source: prologue/why.xml@ df9fd82

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Last change on this file since df9fd82 was df9fd82, checked in by Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs@…>, 4 years ago

Add libelf to rationale.
Update to man-db-2.8.3.
Update to iproute2-4.16.0.
Update to linux-4.16.
Update to procps-ng-3.3.13.
Update to sed-4.5.

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="pre-why">
9 <?dbhtml filename="package-choices.html"?>
10
11 <title>Rationale for Packages in the Book</title>
12
13 <para>As stated earlier, the goal of LFS is to build a complete and usable
14 foundation-level system. This includes all packages needed to replicate
15 itself while providing a relatively minimal base from which to customize
16 a more complete system based on the choices of the user. This does not
17 mean that LFS is the smallest system possible. Several important packages
18 are included that are not strictly required. The lists below document the
19 rationale for each package in the book.</para>
20
21 <itemizedlist>
22
23 <listitem>
24 <para>Acl</para>
25
26 <para>This package contains utilities to administer Access
27 Control Lists, which are used to define more fine-grained
28 discretionary access rights for files and directories.
29 </para>
30 </listitem>
31
32 <listitem>
33 <para>Attr</para>
34
35 <para>This package contains programs for administering
36 extended attributes on filesystem objects.
37 </para>
38 </listitem>
39
40 <listitem>
41 <para>Autoconf</para>
42
43 <para>This package contains programs for producing shell scripts that
44 can automatically configure source code from a developer's
45 template. It is often needed to rebuild a package after updates
46 to the build procedures.</para>
47 </listitem>
48
49 <listitem>
50 <para>Automake</para>
51
52 <para>This package contains programs for generating Make files from
53 a template. It is often needed to rebuild a package after updates
54 to the build procedures.</para>
55 </listitem>
56
57 <listitem>
58 <para>Bash</para>
59
60 <para>This package satisfies an LSB core requirement to provide
61 a Bourne Shell interface to the system. It was chosen over
62 other shell packages because of its common usage and extensive
63 capabilities beyond basic shell functions.</para>
64 </listitem>
65
66 <listitem>
67 <para>Bc</para>
68
69 <para>This package provides an arbitrary precision numeric processing language.
70 It satisfies a requirement needed when building the Linux kernel.</para>
71 </listitem>
72
73 <listitem>
74 <para>Binutils</para>
75
76 <para>This package contains a linker, an assembler, and other
77 tools for handling object files. The programs in this package are
78 needed to compile most of the packages in an LFS system and beyond.</para>
79 </listitem>
80
81 <listitem>
82 <para>Bison</para>
83
84 <para>This package contains the GNU version of yacc (Yet Another
85 Compiler Compiler) needed to build several other LFS programs.</para>
86 </listitem>
87
88 <listitem>
89 <para>Bzip2</para>
90
91 <para>This package contains programs for compressing and decompressing
92 files. It is required to decompress many LFS packages.</para>
93 </listitem>
94
95 <listitem>
96 <para>Check</para>
97
98 <para>This package contains a test harness for other programs.
99 It is only installed in the temporary toolchain.</para>
100 </listitem>
101
102 <listitem>
103 <para>Coreutils</para>
104
105 <para>This package contains a number of essential programs for viewing
106 and manipulating files and directories. These programs are needed for
107 command line file management, and are necessary for the installation
108 procedures of every package in LFS.</para>
109 </listitem>
110
111 <listitem revision="systemd">
112 <para>D-Bus</para>
113
114 <para>This package contains programs to implement a message bus system,
115 which a simple way for applications to talk to one another.
116 </para>
117 </listitem>
118
119 <listitem>
120 <para>DejaGNU</para>
121
122 <para>This package contains a framework for testing other programs.
123 It is only installed in the temporary toolchain.</para>
124 </listitem>
125
126 <listitem>
127 <para>Diffutils</para>
128
129 <para>This package contains programs that show the differences
130 between files or directories. These programs can be used to create
131 patches, and are also used in many packages' build procedures.</para>
132 </listitem>
133
134 <listitem>
135 <para>E2fsprogs</para>
136
137 <para>This package contains the utilities for handling the ext2, ext3
138 and ext4 file systems. These are the most common and thoroughly
139 tested file systems that Linux supports.</para>
140 </listitem>
141
142 <listitem revision="sysv">
143 <para>Eudev</para>
144
145 <para>This package is a device manager. It dynamically controls the entries
146 in the /dev directory as devices are added or removed from the system.
147 </para>
148 </listitem>
149
150 <listitem>
151 <para>Expat</para>
152
153 <para>This package contains a relatively small XML parsing library. It
154 is required by the XML::Parser Perl module.</para>
155 </listitem>
156
157 <listitem>
158 <para>Expect</para>
159
160 <para>This package contains a program for carrying out scripted
161 dialogues with other interactive programs. It is commonly used
162 for testing other packages. It is only installed in the temporary
163 toolchain.</para>
164 </listitem>
165
166 <listitem>
167 <para>File</para>
168
169 <para>This package contains a utility for determining the type of a
170 given file or files. A few packages need it to build.</para>
171 </listitem>
172
173 <listitem>
174 <para>Findutils</para>
175
176 <para>This package contains programs to find files in a file system.
177 It is used in many packages' build scripts.</para>
178 </listitem>
179
180 <listitem>
181 <para>Flex</para>
182
183 <para>This package contains a utility for generating programs that
184 recognize patterns in text. It is the GNU version of the lex
185 (lexical analyzer) program. It is required to build several
186 LFS packages.</para>
187 </listitem>
188
189 <listitem>
190 <para>Gawk</para>
191
192 <para>This package contains programs for manipulating text files.
193 It is the GNU version of awk (Aho-Weinberg-Kernighan). It is used in
194 many other packages' build scripts.</para>
195 </listitem>
196
197 <listitem>
198 <para>Gcc</para>
199
200 <para>This package is the Gnu Compiler Collection. It contains the
201 C and C++ compilers as well as several others not built by LFS.
202 </para>
203 </listitem>
204
205 <listitem>
206 <para>GDBM</para>
207
208 <para>This package contains the GNU Database Manager library. It
209 is used by one other LFS package, Man-DB.</para>
210 </listitem>
211
212 <listitem>
213 <para>Gettext</para>
214
215 <para>This package contains utilities and libraries for
216 internationalization and localization of numerous packages.</para>
217 </listitem>
218
219 <listitem>
220 <para>Glibc</para>
221
222 <para>This package contains the main C library. Linux programs would
223 not run without it.</para>
224 </listitem>
225
226 <listitem>
227 <para>GMP</para>
228
229 <para>This package contains math libraries that provide useful functions
230 for arbitrary precision arithmetic. It is required to build Gcc.</para>
231 </listitem>
232
233 <listitem>
234 <para>Gperf</para>
235
236 <para>This package contains a program that generates a perfect hash
237 function from a key set. It is required for Eudev.</para>
238 </listitem>
239
240 <listitem>
241 <para>Grep</para>
242
243 <para>This package contains programs for searching through files. These
244 programs are used by most packages' build scripts.</para>
245 </listitem>
246
247 <listitem>
248 <para>Groff</para>
249
250 <para>This package contains programs for processing and formatting text.
251 One important function of these programs is to format man pages.</para>
252 </listitem>
253
254 <listitem>
255 <para>GRUB</para>
256
257 <para>This package is the Grand Unified Boot Loader. It is one
258 of several boot loaders available, but is the most flexible.
259 </para>
260 </listitem>
261
262 <listitem>
263 <para>Gzip</para>
264
265 <para>This package contains programs for compressing and
266 decompressing files. It is needed to decompress many packages in LFS
267 and beyond.</para>
268 </listitem>
269
270 <listitem>
271 <para>Iana-etc</para>
272
273 <para>This package provides data for network services and protocols.
274 It is needed to enable proper networking capabilities.</para>
275 </listitem>
276
277 <listitem>
278 <para>Inetutils</para>
279
280 <para>This package contains programs for basic network
281 administration.</para>
282 </listitem>
283
284 <listitem>
285 <para>Intltool</para>
286
287 <para>This package contains tools for extracting translatable
288 strings from source files.</para>
289 </listitem>
290
291 <listitem>
292 <para>IProute2</para>
293
294 <para>This package contains programs for basic and advanced IPv4 and
295 IPv6 networking. It was chosen over the other common network
296 tools package (net-tools) for its IPv6 capabilities. </para>
297 </listitem>
298
299 <listitem>
300 <para>Kbd</para>
301
302 <para>This package contains key-table files, keyboard utilities
303 for non-US keyboards, and a number of console fonts.</para>
304 </listitem>
305
306 <listitem>
307 <para>Kmod</para>
308
309 <para>This package contains programs needed to administer Linux
310 kernel modules.</para>
311 </listitem>
312
313 <listitem>
314 <para>Less</para>
315
316 <para>This package contains a very nice text file viewer that
317 allows scrolling up or down when viewing a file. It is also used by
318 Man-DB for viewing manpages.</para>
319 </listitem>
320
321 <listitem>
322 <para>Libcap</para>
323
324 <para>This package implements the user-space interfaces to
325 the POSIX 1003.1e capabilities available in Linux kernels.
326 </para>
327 </listitem>
328
329 <listitem>
330 <para>Libelf</para>
331
332 <para>The elfutils project provides libraries and tools for ELF files
333 and DWARF data. Most utilities in this package are available in
334 other packages, but the library is needed to build the Linux
335 kernel using the default (and most efficient) configuration.</para>
336
337 </listitem>
338
339 <listitem>
340 <para>Libffi</para>
341
342 <para>This package implements a portable, high level programming
343 interface to various calling conventions. Some programs may not know
344 at the time of compilation what arguments are to be passed to a
345 function. For instance, an interpreter may be told at run-time about
346 the number and types of arguments used to call a given function. Libffi
347 can be used in such programs to provide a bridge from the interpreter
348 program to compiled code.</para>
349
350 </listitem>
351
352 <listitem>
353 <para>Libpipeline</para>
354
355 <para>The Libpipeline package contains a library for manipulating
356 pipelines of subprocesses in a flexible and convenient way. It is
357 required by the Man-DB package.</para>
358 </listitem>
359
360 <listitem>
361 <para>Libtool</para>
362
363 <para>This package contains the GNU generic library support
364 script. It wraps the complexity of using shared libraries in a
365 consistent, portable interface. It is needed by the test
366 suites in other LFS packages.</para>
367 </listitem>
368
369 <listitem>
370 <para>Linux Kernel</para>
371
372 <para>This package is the Operating System. It is the Linux in
373 the GNU/Linux environment.</para>
374 </listitem>
375
376 <listitem>
377 <para>M4</para>
378
379 <para>This package contains a general text macro processor useful
380 as a build tool for other programs.</para>
381 </listitem>
382
383 <listitem>
384 <para>Make</para>
385
386 <para>This package contains a program for directing the building
387 of packages. It is required by almost every package in LFS.</para>
388 </listitem>
389
390 <listitem>
391 <para>Man-DB</para>
392
393 <para>This package contains programs for finding and viewing man pages.
394 It was chosen instead of the <application>man</application> package
395 due to superior internationalization capabilities. It supplies
396 the man program.</para>
397 </listitem>
398
399 <listitem>
400 <para>Man-pages</para>
401
402 <para>This package contains the actual contents of the basic
403 Linux man pages.</para>
404 </listitem>
405
406 <listitem>
407 <para>Meson</para>
408
409 <para>This package provides a software tool for automating the building
410 of software. The main goal for Meson is to minimize the amount of time
411 that software developers need to spend configuring their build
412 system.</para>
413
414 </listitem>
415
416 <listitem>
417 <para>MPC</para>
418
419 <para>This package contains functions for the arithmetic of complex
420 numbers. It is required by Gcc.</para>
421 </listitem>
422
423 <listitem>
424 <para>MPFR</para>
425
426 <para>This package contains functions for multiple precision
427 arithmetic. It is required by Gcc.</para>
428 </listitem>
429
430 <listitem>
431 <para>Ninja</para>
432
433 <para>This package contains a small build system with a focus on speed.
434 It is designed to have its input files generated by a higher-level build
435 system, and to run builds as fast as possible.</para>
436
437 </listitem>
438
439 <listitem>
440 <para>Ncurses</para>
441
442 <para>This package contains libraries for terminal-independent
443 handling of character screens. It is often used to provide
444 cursor control for a menuing system. It is needed by a number of
445 packages in LFS.</para>
446 </listitem>
447
448 <listitem>
449 <para>Openssl</para>
450
451 <para>This package provides management tools and libraries relating to
452 cryptography. These are useful for providing cryptographic functions to
453 other packages, including the Linux kernel.</para>
454 </listitem>
455
456 <listitem>
457 <para>Patch</para>
458
459 <para>This package contains a program for modifying or creating files by
460 applying a <emphasis>patch</emphasis> file typically created
461 by the <application>diff</application> program. It is needed by
462 the build procedure for several LFS packages.</para>
463 </listitem>
464
465 <listitem>
466 <para>Perl</para>
467
468 <para>This package is an interpreter for the runtime language
469 PERL. It is needed for the installation and test suites of several LFS
470 packages.</para>
471 </listitem>
472
473 <listitem>
474 <para>Pkg-config</para>
475
476 <para>This package provides a program to return meta-data about an
477 installed library or package.</para>
478 </listitem>
479
480 <listitem>
481 <para>Procps-NG</para>
482
483 <para>This package contains programs for monitoring processes. These
484 programs are useful for system administration, and are also used by
485 the LFS Bootscripts.</para>
486 </listitem>
487
488 <listitem>
489 <para>Psmisc</para>
490
491 <para>This package contains programs for displaying information
492 about running processes. These programs are useful for system
493 administration.</para>
494 </listitem>
495
496 <listitem>
497 <para>Python 3</para>
498
499 <para>This package provides an interpreted language that has a design
500 philosophy that emphasizes code readability.</para>
501
502 </listitem>
503
504 <listitem>
505 <para>Readline</para>
506
507 <para>This package is a set of libraries that offers command-line
508 editing and history capabilities. It is used by Bash.</para>
509 </listitem>
510
511 <listitem>
512 <para>Sed</para>
513
514 <para>This package allows editing of text without opening it in a
515 text editor. It is also needed by most LFS packages' configure
516 scripts.</para>
517 </listitem>
518
519 <listitem>
520 <para>Shadow</para>
521
522 <para>This package contains programs for handling passwords
523 in a secure way.</para>
524 </listitem>
525
526 <listitem revision="sysv">
527 <para>Sysklogd</para>
528
529 <para>This package contains programs for logging system messages,
530 such as those given by the kernel or daemon processes when unusual
531 events occur.</para>
532 </listitem>
533
534 <listitem revision="systemd">
535 <para>Systemd</para>
536
537 <para>This package provides an <application>init</application> program
538 and several additional boot and system control capabilities as an
539 alternative to Sysvinit. It is used by many commercial distributions.
540 </para>
541 </listitem>
542
543 <listitem revision="sysv">
544 <para>Sysvinit</para>
545
546 <para>This package provides the <application>init</application>
547 program, which is the parent of all other processes on the Linux
548 system. </para>
549 </listitem>
550
551 <listitem>
552 <para>Tar</para>
553
554 <para>This package provides archiving and extraction capabilities
555 of virtually all packages used in LFS.</para>
556 </listitem>
557
558 <listitem>
559 <para>Tcl</para>
560
561 <para>This package contains the Tool Command Language used
562 in many test suites in LFS packages. It is only installed in
563 the temporary toolchain.</para>
564 </listitem>
565
566 <listitem>
567 <para>Texinfo</para>
568
569 <para>This package contains programs for reading, writing, and
570 converting info pages. It is used in the installation
571 procedures of many LFS packages.</para>
572 </listitem>
573
574 <listitem>
575 <para>Util-linux</para>
576
577 <para>This package contains miscellaneous utility programs.
578 Among them are utilities for handling file systems, consoles,
579 partitions, and messages.</para>
580 </listitem>
581
582 <listitem>
583 <para>Vim</para>
584
585 <para>This package contains an editor. It was chosen because of its
586 compatibility with the classic vi editor and its huge number of powerful
587 capabilities. An editor is a very personal choice for
588 many users and any other editor could be substituted if desired.</para>
589 </listitem>
590
591 <listitem>
592 <para>XML::Parser</para>
593
594 <para>This package is a Perl module that interfaces with Expat.</para>
595 </listitem>
596
597 <listitem>
598 <para>XZ Utils</para>
599
600 <para>This package contains programs for compressing and decompressing
601 files. It provides the highest compression generally available
602 and is useful for decompressing packages in XZ or LZMA format.</para>
603 </listitem>
604
605 <listitem>
606 <para>Zlib</para>
607
608 <para>This package contains compression and decompression routines
609 used by some programs.</para>
610 </listitem>
611
612 </itemizedlist>
613
614</sect1>
615
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