source: chapter10/kernel.xml@ b2b6c6f

10.0 10.0-rc1 10.1 10.1-rc1 11.0 11.0-rc1 11.0-rc2 11.0-rc3 ml-11.0 multilib trunk xry111/git-transition xry111/glibc-2.34 xry111/tester-nohack xry111/usr-move
Last change on this file since b2b6c6f was b2b6c6f, checked in by Xi Ruoyao <xry111@…>, 16 months ago

kernel: remove another extra empty line

Strangely the empty line seems only in my local rendering.

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/trunk/BOOK@12020 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-bootable-kernel" role="wrap">
9 <?dbhtml filename="kernel.html"?>
10
11 <sect1info condition="script">
12 <productname>kernel</productname>
13 <productnumber>&linux-version;</productnumber>
14 <address>&linux-url;</address>
15 </sect1info>
16
17 <title>Linux-&linux-version;</title>
18
19 <indexterm zone="ch-bootable-kernel">
20 <primary sortas="a-Linux">Linux</primary>
21 </indexterm>
22
23 <sect2 role="package">
24 <title/>
25
26 <para>The Linux package contains the Linux kernel.</para>
27
28 <segmentedlist>
29 <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
30 <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
31
32 <seglistitem>
33 <seg>&linux-knl-sbu;</seg>
34 <seg>&linux-knl-du;</seg>
35 </seglistitem>
36 </segmentedlist>
37
38 </sect2>
39
40 <sect2 role="installation">
41 <title>Installation of the kernel</title>
42
43 <para>Building the kernel involves a few steps&mdash;configuration,
44 compilation, and installation. Read the <filename>README</filename> file
45 in the kernel source tree for alternative methods to the way this book
46 configures the kernel.</para>
47
48 <para>Prepare for compilation by running the following command:</para>
49
50<screen><userinput remap="pre">make mrproper</userinput></screen>
51
52 <para>This ensures that the kernel tree is absolutely clean. The
53 kernel team recommends that this command be issued prior to each
54 kernel compilation. Do not rely on the source tree being clean after
55 un-tarring.</para>
56
57 <!-- Support for compiling a keymap into the kernel is deliberately removed -->
58
59 <para>Configure the kernel via a menu-driven interface. For general
60 information on kernel configuration see <ulink
61 url="&hints-root;kernel-configuration.txt"/>. BLFS has some information
62 regarding particular kernel configuration requirements of packages outside
63 of LFS at <ulink
64 url="&blfs-book;longindex.html#kernel-config-index"/>. Additional
65 information about configuring and building the kernel can be found at
66 <ulink url="http://www.kroah.com/lkn/"/> </para>
67
68 <note>
69
70 <para>A good starting place for setting up the kernel configuration is to
71 run <command>make defconfig</command>. This will set the base
72 configuration to a good state that takes your current system architecture
73 into account.</para>
74
75 <para>Be sure to enable/disable/set the following features or the system might
76 not work correctly or boot at all:</para>
77
78 <screen role="nodump" revision="sysv">Device Drivers ---&gt;
79 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
80 [ ] Support for uevent helper [CONFIG_UEVENT_HELPER]
81 [*] Maintain a devtmpfs filesystem to mount at /dev [CONFIG_DEVTMPFS]</screen>
82
83 <screen role="nodump" revision="systemd">General setup -->
84 [*] Control Group support [CONFIG_CGROUPS]
85 [ ] Enable deprecated sysfs features to support old userspace tools [CONFIG_SYSFS_DEPRECATED]
86 [*] Configure standard kernel features (expert users) [CONFIG_EXPERT] ---&gt;
87 [*] open by fhandle syscalls [CONFIG_FHANDLE]
88 [ ] Auditing support [CONFIG_AUDIT]
89Processor type and features ---&gt;
90 [*] Enable seccomp to safely compute untrusted bytecode [CONFIG_SECCOMP]
91Firmware Drivers ---&gt;
92 [*] Export DMI identification via sysfs to userspace [CONFIG_DMIID]
93Networking support ---&gt;
94 Networking options ---&gt;
95 &lt;*&gt; The IPv6 protocol [CONFIG_IPV6]
96Device Drivers ---&gt;
97 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
98 [ ] Support for uevent helper [CONFIG_UEVENT_HELPER]
99 [*] Maintain a devtmpfs filesystem to mount at /dev [CONFIG_DEVTMPFS]
100 Firmware Loader ---&gt;
101 [ ] Enable the firmware sysfs fallback mechanism [CONFIG_FW_LOADER_USER_HELPER]
102File systems ---&gt;
103 [*] Inotify support for userspace [CONFIG_INOTIFY_USER]
104 &lt;*&gt; Kernel automounter support (supports v3, v4, and v5) [CONFIG_AUTOFS_FS]
105 Pseudo filesystems ---&gt;
106 [*] Tmpfs POSIX Access Control Lists [CONFIG_TMPFS_POSIX_ACL]
107 [*] Tmpfs extended attributes [CONFIG_TMPFS_XATTR]</screen>
108 </note>
109
110 <note revision="systemd">
111 <para>While "The IPv6 Protocol" is not strictly
112 required, it is highly recommended by the systemd developers.</para>
113 </note>
114
115 <para revision="sysv">There are several other options that may be desired
116 depending on the requirements for the system. For a list of options needed
117 for BLFS packages, see the <ulink
118 url="&lfs-root;blfs/view/&short-version;/longindex.html#kernel-config-index">BLFS
119 Index of Kernel Settings</ulink>
120 (&lfs-root;blfs/view/&short-version;/longindex.html#kernel-config-index).</para>
121
122 <note>
123 <para>If your host hardware is using UEFI, then the 'make defconfig'
124 above should automatically add in some EFI-related kernel options.</para>
125
126 <para>In order to allow your LFS kernel to be booted from within your
127 host's UEFI boot environment, your kernel must have this option
128 selected:</para>
129
130<screen role="nodump">Processor type and features ---&gt;
131 [*] EFI stub support [CONFIG_EFI_STUB]</screen>
132
133 <para>A fuller description of managing UEFI environments from within LFS
134 is covered by the lfs-uefi.txt hint at
135 <ulink
136 url="&hints-root;lfs-uefi.txt"/>.
137 </para>
138 </note>
139
140 <variablelist>
141 <title>The rationale for the above configuration items:</title>
142
143 <varlistentry>
144 <term><parameter>Support for uevent helper</parameter></term>
145 <listitem>
146 <para>Having this option set may interfere with device
147 management when using Udev/Eudev. </para>
148 </listitem>
149 </varlistentry>
150
151 <varlistentry>
152 <term><parameter>Maintain a devtmpfs</parameter></term>
153 <listitem>
154 <para>This will create automated device nodes which are populated by the
155 kernel, even without Udev running. Udev then runs on top of this,
156 managing permissions and adding symlinks. This configuration
157 item is required for all users of Udev/Eudev.</para>
158 </listitem>
159 </varlistentry>
160
161 </variablelist>
162
163<screen role="nodump"><userinput>make menuconfig</userinput></screen>
164
165 <variablelist>
166 <title>The meaning of optional make environment variables:</title>
167
168 <varlistentry>
169 <term><parameter>LANG=&lt;host_LANG_value&gt; LC_ALL=</parameter></term>
170 <listitem>
171 <para>This establishes the locale setting to the one used on the
172 host. This may be needed for a proper menuconfig ncurses interface
173 line drawing on a UTF-8 linux text console.</para>
174
175 <para>If used, be sure to replace
176 <replaceable>&lt;host_LANG_value&gt;</replaceable> by the value of
177 the <envar>$LANG</envar> variable from your host. You can
178 alternatively use instead the host's value of <envar>$LC_ALL</envar>
179 or <envar>$LC_CTYPE</envar>.</para>
180 </listitem>
181 </varlistentry>
182
183 </variablelist>
184
185 <para>Alternatively, <command>make oldconfig</command> may be more
186 appropriate in some situations. See the <filename>README</filename>
187 file for more information.</para>
188
189 <para>If desired, skip kernel configuration by copying the kernel
190 config file, <filename>.config</filename>, from the host system
191 (assuming it is available) to the unpacked <filename
192 class="directory">linux-&linux-version;</filename> directory. However,
193 we do not recommend this option. It is often better to explore all the
194 configuration menus and create the kernel configuration from
195 scratch.</para>
196
197 <para>Compile the kernel image and modules:</para>
198
199<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
200
201 <para>If using kernel modules, module configuration in <filename
202 class="directory">/etc/modprobe.d</filename> may be required.
203 Information pertaining to modules and kernel configuration is
204 located in <xref linkend="ch-config-udev"/> and in the kernel
205 documentation in the <filename
206 class="directory">linux-&linux-version;/Documentation</filename> directory.
207 Also, <filename>modprobe.d(5)</filename> may be of interest.</para>
208
209 <para>Unless module support has been disabled in the kernel configuration,
210 install the modules with:</para>
211
212<screen><userinput remap="install">make modules_install</userinput></screen>
213
214 <para>After kernel compilation is complete, additional steps are
215 required to complete the installation. Some files need to be copied to
216 the <filename class="directory">/boot</filename> directory.</para>
217
218 <caution>
219 <para>If the host system has a separate /boot partition, the files copied
220 below should go there. The easiest way to do that is to bind /boot on the
221 host (outside chroot) to /mnt/lfs/boot before proceeding. As the root
222 user in the <emphasis>host system</emphasis>:</para>
223
224<screen role="nodump"><userinput>mount --bind /boot /mnt/lfs/boot</userinput></screen>
225 </caution>
226
227 <para>The path to the kernel image may vary depending on the platform being
228 used. The filename below can be changed to suit your taste, but the stem of
229 the filename should be <emphasis>vmlinuz</emphasis> to be compatible with
230 the automatic setup of the boot process described in the next section. The
231 following command assumes an x86 architecture:</para>
232
233<screen revision="sysv"><userinput remap="install">cp -iv arch/x86/boot/bzImage /boot/vmlinuz-&linux-version;-lfs-&version;</userinput></screen>
234
235<screen revision="systemd"><userinput remap="install">cp -iv arch/x86/boot/bzImage /boot/vmlinuz-&linux-version;-lfs-&versiond;</userinput></screen>
236
237 <para><filename>System.map</filename> is a symbol file for the kernel.
238 It maps the function entry points of every function in the kernel API,
239 as well as the addresses of the kernel data structures for the running
240 kernel. It is used as a resource when investigating kernel problems.
241 Issue the following command to install the map file:</para>
242
243<screen><userinput remap="install">cp -iv System.map /boot/System.map-&linux-version;</userinput></screen>
244
245 <para>The kernel configuration file <filename>.config</filename>
246 produced by the <command>make menuconfig</command> step
247 above contains all the configuration selections for the kernel
248 that was just compiled. It is a good idea to keep this file for future
249 reference:</para>
250
251<screen><userinput remap="install">cp -iv .config /boot/config-&linux-version;</userinput></screen>
252
253 <para>Install the documentation for the Linux kernel:</para>
254
255<screen><userinput remap="install">install -d /usr/share/doc/linux-&linux-version;
256cp -r Documentation/* /usr/share/doc/linux-&linux-version;</userinput></screen>
257
258 <para>It is important to note that the files in the kernel source
259 directory are not owned by <emphasis>root</emphasis>. Whenever a
260 package is unpacked as user <emphasis>root</emphasis> (like we did
261 inside chroot), the files have the user and group IDs of whatever
262 they were on the packager's computer. This is usually not a problem
263 for any other package to be installed because the source tree is
264 removed after the installation. However, the Linux source tree is
265 often retained for a long time. Because of this, there is a chance
266 that whatever user ID the packager used will be assigned to somebody
267 on the machine. That person would then have write access to the kernel
268 source.</para>
269
270 <note>
271 <para>In many cases, the configuration of the kernel will need to be
272 updated for packages that will be installed later in BLFS. Unlike
273 other packages, it is not necessary to remove the kernel source tree
274 after the newly built kernel is installed.</para>
275
276 <para>If the kernel source tree is going to be retained, run
277 <command>chown -R 0:0</command> on the <filename
278 class="directory">linux-&linux-version;</filename> directory to ensure
279 all files are owned by user <emphasis>root</emphasis>.</para>
280 </note>
281
282 <warning>
283 <para>Some kernel documentation recommends creating a symlink from
284 <filename class="symlink">/usr/src/linux</filename> pointing to the kernel
285 source directory. This is specific to kernels prior to the 2.6 series and
286 <emphasis>must not</emphasis> be created on an LFS system as it can cause
287 problems for packages you may wish to build once your base LFS system is
288 complete.</para>
289 </warning>
290
291 <warning>
292 <para>The headers in the system's <filename
293 class="directory">include</filename> directory (<filename
294 class="directory">/usr/include</filename>) should
295 <emphasis>always</emphasis> be the ones against which Glibc was compiled,
296 that is, the sanitised headers installed in <xref
297 linkend="ch-tools-linux-headers"/>. Therefore, they should
298 <emphasis>never</emphasis> be replaced by either the raw kernel headers
299 or any other kernel sanitized headers.</para>
300 </warning>
301
302 </sect2>
303
304 <sect2 id="conf-modprobe" role="configuration">
305 <title>Configuring Linux Module Load Order</title>
306
307 <indexterm zone="conf-modprobe">
308 <primary sortas="e-/etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf">/etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf</primary>
309 </indexterm>
310
311 <para>Most of the time Linux modules are loaded automatically, but
312 sometimes it needs some specific direction. The program that loads
313 modules, <command>modprobe</command> or <command>insmod</command>, uses
314 <filename>/etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf</filename> for this purpose. This file
315 needs to be created so that if the USB drivers (ehci_hcd, ohci_hcd and
316 uhci_hcd) have been built as modules, they will be loaded in the correct
317 order; ehci_hcd needs to be loaded prior to ohci_hcd and uhci_hcd in order
318 to avoid a warning being output at boot time.</para>
319
320 <para>Create a new file <filename>/etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf</filename> by running
321 the following:</para>
322
323<screen><userinput>install -v -m755 -d /etc/modprobe.d
324cat &gt; /etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
325<literal># Begin /etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf
326
327install ohci_hcd /sbin/modprobe ehci_hcd ; /sbin/modprobe -i ohci_hcd ; true
328install uhci_hcd /sbin/modprobe ehci_hcd ; /sbin/modprobe -i uhci_hcd ; true
329
330# End /etc/modprobe.d/usb.conf</literal>
331EOF</userinput></screen>
332
333 </sect2>
334
335 <sect2 id="contents-kernel" role="content">
336 <title>Contents of Linux</title>
337
338 <segmentedlist>
339 <segtitle>Installed files</segtitle>
340 <segtitle>Installed directories</segtitle>
341
342 <seglistitem>
343 <seg>config-&linux-version;,
344 <phrase revision="sysv">vmlinuz-&linux-version;-lfs-&version;,</phrase>
345 <phrase revision="systemd">vmlinuz-&linux-version;-lfs-&versiond;,</phrase>
346 and System.map-&linux-version;</seg>
347 <seg>/lib/modules, /usr/share/doc/linux-&linux-version;</seg>
348 </seglistitem>
349 </segmentedlist>
350
351 <variablelist>
352 <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
353 <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
354 <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
355
356 <varlistentry id="config">
357 <term><filename>config-&linux-version;</filename></term>
358 <listitem>
359 <para>Contains all the configuration selections for the kernel</para>
360 <indexterm zone="ch-bootable-kernel config">
361 <primary sortas="e-/boot/config">/boot/config-&linux-version;</primary>
362 </indexterm>
363 </listitem>
364 </varlistentry>
365
366 <varlistentry id="lfskernel">
367 <term revision="sysv"><filename>vmlinuz-&linux-version;-lfs-&version;</filename></term>
368 <term revision="systemd"><filename>vmlinuz-&linux-version;-lfs-&versiond;</filename></term>
369 <listitem>
370 <para>The engine of the Linux system. When turning on the computer,
371 the kernel is the first part of the operating system that gets loaded.
372 It detects and initializes all components of the computer's hardware,
373 then makes these components available as a tree of files to the
374 software and turns a single CPU into a multitasking machine capable
375 of running scores of programs seemingly at the same time</para>
376 <indexterm zone="ch-bootable-kernel lfskernel">
377 <primary sortas="b-lfskernel">lfskernel-&linux-version;</primary>
378 </indexterm>
379 </listitem>
380 </varlistentry>
381
382 <varlistentry id="System.map">
383 <term><filename>System.map-&linux-version;</filename></term>
384 <listitem>
385 <para>A list of addresses and symbols; it maps the entry points and
386 addresses of all the functions and data structures in the
387 kernel</para>
388 <indexterm zone="ch-bootable-kernel System.map">
389 <primary sortas="e-/boot/System.map">/boot/System.map-&linux-version;</primary>
390 </indexterm>
391 </listitem>
392 </varlistentry>
393
394 </variablelist>
395
396 </sect2>
397
398</sect1>
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