source: chapter08/systemd.xml@ 4a74a6f

multilib
Last change on this file since 4a74a6f was 4a74a6f, checked in by Thomas Trepl (Moody) <thomas@…>, 11 months ago

Automatic merge of trunk into multilib

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-systemd" role="wrap" revision="systemd">
9 <?dbhtml filename="systemd.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>systemd</productname>
13 <productnumber>&systemd-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&systemd-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Systemd-&systemd-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd">
20 <primary sortas="a-systemd">systemd</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The systemd package contains programs for controlling the startup,
27 running, and shutdown of the system.</para>
28
29 <segmentedlist>
30 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
31 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
32
33 <seglistitem>
34 <seg>&systemd-fin-sbu;</seg>
35 <seg>&systemd-fin-du;</seg>
36 </seglistitem>
37 </segmentedlist>
38 </sect2>
39
40 <sect2 role="installation">
41 <title>Installation of systemd</title>
42
43 <!--Fix CVE-2021-33910 -->
44 <para>First, apply a patch to fix a security vulnerability:</para>
45
46<screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../systemd-&systemd-version;-upstream_fixes-1.patch</userinput></screen>
47
48<!-- Seems to be not needed anymore with 248
49 <para>Remove tests that cannot be built in chroot:</para>
50
51<screen><userinput remap="pre">sed '177,$ d' -i src/resolve/meson.build</userinput></screen>
52-->
53
54 <para>Remove two unneeded groups,
55 <systemitem class="groupname">render</systemitem> and
56 <systemitem class="groupname">sgx</systemitem>, from the default udev
57 rules:</para>
58
59 <screen><userinput remap="pre">sed -i -e 's/GROUP="render"/GROUP="video"/' \
60 -e 's/GROUP="sgx", //' rules.d/50-udev-default.rules.in</userinput></screen>
61
62 <para>Fix a meson problem:</para>
63
64 <screen><userinput remap="pre">sed -i 's/+ want_libfuzzer.*$/and want_libfuzzer/' meson.build</userinput></screen>
65
66 <para>Prepare systemd for compilation:</para>
67
68<screen><userinput remap="configure">mkdir -p build
69cd build
70
71LANG=en_US.UTF-8 \
72meson --prefix=/usr \
73 --sysconfdir=/etc \
74 --localstatedir=/var \
75 --buildtype=release \
76 -Dblkid=true \
77 -Ddefault-dnssec=no \
78 -Dfirstboot=false \
79 -Dinstall-tests=false \
80 -Dldconfig=false \
81 -Dsysusers=false \
82 -Db_lto=false \
83 -Drpmmacrosdir=no \
84 -Dhomed=false \
85 -Duserdb=false \
86 -Dman=false \
87 -Dmode=release \
88 -Ddocdir=/usr/share/doc/systemd-&systemd-version; \
89 ..</userinput></screen>
90
91 <variablelist>
92 <title>The meaning of the meson options:</title>
93
94 <varlistentry>
95 <term><parameter>--buildtype=release</parameter></term>
96 <listitem>
97 <para>This switch overrides the default buildtype
98 (<quote>debug</quote>), which would produce unoptimized
99 binaries.</para>
100 </listitem>
101 </varlistentry>
102
103 <varlistentry>
104 <term><parameter>-Ddefault-dnssec=no</parameter></term>
105 <listitem>
106 <para>This switch turns off the experimental DNSSEC support.</para>
107 </listitem>
108 </varlistentry>
109
110 <varlistentry>
111 <term><parameter>-Dfirstboot=false</parameter></term>
112 <listitem>
113 <para>This switch prevents installation of systemd
114 services responsible for setting up the system for
115 the first time. They are not useful for LFS because
116 everything is done manually.</para>
117 </listitem>
118 </varlistentry>
119
120 <varlistentry>
121 <term><parameter>-Dinstall-tests=false</parameter></term>
122 <listitem>
123 <para>This switch prevents installation of the compiled tests.</para>
124 </listitem>
125 </varlistentry>
126
127 <varlistentry>
128 <term><parameter>-Dldconfig=false</parameter></term>
129 <listitem>
130 <para>This switch prevents installation of a systemd unit that runs
131 <command>ldconfig</command> at boot, which is not useful for source
132 distributions such as LFS and makes the boot time longer. Remove it
133 if the described feature is desired.</para>
134 </listitem>
135 </varlistentry>
136
137 <varlistentry>
138 <term><parameter>-Dsysusers=false</parameter></term>
139 <listitem>
140 <para>This switch prevents installation of systemd
141 services responsible for setting up the
142 <filename>/etc/group</filename> and
143 <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> files. Both files
144 were created earlier in this chapter.</para>
145 </listitem>
146 </varlistentry>
147
148 <varlistentry>
149 <term><parameter>-Drpmmacrosdir=no</parameter></term>
150 <listitem>
151 <para>This switch disables installation of RPM Macros
152 for use with systemd because LFS does not support RPM.</para>
153 </listitem>
154 </varlistentry>
155
156 <varlistentry>
157 <term><parameter>-D{userdb,homed}=false</parameter></term>
158 <listitem>
159 <para>Remove two daemons that have dependencies that do not fit
160 the scope of LFS.</para>
161 </listitem>
162 </varlistentry>
163
164 <varlistentry>
165 <term><parameter>-Dman=false</parameter></term>
166 <listitem>
167 <para>Prevent the generation of man pages to avoid extra
168 dependencies. We will install pre-generated man pages for systemd
169 from a tarball later.</para>
170 </listitem>
171 </varlistentry>
172
173 <varlistentry>
174 <term><parameter>-Dmode=release</parameter></term>
175 <listitem>
176 <para>Disable some features considered experimental by upstream.
177 </para>
178 </listitem>
179 </varlistentry>
180
181 </variablelist>
182
183 <para>Compile the package:</para>
184
185<screen><userinput remap="make">LANG=en_US.UTF-8 ninja</userinput></screen>
186
187 <para>Install the package:</para>
188
189<screen><userinput remap="install">LANG=en_US.UTF-8 ninja install</userinput></screen>
190
191 <para>Install the man pages:</para>
192
193<screen><userinput remap="install">tar -xf ../../systemd-man-pages-&systemd-man-version;.tar.xz --strip-components=1 -C /usr/share/man</userinput></screen>
194
195 <para>Remove a useless directory:</para>
196
197<screen><userinput remap="install">rm -rf /usr/lib/pam.d</userinput></screen>
198
199 <para>Create the <filename>/etc/machine-id</filename> file needed by
200 <command>systemd-journald</command>:</para>
201
202<screen><userinput remap="adjust">systemd-machine-id-setup</userinput></screen>
203
204 <para>Setup the basic target structure:</para>
205
206<screen><userinput remap="adjust">systemctl preset-all</userinput></screen>
207
208 <para>Disable a service that is known to cause problems with systems that
209 use a network configuration other than what is provided by
210 systemd-networkd:</para>
211 <!-- Observed halting startup with dhcpcd handling the primary NIC -->
212
213<screen><userinput remap="adjust">systemctl disable systemd-time-wait-sync.service</userinput></screen>
214
215<!-- dev: 50-pid-max.conf is not removed in BLFS, so I commented the following out.
216 If it causes any trouble, we can add this back and also copy it into BLFS -->
217<!--
218 <para>Prevent systemd from resetting the maximum PID value which causes
219 some problems with packages and units in BLFS:</para>
220
221<screen><userinput remap="adjust">rm -f /usr/lib/sysctl.d/50-pid-max.conf</userinput></screen>
222-->
223
224 </sect2>
225
226 <!-- - - - - - - - - - -->
227 <!-- Multilib - 32bit -->
228 <!-- - - - - - - - - - -->
229
230 <sect2 arch="ml_32,ml_all" role="installation">
231 <title>Installation of systemd - 32-bit</title>
232
233 <para>Clean previous build:</para>
234
235<screen><userinput remap="pre">rm -rf *</userinput></screen>
236
237 <para>Create a symlink to work around missing xsltproc:</para>
238
239<!-- screen><userinput remap="pre">ln -sf /tools/bin/true /usr/bin/xsltproc</userinput></screen -->
240<screen><userinput remap="pre">ln -sf /bin/true /usr/bin/xsltproc</userinput></screen>
241
242<!-- with cross-LFS we have util-linux in place:
243 <para>Because we have not yet installed the final version of Util-Linux,
244 create links to the libraries in the approprite location:</para>
245
246<screen><userinput remap="pre">for file in /tools/lib32/lib{blkid,mount,uuid}*; do
247 ln -sf $file /usr/lib32/
248done</userinput></screen>
249-->
250
251 <para>Prepare systemd for compilation:</para>
252
253 <screen><userinput remap="configure">PKG_CONFIG_PATH="/usr/lib32/pkgconfig" \
254CC="gcc -m32 -march=i686" \
255CXX="g++ -m32 -march=i686" \
256LANG=en_US.UTF-8 \
257meson --prefix=/usr \
258 --sysconfdir=/etc \
259 --localstatedir=/var \
260 -Dblkid=true \
261 -Dbuildtype=release \
262 -Ddefault-dnssec=no \
263 -Dfirstboot=false \
264 -Dinstall-tests=false \
265 -Dkill-path=/bin/kill \
266 -Dkmod-path=/bin/kmod \
267 -Dldconfig=false \
268 -Dmount-path=/bin/mount \
269 -Drootprefix= \
270 -Drootlibdir=/usr/lib32 \
271 -Dsplit-usr=true \
272 -Dsulogin-path=/sbin/sulogin \
273 -Dsysusers=false \
274 -Dumount-path=/bin/umount \
275 -Db_lto=false \
276 ..</userinput></screen>
277
278 <para>Compile the package:</para>
279
280<screen><userinput remap="make">LANG=en_US.UTF-8 ninja</userinput></screen>
281
282 <para>Install the package:</para>
283
284<screen><userinput remap="install">LANG=en_US.UTF-8 DESTDIR=$PWD/DESTDIR ninja install
285cp -Rv DESTDIR/usr/lib32/* /usr/lib32
286rm -rf DESTDIR
287rm -f /usr/bin/xsltproc</userinput></screen>
288
289 </sect2><!-- m32 -->
290
291 <!-- - - - - - - - - - -->
292 <!-- Multilib - x32bit -->
293 <!-- - - - - - - - - - -->
294
295 <sect2 arch="ml_x32,ml_all" role="installation">
296 <title>Installation of systemd - x32-bit</title>
297
298 <para>Clean previous build:</para>
299
300<screen><userinput remap="pre">rm -rf *</userinput></screen>
301
302 <para>Create a symlink to work around missing xsltproc:</para>
303
304<screen><userinput remap="pre">ln -sf /bin/true /usr/bin/xsltproc</userinput></screen>
305
306 <para>Fix an issue on x32:</para>
307
308<screen><userinput remap="pre">sed '/log_debug/s@PRI_TIMEX@PRIi64@' -i src/timesync/timesyncd-manager.c
309sed '/long drift_freq;/s@long @int64_t @' -i src/timesync/timesyncd-manager.h</userinput></screen>
310
311 <para>Prepare systemd for compilation:</para>
312
313<screen><userinput remap="configure">PKG_CONFIG_PATH="/usr/libx32/pkgconfig" \
314CC="gcc -mx32" \
315CXX="g++ -mx32" \
316CFLAGS+="-Wno-error=shift-overflow" \
317CXXFLAGS+="-Wno-error=shift-overflow" \
318LANG=en_US.UTF-8 \
319meson --prefix=/usr \
320 --sysconfdir=/etc \
321 --localstatedir=/var \
322 -Dblkid=true \
323 -Dbuildtype=release \
324 -Ddefault-dnssec=no \
325 -Dfirstboot=false \
326 -Dinstall-tests=false \
327 -Dkill-path=/bin/kill \
328 -Dkmod-path=/bin/kmod \
329 -Dldconfig=false \
330 -Dmount-path=/bin/mount \
331 -Drootprefix= \
332 -Drootlibdir=/usr/libx32 \
333 -Dsplit-usr=true \
334 -Dsulogin-path=/sbin/sulogin \
335 -Dsysusers=false \
336 -Dumount-path=/bin/umount \
337 -Db_lto=false \
338 ..</userinput></screen>
339
340 <para>Compile the package:</para>
341
342<screen><userinput remap="make">LANG=en_US.UTF-8 ninja</userinput></screen>
343
344 <para>Install the package:</para>
345
346<screen><userinput remap="install">LANG=en_US.UTF-8 DESTDIR=$PWD/DESTDIR ninja install
347cp -Rv DESTDIR/usr/lib32/* /usr/lib32
348rm -rf DESTDIR
349rm -f /usr/bin/xsltproc</userinput></screen>
350
351 </sect2><!-- mx32 -->
352
353 <sect2 id="contents-systemd" role="content">
354 <title>Contents of systemd</title>
355
356 <segmentedlist>
357 <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
358 <segtitle>Installed libraries</segtitle>
359 <segtitle>Installed directories</segtitle>
360
361 <seglistitem>
362 <seg>bootctl, busctl, coredumpctl, halt (symlink to systemctl),
363 hostnamectl, init, journalctl, kernel-install, localectl, loginctl,
364 machinectl, networkctl, oomctl, portablectl, poweroff (symlink to
365 systemctl), reboot (symlink to systemctl), resolvconf (symlink to
366 resolvectl), resolvectl, runlevel (symlink to systemctl), shutdown
367 (symlink to systemctl), systemctl, systemd-analyze,
368 systemd-ask-password, systemd-cat, systemd-cgls, systemd-cgtop,
369 systemd-cryptenroll, systemd-delta, systemd-detect-virt,
370 systemd-dissect, systemd-escape, systemd-hwdb, systemd-id128,
371 systemd-inhibit, systemd-machine-id-setup,
372 systemd-mount, systemd-notify, systemd-nspawn, systemd-path,
373 systemd-repart, systemd-resolve (symlink to resolvectl), systemd-run,
374 systemd-socket-activate, systemd-stdio-bridge, systemd-sysext,
375 systemd-tmpfiles, systemd-tty-ask-password-agent,
376 systemd-umount (symlink to systemd-mount),
377 telinit (symlink to systemctl), timedatectl, and udevadm</seg>
378 <seg>libnss_myhostname.so.2, libnss_mymachines.so.2,
379 libnss_resolve.so.2, libnss_systemd.so.2,
380 libsystemd.so, libsystemd-shared-&systemd-version;.so (in /usr/lib/systemd),
381 and libudev.so</seg>
382 <seg>/etc/binfmt.d, /etc/init.d, /etc/kernel, /etc/modules-load.d,
383 /etc/sysctl.d, /etc/systemd, /etc/tmpfiles.d, /etc/udev,
384 /etc/xdg/systemd, /usr/lib/systemd, /usr/lib/udev, /usr/include/systemd,
385 /usr/lib/binfmt.d, /usr/lib/environment.d, /usr/lib/kernel,
386 /usr/lib/modules-load.d, /usr/lib/sysctl.d, /usr/lib/systemd,
387 /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d,
388 /usr/share/doc/systemd-&systemd-version;, /usr/share/factory,
389 /usr/share/systemd, /var/lib/systemd, and /var/log/journal</seg>
390 </seglistitem>
391 </segmentedlist>
392
393 <variablelist>
394 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
395 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
396 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
397
398 <varlistentry id="bootctl">
399 <term><command>bootctl</command></term>
400 <listitem>
401 <para>Is used to query the firmware and boot manager settings</para>
402 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd bootctl">
403 <primary sortas="b-bootctl">bootctl</primary>
404 </indexterm>
405 </listitem>
406 </varlistentry>
407
408 <varlistentry id="busctl">
409 <term><command>busctl</command></term>
410 <listitem>
411 <para>Is used to introspect and monitor the D-Bus bus</para>
412 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd busctl">
413 <primary sortas="b-busctl">busctl</primary>
414 </indexterm>
415 </listitem>
416 </varlistentry>
417
418 <varlistentry id="coredumpctl">
419 <term><command>coredumpctl</command></term>
420 <listitem>
421 <para>Is used to retrieve coredumps from the systemd journal</para>
422 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd coredumpctl">
423 <primary sortas="b-coredumpctl">coredumpctl</primary>
424 </indexterm>
425 </listitem>
426 </varlistentry>
427
428 <varlistentry id="halt">
429 <term><command>halt</command></term>
430 <listitem>
431 <para>Normally invokes <command>shutdown</command> with the
432 <parameter>-h</parameter> option, except when already in run-level 0,
433 then it tells the kernel to halt the system; it notes in the
434 file <filename>/var/log/wtmp</filename> that the system is being
435 brought down</para>
436 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd halt">
437 <primary sortas="b-halt">halt</primary>
438 </indexterm>
439 </listitem>
440 </varlistentry>
441
442 <varlistentry id="hostnamectl">
443 <term><command>hostnamectl</command></term>
444 <listitem>
445 <para>Is used to query and change the system hostname and related
446 settings</para>
447 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd hostnamectl">
448 <primary sortas="b-hostnamectl">hostnamectl</primary>
449 </indexterm>
450 </listitem>
451 </varlistentry>
452
453 <varlistentry id="init">
454 <term><command>init</command></term>
455 <listitem>
456 <para>Is the first process to be started when the kernel has initialized
457 the hardware which takes over the boot process and starts all
458 processes according to its configuration files. In this case, it starts
459 systemd</para>
460 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd init">
461 <primary sortas="b-init">init</primary>
462 </indexterm>
463 </listitem>
464 </varlistentry>
465
466 <varlistentry id="journalctl">
467 <term><command>journalctl</command></term>
468 <listitem>
469 <para>Is used to query the contents of the systemd journal</para>
470 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd journalctl">
471 <primary sortas="b-journalctl">journalctl</primary>
472 </indexterm>
473 </listitem>
474 </varlistentry>
475
476 <varlistentry id="kernel-install">
477 <term><command>kernel-install</command></term>
478 <listitem>
479 <para>Is used to add and remove kernel and initramfs images to and
480 from /boot. In LFS, this is done manually</para>
481 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd kernel-install">
482 <primary sortas="b-kernel-install">kernel-install</primary>
483 </indexterm>
484 </listitem>
485 </varlistentry>
486
487 <varlistentry id="localectl">
488 <term><command>localectl</command></term>
489 <listitem>
490 <para>Is used to query and change the system locale and keyboard layout
491 settings</para>
492 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd localectl">
493 <primary sortas="b-localectl">localectl</primary>
494 </indexterm>
495 </listitem>
496 </varlistentry>
497
498 <varlistentry id="loginctl">
499 <term><command>loginctl</command></term>
500 <listitem>
501 <para>Is used to introspect and control the state of the systemd Login
502 Manager</para>
503 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd loginctl">
504 <primary sortas="b-loginctl">loginctl</primary>
505 </indexterm>
506 </listitem>
507 </varlistentry>
508
509 <varlistentry id="machinectl">
510 <term><command>machinectl</command></term>
511 <listitem>
512 <para>Is used to introspect and control the state of the systemd Virtual
513 Machine and Container Registration Manager</para>
514 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd machinectl">
515 <primary sortas="b-machinectl">machinectl</primary>
516 </indexterm>
517 </listitem>
518 </varlistentry>
519
520 <varlistentry id="networkctl">
521 <term><command>networkctl</command></term>
522 <listitem>
523 <para>Is used to introspect and configure the state of the network
524 links configured by systemd-networkd</para>
525 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd networkctl">
526 <primary sortas="b-networkctl">networkctl</primary>
527 </indexterm>
528 </listitem>
529 </varlistentry>
530
531 <varlistentry id="oomctl">
532 <term><command>oomctl</command></term>
533 <listitem>
534 <para>Controls the systemd Out Of Memory daemon</para>
535 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd oomctl">
536 <primary sortas="b-oomctl">oomctl</primary>
537 </indexterm>
538 </listitem>
539 </varlistentry>
540
541 <varlistentry id="portablectl">
542 <term><command>portablectl</command></term>
543 <listitem>
544 <para>Is used to attach or detach portable services from the local
545 system</para>
546 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd portablectl">
547 <primary sortas="b-portablectl">portablectl</primary>
548 </indexterm>
549 </listitem>
550 </varlistentry>
551
552 <varlistentry id="poweroff">
553 <term><command>poweroff</command></term>
554 <listitem>
555 <para>Instructs the kernel to halt the system and switch off the computer
556 (see <command>halt</command>)</para>
557 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd poweroff">
558 <primary sortas="b-poweroff">poweroff</primary>
559 </indexterm>
560 </listitem>
561 </varlistentry>
562
563 <varlistentry id="reboot">
564 <term><command>reboot</command></term>
565 <listitem>
566 <para>Instructs the kernel to reboot the system (see
567 <command>halt</command>)</para>
568 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd reboot">
569 <primary sortas="b-reboot">reboot</primary>
570 </indexterm>
571 </listitem>
572 </varlistentry>
573
574 <varlistentry id="resolvconf">
575 <term><command>resolvconf</command></term>
576 <listitem>
577 <para>Registers DNS server and domain configuration with
578 <command>systemd-resolved</command></para>
579 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd resolvconf">
580 <primary sortas="b-resolvconf">resolvconf</primary>
581 </indexterm>
582 </listitem>
583 </varlistentry>
584
585 <varlistentry id="resolvectl">
586 <term><command>resolvectl</command></term>
587 <listitem>
588 <para>Sends control commands to the network name resolution
589 manager, or resolves domain names, IPv4 and IPv6 addresses,
590 DNS records, and services</para>
591 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd resolvectl">
592 <primary sortas="b-resolvectl">resolvectl</primary>
593 </indexterm>
594 </listitem>
595 </varlistentry>
596
597 <varlistentry id="runlevel">
598 <term><command>runlevel</command></term>
599 <listitem>
600 <para>Outputs the previous and the current run-level, as noted in the
601 last run-level record in <filename>/run/utmp</filename></para>
602 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd runlevel">
603 <primary sortas="b-runlevel">runlevel</primary>
604 </indexterm>
605 </listitem>
606 </varlistentry>
607
608 <varlistentry id="shutdown">
609 <term><command>shutdown</command></term>
610 <listitem>
611 <para>Brings the system down in a safe and secure manner, signaling
612 all processes and notifying all logged-in users</para>
613 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd shutdown">
614 <primary sortas="b-shutdown">shutdown</primary>
615 </indexterm>
616 </listitem>
617 </varlistentry>
618
619 <varlistentry id="systemctl">
620 <term><command>systemctl</command></term>
621 <listitem>
622 <para>Is used to introspect and control the state of the systemd system
623 and service manager</para>
624 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemctl">
625 <primary sortas="b-systemctl">systemctl</primary>
626 </indexterm>
627 </listitem>
628 </varlistentry>
629
630 <varlistentry id="systemd-analyze">
631 <term><command>systemd-analyze</command></term>
632 <listitem>
633 <para>Is used to determine system startup performance of the current
634 boot, as well as identify troublesome systemd units</para>
635 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-analyze">
636 <primary sortas="b-systemd-analyze">systemd-analyze</primary>
637 </indexterm>
638 </listitem>
639 </varlistentry>
640
641 <varlistentry id="systemd-ask-password">
642 <term><command>systemd-ask-password</command></term>
643 <listitem>
644 <para>Is used to query a system password or passphrase from the user,
645 using a question message specified on the command line</para>
646 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-ask-password">
647 <primary sortas="b-systemd-ask-password">systemd-ask-password</primary>
648 </indexterm>
649 </listitem>
650 </varlistentry>
651
652 <varlistentry id="systemd-cat">
653 <term><command>systemd-cat</command></term>
654 <listitem>
655 <para>Is used to connect the STDOUT and STDERR outputs of a process
656 with the systemd journal
657 </para>
658 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-cat">
659 <primary sortas="b-systemd-cat">systemd-cat</primary>
660 </indexterm>
661 </listitem>
662 </varlistentry>
663
664 <varlistentry id="systemd-cgls">
665 <term><command>systemd-cgls</command></term>
666 <listitem>
667 <para>Recursively shows the contents of the selected Linux control
668 group hierarchy in a tree</para>
669 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-cgls">
670 <primary sortas="b-systemd-cgls">systemd-cgls</primary>
671 </indexterm>
672 </listitem>
673 </varlistentry>
674
675 <varlistentry id="systemd-cgtop">
676 <term><command>systemd-cgtop</command></term>
677 <listitem>
678 <para>Shows the top control groups of the local Linux control group
679 hierarchy, ordered by their CPU, memory and disk I/O load</para>
680 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-cgtop">
681 <primary sortas="b-systemd-cgtop">systemd-cgtop</primary>
682 </indexterm>
683 </listitem>
684 </varlistentry>
685
686 <varlistentry id="systemd-cryptenroll">
687 <term><command>systemd-cryptenroll</command></term>
688 <listitem>
689 <para>Is used to enroll or remove a system from full disk encryption,
690 as well as set and query private keys and recovery keys</para>
691 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-cryptenroll">
692 <primary sortas="b-systemd-cryptenroll">systemd-cryptenroll</primary>
693 </indexterm>
694 </listitem>
695 </varlistentry>
696
697 <varlistentry id="systemd-delta">
698 <term><command>systemd-delta</command></term>
699 <listitem>
700 <para>Is used to identify and compare configuration files in
701 <filename class="directory">/etc</filename> that override default
702 counterparts in <filename class="directory">/usr</filename></para>
703 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-delta">
704 <primary sortas="b-systemd-delta">systemd-delta</primary>
705 </indexterm>
706 </listitem>
707 </varlistentry>
708
709 <varlistentry id="systemd-detect-virt">
710 <term><command>systemd-detect-virt</command></term>
711 <listitem>
712 <para>Detects whether the system is being run in a virtual
713 environment, and adjusts udev accordingly</para>
714 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-detect-virt">
715 <primary sortas="b-systemd-detect-virt">systemd-detect-virt</primary>
716 </indexterm>
717 </listitem>
718 </varlistentry>
719
720 <varlistentry id="systemd-dissect">
721 <term><command>systemd-dissect</command></term>
722 <listitem>
723 <para>Is used to inspect OS disk images</para>
724 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-dissect">
725 <primary sortas="b-systemd-dissect">systemd-dissect</primary>
726 </indexterm>
727 </listitem>
728 </varlistentry>
729
730 <varlistentry id="systemd-escape">
731 <term><command>systemd-escape</command></term>
732 <listitem>
733 <para>Is used to escape strings for inclusion in systemd unit
734 names</para>
735 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-escape">
736 <primary sortas="b-systemd-escape">systemd-escape</primary>
737 </indexterm>
738 </listitem>
739 </varlistentry>
740
741 <varlistentry id="systemd-hwdb">
742 <term><command>systemd-hwdb</command></term>
743 <listitem>
744 <para>Is used to manage the hardware database (hwdb)</para>
745 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-hwdb">
746 <primary sortas="b-systemd-hwdb">systemd-hwdb</primary>
747 </indexterm>
748 </listitem>
749 </varlistentry>
750
751 <varlistentry id="systemd-id128">
752 <term><command>systemd-id128</command></term>
753 <listitem>
754 <para>Generates and prints id128 strings</para>
755 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-id128">
756 <primary sortas="b-systemd-id128">systemd-id128</primary>
757 </indexterm>
758 </listitem>
759 </varlistentry>
760
761 <varlistentry id="systemd-inhibit">
762 <term><command>systemd-inhibit</command></term>
763 <listitem>
764 <para>Is used to execute a program with a shutdown, sleep or idle
765 inhibitor lock taken, preventing an action such as a system shutdown
766 until the process is completed</para>
767 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-inhibit">
768 <primary sortas="b-systemd-inhibit">systemd-inhibit</primary>
769 </indexterm>
770 </listitem>
771 </varlistentry>
772
773 <varlistentry id="systemd-machine-id-setup">
774 <term><command>systemd-machine-id-setup</command></term>
775 <listitem>
776 <para>Is used by system installer tools to initialize the machine ID
777 stored in <filename>/etc/machine-id</filename> at install time with a
778 randomly generated ID</para>
779 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-machine-id-setup">
780 <primary sortas="b-systemd-machine-id-setup">systemd-machine-id-setup</primary>
781 </indexterm>
782 </listitem>
783 </varlistentry>
784
785 <varlistentry id="systemd-mount">
786 <term><command>systemd-mount</command></term>
787 <listitem>
788 <para>Is used to temporarily mount or automount disks</para>
789 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-mount">
790 <primary sortas="b-systemd-mount">systemd-mount</primary>
791 </indexterm>
792 </listitem>
793 </varlistentry>
794
795 <varlistentry id="systemd-notify">
796 <term><command>systemd-notify</command></term>
797 <listitem>
798 <para>Is used by daemon scripts to notify the init system about status
799 changes</para>
800 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-notify">
801 <primary sortas="b-systemd-notify">systemd-notify</primary>
802 </indexterm>
803 </listitem>
804 </varlistentry>
805
806 <varlistentry id="systemd-nspawn">
807 <term><command>systemd-nspawn</command></term>
808 <listitem>
809 <para>Is used to run a command or OS in a light-weight namespace
810 container</para>
811 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-nspawn">
812 <primary sortas="b-systemd-nspawn">systemd-nspawn</primary>
813 </indexterm>
814 </listitem>
815 </varlistentry>
816
817 <varlistentry id="systemd-path">
818 <term><command>systemd-path</command></term>
819 <listitem>
820 <para>Is used to query system and user paths</para>
821 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-path">
822 <primary sortas="b-systemd-path">systemd-path</primary>
823 </indexterm>
824 </listitem>
825 </varlistentry>
826
827 <varlistentry id="systemd-repart">
828 <term><command>systemd-repart</command></term>
829 <listitem>
830 <para>Is used to grow and add partitions to a partition table when
831 systemd is used in an OS image (e.g. a container)</para>
832 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-repart">
833 <primary sortas="b-systemd-repart">systemd-repart</primary>
834 </indexterm>
835 </listitem>
836 </varlistentry>
837
838 <varlistentry id="systemd-resolve">
839 <term><command>systemd-resolve</command></term>
840 <listitem>
841 <para>Is used to resolve domain names, IPV4 and IPv6 addresses, DNS
842 resource records, and services</para>
843 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-resolve">
844 <primary sortas="b-systemd-resolve">systemd-resolve</primary>
845 </indexterm>
846 </listitem>
847 </varlistentry>
848
849 <varlistentry id="systemd-run">
850 <term><command>systemd-run</command></term>
851 <listitem>
852 <para>Is used to create and start a transient .service or a .scope
853 unit and run the specified command in it. This is useful for
854 validating systemd units</para>
855 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-run">
856 <primary sortas="b-systemd-run">systemd-run</primary>
857 </indexterm>
858 </listitem>
859 </varlistentry>
860
861 <varlistentry id="systemd-socket-activate">
862 <term><command>systemd-socket-activate</command></term>
863 <listitem>
864 <para>Is used to listen on socket devices and launch a process upon
865 a successful connection to the socket</para>
866 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-socket-activate">
867 <primary sortas="b-systemd-socket-activate">systemd-socket-activate</primary>
868 </indexterm>
869 </listitem>
870 </varlistentry>
871
872 <varlistentry id="systemd-sysext">
873 <term><command>systemd-sysext</command></term>
874 <listitem>
875 <para>Activates system extension images</para>
876 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-sysext">
877 <primary sortas="b-systemd-sysext">systemd-sysext</primary>
878 </indexterm>
879 </listitem>
880 </varlistentry>
881
882 <varlistentry id="systemd-tmpfiles">
883 <term><command>systemd-tmpfiles</command></term>
884 <listitem>
885 <para>Creates, deletes and cleans up volatile and temporary files and
886 directories, based on the configuration file format and location
887 specified in
888 <filename class="directory">tmpfiles.d</filename> directories</para>
889 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-tmpfiles">
890 <primary sortas="b-systemd-tmpfiles">systemd-tmpfiles</primary>
891 </indexterm>
892 </listitem>
893 </varlistentry>
894
895 <varlistentry id="systemd-umount">
896 <term><command>systemd-umount</command></term>
897 <listitem>
898 <para>Unmounts mount points</para>
899 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-umount">
900 <primary sortas="b-systemd-umount">systemd-umount</primary>
901 </indexterm>
902 </listitem>
903 </varlistentry>
904
905 <varlistentry id="systemd-tty-ask-password-agent">
906 <term><command>systemd-tty-ask-password-agent</command></term>
907 <listitem>
908 <para>Is used to list and/or process pending systemd password
909 requests</para>
910 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd systemd-tty-ask-password-agent">
911 <primary sortas="b-systemd-tty-ask-password-agent">systemd-tty-ask-password-agent</primary>
912 </indexterm>
913 </listitem>
914 </varlistentry>
915
916 <varlistentry id="telinit">
917 <term><command>telinit</command></term>
918 <listitem>
919 <para>Tells <command>init</command> which run-level to change
920 to</para>
921 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd telinit">
922 <primary sortas="b-telinit">telinit</primary>
923 </indexterm>
924 </listitem>
925 </varlistentry>
926
927 <varlistentry id="timedatectl">
928 <term><command>timedatectl</command></term>
929 <listitem>
930 <para>Is used to query and change the system clock and its settings
931 </para>
932 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd timedatectl">
933 <primary sortas="b-timedatectl">timedatectl</primary>
934 </indexterm>
935 </listitem>
936 </varlistentry>
937
938 <varlistentry id="udevadm">
939 <term><command>udevadm</command></term>
940 <listitem>
941 <para>Is a generic udev administration tool which controls the udevd
942 daemon, provides info from the Udev hardware database, monitors
943 uevents, waits for uevents to finish, tests udev configuration, and
944 triggers uevents for a given device</para>
945 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd udevadm">
946 <primary sortas="b-udevadm">udevadm</primary>
947 </indexterm>
948 </listitem>
949 </varlistentry>
950
951 <varlistentry id="libsystemd">
952 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libsystemd</filename></term>
953 <listitem>
954 <para>Is the main systemd utility library</para>
955 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd libsystemd">
956 <primary sortas="c-libsystemd">libsystemd</primary>
957 </indexterm>
958 </listitem>
959 </varlistentry>
960
961 <varlistentry id="libudev">
962 <term><filename class="libraryfile">libudev</filename></term>
963 <listitem>
964 <para>Is a library to access Udev device information</para>
965 <indexterm zone="ch-system-systemd libudev">
966 <primary sortas="c-libudev">libudev</primary>
967 </indexterm>
968 </listitem>
969 </varlistentry>
970
971 </variablelist>
972
973 </sect2>
974
975</sect1>
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