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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 <!ENTITY site SYSTEM "../appendices/">
6 %general-entities;
9<sect1 id="ch-config-usage" revision="sysv">
10 <?dbhtml filename="usage.html"?>
12 <title>System V Bootscript Usage and Configuration</title>
14 <indexterm zone="ch-config-usage">
15 <primary sortas="a-Bootscripts">Bootscripts</primary>
16 <secondary>usage</secondary>
17 </indexterm>
19 <sect2>
20 <title>How Do the System V Bootscripts Work?</title>
22 <para>Linux uses a special booting facility named SysVinit that is based on a
23 concept of <emphasis>run-levels</emphasis>. It can be quite different from one
24 system to another, so it cannot be assumed that because things worked in one
25 particular Linux distribution, they should work the same in LFS too. LFS has its
26 own way of doing things, but it respects generally accepted standards.</para>
28 <para>SysVinit (which will be referred to as <quote>init</quote> from now on)
29 works using a run-levels scheme. There are seven (numbered 0 to 6) run-levels
30 (actually, there are more run-levels, but they are for special cases and are
31 generally not used. See <filename>init(8)</filename> for more details), and
32 each one of those corresponds to the actions the computer is supposed to
33 perform when it starts up. The default run-level is 3. Here are the
34 descriptions of the different run-levels as they are implemented:</para>
36<literallayout>0: halt the computer
371: single-user mode
382: multi-user mode without networking
393: multi-user mode with networking
404: reserved for customization, otherwise does the same as 3
415: same as 4, it is usually used for GUI login (like X's <command>xdm</command> or KDE's <command>kdm</command>)
426: reboot the computer</literallayout>
44 </sect2>
46 <sect2 id="conf-sysvinit" role="configuration">
47 <title>Configuring Sysvinit</title>
49 <indexterm zone="conf-sysvinit">
50 <primary sortas="a-Sysvinit">Sysvinit</primary>
51 <secondary>configuring</secondary>
52 </indexterm>
54 <indexterm zone="conf-sysvinit">
55 <primary sortas="e-/etc/inittab">/etc/inittab</primary>
56 </indexterm>
58 <para>During the kernel initialization, the first program that is run
59 is either specified on the command line or, by default
60 <command>init</command>. This program reads the initialization file
61 <filename>/etc/inittab</filename>. Create this file with:</para>
63<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/inittab &lt;&lt; "EOF"
64<literal># Begin /etc/inittab
68si::sysinit:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc S
70l0:0:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 0
71l1:S1:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 1
72l2:2:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 2
73l3:3:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 3
74l4:4:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 4
75l5:5:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 5
76l6:6:wait:/etc/rc.d/init.d/rc 6
78ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
821:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty --noclear tty1 9600
832:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty tty2 9600
843:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty tty3 9600
854:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty tty4 9600
865:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty tty5 9600
876:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty tty6 9600
89# End /etc/inittab</literal>
92 <para>An explanation of this initialization file is in the man page for
93 <emphasis>inittab</emphasis>. For LFS, the key command that is run is
94 <command>rc</command>. The initialization file above will instruct
95 <command>rc</command> to run all the scripts starting with an S in the
96 <filename class="directory">/etc/rc.d/rcS.d</filename> directory
97 followed by all the scripts starting with an S in the <filename
98 class="directory">/etc/rc.d/rc?.d</filename> directory where the question
99 mark is specified by the initdefault value.</para>
101 <para>As a convenience, the <command>rc</command> script reads a library of
102 functions in <filename class="directory">/lib/lsb/init-functions</filename>.
103 This library also reads an optional configuration file,
104 <filename>/etc/sysconfig/</filename>. Any of the system
105 configuration file parameters described in subsequent sections can be
106 alternatively placed in this file allowing consolidation of all system
107 parameters in this one file.</para>
109 <para>As a debugging convenience, the functions script also logs all output
110 to <filename>/run/var/bootlog</filename>. Since the <filename
111 class="directory">/run</filename> directory is a tmpfs, this file is not
112 persistent across boots, however it is appended to the more permanent file
113 <filename>/var/log/boot.log</filename> at the end of the boot process.</para>
115 <sect3 id="init-levels" >
116 <title>Changing Run Levels</title>
118 <para>Changing run-levels is done with <command>init
119 <replaceable>&lt;runlevel&gt;</replaceable></command>, where
120 <replaceable>&lt;runlevel&gt;</replaceable> is the target run-level. For example, to
121 reboot the computer, a user could issue the <command>init 6</command> command,
122 which is an alias for the <command>reboot</command> command. Likewise,
123 <command>init 0</command> is an alias for the <command>halt</command>
124 command.</para>
126 <para>There are a number of directories under <filename
127 class="directory">/etc/rc.d</filename> that look like <filename
128 class="directory">rc?.d</filename> (where ? is the number of the run-level) and
129 <filename class="directory">rcsysinit.d</filename>, all containing a number of
130 symbolic links. Some begin with a <emphasis>K</emphasis>, the others begin with
131 an <emphasis>S</emphasis>, and all of them have two numbers following the
132 initial letter. The K means to stop (kill) a service and the S means to start a
133 service. The numbers determine the order in which the scripts are run, from 00
134 to 99&mdash;the lower the number the earlier it gets executed. When
135 <command>init</command> switches to another run-level, the appropriate services
136 are either started or stopped, depending on the runlevel chosen.</para>
138 <para>The real scripts are in <filename
139 class="directory">/etc/rc.d/init.d</filename>. They do the actual work, and
140 the symlinks all point to them. K links and S links point to
141 the same script in <filename class="directory">/etc/rc.d/init.d</filename>.
142 This is because the scripts can be called with different parameters like
143 <parameter>start</parameter>, <parameter>stop</parameter>,
144 <parameter>restart</parameter>, <parameter>reload</parameter>, and
145 <parameter>status</parameter>. When a K link is encountered, the appropriate
146 script is run with the <parameter>stop</parameter> argument. When an S link
147 is encountered, the appropriate script is run with the
148 <parameter>start</parameter> argument.</para>
150 <para>There is one exception to this explanation. Links that start
151 with an <emphasis>S</emphasis> in the <filename
152 class="directory">rc0.d</filename> and <filename
153 class="directory">rc6.d</filename> directories will not cause anything
154 to be started. They will be called with the parameter
155 <parameter>stop</parameter> to stop something. The logic behind this
156 is that when a user is going to reboot or halt the system, nothing
157 needs to be started. The system only needs to be stopped.</para>
159 <para>These are descriptions of what the arguments make the scripts
160 do:</para>
162 <variablelist>
164 <varlistentry>
165 <term><parameter>start</parameter></term>
166 <listitem>
167 <para>The service is started.</para>
168 </listitem>
169 </varlistentry>
171 <varlistentry>
172 <term><parameter>stop</parameter></term>
173 <listitem>
174 <para>The service is stopped.</para>
175 </listitem>
176 </varlistentry>
178 <varlistentry>
179 <term><parameter>restart</parameter></term>
180 <listitem>
181 <para>The service is stopped and then started again.</para>
182 </listitem>
183 </varlistentry>
185 <varlistentry>
186 <term><parameter>reload</parameter></term>
187 <listitem>
188 <para>The configuration of the service is updated.
189 This is used after the configuration file of a service was modified, when
190 the service does not need to be restarted.</para>
191 </listitem>
192 </varlistentry>
194 <varlistentry>
195 <term><parameter>status</parameter></term>
196 <listitem>
197 <para>Tells if the service is running and with which PIDs.</para>
198 </listitem>
199 </varlistentry>
201 </variablelist>
203 <para>Feel free to modify the way the boot process works (after all,
204 it is your own LFS system). The files given here are an example of how
205 it can be done.</para>
207 </sect3>
208 </sect2>
210 <sect2>
211 <title>Udev Bootscripts</title>
213 <para>The <filename>/etc/rc.d/init.d/udev</filename> initscript starts
214 <command>udevd</command>, triggers any "coldplug" devices that have
215 already been created by the kernel and waits for any rules to complete.
216 The script also unsets the uevent handler from the default of
217 <filename>/sbin/hotplug </filename>. This is done because the kernel no
218 longer needs to call out to an external binary. Instead
219 <command>udevd</command> will listen on a netlink socket for uevents that
220 the kernel raises.</para>
222 <para>The <command>/etc/rc.d/init.d/udev_retry</command> initscript takes
223 care of re-triggering events for subsystems whose rules may rely on
224 filesystems that are not mounted until the <command>mountfs</command>
225 script is run (in particular, <filename class="directory">/usr</filename>
226 and <filename class="directory">/var</filename> may cause this). This
227 script runs after the <command>mountfs</command> script, so those rules
228 (if re-triggered) should succeed the second time around. It is
229 configured from the <filename>/etc/sysconfig/udev_retry</filename> file;
230 any words in this file other than comments are considered subsystem names
231 to trigger at retry time. To find the subsystem of a device, use
232 <command>udevadm info --attribute-walk &lt;device&gt;</command> where
233 &lt;device&gt; is an absolute path in /dev or /sys such as /dev/sr0 or
234 /sys/class/rtc.</para>
236 <para>For information on kernel module loading and udev, see
237 <xref linkend="module-loading"/>.</para>
239 <sect3>
240 <title>Module Loading</title>
242 <para>Device drivers compiled as modules may have aliases built into them.
243 Aliases are visible in the output of the <command>modinfo</command>
244 program and are usually related to the bus-specific identifiers of devices
245 supported by a module. For example, the <emphasis>snd-fm801</emphasis>
246 driver supports PCI devices with vendor ID 0x1319 and device ID 0x0801,
247 and has an alias of <quote>pci:v00001319d00000801sv*sd*bc04sc01i*</quote>.
248 For most devices, the bus driver exports the alias of the driver that
249 would handle the device via <systemitem
250 class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem>. E.g., the
251 <filename>/sys/bus/pci/devices/0000:00:0d.0/modalias</filename> file
252 might contain the string
253 <quote>pci:v00001319d00000801sv00001319sd00001319bc04sc01i00</quote>.
254 The default rules provided with Udev will cause <command>udevd</command>
255 to call out to <command>/sbin/modprobe</command> with the contents of the
256 <envar>MODALIAS</envar> uevent environment variable (which should be the
257 same as the contents of the <filename>modalias</filename> file in sysfs),
258 thus loading all modules whose aliases match this string after wildcard
259 expansion.</para>
261 <para>In this example, this means that, in addition to
262 <emphasis>snd-fm801</emphasis>, the obsolete (and unwanted)
263 <emphasis>forte</emphasis> driver will be loaded if it is
264 available. See below for ways in which the loading of unwanted drivers can
265 be prevented.</para>
267 <para>The kernel itself is also able to load modules for network
268 protocols, filesystems and NLS support on demand.</para>
270 </sect3>
272 <sect3>
273 <title>Handling Hotpluggable/Dynamic Devices</title>
275 <para>When you plug in a device, such as a Universal Serial Bus (USB) MP3
276 player, the kernel recognizes that the device is now connected and
277 generates a uevent. This uevent is then handled by
278 <command>udevd</command> as described above.</para>
280 </sect3>
282 </sect2>
284 <sect2 id="ch-config-clock">
285 <title>Configuring the System Clock</title>
287 <indexterm zone="ch-config-clock">
288 <primary sortas="d-setclock">setclock</primary>
289 <secondary>configuring</secondary></indexterm>
291 <para>The <command>setclock</command> script reads the time from the hardware
292 clock, also known as the BIOS or the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
293 (CMOS) clock. If the hardware clock is set to UTC, this script will convert the
294 hardware clock's time to the local time using the
295 <filename>/etc/localtime</filename> file (which tells the
296 <command>hwclock</command> program which timezone the user is in). There is no
297 way to detect whether or not the hardware clock is set to UTC, so this
298 needs to be configured manually.</para>
300 <para>The <command>setclock</command> is run via
301 <application>udev</application> when the kernel detects the hardware
302 capability upon boot. It can also be run manually with the stop parameter to
303 store the system time to the CMOS clock.</para>
305 <para>If you cannot remember whether or not the hardware clock is set to UTC,
306 find out by running the <userinput>hwclock --localtime --show</userinput>
307 command. This will display what the current time is according to the hardware
308 clock. If this time matches whatever your watch says, then the hardware clock is
309 set to local time. If the output from <command>hwclock</command> is not local
310 time, chances are it is set to UTC time. Verify this by adding or subtracting
311 the proper amount of hours for the timezone to the time shown by
312 <command>hwclock</command>. For example, if you are currently in the MST
313 timezone, which is also known as GMT -0700, add seven hours to the local
314 time.</para>
316 <para>Change the value of the <envar>UTC</envar> variable below
317 to a value of <parameter>0</parameter> (zero) if the hardware clock
318 is <emphasis>not</emphasis> set to UTC time.</para>
320 <para>Create a new file <filename>/etc/sysconfig/clock</filename> by running
321 the following:</para>
323<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/sysconfig/clock &lt;&lt; "EOF"
324<literal># Begin /etc/sysconfig/clock
328# Set this to any options you might need to give to hwclock,
329# such as machine hardware clock type for Alphas.
332# End /etc/sysconfig/clock</literal>
335 <para>A good hint explaining how to deal with time on LFS is available
336 at <ulink url="&hints-root;time.txt"/>. It explains issues such as
337 time zones, UTC, and the <envar>TZ</envar> environment variable.</para>
339 <note><para>The CLOCKPARAMS and UTC paramaters may be alternatively set
340 in the <filename>/etc/sysconfig/</filename> file.</para></note>
342 </sect2>
344 <sect2 id="ch-config-console">
345 <?dbhtml filename="console.html"?>
347 <title>Configuring the Linux Console</title>
349 <indexterm zone="ch-config-console">
350 <primary sortas="d-console">console</primary>
351 <secondary>configuring</secondary>
352 </indexterm>
354 <para>This section discusses how to configure the <command>console</command>
355 bootscript that sets up the keyboard map, console font and console kernel log
356 level. If non-ASCII characters (e.g., the copyright sign, the British pound
357 sign and Euro symbol) will not be used and the keyboard is a U.S. one, much
358 of this section can be skipped. Without the configuration file, (or
359 equivalent settings in <filename></filename>), the
360 <command>console</command> bootscript will do nothing.</para>
362 <para>The <command>console</command> script reads the
363 <filename>/etc/sysconfig/console</filename> file for configuration
364 information. Decide which keymap and screen font will be used. Various
365 language-specific HOWTOs can also help with this, see <ulink
366 url=""/>. If still in
367 doubt, look in the <filename class="directory">/usr/share/keymaps</filename>
368 and <filename class="directory">/usr/share/consolefonts</filename> directories
369 for valid keymaps and screen fonts. Read <filename>loadkeys(1)</filename> and
370 <filename>setfont(8)</filename> manual pages to determine the correct
371 arguments for these programs.</para>
373 <para>The <filename>/etc/sysconfig/console</filename> file should contain lines
374 of the form: VARIABLE="value". The following variables are recognized:</para>
375 <variablelist>
377 <varlistentry>
378 <term>LOGLEVEL</term>
379 <listitem>
380 <para>This variable specifies the log level for kernel messages sent
381 to the console as set by <command>dmesg -n</command>. Valid levels are
382 from "1" (no messages) to "8". The default level is "7".</para>
383 </listitem>
384 </varlistentry>
386 <varlistentry>
387 <term>KEYMAP</term>
388 <listitem>
389 <para>This variable specifies the arguments for the
390 <command>loadkeys</command> program, typically, the name of keymap
391 to load, e.g., <quote>it</quote>. If this variable is not set, the
392 bootscript will not run the <command>loadkeys</command> program,
393 and the default kernel keymap will be used. Note that a few keymaps
394 have multiple versions with the same name (cz and its variants in
395 qwerty/ and qwertz/, es in olpc/ and qwerty/, and trf in fgGIod/ and
396 qwerty/). In these cases the parent directory should also be specified
397 (e.g. qwerty/es) to ensure the proper keymap is loaded.
398 </para>
399 </listitem>
400 </varlistentry>
402 <varlistentry>
403 <term>KEYMAP_CORRECTIONS</term>
404 <listitem>
405 <para>This (rarely used) variable
406 specifies the arguments for the second call to the
407 <command>loadkeys</command> program. This is useful if the stock keymap
408 is not completely satisfactory and a small adjustment has to be made. E.g.,
409 to include the Euro sign into a keymap that normally doesn't have it,
410 set this variable to <quote>euro2</quote>.</para>
411 </listitem>
412 </varlistentry>
414 <varlistentry>
415 <term>FONT</term>
416 <listitem>
417 <para>This variable specifies the arguments for the
418 <command>setfont</command> program. Typically, this includes the font
419 name, <quote>-m</quote>, and the name of the application character
420 map to load. E.g., in order to load the <quote>lat1-16</quote> font
421 together with the <quote>8859-1</quote> application character map
422 (as it is appropriate in the USA),
423 <!-- because of the copyright sign -->
424 set this variable to <quote>lat1-16 -m 8859-1</quote>.
425 In UTF-8 mode, the kernel uses the application character map for
426 conversion of composed 8-bit key codes in the keymap to UTF-8, and thus
427 the argument of the "-m" parameter should be set to the encoding of the
428 composed key codes in the keymap.</para>
430 </listitem>
431 </varlistentry>
433 <varlistentry>
434 <term>UNICODE</term>
435 <listitem>
436 <para>Set this variable to <quote>1</quote>, <quote>yes</quote> or
437 <quote>true</quote> in order to put the
438 console into UTF-8 mode. This is useful in UTF-8 based locales and
439 harmful otherwise.</para>
440 </listitem>
441 </varlistentry>
443 <varlistentry>
444 <term>LEGACY_CHARSET</term>
445 <listitem>
446 <para>For many keyboard layouts, there is no stock Unicode keymap in
447 the Kbd package. The <command>console</command> bootscript will
448 convert an available keymap to UTF-8 on the fly if this variable is
449 set to the encoding of the available non-UTF-8 keymap.</para>
450 </listitem>
451 </varlistentry>
453 </variablelist>
455 <para>Some examples:</para>
457 <itemizedlist>
459 <listitem>
460 <para>For a non-Unicode setup, only the KEYMAP and FONT variables are
461 generally needed. E.g., for a Polish setup, one would use:</para>
462<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/sysconfig/console &lt;&lt; "EOF"
463<literal># Begin /etc/sysconfig/console
466FONT="lat2a-16 -m 8859-2"
468# End /etc/sysconfig/console</literal>
470 </listitem>
472 <listitem>
473 <para>As mentioned above, it is sometimes necessary to adjust a
474 stock keymap slightly. The following example adds the Euro symbol to the
475 German keymap:</para>
477<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/sysconfig/console &lt;&lt; "EOF"
478<literal># Begin /etc/sysconfig/console
482FONT="lat0-16 -m 8859-15"
485# End /etc/sysconfig/console</literal>
487 </listitem>
489 <listitem>
490 <para>The following is a Unicode-enabled example for Bulgarian, where a
491 stock UTF-8 keymap exists:</para>
492<!-- This is what is used by jhalfs for creating the console file: whenever
493 you change the following, please inform the jhalfs maintainer(s). -->
494<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/sysconfig/console &lt;&lt; "EOF"
495<literal># Begin /etc/sysconfig/console
501# End /etc/sysconfig/console</literal>
503 </listitem>
505 <listitem>
506 <para>Due to the use of a 512-glyph LatArCyrHeb-16 font in the previous
507 example, bright colors are no longer available on the Linux console unless
508 a framebuffer is used. If one wants to have bright colors without
509 framebuffer and can live without characters not belonging to his language,
510 it is still possible to use a language-specific 256-glyph font, as
511 illustrated below:</para>
513<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/sysconfig/console &lt;&lt; "EOF"
514<literal># Begin /etc/sysconfig/console
520# End /etc/sysconfig/console</literal>
522 </listitem>
524 <listitem>
525 <para>The following example illustrates keymap autoconversion from
526 ISO-8859-15 to UTF-8 and enabling dead keys in Unicode mode:</para>
528<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/sysconfig/console &lt;&lt; "EOF"
529<literal># Begin /etc/sysconfig/console
535FONT="LatArCyrHeb-16 -m 8859-15"
537# End /etc/sysconfig/console</literal>
539 </listitem>
541 <listitem>
542 <para>Some keymaps have dead keys (i.e., keys that don't produce a
543 character by themselves, but put an accent on the character produced
544 by the next key) or define composition rules (such as: <quote>press
545 Ctrl+. A E to get &AElig;</quote> in the default keymap).
546 Linux-&linux-version; interprets dead keys and composition rules in the
547 keymap correctly only when the source characters to be composed together
548 are not multibyte. This deficiency doesn't affect keymaps for European
549 languages, because there accents are added to unaccented ASCII
550 characters, or two ASCII characters are composed together. However, in
551 UTF-8 mode it is a problem, e.g., for the Greek language, where one
552 sometimes needs to put an accent on the letter <quote>alpha</quote>.
553 The solution is either to avoid the use of UTF-8, or to install the
554 X window system that doesn't have this limitation in its input
555 handling.</para>
556 </listitem>
558 <listitem>
559 <para>For Chinese, Japanese, Korean and some other languages, the Linux
560 console cannot be configured to display the needed characters. Users
561 who need such languages should install the X Window System, fonts that
562 cover the necessary character ranges, and the proper input method (e.g.,
563 SCIM, it supports a wide variety of languages).</para>
564 </listitem>
566 </itemizedlist>
568 <!-- Added because folks keep posting their console file with X questions
569 to blfs-support list -->
570 <note>
571 <para>The <filename>/etc/sysconfig/console</filename> file only controls
572 the Linux text console localization. It has nothing to do with setting
573 the proper keyboard layout and terminal fonts in the X Window System, with
574 ssh sessions or with a serial console. In such situations, limitations
575 mentioned in the last two list items above do not apply.</para>
576 </note>
578 </sect2>
580 <sect2 id="ch-config-createfiles">
581 <title>Creating Files at Boot</title>
583 <indexterm zone="ch-config-createfiles">
584 <primary sortas="d-createfiles">File creation at boot</primary>
585 <secondary>configuring</secondary>
586 </indexterm>
588 <para>At times, it is desired to create files at boot time. For instance,
589 the <filename class="directory">/tmp/.ICE-unix</filename> directory
590 may be desired. This can be done by creating an entry in the
591 <filename>/etc/sysconfig/createfiles</filename> configuration script.
592 The format of this file is embedded in the comments of the default
593 configuration file.</para>
594 </sect2>
596 <sect2 id="ch-config-sysklogd">
597 <title>Configuring the sysklogd Script</title>
599 <indexterm zone="ch-config-sysklogd">
600 <primary sortas="d-sysklogd">sysklogd</primary>
601 <secondary>configuring</secondary>
602 </indexterm>
604 <para>The <filename>sysklogd</filename> script invokes the
605 <command>syslogd</command> program as a part of System V initialization. The
606 <parameter>-m 0</parameter> option turns off the periodic timestamp mark that
607 <command>syslogd</command> writes to the log files every 20 minutes by
608 default. If you want to turn on this periodic timestamp mark, edit
609 <filename>/etc/sysconfig/</filename> and define the variable
610 SYSKLOGD_PARMS to the desired value. For instance, to remove all parameters,
611 set the variable to a null value:</para>
613<screen role="nodump">SYSKLOGD_PARMS=</screen>
615 <para>See <userinput>man syslogd</userinput> for more options.</para>
617 </sect2>
619 <sect2 id="ch-config-site">
620 <title>The File</title>
622 <indexterm zone="ch-config-site">
623 <primary sortas=""></primary>
624 </indexterm>
626 <para>The optional <filename>/etc/sysconfig/</filename> file contains
627 settings that are automatically set for each SystemV boot script. It can
628 alternatively set the values specified in the <filename>hostname</filename>,
629 <filename>console</filename>, and <filename>clock</filename> files in the
630 <filename class='directory'>/etc/sysconfig/</filename> directory. If the
631 associated variables are present in both these separate files and
632 <filename></filename>, the values in the script specific files have
633 precedence. </para>
635 <para><filename></filename> also contains parameters that can
636 customize other aspects of the boot process. Setting the IPROMPT variable
637 will enable selective running of bootscripts. Other options are described
638 in the file comments. The default version of the file is as follows:</para>
640 <!-- Use role to fix a pdf generation problem -->
641 <screen role="auto">&site;</screen>
643 <sect3>
644 <title>Customizing the Boot and Shutdown Scripts</title>
646 <para>The LFS boot scripts boot and shut down a system in a fairly
647 efficient manner, but there are a few tweaks that you can make in the
648 file to improve speed even more and to adjust messages according
649 to your preferences. To do this, adjust the settings in
650 the <filename>/etc/sysconfig/</filename> file above.</para>
652 <itemizedlist>
654 <listitem><para>During the boot script <filename>udev</filename>, there is
655 a call to <command>udev settle</command> that requires some time to
656 complete. This time may or may not be required depending on devices present
657 in the system. If you only have simple partitions and a single ethernet
658 card, the boot process will probably not need to wait for this command. To
659 skip it, set the variable OMIT_UDEV_SETTLE=y.</para></listitem>
661 <listitem><para>The boot script <filename>udev_retry</filename> also runs
662 <command>udev settle</command> by default. This command is only needed by
663 default if the <filename class='directory'>/var</filename> directory is
664 separately mounted. This is because the clock needs the file
665 <filename>/var/lib/hwclock/adjtime</filename>. Other customizations may
666 also need to wait for udev to complete, but in many installations it is not
667 needed. Skip the command by setting the variable OMIT_UDEV_RETRY_SETTLE=y.
668 </para></listitem>
670 <listitem><para>By default, the file system checks are silent. This can
671 appear to be a delay during the bootup process. To turn on the
672 <command>fsck</command> output, set the variable VERBOSE_FSCK=y.
673 </para></listitem>
675 <listitem><para>When rebooting, you may want to skip the filesystem check,
676 <command>fsck</command>, completely. To do this, either create the file
677 <filename>/fastboot</filename> or reboot the system with the command
678 <command>/sbin/shutdown -f -r now</command>. On the other hand, you can
679 force all file systems to be checked by creating
680 <filename>/forcefsck</filename> or running <command>shutdown</command> with
681 the <parameter>-F</parameter> parameter instead of <parameter>-f</parameter>.
682 </para>
684 <para>Setting the variable FASTBOOT=y will disable <command>fsck</command>
685 during the boot process until it is removed. This is not recommended
686 on a permanent basis.</para></listitem>
688 <listitem><para>Normally, all files in the <filename
689 class='directory'>/tmp</filename> directory are deleted at boot time.
690 Depending on the number of files or directories present, this can cause a
691 noticeable delay in the boot process. To skip removing these files set the
692 variable SKIPTMPCLEAN=y.</para></listitem>
694 <listitem><para>During shutdown, the <command>init</command> program sends
695 a TERM signal to each program it has started (e.g. agetty), waits for a set
696 time (default 3 seconds), and sends each process a KILL signal and waits
697 again. This process is repeated in the <command>sendsignals</command>
698 script for any processes that are not shut down by their own scripts. The
699 delay for <command>init</command> can be set by passing a parameter. For
700 example to remove the delay in <command>init</command>, pass the -t0
701 parameter when shutting down or rebooting (e.g. <command>/sbin/shutdown
702 -t0 -r now</command>). The delay for the <command>sendsignals</command>
703 script can be skipped by setting the parameter
704 KILLDELAY=0.</para></listitem>
706 </itemizedlist>
708 </sect3>
709 </sect2>
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