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update package rationales

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="pre-why">
9 <?dbhtml filename="package-choices.html"?>
10
11 <title>Rationale for Packages in the Book</title>
12
13 <para>As stated earlier, the goal of LFS is to build a complete and usable
14 foundation-level system. This includes all packages needed to replicate
15 itself while providing a relatively minimal base from which to customize
16 a more complete system based on the choices of the user. This does not
17 mean that LFS is the smallest system possible. Several important packages
18 are included that are not strictly required. The lists below document the
19 rationale for each package in the book.</para>
20
21 <itemizedlist>
22
23 <listitem>
24 <para>Acl</para>
25
26 <para>This package contains utilities to administer Access
27 Control Lists, which are used to define more fine-grained
28 discretionary access rights for files and directories.
29 </para>
30 </listitem>
31
32 <listitem>
33 <para>Attr</para>
34
35 <para>This package contains programs for administering
36 extended attributes on filesystem objects.
37 </para>
38 </listitem>
39
40 <listitem>
41 <para>Autoconf</para>
42
43 <para>This package contains programs for producing shell scripts that
44 can automatically configure source code from a developer's
45 template. It is often needed to rebuild a package after updates
46 to the build procedures.</para>
47 </listitem>
48
49 <listitem>
50 <para>Automake</para>
51
52 <para>This package contains programs for generating Make files from
53 a template. It is often needed to rebuild a package after updates
54 to the build procedures.</para>
55 </listitem>
56
57 <listitem>
58 <para>Bash</para>
59
60 <para>This package satisfies an LSB core requirement to provide
61 a Bourne Shell interface to the system. It was chosen over
62 other shell packages because of its common usage and extensive
63 capabilities beyond basic shell functions.</para>
64 </listitem>
65
66 <listitem>
67 <para>Bc</para>
68
69 <para>This package provides an arbitrary precision numeric processing language.
70 It satisfies a requirement needed when building the Linux kernel.</para>
71 </listitem>
72
73 <listitem>
74 <para>Binutils</para>
75
76 <para>This package contains a linker, an assembler, and other
77 tools for handling object files. The programs in this package are
78 needed to compile most of the packages in an LFS system and beyond.</para>
79 </listitem>
80
81 <listitem>
82 <para>Bison</para>
83
84 <para>This package contains the GNU version of yacc (Yet Another
85 Compiler Compiler) needed to build several other LFS programs.</para>
86 </listitem>
87
88 <listitem>
89 <para>Bzip2</para>
90
91 <para>This package contains programs for compressing and decompressing
92 files. It is required to decompress many LFS packages.</para>
93 </listitem>
94
95 <listitem>
96 <para>Check</para>
97
98 <para>This package contains a test harness for other programs.</para>
99 </listitem>
100
101 <listitem>
102 <para>Coreutils</para>
103
104 <para>This package contains a number of essential programs for viewing
105 and manipulating files and directories. These programs are needed for
106 command line file management, and are necessary for the installation
107 procedures of every package in LFS.</para>
108 </listitem>
109
110 <listitem revision="systemd">
111 <para>D-Bus</para>
112
113 <para>This package contains programs to implement a message bus system,
114 which a simple way for applications to talk to one another.
115 </para>
116 </listitem>
117
118 <listitem>
119 <para>DejaGNU</para>
120
121 <para>This package contains a framework for testing other programs.</para>
122 </listitem>
123
124 <listitem>
125 <para>Diffutils</para>
126
127 <para>This package contains programs that show the differences
128 between files or directories. These programs can be used to create
129 patches, and are also used in many packages' build procedures.</para>
130 </listitem>
131
132 <listitem>
133 <para>E2fsprogs</para>
134
135 <para>This package contains the utilities for handling the ext2, ext3
136 and ext4 file systems. These are the most common and thoroughly
137 tested file systems that Linux supports.</para>
138 </listitem>
139
140 <listitem revision="sysv">
141 <para>Eudev</para>
142
143 <para>This package is a device manager. It dynamically controls the ownership,
144 permissions, names, and symbolic links of devices in the /dev directory as
145 devices are added or removed from the system.
146 </para>
147 </listitem>
148
149 <listitem>
150 <para>Expat</para>
151
152 <para>This package contains a relatively small XML parsing library. It
153 is required by the XML::Parser Perl module.</para>
154 </listitem>
155
156 <listitem>
157 <para>Expect</para>
158
159 <para>This package contains a program for carrying out scripted
160 dialogues with other interactive programs. It is commonly used
161 for testing other packages. It is only installed in the temporary
162 toolchain.</para>
163 </listitem>
164
165 <listitem>
166 <para>File</para>
167
168 <para>This package contains a utility for determining the type of a
169 given file or files. A few packages need it in their build scripts.</para>
170 </listitem>
171
172 <listitem>
173 <para>Findutils</para>
174
175 <para>This package contains programs to find files in a file system.
176 It is used in many packages' build scripts.</para>
177 </listitem>
178
179 <listitem>
180 <para>Flex</para>
181
182 <para>This package contains a utility for generating programs that
183 recognize patterns in text. It is the GNU version of the lex
184 (lexical analyzer) program. It is required to build several
185 LFS packages.</para>
186 </listitem>
187
188 <listitem>
189 <para>Gawk</para>
190
191 <para>This package contains programs for manipulating text files.
192 It is the GNU version of awk (Aho-Weinberg-Kernighan). It is used in
193 many other packages' build scripts.</para>
194 </listitem>
195
196 <listitem>
197 <para>GCC</para>
198
199 <para>This package is the Gnu Compiler Collection. It contains the
200 C and C++ compilers as well as several others not built by LFS.
201 </para>
202 </listitem>
203
204 <listitem>
205 <para>GDBM</para>
206
207 <para>This package contains the GNU Database Manager library. It
208 is used by one other LFS package, Man-DB.</para>
209 </listitem>
210
211 <listitem>
212 <para>Gettext</para>
213
214 <para>This package contains utilities and libraries for
215 internationalization and localization of numerous packages.</para>
216 </listitem>
217
218 <listitem>
219 <para>Glibc</para>
220
221 <para>This package contains the main C library. Linux programs will
222 not run without it.</para>
223 </listitem>
224
225 <listitem>
226 <para>GMP</para>
227
228 <para>This package contains math libraries that provide useful functions
229 for arbitrary precision arithmetic. It is required to build GCC.</para>
230 </listitem>
231
232 <listitem>
233 <para>Gperf</para>
234
235 <para>This package contains a program that generates a perfect hash
236 function from a key set. It is required for Eudev.</para>
237 </listitem>
238
239 <listitem>
240 <para>Grep</para>
241
242 <para>This package contains programs for searching through files. These
243 programs are used by most packages' build scripts.</para>
244 </listitem>
245
246 <listitem>
247 <para>Groff</para>
248
249 <para>This package contains programs for processing and formatting text.
250 One important function of these programs is to format man pages.</para>
251 </listitem>
252
253 <listitem>
254 <para>GRUB</para>
255
256 <para>This package is the Grand Unified Boot Loader. It is one
257 of several boot loaders available, but is the most flexible.
258 </para>
259 </listitem>
260
261 <listitem>
262 <para>Gzip</para>
263
264 <para>This package contains programs for compressing and
265 decompressing files. It is needed to decompress many packages in LFS
266 and beyond.</para>
267 </listitem>
268
269 <listitem>
270 <para>Iana-etc</para>
271
272 <para>This package provides data for network services and protocols.
273 It is needed to enable proper networking capabilities.</para>
274 </listitem>
275
276 <listitem>
277 <para>Inetutils</para>
278
279 <para>This package contains programs for basic network
280 administration.</para>
281 </listitem>
282
283 <listitem>
284 <para>Intltool</para>
285
286 <para>This package contains tools for extracting translatable
287 strings from source files.</para>
288 </listitem>
289
290 <listitem>
291 <para>IProute2</para>
292
293 <para>This package contains programs for basic and advanced IPv4 and
294 IPv6 networking. It was chosen over the other common network
295 tools package (net-tools) for its IPv6 capabilities. </para>
296 </listitem>
297
298 <listitem revision="systemd">
299 <para>Jinja2</para>
300
301 <para>This package is a Python module for text templating.
302 It's required to build Systemd.</para>
303 </listitem>
304
305 <listitem>
306 <para>Kbd</para>
307
308 <para>This package contains key-table files, keyboard utilities
309 for non-US keyboards, and a number of console fonts.</para>
310 </listitem>
311
312 <listitem>
313 <para>Kmod</para>
314
315 <para>This package contains programs needed to administer Linux
316 kernel modules.</para>
317 </listitem>
318
319 <listitem>
320 <para>Less</para>
321
322 <para>This package contains a very nice text file viewer that
323 allows scrolling up or down when viewing a file. It is also used by
324 Man-DB for viewing manpages.</para>
325 </listitem>
326
327 <listitem>
328 <para>Libcap</para>
329
330 <para>This package implements the user-space interfaces to
331 the POSIX 1003.1e capabilities available in Linux kernels.
332 </para>
333 </listitem>
334
335 <listitem>
336 <para>Libelf</para>
337
338 <para>The elfutils project provides libraries and tools for ELF files
339 and DWARF data. Most utilities in this package are available in
340 other packages, but the library is needed to build the Linux
341 kernel using the default (and most efficient) configuration.</para>
342
343 </listitem>
344
345 <listitem>
346 <para>Libffi</para>
347
348 <para>This package implements a portable, high level programming
349 interface to various calling conventions. Some programs may not know
350 at the time of compilation what arguments are to be passed to a
351 function. For instance, an interpreter may be told at run-time about
352 the number and types of arguments used to call a given function. Libffi
353 can be used in such programs to provide a bridge from the interpreter
354 program to compiled code.</para>
355
356 </listitem>
357
358 <listitem>
359 <para>Libpipeline</para>
360
361 <para>The Libpipeline package contains a library for manipulating
362 pipelines of subprocesses in a flexible and convenient way. It is
363 required by the Man-DB package.</para>
364 </listitem>
365
366 <listitem>
367 <para>Libtool</para>
368
369 <para>This package contains the GNU generic library support
370 script. It wraps the complexity of using shared libraries in a
371 consistent, portable interface. It is needed by the test
372 suites in other LFS packages.</para>
373 </listitem>
374
375 <listitem>
376 <para>Linux Kernel</para>
377
378 <para>This package is the Operating System. It is the Linux in
379 the GNU/Linux environment.</para>
380 </listitem>
381
382 <listitem>
383 <para>M4</para>
384
385 <para>This package contains a general text macro processor useful
386 as a build tool for other programs.</para>
387 </listitem>
388
389 <listitem>
390 <para>Make</para>
391
392 <para>This package contains a program for directing the building
393 of packages. It is required by almost every package in LFS.</para>
394 </listitem>
395
396 <listitem revision="systemd">
397 <para>MarkupSafe</para>
398
399 <para>This package is a Python module for processing strings in
400 HTML/XHTML/XML safely. Jinja2 requires this pacakge.</para>
401 </listitem>
402
403 <listitem>
404 <para>Man-DB</para>
405
406 <para>This package contains programs for finding and viewing man pages.
407 It was chosen instead of the <application>man</application> package
408 due to superior internationalization capabilities. It supplies
409 the man program.</para>
410 </listitem>
411
412 <listitem>
413 <para>Man-pages</para>
414
415 <para>This package contains the actual contents of the basic
416 Linux man pages.</para>
417 </listitem>
418
419 <listitem>
420 <para>Meson</para>
421
422 <para>This package provides a software tool for automating the building
423 of software. The main goal for Meson is to minimize the amount of time
424 that software developers need to spend configuring their build
425 system. It's required to build Systemd, as well as many BLFS
426 packages.</para>
427
428 </listitem>
429
430 <listitem>
431 <para>MPC</para>
432
433 <para>This package contains functions for the arithmetic of complex
434 numbers. It is required by GCC.</para>
435 </listitem>
436
437 <listitem>
438 <para>MPFR</para>
439
440 <para>This package contains functions for multiple precision
441 arithmetic. It is required by GCC.</para>
442 </listitem>
443
444 <listitem>
445 <para>Ninja</para>
446
447 <para>This package contains a small build system with a focus on speed.
448 It is designed to have its input files generated by a higher-level build
449 system, and to run builds as fast as possible.
450 This package is required by Meson.</para>
451
452 </listitem>
453
454 <listitem>
455 <para>Ncurses</para>
456
457 <para>This package contains libraries for terminal-independent
458 handling of character screens. It is often used to provide
459 cursor control for a menuing system. It is needed by a number of
460 packages in LFS.</para>
461 </listitem>
462
463 <listitem>
464 <para>Openssl</para>
465
466 <para>This package provides management tools and libraries relating to
467 cryptography. These are useful for providing cryptographic functions to
468 other packages, including the Linux kernel.</para>
469 </listitem>
470
471 <listitem>
472 <para>Patch</para>
473
474 <para>This package contains a program for modifying or creating files by
475 applying a <emphasis>patch</emphasis> file typically created
476 by the <application>diff</application> program. It is needed by
477 the build procedure for several LFS packages.</para>
478 </listitem>
479
480 <listitem>
481 <para>Perl</para>
482
483 <para>This package is an interpreter for the runtime language
484 PERL. It is needed for the installation and test suites of several LFS
485 packages.</para>
486 </listitem>
487
488 <listitem>
489 <para>Pkg-config</para>
490
491 <para>This package provides a program that returns meta-data about an
492 installed library or package.</para>
493 </listitem>
494
495 <listitem>
496 <para>Procps-NG</para>
497
498 <para>This package contains programs for monitoring processes. These
499 programs are useful for system administration, and are also used by
500 the LFS Bootscripts.</para>
501 </listitem>
502
503 <listitem>
504 <para>Psmisc</para>
505
506 <para>This package contains programs for displaying information
507 about running processes. These programs are useful for system
508 administration.</para>
509 </listitem>
510
511 <listitem>
512 <para>Python 3</para>
513
514 <para>This package provides an interpreted language that has a design
515 philosophy that emphasizes code readability.</para>
516
517 </listitem>
518
519 <listitem>
520 <para>Readline</para>
521
522 <para>This package is a set of libraries that offers command-line
523 editing and history capabilities. It is used by Bash.</para>
524 </listitem>
525
526 <listitem>
527 <para>Sed</para>
528
529 <para>This package allows editing of text without opening it in a
530 text editor. It is also needed by most LFS packages' configure
531 scripts.</para>
532 </listitem>
533
534 <listitem>
535 <para>Shadow</para>
536
537 <para>This package contains programs for handling passwords
538 in a secure way.</para>
539 </listitem>
540
541 <listitem revision="sysv">
542 <para>Sysklogd</para>
543
544 <para>This package contains programs for logging system messages,
545 such as those given by the kernel or daemon processes when unusual
546 events occur.</para>
547 </listitem>
548
549 <listitem revision="systemd">
550 <para>Systemd</para>
551
552 <para>This package provides an <application>init</application> program
553 and several additional boot and system control capabilities as an
554 alternative to Sysvinit. It is used by many commercial distributions.
555 </para>
556 </listitem>
557
558 <listitem revision="sysv">
559 <para>Sysvinit</para>
560
561 <para>This package provides the <application>init</application>
562 program, which is the parent of all other processes on the Linux
563 system. </para>
564 </listitem>
565
566 <listitem>
567 <para>Tar</para>
568
569 <para>This package provides archiving and extraction capabilities
570 of virtually all packages used in LFS.</para>
571 </listitem>
572
573 <listitem>
574 <para>Tcl</para>
575
576 <para>This package contains the Tool Command Language used
577 in many test suites in LFS packages.</para>
578 </listitem>
579
580 <listitem>
581 <para>Texinfo</para>
582
583 <para>This package contains programs for reading, writing, and
584 converting info pages. It is used in the installation
585 procedures of many LFS packages.</para>
586 </listitem>
587
588 <listitem>
589 <para>Util-linux</para>
590
591 <para>This package contains miscellaneous utility programs.
592 Among them are utilities for handling file systems, consoles,
593 partitions, and messages.</para>
594 </listitem>
595
596 <listitem>
597 <para>Vim</para>
598
599 <para>This package contains an editor. It was chosen because of its
600 compatibility with the classic vi editor and its huge number of powerful
601 capabilities. An editor is a very personal choice for
602 many users and any other editor could be substituted if desired.</para>
603 </listitem>
604
605 <listitem>
606 <para>XML::Parser</para>
607
608 <para>This package is a Perl module that interfaces with Expat.</para>
609 </listitem>
610
611 <listitem>
612 <para>XZ Utils</para>
613
614 <para>This package contains programs for compressing and decompressing
615 files. It provides the highest compression generally available
616 and is useful for decompressing packages in XZ or LZMA format.</para>
617 </listitem>
618
619 <listitem>
620 <para>Zlib</para>
621
622 <para>This package contains compression and decompression routines
623 used by some programs.</para>
624 </listitem>
625
626 <listitem>
627 <para>Zstd</para>
628
629 <para>This package contains compression and decompression routines
630 used by some programs. It provide high compression ratios and a very
631 wide range of compression / speed trade-offs.</para>
632 </listitem>
633
634 </itemizedlist>
635
636</sect1>
637
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