source: chapter08/glibc.xml@ 3de7f52

ml-11.0 multilib
Last change on this file since 3de7f52 was 3de7f52, checked in by Thomas Trepl (Moody) <thomas@…>, 7 months ago

Fix some pathes in glibc

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File size: 40.5 KB
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-glibc" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="glibc.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>glibc</productname>
13 <productnumber>&glibc-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&glibc-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Glibc-&glibc-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc">
20 <primary sortas="a-Glibc">Glibc</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Glibc package contains the main C library. This library provides
27 the basic routines for allocating memory, searching directories, opening and
28 closing files, reading and writing files, string handling, pattern matching,
29 arithmetic, and so on.</para>
30
31 <segmentedlist>
32 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
33 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
34
35 <seglistitem>
36 <seg>&glibc-fin-sbu;</seg>
37 <seg>&glibc-fin-du;</seg>
38 </seglistitem>
39 </segmentedlist>
40
41 </sect2>
42
43 <sect2 role="installation">
44 <title>Installation of Glibc</title>
45
46 <para>Some of the Glibc programs use the non-FHS compliant
47 <filename class="directory">/var/db</filename> directory to store
48 their runtime data. Apply the following patch to make such programs
49 store their runtime data in the FHS-compliant locations:</para>
50
51<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&glibc-fhs-patch;</userinput></screen>
52
53 <para>Fix a bug that causes issues with chrooted applications:</para>
54
55 <screen><userinput remap="pre">sed -e '402a\ *result = local->data.services[database_index];' \
56 -i nss/nss_database.c</userinput></screen>
57
58 <para>Fix a build issue with gcc-11.1:</para>
59
60<screen><userinput remap="pre">sed 's/amx_/amx-/' -i sysdeps/x86/tst-cpu-features-supports.c</userinput></screen>
61
62 <para>The Glibc documentation recommends building Glibc
63 in a dedicated build directory:</para>
64
65<screen><userinput remap="pre">mkdir -v build
66cd build</userinput></screen>
67
68 <para>Prepare Glibc for compilation:</para>
69
70<screen arch="default"><userinput remap="configure">../configure --prefix=/usr \
71 --disable-werror \
72 --enable-kernel=&min-kernel; \
73 --enable-stack-protector=strong \
74 --with-headers=/usr/include \
75 libc_cv_slibdir=/usr/lib</userinput></screen>
76<screen arch="ml_32,ml_x32,ml_all"><userinput remap="configure">../configure --prefix=/usr \
77 --disable-werror \
78 --enable-kernel=&min-kernel; \
79 --enable-stack-protector=strong \
80 --with-headers=/usr/include \
81 --enable-multi-arch \
82 libc_cv_slibdir=/usr/lib</userinput></screen>
83
84 <variablelist>
85 <title>The meaning of the configure options:</title>
86
87 <varlistentry>
88 <term><parameter>--disable-werror</parameter></term>
89 <listitem>
90 <para>This option disables the -Werror option passed to
91 GCC. This is necessary for running the test suite.</para>
92 </listitem>
93 </varlistentry>
94
95 <varlistentry>
96 <term><parameter>--enable-kernel=&min-kernel;</parameter></term>
97 <listitem>
98 <para>This option tells the build system that this glibc may
99 be used with kernels as old as &min-kernel;. This means generating
100 workarounds in case a system call introduced in a later version
101 cannot be used.</para>
102 </listitem>
103 </varlistentry>
104
105 <varlistentry>
106 <term><parameter>--enable-stack-protector=strong</parameter></term>
107 <listitem>
108 <para>This option increases system security by adding
109 extra code to check for buffer overflows, such as stack
110 smashing attacks.</para>
111 </listitem>
112 </varlistentry>
113<!-- do we need this one? -->
114 <varlistentry>
115 <term><parameter>--with-headers=/usr/include</parameter></term>
116 <listitem>
117 <para>This option tells the build system where to find the
118 kernel API headers.</para>
119 </listitem>
120 </varlistentry>
121
122 <varlistentry>
123 <term><parameter>libc_cv_slibdir=/usr/lib</parameter></term>
124 <listitem>
125 <para>This variable sets the correct library for all
126 systems. We do not want lib64 to be used.</para>
127 </listitem>
128 </varlistentry>
129
130 <varlistentry>
131 <term><option>libc_cv_include_x86_isa_level=no</option></term>
132 <listitem>
133 <para>This disables <quote>x86 ISA needed</quote> property in
134 Glibc libraries. Use it <emphasis role="bold">if</emphasis>
135 you are building Glibc with <option>-march</option> option in
136 <envar>CFLAGS</envar>, to workaround an issue in Glibc-2.33
137 breaking it.</para>
138 </listitem>
139 </varlistentry>
140
141 </variablelist>
142
143 <para>Compile the package:</para>
144
145<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
146
147 <important>
148 <para>In this section, the test suite for Glibc is considered critical.
149 Do not skip it under any circumstance.</para>
150 </important>
151
152 <para>Generally a few tests do not pass. The test failures listed below
153 are usually safe to ignore.</para>
154
155<!-- Use remap="make" here to work around a jhalfs issue. -->
156<!--<screen><userinput remap="make">case $(uname -m) in
157 i?86) ln -sfnv $PWD/elf/ld-linux.so.2 /lib ;;
158 x86_64) ln -sfnv $PWD/elf/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 /lib ;;
159esac</userinput></screen>
160
161 <note><para>The symbolic link above is needed to run the tests at this
162 stage of building in the chroot environment. It will be overwritten
163 in the install phase below.</para></note>
164-->
165<screen><userinput remap="test">make check</userinput></screen>
166
167 <para>You may see some test failures. The Glibc test suite is
168 somewhat dependent on the host system. This is a list of the most common
169 issues seen for some versions of LFS:</para>
170
171 <itemizedlist>
172
173 <listitem>
174 <para><emphasis>io/tst-lchmod</emphasis>
175 is known to fail in the LFS chroot environment.</para>
176 </listitem>
177
178 <listitem>
179 <para><emphasis>misc/tst-ttyname</emphasis>
180 is known to fail in the LFS chroot environment.</para>
181 </listitem>
182
183 <listitem>
184 <para><emphasis>elf/tst-cpu-features-cpuinfo</emphasis>
185 may fail on some architectures.</para>
186 </listitem>
187
188 <listitem>
189 <para>The <emphasis>nss/tst-nss-files-hosts-multi</emphasis>
190 test may fail for reasons that have not been determined.</para>
191 </listitem>
192
193 <listitem>
194 <para>The <emphasis>rt/tst-cputimer{1,2,3}</emphasis> tests depend on
195 the host system kernel. Kernels 4.14.91&ndash;4.14.96,
196 4.19.13&ndash;4.19.18, and 4.20.0&ndash;4.20.5 are known to
197 cause these tests to fail.
198 </para>
199 </listitem>
200
201 <listitem>
202 <para>The math tests sometimes fail when running on
203 systems where the CPU is not a relatively new Intel or
204 AMD processor.</para>
205 </listitem>
206
207 </itemizedlist>
208
209 <para>Though it is a harmless message, the install stage of Glibc will
210 complain about the absence of <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename>.
211 Prevent this warning with:</para>
212
213<screen><userinput remap="install">touch /etc/ld.so.conf</userinput></screen>
214
215 <para>Fix the generated Makefile to skip an unneeded sanity check
216 that fails in the LFS partial environment:
217 </para>
218
219<screen><userinput remap="install">sed '/test-installation/s@$(PERL)@echo not running@' -i ../Makefile</userinput></screen>
220
221 <para>Install the package:</para>
222
223<screen><userinput remap="install">make install</userinput></screen>
224
225 <para>Install the configuration file and runtime directory for
226 <command>nscd</command>:</para>
227
228<screen><userinput remap="install">cp -v ../nscd/nscd.conf /etc/nscd.conf
229mkdir -pv /var/cache/nscd</userinput></screen>
230
231 <para revision="systemd">Install the systemd support files for
232 <command>nscd</command>:</para>
233
234 <screen revision="systemd"><userinput remap="install">install -v -Dm644 ../nscd/nscd.tmpfiles /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/nscd.conf
235install -v -Dm644 ../nscd/nscd.service /usr/lib/systemd/system/nscd.service</userinput></screen>
236
237 <para>Next, install the locales that can make the system respond in a
238 different language. None of the locales are required, but if some of them
239 are missing, the test suites of future packages would skip important
240 testcases.</para>
241
242 <para>Individual locales can be installed using the
243 <command>localedef</command> program. E.g., the first
244 <command>localedef</command> command below combines the
245 <filename>/usr/share/i18n/locales/cs_CZ</filename>
246 charset-independent locale definition with the
247 <filename>/usr/share/i18n/charmaps/UTF-8.gz</filename>
248 charmap definition and appends the result to the
249 <filename>/usr/lib/locale/locale-archive</filename> file.
250 The following instructions will install the minimum set of
251 locales necessary for the optimal coverage of tests:</para>
252
253<screen role="nodump"><userinput remap="locale-test">mkdir -pv /usr/lib/locale
254localedef -i POSIX -f UTF-8 C.UTF-8 2> /dev/null || true
255localedef -i cs_CZ -f UTF-8 cs_CZ.UTF-8
256localedef -i de_DE -f ISO-8859-1 de_DE
257localedef -i de_DE@euro -f ISO-8859-15 de_DE@euro
258localedef -i de_DE -f UTF-8 de_DE.UTF-8
259localedef -i el_GR -f ISO-8859-7 el_GR
260localedef -i en_GB -f UTF-8 en_GB.UTF-8
261localedef -i en_HK -f ISO-8859-1 en_HK
262localedef -i en_PH -f ISO-8859-1 en_PH
263localedef -i en_US -f ISO-8859-1 en_US
264localedef -i en_US -f UTF-8 en_US.UTF-8
265localedef -i es_MX -f ISO-8859-1 es_MX
266localedef -i fa_IR -f UTF-8 fa_IR
267localedef -i fr_FR -f ISO-8859-1 fr_FR
268localedef -i fr_FR@euro -f ISO-8859-15 fr_FR@euro
269localedef -i fr_FR -f UTF-8 fr_FR.UTF-8
270localedef -i it_IT -f ISO-8859-1 it_IT
271localedef -i it_IT -f UTF-8 it_IT.UTF-8
272localedef -i ja_JP -f EUC-JP ja_JP
273localedef -i ja_JP -f SHIFT_JIS ja_JP.SIJS 2> /dev/null || true
274localedef -i ja_JP -f UTF-8 ja_JP.UTF-8
275localedef -i ru_RU -f KOI8-R ru_RU.KOI8-R
276localedef -i ru_RU -f UTF-8 ru_RU.UTF-8
277localedef -i tr_TR -f UTF-8 tr_TR.UTF-8
278localedef -i zh_CN -f GB18030 zh_CN.GB18030
279localedef -i zh_HK -f BIG5-HKSCS zh_HK.BIG5-HKSCS</userinput></screen>
280
281 <para>In addition, install the locale for your own country, language and
282 character set.</para>
283
284 <para>Alternatively, install all locales listed in the
285 <filename>glibc-&glibc-version;/localedata/SUPPORTED</filename> file
286 (it includes every locale listed above and many more) at once with the
287 following time-consuming command:</para>
288
289<screen><userinput remap="locale-full">make localedata/install-locales</userinput></screen>
290
291 <para>Then use the <command>localedef</command> command to create and
292 install locales not listed in the
293 <filename>glibc-&glibc-version;/localedata/SUPPORTED</filename> file
294 when you need them. For instance, the following two locales are
295 needed for some tests later in this chapter:</para>
296
297<screen role="nodump"><userinput remap="locale-full">localedef -i POSIX -f UTF-8 C.UTF-8 2> /dev/null || true
298localedef -i ja_JP -f SHIFT_JIS ja_JP.SIJS 2> /dev/null || true</userinput></screen>
299
300 <note><para>Glibc now uses libidn2 when resolving internationalized
301 domain names. This is a run time dependency. If this capability
302 is needed, the instructions for installing libidn2 are in the
303 <ulink url="&blfs-book;general/libidn2.html">BLFS libidn2 page</ulink>.
304 </para></note>
305
306 </sect2>
307
308 <sect2 id="conf-glibc" role="configuration">
309 <title>Configuring Glibc</title>
310
311 <indexterm zone="conf-glibc">
312 <primary sortas="e-/etc/nsswitch.conf">/etc/nsswitch.conf</primary>
313 </indexterm>
314
315 <indexterm zone="conf-glibc">
316 <primary sortas="e-/etc/localtime">/etc/localtime</primary>
317 </indexterm>
318
319 <sect3>
320 <title>Adding nsswitch.conf</title>
321
322 <para>The <filename>/etc/nsswitch.conf</filename> file needs to be created
323 because the Glibc defaults do not work well in a networked environment.
324 </para>
325
326 <para>Create a new file <filename>/etc/nsswitch.conf</filename> by running the
327 following:</para>
328
329<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/nsswitch.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
330<literal># Begin /etc/nsswitch.conf
331
332passwd: files
333group: files
334shadow: files
335
336hosts: files dns
337networks: files
338
339protocols: files
340services: files
341ethers: files
342rpc: files
343
344# End /etc/nsswitch.conf</literal>
345EOF</userinput></screen>
346
347 </sect3>
348
349 <sect3>
350 <title>Adding time zone data</title>
351
352 <para>Install and set up the time zone data with the following:</para>
353<screen><userinput>tar -xf ../../tzdata&tzdata-version;.tar.gz
354
355ZONEINFO=/usr/share/zoneinfo
356mkdir -pv $ZONEINFO/{posix,right}
357
358for tz in etcetera southamerica northamerica europe africa antarctica \
359 asia australasia backward; do
360 zic -L /dev/null -d $ZONEINFO ${tz}
361 zic -L /dev/null -d $ZONEINFO/posix ${tz}
362 zic -L leapseconds -d $ZONEINFO/right ${tz}
363done
364
365cp -v zone.tab zone1970.tab iso3166.tab $ZONEINFO
366zic -d $ZONEINFO -p America/New_York
367unset ZONEINFO</userinput></screen>
368
369 <variablelist>
370 <title>The meaning of the zic commands:</title>
371
372 <varlistentry>
373 <term><parameter>zic -L /dev/null ...</parameter></term>
374 <listitem>
375 <para>This creates posix time zones without any leap seconds. It is
376 conventional to put these in both
377 <filename class="directory">zoneinfo</filename> and
378 <filename class="directory">zoneinfo/posix</filename>. It is
379 necessary to put the POSIX time zones in
380 <filename class="directory">zoneinfo</filename>, otherwise various
381 test-suites will report errors. On an embedded system, where space is
382 tight and you do not intend to ever update the time zones, you could save
383 1.9 MB by not using the <filename class="directory">posix</filename>
384 directory, but some applications or test-suites might produce some
385 failures.</para>
386 </listitem>
387 </varlistentry>
388 <varlistentry>
389 <term><parameter>zic -L leapseconds ...</parameter></term>
390 <listitem>
391 <para>This creates right time zones, including leap seconds. On an
392 embedded system, where space is tight and you do not intend to
393 ever update the time zones, or care about the correct time, you could
394 save 1.9MB by omitting the <filename class="directory">right</filename>
395 directory.</para>
396 </listitem>
397 </varlistentry>
398 <varlistentry>
399 <term><parameter>zic ... -p ...</parameter></term>
400 <listitem>
401 <para>This creates the <filename>posixrules</filename> file. We use
402 New York because POSIX requires the daylight savings time rules
403 to be in accordance with US rules.</para>
404 </listitem>
405 </varlistentry>
406 </variablelist>
407
408
409 <para>One way to determine the local time zone is to run the following
410 script:</para>
411
412<screen role="nodump"><userinput>tzselect</userinput></screen>
413
414 <para>After answering a few questions about the location, the script will
415 output the name of the time zone (e.g.,
416 <emphasis>America/Edmonton</emphasis>). There are also some other possible
417 time zones listed in <filename
418 class='directory'>/usr/share/zoneinfo</filename> such as
419 <emphasis>Canada/Eastern</emphasis> or <emphasis>EST5EDT</emphasis> that
420 are not identified by the script but can be used.</para>
421
422 <para>Then create the <filename>/etc/localtime</filename> file by
423 running:</para>
424
425<screen><userinput>ln -sfv /usr/share/zoneinfo/<replaceable>&lt;xxx&gt;</replaceable> /etc/localtime</userinput></screen>
426
427 <para>Replace <replaceable>&lt;xxx&gt;</replaceable> with the name of the
428 time zone selected (e.g., Canada/Eastern).</para>
429
430 </sect3>
431
432 <sect3 id="conf-ld" role="configuration">
433 <title>Configuring the Dynamic Loader</title>
434
435 <indexterm zone="conf-ld">
436 <primary sortas="e-/etc/ld.so.conf">/etc/ld.so.conf</primary>
437 </indexterm>
438
439 <para>By default, the dynamic loader (<filename
440 class="libraryfile">/lib/ld-linux.so.2</filename>) searches through
441 <filename class="directory">/lib</filename> and <filename
442 class="directory">/usr/lib</filename> for dynamic libraries that are
443 needed by programs as they are run. However, if there are libraries in
444 directories other than <filename class="directory">/lib</filename> and
445 <filename class="directory">/usr/lib</filename>, these need to be added
446 to the <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename> file in order for the
447 dynamic loader to find them. Two directories that are commonly known
448 to contain additional libraries are <filename
449 class="directory">/usr/local/lib</filename> and <filename
450 class="directory">/opt/lib</filename>, so add those directories to the
451 dynamic loader's search path.</para>
452
453 <para>Create a new file <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename> by running the
454 following:</para>
455
456<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/ld.so.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
457<literal># Begin /etc/ld.so.conf
458/usr/local/lib
459/opt/lib
460</literal>
461EOF</userinput></screen>
462
463 <para>If desired, the dynamic loader can also search a directory and
464 include the contents of files found there. Generally the files in
465 this include directory are one line specifying the desired library path.
466 To add this capability run the following commands:</para>
467
468<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt;&gt; /etc/ld.so.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
469<literal># Add an include directory
470include /etc/ld.so.conf.d/*.conf
471</literal>
472EOF
473mkdir -pv /etc/ld.so.conf.d</userinput></screen>
474
475 </sect3>
476 </sect2>
477
478 <!-- - - - - - - - - - -->
479 <!-- Multilib - 32bit -->
480 <!-- - - - - - - - - - -->
481 <sect2 arch="ml_32,ml_all">
482 <title>Building Glibc - 32bit</title>
483
484 <para>Now recompile for m32. The extracted source can be
485 reused but needs to cleaned before installing the m32
486 version of Glibc.</para>
487
488 <para>Clear the build directory and remove artefacts from
489 previous build:</para>
490
491<screen><userinput remap="pre">rm -rf ./*
492find .. -name "*.a" -delete</userinput></screen>
493
494 <para>Configure Glibc for m32 with the following commands:</para>
495
496<screen><userinput remap="configure">CC="gcc -m32" CXX="g++ -m32" \
497../configure \
498 --prefix=/usr \
499 --host=i686-pc-linux-gnu \
500 --build=$(../scripts/config.guess) \
501 --enable-kernel=&min-kernel; \
502 --with-headers=/usr/include \
503 --enable-multi-arch \
504 --libdir=&usr-lib-m32; \
505 --libexecdir=&usr-lib-m32; \
506 libc_cv_slibdir=&usr-lib-m32;</userinput></screen>
507
508 <para>Compile the package:</para>
509
510<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
511
512 <para>Install the package:</para>
513
514<screen><userinput remap="install">make DESTDIR=$PWD/DESTDIR install
515cp -a DESTDIR&usr-lib-m32;/* &usr-lib-m32;/
516install -vm644 DESTDIR/usr/include/gnu/{lib-names,stubs}-32.h \
517 /usr/include/gnu/
518ln -svf ..&lib-m32;/ld-linux.so.2 /lib/ld-linux.so.2</userinput></screen>
519
520 <para>Add the library name to the dynamic loader config:</para>
521
522<screen role="install"><userinput>echo "&usr-lib-m32;" &gt;&gt; /etc/ld.so.conf</userinput></screen>
523
524 <caution>
525 <para>At this point, it is imperative to stop and ensure that the basic
526 functions (compiling and linking) of the new toolchain are working as
527 expected. To perform a sanity check, run the following commands:</para>
528
529<screen><userinput>echo 'int main(){}' &gt; dummy.c
530gcc -m32 dummy.c
531readelf -l a.out | grep '/ld-linux'</userinput></screen>
532
533 <para>If everything is working correctly, there should be no errors,
534 and the output of the last command will be of the form:</para>
535
536<screen><computeroutput>[Requesting program interpreter: /lib/ld-linux.so.2]</computeroutput></screen>
537
538 <para>If the output is not shown as above or there was no output at all,
539 then something is wrong. Investigate and retrace the steps to find out
540 where the problem is and correct it. This issue must be resolved before
541 continuing on.</para>
542
543 <para>Once all is well, clean up the test files:</para>
544
545<screen><userinput>rm -v dummy.c a.out</userinput></screen>
546
547 </caution>
548
549 </sect2><!-- m32 -->
550
551 <!-- - - - - - - - - - -->
552 <!-- Multilib - x32bit -->
553 <!-- - - - - - - - - - -->
554
555 <sect2 arch="ml_x32,ml_all">
556 <title>Building Glibc - x32bit</title>
557
558 <para>Now recompile for mx32. The extracted source can be
559 reused but needs to cleaned before installing the mx32
560 version of Glibc.</para>
561
562 <para>Clear the build directory and remove artefacts from
563 previous build:</para>
564
565<screen><userinput remap="pre">rm -rf ./*
566find .. -name "*.a" -delete</userinput></screen>
567
568 <para>Configure Glibc for mx32 with the following commands:</para>
569
570<screen><userinput remap="configure">CC="gcc -mx32" CXX="g++ -mx32" \
571../configure \
572 --prefix=/usr \
573 --host=x86_64-pc-linux-gnux32 \
574 --build=$(../scripts/config.guess) \
575 --enable-kernel=&min-kernel; \
576 --with-headers=$LFS/usr/include \
577 --enable-multi-arch \
578 --libdir=&usr-lib-mx32; \
579 --libexecdir=&usr-lib-mx32; \
580 libc_cv_slibdir=&usr-lib-mx32;</userinput></screen>
581
582 <para>Compile the package:</para>
583
584<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
585
586 <para>Install the package:</para>
587
588<screen><userinput remap="install">make DESTDIR=$PWD/DESTDIR install
589cp -a DESTDIR&usr-lib-mx32;/* &usr-lib-mx32;/
590install -vm644 DESTDIR/usr/include/gnu/{lib-names,stubs}-x32.h \
591 /usr/include/gnu/
592ln -svf ..&lib-mx32;/ld-linux-x32.so.2 /lib/ld-linux-x32.so.2</userinput></screen>
593
594 <para>Add the library name to the dynamic loader config:</para>
595
596<screen role="install"><userinput>echo "&usr-lib-mx32;" &gt;&gt; /etc/ld.so.conf</userinput></screen>
597
598 <caution>
599 <para>At this point, it is imperative to stop and ensure that the basic
600 functions (compiling and linking) of the new toolchain are working as
601 expected. To perform a sanity check, run the following commands:</para>
602
603<screen><userinput>echo 'int main(){}' &gt; dummy.c
604gcc -mx32 dummy.c
605readelf -l a.out | grep '/ld-linux-x32'</userinput></screen>
606
607 <para>If everything is working correctly, there should be no errors,
608 and the output of the last command will be of the form:</para>
609
610<screen><computeroutput>[Requesting program interpreter: /libx32/ld-linux-x32.so.2]</computeroutput></screen>
611
612 <para>If the output is not shown as above or there was no output at all,
613 then something is wrong. Investigate and retrace the steps to find out
614 where the problem is and correct it. This issue must be resolved before
615 continuing on.</para>
616
617 <para>Once all is well, clean up the test files:</para>
618
619<screen><userinput>rm -v dummy.c a.out</userinput></screen>
620
621 </caution>
622
623 </sect2><!-- mx32 -->
624
625 <sect2 id="contents-glibc" role="content">
626 <title>Contents of Glibc</title>
627
628 <segmentedlist>
629 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
630 <segtitle>Installed libraries</segtitle>
631 <segtitle>Installed directories</segtitle>
632
633 <seglistitem>
634 <seg>catchsegv, gencat, getconf, getent, iconv, iconvconfig, ldconfig,
635 ldd, lddlibc4, locale, localedef, makedb, mtrace, nscd,
636 pcprofiledump, pldd, sln, sotruss, sprof, tzselect, xtrace,
637 zdump, and zic</seg>
638 <seg>ld-&glibc-version;.so, libBrokenLocale.{a,so}, libSegFault.so, libanl.{a,so},
639 libc.{a,so}, libc_nonshared.a,
640 libcrypt.{a,so}, libdl.{a,so}, libg.a, libm.{a,so},
641 libmcheck.a, libmemusage.so, libmvec.{a,so}, libnsl.{a,so},
642 libnss_compat.so, libnss_dns.so, libnss_files.so, libnss_hesiod.so,
643 libpcprofile.so, libpthread.{a,so},
644 libpthread_nonshared.a, libresolv.{a,so}, librt.{a,so},
645 libthread_db.so, and libutil.{a,so}</seg>
646 <seg>/usr/include/arpa, /usr/include/bits, /usr/include/gnu,
647 /usr/include/net, /usr/include/netash, /usr/include/netatalk,
648 /usr/include/netax25, /usr/include/neteconet, /usr/include/netinet,
649 /usr/include/netipx, /usr/include/netiucv, /usr/include/netpacket,
650 /usr/include/netrom, /usr/include/netrose, /usr/include/nfs,
651 /usr/include/protocols, /usr/include/rpc,
652 /usr/include/sys, /usr/lib/audit, /usr/lib/gconv, /usr/lib/locale,
653 /usr/libexec/getconf, /usr/share/i18n, /usr/share/zoneinfo,
654 /var/cache/nscd, and /var/lib/nss_db</seg>
655 </seglistitem>
656 </segmentedlist>
657
658 <variablelist>
659 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
660 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
661 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
662
663 <varlistentry id="catchsegv">
664 <term><command>catchsegv</command></term>
665 <listitem>
666 <para>Can be used to create a stack trace when a program
667 terminates with a segmentation fault</para>
668 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc catchsegv">
669 <primary sortas="b-catchsegv">catchsegv</primary>
670 </indexterm>
671 </listitem>
672 </varlistentry>
673
674 <varlistentry id="gencat">
675 <term><command>gencat</command></term>
676 <listitem>
677 <para>Generates message catalogues</para>
678 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc gencat">
679 <primary sortas="b-gencat">gencat</primary>
680 </indexterm>
681 </listitem>
682 </varlistentry>
683
684 <varlistentry id="getconf">
685 <term><command>getconf</command></term>
686 <listitem>
687 <para>Displays the system configuration values for file system
688 specific variables</para>
689 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc getconf">
690 <primary sortas="b-getconf">getconf</primary>
691 </indexterm>
692 </listitem>
693 </varlistentry>
694
695 <varlistentry id="getent">
696 <term><command>getent</command></term>
697 <listitem>
698 <para>Gets entries from an administrative database</para>
699 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc getent">
700 <primary sortas="b-getent">getent</primary>
701 </indexterm>
702 </listitem>
703 </varlistentry>
704
705 <varlistentry id="iconv">
706 <term><command>iconv</command></term>
707 <listitem>
708 <para>Performs character set conversion</para>
709 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc iconv">
710 <primary sortas="b-iconv">iconv</primary>
711 </indexterm>
712 </listitem>
713 </varlistentry>
714
715 <varlistentry id="iconvconfig">
716 <term><command>iconvconfig</command></term>
717 <listitem>
718 <para>Creates fastloading <command>iconv</command> module configuration
719 files</para>
720 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc iconvconfig">
721 <primary sortas="b-iconvconfig">iconvconfig</primary>
722 </indexterm>
723 </listitem>
724 </varlistentry>
725
726 <varlistentry id="ldconfig">
727 <term><command>ldconfig</command></term>
728 <listitem>
729 <para>Configures the dynamic linker runtime bindings</para>
730 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ldconfig">
731 <primary sortas="b-ldconfig">ldconfig</primary>
732 </indexterm>
733 </listitem>
734 </varlistentry>
735
736 <varlistentry id="ldd">
737 <term><command>ldd</command></term>
738 <listitem>
739 <para>Reports which shared libraries are required
740 by each given program or shared library</para>
741 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ldd">
742 <primary sortas="b-ldd">ldd</primary>
743 </indexterm>
744 </listitem>
745 </varlistentry>
746
747 <varlistentry id="lddlibc4">
748 <term><command>lddlibc4</command></term>
749 <listitem>
750 <para>Assists <command>ldd</command> with object files</para>
751 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc lddlibc4">
752 <primary sortas="b-lddlibc4">lddlibc4</primary>
753 </indexterm>
754 </listitem>
755 </varlistentry>
756
757 <varlistentry id="locale">
758 <term><command>locale</command></term>
759 <listitem>
760 <para>Prints various information about the current locale</para>
761 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc locale">
762 <primary sortas="b-locale">locale</primary>
763 </indexterm>
764 </listitem>
765 </varlistentry>
766
767 <varlistentry id="localedef">
768 <term><command>localedef</command></term>
769 <listitem>
770 <para>Compiles locale specifications</para>
771 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc localedef">
772 <primary sortas="b-localedef">localedef</primary>
773 </indexterm>
774 </listitem>
775 </varlistentry>
776
777 <varlistentry id="makedb">
778 <term><command>makedb</command></term>
779 <listitem>
780 <para>Creates a simple database from textual input</para>
781 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc makedb">
782 <primary sortas="b-makedb">makedb</primary>
783 </indexterm>
784 </listitem>
785 </varlistentry>
786
787 <varlistentry id="mtrace">
788 <term><command>mtrace</command></term>
789 <listitem>
790 <para>Reads and interprets a memory trace file and displays a summary
791 in human-readable format</para>
792 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc mtrace">
793 <primary sortas="b-mtrace">mtrace</primary>
794 </indexterm>
795 </listitem>
796 </varlistentry>
797
798 <varlistentry id="nscd">
799 <term><command>nscd</command></term>
800 <listitem>
801 <para>A daemon that provides a cache for the most common name
802 service requests</para>
803 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc nscd">
804 <primary sortas="b-nscd">nscd</primary>
805 </indexterm>
806 </listitem>
807 </varlistentry>
808
809 <varlistentry id="pcprofiledump">
810 <term><command>pcprofiledump</command></term>
811 <listitem>
812 <para>Dump information generated by PC profiling</para>
813 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc pcprofiledump">
814 <primary sortas="b-pcprofiledump">pcprofiledump</primary>
815 </indexterm>
816 </listitem>
817 </varlistentry>
818
819 <varlistentry id="pldd">
820 <term><command>pldd</command></term>
821 <listitem>
822 <para>Lists dynamic shared objects used by running processes</para>
823 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc pldd">
824 <primary sortas="b-pldd">pldd</primary>
825 </indexterm>
826 </listitem>
827 </varlistentry>
828
829 <varlistentry id="sln">
830 <term><command>sln</command></term>
831 <listitem>
832 <para>A statically linked <command>ln</command> program</para>
833 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc sln">
834 <primary sortas="b-sln">sln</primary>
835 </indexterm>
836 </listitem>
837 </varlistentry>
838
839 <varlistentry id="sotruss">
840 <term><command>sotruss</command></term>
841 <listitem>
842 <para>Traces shared library procedure calls of a specified command</para>
843 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc sotruss">
844 <primary sortas="b-sotruss">sotruss</primary>
845 </indexterm>
846 </listitem>
847 </varlistentry>
848
849 <varlistentry id="sprof">
850 <term><command>sprof</command></term>
851 <listitem>
852 <para>Reads and displays shared object profiling data</para>
853 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc sprof">
854 <primary sortas="b-sprof">sprof</primary>
855 </indexterm>
856 </listitem>
857 </varlistentry>
858
859 <varlistentry id="tzselect">
860 <term><command>tzselect</command></term>
861 <listitem>
862 <para>Asks the user about the location of the system and reports
863 the corresponding time zone description</para>
864 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc tzselect">
865 <primary sortas="b-tzselect">tzselect</primary>
866 </indexterm>
867 </listitem>
868 </varlistentry>
869
870 <varlistentry id="xtrace">
871 <term><command>xtrace</command></term>
872 <listitem>
873 <para>Traces the execution of a program by printing the currently
874 executed function</para>
875 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc xtrace">
876 <primary sortas="b-xtrace">xtrace</primary>
877 </indexterm>
878 </listitem>
879 </varlistentry>
880
881 <varlistentry id="zdump">
882 <term><command>zdump</command></term>
883 <listitem>
884 <para>The time zone dumper</para>
885 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc zdump">
886 <primary sortas="b-zdump">zdump</primary>
887 </indexterm>
888 </listitem>
889 </varlistentry>
890
891 <varlistentry id="zic">
892 <term><command>zic</command></term>
893 <listitem>
894 <para>The time zone compiler</para>
895 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc zic">
896 <primary sortas="b-zic">zic</primary>
897 </indexterm>
898 </listitem>
899 </varlistentry>
900
901 <varlistentry id="ld.so">
902 <term><filename class="libraryfile">ld-&glibc-version;.so</filename></term>
903 <listitem>
904 <para>The helper program for shared library executables</para>
905 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ld.so">
906 <primary sortas="c-ld.so">ld-&glibc-version;.so</primary>
907 </indexterm>
908 </listitem>
909 </varlistentry>
910
911 <varlistentry id="libBrokenLocale">
912 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libBrokenLocale</filename></term>
913 <listitem>
914 <para>Used internally by Glibc as a gross hack to get broken programs
915 (e.g., some Motif applications) running. See comments in
916 <filename>glibc-&glibc-version;/locale/broken_cur_max.c</filename>
917 for more information</para>
918 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libBrokenLocale">
919 <primary sortas="c-libBrokenLocale">libBrokenLocale</primary>
920 </indexterm>
921 </listitem>
922 </varlistentry>
923
924 <varlistentry id="libSegFault">
925 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libSegFault</filename></term>
926 <listitem>
927 <para>The segmentation fault signal handler, used by
928 <command>catchsegv</command></para>
929 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libSegFault">
930 <primary sortas="c-libSegFault">libSegFault</primary>
931 </indexterm>
932 </listitem>
933 </varlistentry>
934
935 <varlistentry id="libanl">
936 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libanl</filename></term>
937 <listitem>
938 <para>An asynchronous name lookup library</para>
939 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libanl">
940 <primary sortas="c-libanl">libanl</primary>
941 </indexterm>
942 </listitem>
943 </varlistentry>
944
945 <varlistentry id="libc">
946 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libc</filename></term>
947 <listitem>
948 <para>The main C library</para>
949 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libc">
950 <primary sortas="c-libc">libc</primary>
951 </indexterm>
952 </listitem>
953 </varlistentry>
954
955 <varlistentry id="libcrypt">
956 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libcrypt</filename></term>
957 <listitem>
958 <para>The cryptography library</para>
959 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libcrypt">
960 <primary sortas="c-libcrypt">libcrypt</primary>
961 </indexterm>
962 </listitem>
963 </varlistentry>
964
965 <varlistentry id="libdl">
966 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libdl</filename></term>
967 <listitem>
968 <para>The dynamic linking interface library</para>
969 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libdl">
970 <primary sortas="c-libdl">libdl</primary>
971 </indexterm>
972 </listitem>
973 </varlistentry>
974
975 <varlistentry id="libg">
976 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libg</filename></term>
977 <listitem>
978 <para>Dummy library containing no functions. Previously was a runtime
979 library for <command>g++</command></para>
980 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libg">
981 <primary sortas="c-libg">libg</primary>
982 </indexterm>
983 </listitem>
984 </varlistentry>
985
986 <varlistentry id="libm">
987 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libm</filename></term>
988 <listitem>
989 <para>The mathematical library</para>
990 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libm">
991 <primary sortas="c-libm">libm</primary>
992 </indexterm>
993 </listitem>
994 </varlistentry>
995
996 <varlistentry id="libmcheck">
997 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libmcheck</filename></term>
998 <listitem>
999 <para>Turns on memory allocation checking when linked to</para>
1000 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libmcheck">
1001 <primary sortas="c-libmcheck">libmcheck</primary>
1002 </indexterm>
1003 </listitem>
1004 </varlistentry>
1005
1006 <varlistentry id="libmemusage">
1007 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libmemusage</filename></term>
1008 <listitem>
1009 <para>Used by <command>memusage</command> to help collect
1010 information about the memory usage of a program</para>
1011 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libmemusage">
1012 <primary sortas="c-libmemusage">libmemusage</primary>
1013 </indexterm>
1014 </listitem>
1015 </varlistentry>
1016
1017 <varlistentry id="libnsl">
1018 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libnsl</filename></term>
1019 <listitem>
1020 <para>The network services library</para>
1021 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libnsl">
1022 <primary sortas="c-libnsl">libnsl</primary>
1023 </indexterm>
1024 </listitem>
1025 </varlistentry>
1026
1027 <varlistentry id="libnss">
1028 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libnss</filename></term>
1029 <listitem>
1030 <para>The Name Service Switch libraries, containing functions for
1031 resolving host names, user names, group names, aliases, services,
1032 protocols, etc.</para>
1033 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libnss">
1034 <primary sortas="c-libnss">libnss</primary>
1035 </indexterm>
1036 </listitem>
1037 </varlistentry>
1038
1039 <varlistentry id="libpcprofile">
1040 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libpcprofile</filename></term>
1041 <listitem>
1042 <para>Can be preloaded to PC profile an executable</para>
1043 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libpcprofile">
1044 <primary sortas="c-libpcprofile">libpcprofile</primary>
1045 </indexterm>
1046 </listitem>
1047 </varlistentry>
1048
1049 <varlistentry id="libpthread">
1050 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libpthread</filename></term>
1051 <listitem>
1052 <para>The POSIX threads library</para>
1053 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libpthread">
1054 <primary sortas="c-libpthread">libpthread</primary>
1055 </indexterm>
1056 </listitem>
1057 </varlistentry>
1058
1059 <varlistentry id="libresolv">
1060 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libresolv</filename></term>
1061 <listitem>
1062 <para>Contains functions for creating, sending, and interpreting
1063 packets to the Internet domain name servers</para>
1064 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libresolv">
1065 <primary sortas="c-libresolv">libresolv</primary>
1066 </indexterm>
1067 </listitem>
1068 </varlistentry>
1069
1070 <varlistentry id="librt">
1071 <term><filename class="libraryfile">librt</filename></term>
1072 <listitem>
1073 <para>Contains functions providing most of the interfaces specified
1074 by the POSIX.1b Realtime Extension</para>
1075 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc librt">
1076 <primary sortas="c-librt">librt</primary>
1077 </indexterm>
1078 </listitem>
1079 </varlistentry>
1080
1081 <varlistentry id="libthread_db">
1082 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libthread_db</filename></term>
1083 <listitem>
1084 <para>Contains functions useful for building debuggers for
1085 multi-threaded programs</para>
1086 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libthread_db">
1087 <primary sortas="c-libthread_db">libthread_db</primary>
1088 </indexterm>
1089 </listitem>
1090 </varlistentry>
1091
1092 <varlistentry id="libutil">
1093 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libutil</filename></term>
1094 <listitem>
1095 <para>Contains code for <quote>standard</quote> functions used in
1096 many different Unix utilities</para>
1097 <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libutil">
1098 <primary sortas="c-libutil">libutil</primary>
1099 </indexterm>
1100 </listitem>
1101 </varlistentry>
1102
1103 </variablelist>
1104
1105 </sect2>
1106
1107</sect1>
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