen>
129
130 <para>Now run the tests:</para>
131
132<screen><userinput remap="test">su tester -c "PATH=$PATH make RUN_EXPENSIVE_TESTS=yes check"</userinput></screen>
133
134 <para>The test-getlogin test is known to fail in the LFS chroot environment.</para>
135
136 <para>Remove the temporary group:</para>
137
138<screen><userinput remap="test">sed -i '/dummy/d' /etc/group</userinput></screen>
139 <para>Install the package:</para>
140
141<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
142
143 <para>Move programs to the locations specified by the FHS:</para>
144
145<screen><userinput remap="install">mv -v /usr/bin/chroot /usr/sbin
146mv -v /usr/share/man/man1/chroot.1 /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8
147sed -i 's/"1"/"8"/' /usr/share/man/man8/chroot.8</userinput></screen>
148
149 </sect2>
150
151 <sect2 id="contents-coreutils" role="content">
152 <title>Contents of Coreutils</title>
153
154 <segmentedlist>
155 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
156 <segtitle>Installed library</segtitle>
157 <segtitle>Installed directory</segtitle>
158
159 <seglistitem>
160 <seg>[, b2sum, base32, base64, basename, basenc, cat, chcon, chgrp, chmod, chown,
161 chroot, cksum, comm, cp, csplit, cut, date, dd, df, dir, dircolors,
162 dirname, du, echo, env, expand, expr, factor, false, fmt, fold, groups,
163 head, hostid, id, install, join, link, ln, logname, ls, md5sum, mkdir,
164 mkfifo, mknod, mktemp, mv, nice, nl, nohup, nproc, numfmt, od, paste,
165 pathchk, pinky, pr, printenv, printf, ptx, pwd, readlink, realpath, rm,
166 rmdir, runcon, seq, sha1sum, sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum,
167 sha512sum, shred, shuf, sleep, sort, split, stat, stdbuf, stty, sum,
168 sync, tac, tail, tee, test, timeout, touch, tr, true, truncate, tsort,
169 tty, uname, unexpand, uniq, unlink, users, vdir, wc, who, whoami, and
170 yes</seg>
171 <seg>libstdbuf.so (in /usr/libexec/coreutils)</seg>
172 <seg>/usr/libexec/coreutils</seg>
173 </seglistitem>
174 </segmentedlist>
175
176 <variablelist>
177 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
178 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
179 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
180
181 <varlistentry id="lbracket">
182 <term><command>[</command></term>
183 <listitem>
184 <para>Is an actual command, /usr/bin/[, that is a synonym
185 for the <command>test</command> command</para>
186 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils lbracket">
187 <primary sortas="b-111">[</primary>
188 </indexterm>
189 </listitem>
190 </varlistentry>
191
192 <varlistentry id="base32">
193 <term><command>base32</command></term>
194 <listitem>
195 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base32 specification
196 (RFC 4648)</para>
197 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
198 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
199 </indexterm>
200 </listitem>
201 </varlistentry>
202
203 <varlistentry id="base64">
204 <term><command>base64</command></term>
205 <listitem>
206 <para>Encodes and decodes data according to the base64 specification
207 (RFC 4648)</para>
208 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
209 <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
210 </indexterm>
211 </listitem>
212 </varlistentry>
213
214 <varlistentry id="b2sum">
215 <term><command>b2sum</command></term>
216 <listitem>
217 <para>Prints or checks BLAKE2 (512-bit) checksums</para>
218 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils b2sum">
219 <primary sortas="b-b2sum">b2sum</primary>
220 </indexterm>
221 </listitem>
222 </varlistentry>
223
224 <varlistentry id="basename">
225 <term><command>basename</command></term>
226 <listitem>
227 <para>Strips any path and a given suffix from a file name</para>
228 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basename">
229 <primary sortas="b-basename">basename</primary>
230 </indexterm>
231 </listitem>
232 </varlistentry>
233
234 <varlistentry id="basenc">
235 <term><command>basenc</command></term>
236 <listitem>
237 <para>Encodes or decodes data using various algorithms</para>
238 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basenc">
239 <primary sortas="b-basenc">basenc</primary>
240 </indexterm>
241 </listitem>
242 </varlistentry>
243
244 <varlistentry id="cat">
245 <term><command>cat</command></term>
246 <listitem>
247 <para>Concatenates files to standard output</para>
248 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cat">
249 <primary sortas="b-cat">cat</primary>
250 </indexterm>
251 </listitem>
252 </varlistentry>
253
254 <varlistentry id="chcon">
255 <term><command>chcon</command></term>
256 <listitem>
257 <para>Changes security context for files and directories</para>
258 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chcon">
259 <primary sortas="b-chcon">chcon</primary>
260 </indexterm>
261 </listitem>
262 </varlistentry>
263
264 <varlistentry id="chgrp">
265 <term><command>chgrp</command></term>
266 <listitem>
267 <para>Changes the group ownership of files and directories</para>
268 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chgrp">
269 <primary sortas="b-chgrp">chgrp</primary>
270 </indexterm>
271 </listitem>
272 </varlistentry>
273
274 <varlistentry id="chmod">
275 <term><command>chmod</command></term>
276 <listitem>
277 <para>Changes the permissions of each file to the given mode; the mode
278 can be either a symbolic representation of the changes to make or an
279 octal number representing the new permissions</para>
280 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chmod">
281 <primary sortas="b-chmod">chmod</primary>
282 </indexterm>
283 </listitem>
284 </varlistentry>
285
286 <varlistentry id="chown">
287 <term><command>chown</command></term>
288 <listitem>
289 <para>Changes the user and/or group ownership of files and
290 directories</para>
291 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chown">
292 <primary sortas="b-chown">chown</primary>
293 </indexterm>
294 </listitem>
295 </varlistentry>
296
297 <varlistentry id="chroot">
298 <term><command>chroot</command></term>
299 <listitem>
300 <para>Runs a command with the specified directory as the
301 <filename class="directory">/</filename> directory</para>
302 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chroot">
303 <primary sortas="b-chroot">chroot</primary>
304 </indexterm>
305 </listitem>
306 </varlistentry>
307
308 <varlistentry id="cksum">
309 <term><command>cksum</command></term>
310 <listitem>
311 <para>Prints the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum and the byte
312 counts of each specified file</para>
313 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cksum">
314 <primary sortas="b-cksum">cksum</primary>
315 </indexterm>
316 </listitem>
317 </varlistentry>
318
319 <varlistentry id="comm">
320 <term><command>comm</command></term>
321 <listitem>
322 <para>Compares two sorted files, outputting in three columns the lines
323 that are unique and the lines that are common</para>
324 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils comm">
325 <primary sortas="b-comm">comm</primary>
326 </indexterm>
327 </listitem>
328 </varlistentry>
329
330 <varlistentry id="cp">
331 <term><command>cp</command></term>
332 <listitem>
333 <para>Copies files</para>
334 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cp">
335 <primary sortas="b-cp">cp</primary>
336 </indexterm>
337 </listitem>
338 </varlistentry>
339
340 <varlistentry id="csplit">
341 <term><command>csplit</command></term>
342 <listitem>
343 <para>Splits a given file into several new files, separating them
344 according to given patterns or line numbers and outputting the byte
345 count of each new file</para>
346 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils csplit">
347 <primary sortas="b-csplit">csplit</primary>
348 </indexterm>
349 </listitem>
350 </varlistentry>
351
352 <varlistentry id="cut">
353 <term><command>cut</command></term>
354 <listitem>
355 <para>Prints sections of lines, selecting the parts according to given
356 fields or positions</para>
357 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cut">
358 <primary sortas="b-cut">cut</primary>
359 </indexterm>
360 </listitem>
361 </varlistentry>
362
363 <varlistentry id="date">
364 <term><command>date</command></term>
365 <listitem>
366 <para>Displays the current time in the given format, or sets the
367 system date</para>
368 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils date">
369 <primary sortas="b-date">date</primary>
370 </indexterm>
371 </listitem>
372 </varlistentry>
373
374 <varlistentry id="dd">
375 <term><command>dd</command> </term>
376 <listitem>
377 <para>Copies a file using the given block size and count, while
378 optionally performing conversions on it</para>
379 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dd">
380 <primary sortas="b-dd">dd</primary>
381 </indexterm>
382 </listitem>
383 </varlistentry>
384
385 <varlistentry id="df">
386 <term><command>df</command></term>
387 <listitem>
388 <para>Reports the amount of disk space available (and used) on all
389 mounted file systems, or only on the file systems holding the selected
390 files</para>
391 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils df">
392 <primary sortas="b-df">df</primary>
393 </indexterm>
394 </listitem>
395 </varlistentry>
396
397 <varlistentry id="dir">
398 <term><command>dir</command></term>
399 <listitem>
400 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory (the same as
401 the <command>ls</command> command)</para>
402 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dir">
403 <primary sortas="b-dir">dir</primary>
404 </indexterm>
405 </listitem>
406 </varlistentry>
407
408 <varlistentry id="dircolors">
409 <term><command>dircolors</command></term>
410 <listitem>
411 <para>Outputs commands to set the <envar>LS_COLOR</envar>
412 environment variable to change the color scheme used by
413 <command>ls</command></para>
414 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dircolors">
415 <primary sortas="b-dircolors">dircolors</primary>
416 </indexterm>
417 </listitem>
418 </varlistentry>
419
420 <varlistentry id="dirname">
421 <term><command>dirname</command></term>
422 <listitem>
423 <para>Strips the non-directory suffix from a file name</para>
424 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dirname">
425 <primary sortas="b-dirname">dirname</primary>
426 </indexterm>
427 </listitem>
428 </varlistentry>
429
430 <varlistentry id="du">
431 <term><command>du</command></term>
432 <listitem>
433 <para>Reports the amount of disk space used by the current directory,
434 by each of the given directories (including all subdirectories) or by
435 each of the given files</para>
436 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils du">
437 <primary sortas="b-du">du</primary>
438 </indexterm>
439 </listitem>
440 </varlistentry>
441
442 <varlistentry id="echo">
443 <term><command>echo</command></term>
444 <listitem>
445 <para>Displays the given strings</para>
446 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils echo">
447 <primary sortas="b-echo">echo</primary>
448 </indexterm>
449 </listitem>
450 </varlistentry>
451
452 <varlistentry id="env">
453 <term><command>env</command></term>
454 <listitem>
455 <para>Runs a command in a modified environment</para>
456 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils env">
457 <primary sortas="b-env">env</primary>
458 </indexterm>
459 </listitem>
460 </varlistentry>
461
462 <varlistentry id="expand">
463 <term><command>expand</command></term>
464 <listitem>
465 <para>Converts tabs to spaces</para>
466 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expand">
467 <primary sortas="b-expand">expand</primary>
468 </indexterm>
469 </listitem>
470 </varlistentry>
471
472 <varlistentry id="expr">
473 <term><command>expr</command></term>
474 <listitem>
475 <para>Evaluates expressions</para>
476 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expr">
477 <primary sortas="b-expr">expr</primary>
478 </indexterm>
479 </listitem>
480 </varlistentry>
481
482 <varlistentry id="factor">
483 <term><command>factor</command></term>
484 <listitem>
485 <para>Prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers</para>
486 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils factor">
487 <primary sortas="b-factor">factor</primary>
488 </indexterm>
489 </listitem>
490 </varlistentry>
491
492 <varlistentry id="false">
493 <term><command>false</command></term>
494 <listitem>
495 <para>Does nothing, unsuccessfully; it always exits with a status code
496 indicating failure</para>
497 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils false">
498 <primary sortas="b-false">false</primary>
499 </indexterm>
500 </listitem>
501 </varlistentry>
502
503 <varlistentry id="fmt">
504 <term><command>fmt</command></term>
505 <listitem>
506 <para>Reformats the paragraphs in the given files</para>
507 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fmt">
508 <primary sortas="b-fmt">fmt</primary>
509 </indexterm>
510 </listitem>
511 </varlistentry>
512
513 <varlistentry id="fold">
514 <term><command>fold</command></term>
515 <listitem>
516 <para>Wraps the lines in the given files</para>
517 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fold">
518 <primary sortas="b-fold">fold</primary>
519 </indexterm>
520 </listitem>
521 </varlistentry>
522
523 <varlistentry id="groups">
524 <term><command>groups</command></term>
525 <listitem>
526 <para>Reports a user's group memberships</para>
527 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils groups">
528 <primary sortas="b-groups">groups</primary>
529 </indexterm>
530 </listitem>
531 </varlistentry>
532
533 <varlistentry id="head">
534 <term><command>head</command></term>
535 <listitem>
536 <para>Prints the first ten lines (or the given number of lines)
537 of each given file</para>
538 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils head">
539 <primary sortas="b-head">head</primary>
540 </indexterm>
541 </listitem>
542 </varlistentry>
543
544 <varlistentry id="hostid">
545 <term><command>hostid</command></term>
546 <listitem>
547 <para>Reports the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) of the host</para>
548 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils hostid">
549 <primary sortas="b-hostid">hostid</primary>
550 </indexterm>
551 </listitem>
552 </varlistentry>
553
554 <varlistentry id="id">
555 <term><command>id</command></term>
556 <listitem>
557 <para>Reports the effective user ID, group ID, and group memberships
558 of the current user or specified user</para>
559 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils id">
560 <primary sortas="b-id">id</primary>
561 </indexterm>
562 </listitem>
563 </varlistentry>
564
565 <varlistentry id="install">
566 <term><command>install</command> </term>
567 <listitem>
568 <para>Copies files while setting their permission modes and, if
569 possible, their owner and group</para>
570 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils install">
571 <primary sortas="b-install">install</primary>
572 </indexterm>
573 </listitem>
574 </varlistentry>
575
576 <varlistentry id="join">
577 <term><command>join</command></term>
578 <listitem>
579 <para>Joins the lines that have identical join fields from two
580 separate files</para>
581 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils join">
582 <primary sortas="b-join">join</primary>
583 </indexterm>
584 </listitem>
585 </varlistentry>
586
587 <varlistentry id="link">
588 <term><command>link</command></term>
589 <listitem>
590 <para>Creates a hard link with the given name to a file</para>
591 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils link">
592 <primary sortas="b-link">link</primary>
593 </indexterm>
594 </listitem>
595 </varlistentry>
596
597 <varlistentry id="ln">
598 <term><command>ln</command></term>
599 <listitem>
600 <para>Makes hard links or soft (symbolic) links between files</para>
601 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ln">
602 <primary sortas="b-ln">ln</primary>
603 </indexterm>
604 </listitem>
605 </varlistentry>
606
607 <varlistentry id="logname">
608 <term><command>logname</command></term>
609 <listitem>
610 <para>Reports the current user's login name</para>
611 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils logname">
612 <primary sortas="b-logname">logname</primary>
613 </indexterm>
614 </listitem>
615 </varlistentry>
616
617 <varlistentry id="ls">
618 <term><command>ls</command></term>
619 <listitem>
620 <para>Lists the contents of each given directory</para>
621 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ls">
622 <primary sortas="b-ls">ls</primary>
623 </indexterm>
624 </listitem>
625 </varlistentry>
626
627 <varlistentry id="md5sum">
628 <term><command>md5sum</command></term>
629 <listitem>
630 <para>Reports or checks Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums</para>
631 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils md5sum">
632 <primary sortas="b-md5sum">md5sum</primary>
633 </indexterm>
634 </listitem>
635 </varlistentry>
636
637 <varlistentry id="mkdir">
638 <term><command>mkdir</command></term>
639 <listitem>
640 <para>Creates directories with the given names</para>
641 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkdir">
642 <primary sortas="b-mkdir">mkdir</primary>
643 </indexterm>
644 </listitem>
645 </varlistentry>
646
647 <varlistentry id="mkfifo">
648 <term><command>mkfifo</command></term>
649 <listitem>
650 <para>Creates First-In, First-Outs (FIFOs), a "named
651 pipe" in UNIX parlance, with the given names</para>
652 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkfifo">
653 <primary sortas="b-mkfifo">mkfifo</primary>
654 </indexterm>
655 </listitem>
656 </varlistentry>
657
658 <varlistentry id="mknod">
659 <term><command>mknod</command></term>
660 <listitem>
661 <para>Creates device nodes with the given names; a device node is a
662 character special file, a block special file, or a FIFO</para>
663 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mknod">
664 <primary sortas="b-mknod">mknod</primary>
665 </indexterm>
666 </listitem>
667 </varlistentry>
668
669 <varlistentry id="mktemp">
670 <term><command>mktemp</command></term>
671 <listitem>
672 <para>Creates temporary files in a secure manner; it is used in scripts</para>
673 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mktemp">
674 <primary sortas="b-mktemp">mktemp</primary>
675 </indexterm>
676 </listitem>
677 </varlistentry>
678
679 <varlistentry id="mv">
680 <term><command>mv</command></term>
681 <listitem>
682 <para>Moves or renames files or directories</para>
683 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mv">
684 <primary sortas="b-mv">mv</primary>
685 </indexterm>
686 </listitem>
687 </varlistentry>
688
689 <varlistentry id="nice">
690 <term><command>nice</command></term>
691 <listitem>
692 <para>Runs a program with modified scheduling priority</para>
693 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nice">
694 <primary sortas="b-nice">nice</primary>
695 </indexterm>
696 </listitem>
697 </varlistentry>
698
699 <varlistentry id="nl">
700 <term><command>nl</command></term>
701 <listitem>
702 <para>Numbers the lines from the given files</para>
703 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nl">
704 <primary sortas="b-nl">nl</primary>
705 </indexterm>
706 </listitem>
707 </varlistentry>
708
709 <varlistentry id="nohup">
710 <term><command>nohup</command></term>
711 <listitem>
712 <para>Runs a command immune to hangups, with its output redirected to
713 a log file</para>
714 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nohup">
715 <primary sortas="b-nohup">nohup</primary>
716 </indexterm>
717 </listitem>
718 </varlistentry>
719
720 <varlistentry id="nproc">
721 <term><command>nproc</command></term>
722 <listitem>
723 <para>Prints the number of processing units available to a
724 process</para>
725 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nproc">
726 <primary sortas="b-nproc">nproc</primary>
727 </indexterm>
728 </listitem>
729 </varlistentry>
730
731 <varlistentry id="numfmt">
732 <term><command>numfmt</command></term>
733 <listitem>
734 <para>Converts numbers to or from human-readable strings</para>
735 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils numfmt">
736 <primary sortas="b-numfmt">numfmt</primary>
737 </indexterm>
738 </listitem>
739 </varlistentry>
740
741 <varlistentry id="od">
742 <term><command>od</command></term>
743 <listitem>
744 <para>Dumps files in octal and other formats</para>
745 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils od">
746 <primary sortas="b-od">od</primary>
747 </indexterm>
748 </listitem>
749 </varlistentry>
750
751 <varlistentry id="paste">
752 <term><command>paste</command></term>
753 <listitem>
754 <para>Merges the given files, joining sequentially corresponding lines
755 side by side, separated by tab characters</para>
756 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils paste">
757 <primary sortas="b-paste">paste</primary>
758 </indexterm>
759 </listitem>
760 </varlistentry>
761
762 <varlistentry id="pathchk">
763 <term><command>pathchk</command></term>
764 <listitem>
765 <para>Checks if file names are valid or portable</para>
766 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pathchk">
767 <primary sortas="b-pathchk">pathchk</primary>
768 </indexterm>
769 </listitem>
770 </varlistentry>
771
772 <varlistentry id="pinky">
773 <term><command>pinky</command></term>
774 <listitem>
775 <para>Is a lightweight finger client; it reports some information
776 about the given users</para>
777 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pinky">
778 <primary sortas="b-pinky">pinky</primary>
779 </indexterm>
780 </listitem>
781 </varlistentry>
782
783 <varlistentry id="pr">
784 <term><command>pr</command></term>
785 <listitem>
786 <para>Paginates and columnates files for printing</para>
787 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pr">
788 <primary sortas="b-pr">pr</primary>
789 </indexterm>
790 </listitem>
791 </varlistentry>
792
793 <varlistentry id="printenv">
794 <term><command>printenv</command></term>
795 <listitem>
796 <para>Prints the environment</para>
797 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printenv">
798 <primary sortas="b-printenv">printenv</primary>
799 </indexterm>
800 </listitem>
801 </varlistentry>
802
803 <varlistentry id="printf">
804 <term><command>printf</command></term>
805 <listitem>
806 <para>Prints the given arguments according to the given format, much
807 like the C printf function</para>
808 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printf">
809 <primary sortas="b-printf">printf</primary>
810 </indexterm>
811 </listitem>
812 </varlistentry>
813
814 <varlistentry id="ptx">
815 <term><command>ptx</command></term>
816 <listitem>
817 <para>Produces a permuted index from the contents of the given files,
818 with each keyword in its context</para>
819 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ptx">
820 <primary sortas="b-ptx">ptx</primary>
821 </indexterm>
822 </listitem>
823 </varlistentry>
824
825 <varlistentry id="pwd">
826 <term><command>pwd</command></term>
827 <listitem>
828 <para>Reports the name of the current working directory</para>
829 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pwd">
830 <primary sortas="b-pwd">pwd</primary>
831 </indexterm>
832 </listitem>
833 </varlistentry>
834
835 <varlistentry id="readlink">
836 <term><command>readlink</command></term>
837 <listitem>
838 <para>Reports the value of the given symbolic link</para>
839 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils readlink">
840 <primary sortas="b-readlink">readlink</primary>
841 </indexterm>
842 </listitem>
843 </varlistentry>
844
845 <varlistentry id="realpath">
846 <term><command>realpath</command></term>
847 <listitem>
848 <para>Prints the resolved path</para>
849 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils realpath">
850 <primary sortas="b-realpath">realpath</primary>
851 </indexterm>
852 </listitem>
853 </varlistentry>
854
855 <varlistentry id="rm">
856 <term><command>rm</command></term>
857 <listitem>
858 <para>Removes files or directories</para>
859 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rm">
860 <primary sortas="b-rm">rm</primary>
861 </indexterm>
862 </listitem>
863 </varlistentry>
864
865 <varlistentry id="rmdir">
866 <term><command>rmdir</command></term>
867 <listitem>
868 <para>Removes directories if they are empty</para>
869 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rmdir">
870 <primary sortas="b-rmdir">rmdir</primary>
871 </indexterm>
872 </listitem>
873 </varlistentry>
874
875 <varlistentry id="runcon">
876 <term><command>runcon</command></term>
877 <listitem>
878 <para>Runs a command with specified security context</para>
879 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils runcon">
880 <primary sortas="b-runcon">runcon</primary>
881 </indexterm>
882 </listitem>
883 </varlistentry>
884
885 <varlistentry id="seq">
886 <term><command>seq</command></term>
887 <listitem>
888 <para>Prints a sequence of numbers within a given range and with a
889 given increment</para>
890 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils seq">
891 <primary sortas="b-seq">seq</primary>
892 </indexterm>
893 </listitem>
894 </varlistentry>
895
896 <varlistentry id="sha1sum">
897 <term><command>sha1sum</command></term>
898 <listitem>
899 <para>Prints or checks 160-bit Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1)
900 checksums</para>
901 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha1sum">
902 <primary sortas="b-sha1sum">sha1sum</primary>
903 </indexterm>
904 </listitem>
905 </varlistentry>
906
907 <varlistentry id="sha224sum">
908 <term><command>sha224sum</command></term>
909 <listitem>
910 <para>Prints or checks 224-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
911 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha224sum">
912 <primary sortas="b-sha224sum">sha224sum</primary>
913 </indexterm>
914 </listitem>
915 </varlistentry>
916
917 <varlistentry id="sha256sum">
918 <term><command>sha256sum</command></term>
919 <listitem>
920 <para>Prints or checks 256-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
921 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha256sum">
922 <primary sortas="b-sha256sum">sha256sum</primary>
923 </indexterm>
924 </listitem>
925 </varlistentry>
926
927 <varlistentry id="sha384sum">
928 <term><command>sha384sum</command></term>
929 <listitem>
930 <para>Prints or checks 384-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
931 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha384sum">
932 <primary sortas="b-sha384sum">sha384sum</primary>
933 </indexterm>
934 </listitem>
935 </varlistentry>
936
937 <varlistentry id="sha512sum">
938 <term><command>sha512sum</command></term>
939 <listitem>
940 <para>Prints or checks 512-bit Secure Hash Algorithm checksums</para>
941 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha512sum">
942 <primary sortas="b-sha512sum">sha512sum</primary>
943 </indexterm>
944 </listitem>
945 </varlistentry>
946
947 <varlistentry id="shred">
948 <term><command>shred</command></term>
949 <listitem>
950 <para>Overwrites the given files repeatedly with complex patterns,
951 making it difficult to recover the data</para>
952 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shred">
953 <primary sortas="b-shred">shred</primary>
954 </indexterm>
955 </listitem>
956 </varlistentry>
957
958 <varlistentry id="shuf">
959 <term><command>shuf</command></term>
960 <listitem>
961 <para>Shuffles lines of text</para>
962 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shuf">
963 <primary sortas="b-shuf">shuf</primary>
964 </indexterm>
965 </listitem>
966 </varlistentry>
967
968 <varlistentry id="sleep">
969 <term><command>sleep</command></term>
970 <listitem>
971 <para>Pauses for the given amount of time</para>
972 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sleep">
973 <primary sortas="b-sleep">sleep</primary>
974 </indexterm>
975 </listitem>
976 </varlistentry>
977
978 <varlistentry id="sort">
979 <term><command>sort</command></term>
980 <listitem>
981 <para>Sorts the lines from the given files</para>
982 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sort">
983 <primary sortas="b-sort">sort</primary>
984 </indexterm>
985 </listitem>
986 </varlistentry>
987
988 <varlistentry id="split">
989 <term><command>split</command></term>
990 <listitem>
991 <para>Splits the given file into pieces, by size or by number of
992 lines</para>
993 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils split">
994 <primary sortas="b-split">split</primary>
995 </indexterm>
996 </listitem>
997 </varlistentry>
998
999 <varlistentry id="stat">
1000 <term><command>stat</command></term>
1001 <listitem>
1002 <para>Displays file or filesystem status</para>
1003 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stat">
1004 <primary sortas="b-stat">stat</primary>
1005 </indexterm>
1006 </listitem>
1007 </varlistentry>
1008
1009 <varlistentry id="stdbuf">
1010 <term><command>stdbuf</command></term>
1011 <listitem>
1012 <para>Runs commands with altered buffering operations for its standard
1013 streams</para>
1014 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stdbuf">
1015 <primary sortas="b-stdbuf">stdbuf</primary>
1016 </indexterm>
1017 </listitem>
1018 </varlistentry>
1019
1020 <varlistentry id="stty">
1021 <term><command>stty</command></term>
1022 <listitem>
1023 <para>Sets or reports terminal line settings</para>
1024 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stty">
1025 <primary sortas="b-stty">stty</primary>
1026 </indexterm>
1027 </listitem>
1028 </varlistentry>
1029
1030 <varlistentry id="sum">
1031 <term><command>sum</command></term>
1032 <listitem>
1033 <para>Prints checksum and block counts for each given file</para>
1034 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sum">
1035 <primary sortas="b-sum">sum</primary>
1036 </indexterm>
1037 </listitem>
1038 </varlistentry>
1039
1040 <varlistentry id="sync">
1041 <term><command>sync</command></term>
1042 <listitem>
1043 <para>Flushes file system buffers; it forces changed blocks to disk
1044 and updates the super block</para>
1045 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sync">
1046 <primary sortas="b-sync">sync</primary>
1047 </indexterm>
1048 </listitem>
1049 </varlistentry>
1050
1051 <varlistentry id="tac">
1052 <term><command>tac</command></term>
1053 <listitem>
1054 <para>Concatenates the given files in reverse</para>
1055 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tac">
1056 <primary sortas="b-tac">tac</primary>
1057 </indexterm>
1058 </listitem>
1059 </varlistentry>
1060
1061 <varlistentry id="tail">
1062 <term><command>tail</command></term>
1063 <listitem>
1064 <para>Prints the last ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each
1065 given file</para>
1066 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tail">
1067 <primary sortas="b-tail">tail</primary>
1068 </indexterm>
1069 </listitem>
1070 </varlistentry>
1071
1072 <varlistentry id="tee">
1073 <term><command>tee</command></term>
1074 <listitem>
1075 <para>Reads from standard input while writing both to standard output
1076 and to the given files</para>
1077 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tee">
1078 <primary sortas="b-tee">tee</primary>
1079 </indexterm>
1080 </listitem>
1081 </varlistentry>
1082
1083 <varlistentry id="test">
1084 <term><command>test</command></term>
1085 <listitem>
1086 <para>Compares values and checks file types</para>
1087 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils test">
1088 <primary sortas="b-test">test</primary>
1089 </indexterm>
1090 </listitem>
1091 </varlistentry>
1092
1093 <varlistentry id="timeout">
1094 <term><command>timeout</command></term>
1095 <listitem>
1096 <para>Runs a command with a time limit</para>
1097 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils timeout">
1098 <primary sortas="b-timeout">timeout</primary>
1099 </indexterm>
1100 </listitem>
1101 </varlistentry>
1102
1103 <varlistentry id="touch">
1104 <term><command>touch</command></term>
1105 <listitem>
1106 <para>Changes file timestamps, setting the access and modification
1107 times of the given files to the current time; files that do not exist
1108 are created with zero length</para>
1109 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils touch">
1110 <primary sortas="b-touch">touch</primary>
1111 </indexterm>
1112 </listitem>
1113 </varlistentry>
1114
1115 <varlistentry id="tr">
1116 <term><command>tr</command></term>
1117 <listitem>
1118 <para>Translates, squeezes, and deletes the given characters from
1119 standard input</para>
1120 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tr">
1121 <primary sortas="b-tr">tr</primary>
1122 </indexterm>
1123 </listitem>
1124 </varlistentry>
1125
1126 <varlistentry id="true">
1127 <term><command>true</command></term>
1128 <listitem>
1129 <para>Does nothing, successfully; it always exits with a status code
1130 indicating success</para>
1131 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils true">
1132 <primary sortas="b-true">true</primary>
1133 </indexterm>
1134 </listitem>
1135 </varlistentry>
1136
1137 <varlistentry id="truncate">
1138 <term><command>truncate</command></term>
1139 <listitem>
1140 <para>Shrinks or expands a file to the specified size</para>
1141 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils truncate">
1142 <primary sortas="b-truncate">truncate</primary>
1143 </indexterm>
1144 </listitem>
1145 </varlistentry>
1146
1147 <varlistentry id="tsort">
1148 <term><command>tsort</command></term>
1149 <listitem>
1150 <para>Performs a topological sort; it writes a completely ordered list
1151 according to the partial ordering in a given file</para>
1152 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tsort">
1153 <primary sortas="b-tsort">tsort</primary>
1154 </indexterm>
1155 </listitem>
1156 </varlistentry>
1157
1158 <varlistentry id="tty">
1159 <term><command>tty</command></term>
1160 <listitem>
1161 <para>Reports the file name of the terminal connected to standard
1162 input</para>
1163 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tty">
1164 <primary sortas="b-tty">tty</primary>
1165 </indexterm>
1166 </listitem>
1167 </varlistentry>
1168
1169 <varlistentry id="uname">
1170 <term><command>uname</command></term>
1171 <listitem>
1172 <para>Reports system information</para>
1173 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uname">
1174 <primary sortas="b-uname">uname</primary>
1175 </indexterm>
1176 </listitem>
1177 </varlistentry>
1178
1179 <varlistentry id="unexpand">
1180 <term><command>unexpand</command></term>
1181 <listitem>
1182 <para>Converts spaces to tabs</para>
1183 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unexpand">
1184 <primary sortas="b-unexpand">unexpand</primary>
1185 </indexterm>
1186 </listitem>
1187 </varlistentry>
1188
1189 <varlistentry id="uniq">
1190 <term><command>uniq</command></term>
1191 <listitem>
1192 <para>Discards all but one of successive identical lines</para>
1193 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uniq">
1194 <primary sortas="b-uniq">uniq</primary>
1195 </indexterm>
1196 </listitem>
1197 </varlistentry>
1198
1199 <varlistentry id="unlink">
1200 <term><command>unlink</command></term>
1201 <listitem>
1202 <para>Removes the given file</para>
1203 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unlink">
1204 <primary sortas="b-unlink">unlink</primary>
1205 </indexterm>
1206 </listitem>
1207 </varlistentry>
1208
1209 <varlistentry id="users">
1210 <term><command>users</command></term>
1211 <listitem>
1212 <para>Reports the names of the users currently logged on</para>
1213 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils users">
1214 <primary sortas="b-users">users</primary>
1215 </indexterm>
1216 </listitem>
1217 </varlistentry>
1218
1219 <varlistentry id="vdir">
1220 <term><command>vdir</command></term>
1221 <listitem>
1222 <para>Is the same as <command>ls -l</command></para>
1223 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils vdir">
1224 <primary sortas="b-vdir">vdir</primary>
1225 </indexterm>
1226 </listitem>
1227 </varlistentry>
1228
1229 <varlistentry id="wc">
1230 <term><command>wc</command></term>
1231 <listitem>
1232 <para>Reports the number of lines, words, and bytes for each given
1233 file, as well as a total line when more than one file is given</para>
1234 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils wc">
1235 <primary sortas="b-wc">wc</primary>
1236 </indexterm>
1237 </listitem>
1238 </varlistentry>
1239
1240 <varlistentry id="who">
1241 <term><command>who</command></term>
1242 <listitem>
1243 <para>Reports who is logged on</para>
1244 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils who">
1245 <primary sortas="b-who">who</primary>
1246 </indexterm>
1247 </listitem>
1248 </varlistentry>
1249
1250 <varlistentry id="whoami">
1251 <term><command>whoami</command></term>
1252 <listitem>
1253 <para>Reports the user name associated with the current effective
1254 user ID</para>
1255 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils whoami">
1256 <primary sortas="b-whoami">whoami</primary>
1257 </indexterm>
1258 </listitem>
1259 </varlistentry>
1260
1261 <varlistentry id="yes">
1262 <term><command>yes</command></term>
1263 <listitem>
1264 <para>Repeatedly outputs <quote>y</quote> or a given string until
1265 killed</para>
1266 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils yes">
1267 <primary sortas="b-yes">yes</primary>
1268 </indexterm>
1269 </listitem>
1270 </varlistentry>
1271
1272 <varlistentry id="libstdbuf">
1273 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libstdbuf</filename></term>
1274 <listitem>
1275 <para>Library used by <command>stdbuf</command></para>
1276 <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils libstdbuf">
1277 <primary sortas="c-libstdbuf">libstdbuf</primary>
1278 </indexterm>
1279 </listitem>
1280 </varlistentry>
1281
1282 </variablelist>
1283
1284 </sect2>
1285
1286</sect1>
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