source: chapter10/kernel.xml@ 22009fb

10.1 10.1-rc1 11.0 11.0-rc1 11.0-rc2 11.0-rc3 ml-11.0 multilib trunk xry111/git-transition xry111/glibc-2.34 xry111/tester-nohack xry111/usr-move
Last change on this file since 22009fb was 22009fb, checked in by Douglas R. Reno <renodr@…>, 12 months ago

Update to systemd-247
Update to bc-3.2.3
Update to linux-5.9.12
Incorporate kernel changes from rhubarbpieguy

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/trunk/BOOK@12065 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 17.1 KB
Line 
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-bootable-kernel" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="kernel.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>kernel</productname>
13 <productnumber>&linux-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&linux-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Linux-&linux-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-bootable-kernel">
20 <primary sortas="a-Linux">Linux</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Linux package contains the Linux kernel.</para>
27
28 <segmentedlist>
29 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
30 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
31
32 <seglistitem>
33 <seg>&linux-knl-sbu;</seg>
34 <seg>&linux-knl-du;</seg>
35 </seglistitem>
36 </segmentedlist>
37
38 </sect2>
39
40 <sect2 role="installation">
41 <title>Installation of the kernel</title>
42
43 <para>Building the kernel involves a few steps&mdash;configuration,
44 compilation, and installation. Read the <filename>README</filename> file
45 in the kernel source tree for alternative methods to the way this book
46 configures the kernel.</para>
47
48 <para>Prepare for compilation by running the following command:</para>
49
50<screen><userinput remap="pre">make mrproper</userinput></screen>
51
52 <para>This ensures that the kernel tree is absolutely clean. The
53 kernel team recommends that this command be issued prior to each
54 kernel compilation. Do not rely on the source tree being clean after
55 un-tarring.</para>
56
57 <para>There are several ways to configure the kernel options. Usually,
58 This is done through a menu-driven interface, for example:</para>
59
60<screen role="nodump"><userinput>make menuconfig</userinput></screen>
61
62 <variablelist>
63 <title>The meaning of optional make environment variables:</title>
64
65 <varlistentry>
66 <term><parameter>LANG=&lt;host_LANG_value&gt; LC_ALL=</parameter></term>
67 <listitem>
68 <para>This establishes the locale setting to the one used on the
69 host. This may be needed for a proper menuconfig ncurses interface
70 line drawing on a UTF-8 linux text console.</para>
71
72 <para>If used, be sure to replace
73 <replaceable>&lt;host_LANG_value&gt;</replaceable> by the value of
74 the <envar>$LANG</envar> variable from your host. You can
75 alternatively use instead the host's value of <envar>$LC_ALL</envar>
76 or <envar>$LC_CTYPE</envar>.</para>
77 </listitem>
78 </varlistentry>
79
80 <varlistentry>
81 <term><command>make menuconfig</command></term>
82 <listitem>
83 <para>This launches an ncurses menu-driven interface. For other
84 (graphical) interfaces, type <command>make help</command>.</para>
85 </listitem>
86 </varlistentry>
87 </variablelist>
88
89 <!-- Support for compiling a keymap into the kernel is deliberately removed -->
90
91 <para>For general information on kernel configuration see <ulink
92 url="&hints-root;kernel-configuration.txt"/>. BLFS has some information
93 regarding particular kernel configuration requirements of packages outside
94 of LFS at <ulink
95 url="&blfs-book;longindex.html#kernel-config-index"/>. Additional
96 information about configuring and building the kernel can be found at
97 <ulink url="http://www.kroah.com/lkn/"/> </para>
98
99 <note>
100
101 <para>A good starting place for setting up the kernel configuration is to
102 run <command>make defconfig</command>. This will set the base
103 configuration to a good state that takes your current system architecture
104 into account.</para>
105
106 <para>Be sure to enable/disable/set the following features or the system might
107 not work correctly or boot at all:</para>
108
109 <screen role="nodump" revision="sysv">Device Drivers ---&gt;
110 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
111 [ ] Support for uevent helper [CONFIG_UEVENT_HELPER]
112 [*] Maintain a devtmpfs filesystem to mount at /dev [CONFIG_DEVTMPFS]</screen>
113
114 <screen role="nodump" revision="systemd">General setup -->
115 [ ] Auditing Support [CONFIG_AUDIT]
116 [*] Control Group support [CONFIG_CGROUPS]
117 [ ] Enable deprecated sysfs features to support old userspace tools [CONFIG_SYSFS_DEPRECATED]
118 [*] Configure standard kernel features (expert users) [CONFIG_EXPERT] ---&gt;
119 [*] open by fhandle syscalls [CONFIG_FHANDLE]
120Processor type and features ---&gt;
121 [*] Enable seccomp to safely compute untrusted bytecode [CONFIG_SECCOMP]
122Firmware Drivers ---&gt;
123 [*] Export DMI identification via sysfs to userspace [CONFIG_DMIID]
124Networking support ---&gt;
125 Networking options ---&gt;
126 &lt;*&gt; The IPv6 protocol [CONFIG_IPV6]
127Device Drivers ---&gt;
128 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
129 [ ] Support for uevent helper [CONFIG_UEVENT_HELPER]
130 [*] Maintain a devtmpfs filesystem to mount at /dev [CONFIG_DEVTMPFS]
131 Firmware Loader ---&gt;
132 [ ] Enable the firmware sysfs fallback mechanism [CONFIG_FW_LOADER_USER_HELPER]
133File systems ---&gt;
134 [*] Inotify support for userspace [CONFIG_INOTIFY_USER]
135 Pseudo filesystems ---&gt;
136 [*] Tmpfs POSIX Access Control Lists [CONFIG_TMPFS_POSIX_ACL]</screen>
137 </note>
138
139 <note revision="systemd">
140 <para>While "The IPv6 Protocol" is not strictly
141 required, it is highly recommended by the systemd developers.</para>
142 </note>
143
144 <para revision="sysv">There are several other options that may be desired
145 depending on the requirements for the system. For a list of options needed
146 for BLFS packages, see the <ulink
147 url="&lfs-root;blfs/view/&short-version;/longindex.html#kernel-config-index">BLFS
148 Index of Kernel Settings</ulink>
149 (&lfs-root;blfs/view/&short-version;/longindex.html#kernel-config-index).</para>
150
151 <note>
152 <para>If your host hardware is using UEFI, then the 'make defconfig'
153 above should automatically add in some EFI-related kernel options.</para>
154
155 <para>In order to allow your LFS kernel to be booted from within your
156 host's UEFI boot environment, your kernel must have this option
157 selected:</para>
158
159<screen role="nodump">Processor type and features ---&gt;
160 [*] EFI stub support [CONFIG_EFI_STUB]</screen>
161
162 <para>A fuller description of managing UEFI environments from within LFS
163 is covered by the lfs-uefi.txt hint at
164 <ulink
165 url="&hints-root;lfs-uefi.txt"/>.
166 </para>
167 </note>
168
169 <variablelist>
170 <title>The rationale for the above configuration items:</title>
171
172 <varlistentry>
173 <term><parameter>Support for uevent helper</parameter></term>
174 <listitem>
175 <para>Having this option set may interfere with device
176 management when using Udev/Eudev. </para>
177 </listitem>
178 </varlistentry>
179
180 <varlistentry>
181 <term><parameter>Maintain a devtmpfs</parameter></term>
182 <listitem>
183 <para>This will create automated device nodes which are populated by the
184 kernel, even without Udev running. Udev then runs on top of this,
185 managing permissions and adding symlinks. This configuration
186 item is required for all users of Udev/Eudev.</para>
187 </listitem>
188 </varlistentry>
189
190 </variablelist>
191
192 <para>Alternatively, <command>make oldconfig</command> may be more
193 appropriate in some situations. See the <filename>README</filename>
194 file for more information.</para>
195
196 <para>If desired, skip kernel configuration by copying the kernel
197 config file, <filename>.config</filename>, from the host system
198 (assuming it is available) to the unpacked <filename
199 class="directory">linux-&linux-version;</filename> directory. However,
200 we do not recommend this option. It is often better to explore all the
201 configuration menus and create the kernel configuration from
202 scratch.</para>
203
204 <para>Compile the kernel image and modules:</para>
205
206<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
207
208 <para>If using kernel modules, module configuration in <filename
209 class="directory">/etc/modprobe.d</filename> may be required.
210 Information pertaining to modules and kernel configuration is
211 located in <xref linkend="ch-config-udev"/> and in the kernel
212 documentation in the <filename
213 class="directory">linux-&linux-version;/Documentation</filename> directory.
214 Also, <filename>modprobe.d(5)</filename> may be of interest.</para>
215
216 <para>Unless module support has been disabled in the kernel configuration,
217 install the modules with:</para>
218
219<screen><userinput remap="install">make modules_install</userinput></screen>
220
221 <para>After kernel compilation is complete, additional steps are
222 required to complete the installation. Some files need to be copied to
223 the <filename class="directory">/boot</filename> directory.</para>
224
225 <caution>
226 <para>If the host system has a separate /boot partition, the files copied
227 below should go there. The easiest way to do that is to bind /boot on the
228 host (outside chroot) to /mnt/lfs/boot before proceeding. As the root
229 user in the <emphasis>host system</emphasis>:</para>
230
231<screen role="nodump"><userinput>mount --bind /boot /mnt/lfs/boot</userinput></screen>
232 </caution>
233
234 <para>The path to the kernel image may vary depending on the platform being
235 used. The filename below can be changed to suit your taste, but the stem of
236 the filename should be <emphasis>vmlinuz</emphasis> to be compatible with
237 the automatic setup of the boot process described in the next section. The
238 following command assumes an x86 architecture:</para>
239
240<screen revision="sysv"><userinput remap="install">cp -iv arch/x86/boot/bzImage /boot/vmlinuz-&linux-version;-lfs-&version;</userinput></screen>
241
242<screen revision="systemd"><userinput remap="install">cp -iv arch/x86/boot/bzImage /boot/vmlinuz-&linux-version;-lfs-&versiond;</userinput></screen>
243
244 <para><filename>System.map</filename> is a symbol file for the kernel.
245 It maps the function entry points of every function in the kernel API,
246 as well as the addresses of the kernel data structures for the running
247 kernel. It is used as a resource when investigating kernel problems.
248 Issue the following command to install the map file:</para>
249
250<screen><userinput remap="install">cp -iv System.map /boot/System.map-&linux-version;</userinput></screen>
251
252 <para>The kernel configuration file <filename>.config</filename>
253 produced by the <command>make menuconfig</command> step
254 above contains all the configuration selections for the kernel
255 that was just compiled. It is a good idea to keep this file for future
256 reference:</para>
257
258<screen><userinput remap="install">cp -iv .config /boot/config-&linux-version;</userinput></screen>
259
260 <para>Install the documentation for the Linux kernel:</para>
261
262<screen><userinput remap="install">install -d /usr/share/doc/linux-&linux-version;
263cp -r Documentation/* /usr/share/doc/linux-&linux-version;</userinput></screen>
264
265 <para>It is important to note that the files in the kernel source
266 directory are not owned by <emphasis>root</emphasis>. Whenever a
267 package is unpacked as user <emphasis>root</emphasis> (like we did
268 inside chroot), the files have the user and group IDs of whatever
269 they were on the packager's computer. This is usually not a problem
270 for any other package to be installed because the source tree is
271 removed after the installation. However, the Linux source tree is
272 often retained for a long time. Because of this, there is a chance
273 that whatever user ID the packager used will be assigned to somebody
274 on the machine. That person would then have write access to the kernel
275 source.</para>
276
277 <note>
278 <para>In many cases, the configuration of the kernel will need to be
279 updated for packages that will be installed later in BLFS. Unlike
280 other packages, it is not necessary to remove the kernel source tree
281 after the newly built kernel is installed.</para>
282
283 <para>If the kernel source tree is going to be retained, run
284 <command>chown -R 0:0</command> on the <filename
285 class="directory">linux-&linux-version;</filename> directory to ensure
286 all files are owned by user <emphasis>root</emphasis>.</para>
287 </note>
288
289 <warning>
290 <para>Some kernel documentation recommends creating a symlink from
291 <filename class="symlink">/usr/src/linux</filename> pointing to the kernel
292 source directory. This is specific to kernels prior to the 2.6 series and
293 <emphasis>must not</emphasis> be created on an LFS system as it can cause
294 problems for packages you may wish to build once your base LFS system is
295 complete.</para>
296 </warning>
297
298 <warning>
299 <para>The headers in the system's <filename
300 class="directory">include</filename> directory (<filename
301 class="directory">/usr/include</filename>) should
302 <emphasis>always</emphasis> be the ones against which Glibc was compiled,
303 that is, the sanitised headers installed in <xref
304 linkend="ch-tools-linux-headers"/>. Therefore, they should
305 <emphasis>never</emphasis> be replaced by either the raw kernel headers
306 or any other kernel sanitized headers.</para>
307 </warning>
308
309 </sect2>
310
311 <sect2 id="conf-modprobe" role="configuration">
312 <title>Configuring Linux Module Load Order</title>
313
314 <indexterm zone="conf-modprobe">
315 <primary sortas="e-/etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf">/etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf</primary>
316 </indexterm>
317
318 <para>Most of the time Linux modules are loaded automatically, but
319 sometimes it needs some specific direction. The program that loads
320 modules, <command>modprobe</command> or <command>insmod</command>, uses
321 <filename>/etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf</filename> for this purpose. This file
322 needs to be created so that if the USB drivers (ehci_hcd, ohci_hcd and
323 uhci_hcd) have been built as modules, they will be loaded in the correct
324 order; ehci_hcd needs to be loaded prior to ohci_hcd and uhci_hcd in order
325 to avoid a warning being output at boot time.</para>
326
327 <para>Create a new file <filename>/etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf</filename> by running
328 the following:</para>
329
330<screen><userinput>install -v -m755 -d /etc/modprobe.d
331cat &gt; /etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
332<literal># Begin /etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf
333
334install ohci_hcd /sbin/modprobe ehci_hcd ; /sbin/modprobe -i ohci_hcd ; true
335install uhci_hcd /sbin/modprobe ehci_hcd ; /sbin/modprobe -i uhci_hcd ; true
336
337# End /etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf</literal>
338EOF</userinput></screen>
339
340 </sect2>
341
342 <sect2 id="contents-kernel" role="content">
343 <title>Contents of Linux</title>
344
345 <segmentedlist>
346 <segtitle>Installed files</segtitle>
347 <segtitle>Installed directories</segtitle>
348
349 <seglistitem>
350 <seg>config-&linux-version;,
351 <phrase revision="sysv">vmlinuz-&linux-version;-lfs-&version;,</phrase>
352 <phrase revision="systemd">vmlinuz-&linux-version;-lfs-&versiond;,</phrase>
353 and System.map-&linux-version;</seg>
354 <seg>/lib/modules, /usr/share/doc/linux-&linux-version;</seg>
355 </seglistitem>
356 </segmentedlist>
357
358 <variablelist>
359 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
360 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
361 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
362
363 <varlistentry id="config">
364 <term><filename>config-&linux-version;</filename></term>
365 <listitem>
366 <para>Contains all the configuration selections for the kernel</para>
367 <indexterm zone="ch-bootable-kernel config">
368 <primary sortas="e-/boot/config">/boot/config-&linux-version;</primary>
369 </indexterm>
370 </listitem>
371 </varlistentry>
372
373 <varlistentry id="lfskernel">
374 <term revision="sysv"><filename>vmlinuz-&linux-version;-lfs-&version;</filename></term>
375 <term revision="systemd"><filename>vmlinuz-&linux-version;-lfs-&versiond;</filename></term>
376 <listitem>
377 <para>The engine of the Linux system. When turning on the computer,
378 the kernel is the first part of the operating system that gets loaded.
379 It detects and initializes all components of the computer's hardware,
380 then makes these components available as a tree of files to the
381 software and turns a single CPU into a multitasking machine capable
382 of running scores of programs seemingly at the same time</para>
383 <indexterm zone="ch-bootable-kernel lfskernel">
384 <primary sortas="b-lfskernel">lfskernel-&linux-version;</primary>
385 </indexterm>
386 </listitem>
387 </varlistentry>
388
389 <varlistentry id="System.map">
390 <term><filename>System.map-&linux-version;</filename></term>
391 <listitem>
392 <para>A list of addresses and symbols; it maps the entry points and
393 addresses of all the functions and data structures in the
394 kernel</para>
395 <indexterm zone="ch-bootable-kernel System.map">
396 <primary sortas="e-/boot/System.map">/boot/System.map-&linux-version;</primary>
397 </indexterm>
398 </listitem>
399 </varlistentry>
400
401 </variablelist>
402
403 </sect2>
404
405</sect1>
Note: See TracBrowser for help on using the repository browser.