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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3 "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
5 %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="pre-why">
9 <?dbhtml filename="package-choices.html"?>
10
11 <title>Rationale for Packages in the Book</title>
12
13 <para>As stated earlier, the goal of LFS is to build a complete and usable
14 foundation-level system. This includes all packages needed to replicate
15 itself while providing a relatively minimal base from which to customize
16 a more complete system based on the choices of the user. This does not
17 mean that LFS is the smallest system possible. Several important packages
18 are included that are not strictly required. The lists below document the
19 rationale for each package in the book.</para>
20
21 <itemizedlist>
22
23 <listitem>
24 <para>Acl</para>
25
26 <para>This package contains utilities to administer Access
27 Control Lists, which are used to define more fine-grained
28 discretionary access rights for files and directories.
29 </para>
30 </listitem>
31
32 <listitem>
33 <para>Attr</para>
34
35 <para>This package contains programs for administering
36 extended attributes on filesystem objects.
37 </para>
38 </listitem>
39
40 <listitem>
41 <para>Autoconf</para>
42
43 <para>This package contains programs for producing shell scripts that
44 can automatically configure source code from a developer's
45 template. It is often needed to rebuild a package after updates
46 to the build procedures.</para>
47 </listitem>
48
49 <listitem>
50 <para>Automake</para>
51
52 <para>This package contains programs for generating Make files from
53 a template. It is often needed to rebuild a package after updates
54 to the build procedures.</para>
55 </listitem>
56
57 <listitem>
58 <para>Bash</para>
59
60 <para>This package satisfies an LSB core requirement to provide
61 a Bourne Shell interface to the system. It was chosen over
62 other shell packages because of its common usage and extensive
63 capabilities beyond basic shell functions.</para>
64 </listitem>
65
66 <listitem>
67 <para>Bc</para>
68
69 <para>This package provides an arbitrary precision numeric processing language.
70 It satisfies a requirement needed when building the Linux kernel.</para>
71 </listitem>
72
73 <listitem>
74 <para>Binutils</para>
75
76 <para>This package contains a linker, an assembler, and other
77 tools for handling object files. The programs in this package are
78 needed to compile most of the packages in an LFS system and beyond.</para>
79 </listitem>
80
81 <listitem>
82 <para>Bison</para>
83
84 <para>This package contains the GNU version of yacc (Yet Another
85 Compiler Compiler) needed to build several other LFS programs.</para>
86 </listitem>
87
88 <listitem>
89 <para>Bzip2</para>
90
91 <para>This package contains programs for compressing and decompressing
92 files. It is required to decompress many LFS packages.</para>
93 </listitem>
94
95 <listitem>
96 <para>Check</para>
97
98 <para>This package contains a test harness for other programs.</para>
99 </listitem>
100
101 <listitem>
102 <para>Coreutils</para>
103
104 <para>This package contains a number of essential programs for viewing
105 and manipulating files and directories. These programs are needed for
106 command line file management, and are necessary for the installation
107 procedures of every package in LFS.</para>
108 </listitem>
109
110 <listitem revision="systemd">
111 <para>D-Bus</para>
112
113 <para>This package contains programs to implement a message bus system,
114 which a simple way for applications to talk to one another.
115 </para>
116 </listitem>
117
118 <listitem>
119 <para>DejaGNU</para>
120
121 <para>This package contains a framework for testing other programs.</para>
122 </listitem>
123
124 <listitem>
125 <para>Diffutils</para>
126
127 <para>This package contains programs that show the differences
128 between files or directories. These programs can be used to create
129 patches, and are also used in many packages' build procedures.</para>
130 </listitem>
131
132 <listitem>
133 <para>E2fsprogs</para>
134
135 <para>This package contains the utilities for handling the ext2, ext3
136 and ext4 file systems. These are the most common and thoroughly
137 tested file systems that Linux supports.</para>
138 </listitem>
139
140 <listitem revision="sysv">
141 <para>Eudev</para>
142
143 <para>This package is a device manager. It dynamically controls the ownership,
144 permissions, names, and symbolic links of devices in the /dev directory as
145 devices are added or removed from the system.
146 </para>
147 </listitem>
148
149 <listitem>
150 <para>Expat</para>
151
152 <para>This package contains a relatively small XML parsing library. It
153 is required by the XML::Parser Perl module.</para>
154 </listitem>
155
156 <listitem>
157 <para>Expect</para>
158
159 <para>This package contains a program for carrying out scripted
160 dialogues with other interactive programs. It is commonly used
161 for testing other packages. It is only installed in the temporary
162 toolchain.</para>
163 </listitem>
164
165 <listitem>
166 <para>File</para>
167
168 <para>This package contains a utility for determining the type of a
169 given file or files. A few packages need it in their build scripts.</para>
170 </listitem>
171
172 <listitem>
173 <para>Findutils</para>
174
175 <para>This package contains programs to find files in a file system.
176 It is used in many packages' build scripts.</para>
177 </listitem>
178
179 <listitem>
180 <para>Flex</para>
181
182 <para>This package contains a utility for generating programs that
183 recognize patterns in text. It is the GNU version of the lex
184 (lexical analyzer) program. It is required to build several
185 LFS packages.</para>
186 </listitem>
187
188 <listitem>
189 <para>Gawk</para>
190
191 <para>This package contains programs for manipulating text files.
192 It is the GNU version of awk (Aho-Weinberg-Kernighan). It is used in
193 many other packages' build scripts.</para>
194 </listitem>
195
196 <listitem>
197 <para>GCC</para>
198
199 <para>This package is the Gnu Compiler Collection. It contains the
200 C and C++ compilers as well as several others not built by LFS.
201 </para>
202 </listitem>
203
204 <listitem>
205 <para>GDBM</para>
206
207 <para>This package contains the GNU Database Manager library. It
208 is used by one other LFS package, Man-DB.</para>
209 </listitem>
210
211 <listitem>
212 <para>Gettext</para>
213
214 <para>This package contains utilities and libraries for
215 internationalization and localization of numerous packages.</para>
216 </listitem>
217
218 <listitem>
219 <para>Glibc</para>
220
221 <para>This package contains the main C library. Linux programs will
222 not run without it.</para>
223 </listitem>
224
225 <listitem>
226 <para>GMP</para>
227
228 <para>This package contains math libraries that provide useful functions
229 for arbitrary precision arithmetic. It is required to build GCC.</para>
230 </listitem>
231
232 <listitem>
233 <para>Gperf</para>
234
235 <para>This package contains a program that generates a perfect hash
236 function from a key set. It is required for Eudev.</para>
237 </listitem>
238
239 <listitem>
240 <para>Grep</para>
241
242 <para>This package contains programs for searching through files. These
243 programs are used by most packages' build scripts.</para>
244 </listitem>
245
246 <listitem>
247 <para>Groff</para>
248
249 <para>This package contains programs for processing and formatting text.
250 One important function of these programs is to format man pages.</para>
251 </listitem>
252
253 <listitem>
254 <para>GRUB</para>
255
256 <para>This package is the Grand Unified Boot Loader. It is one
257 of several boot loaders available, but is the most flexible.
258 </para>
259 </listitem>
260
261 <listitem>
262 <para>Gzip</para>
263
264 <para>This package contains programs for compressing and
265 decompressing files. It is needed to decompress many packages in LFS
266 and beyond.</para>
267 </listitem>
268
269 <listitem>
270 <para>Iana-etc</para>
271
272 <para>This package provides data for network services and protocols.
273 It is needed to enable proper networking capabilities.</para>
274 </listitem>
275
276 <listitem>
277 <para>Inetutils</para>
278
279 <para>This package contains programs for basic network
280 administration.</para>
281 </listitem>
282
283 <listitem>
284 <para>Intltool</para>
285
286 <para>This package contains tools for extracting translatable
287 strings from source files.</para>
288 </listitem>
289
290 <listitem>
291 <para>IProute2</para>
292
293 <para>This package contains programs for basic and advanced IPv4 and
294 IPv6 networking. It was chosen over the other common network
295 tools package (net-tools) for its IPv6 capabilities. </para>
296 </listitem>
297
298 <listitem>
299 <para>Kbd</para>
300
301 <para>This package contains key-table files, keyboard utilities
302 for non-US keyboards, and a number of console fonts.</para>
303 </listitem>
304
305 <listitem>
306 <para>Kmod</para>
307
308 <para>This package contains programs needed to administer Linux
309 kernel modules.</para>
310 </listitem>
311
312 <listitem>
313 <para>Less</para>
314
315 <para>This package contains a very nice text file viewer that
316 allows scrolling up or down when viewing a file. It is also used by
317 Man-DB for viewing manpages.</para>
318 </listitem>
319
320 <listitem>
321 <para>Libcap</para>
322
323 <para>This package implements the user-space interfaces to
324 the POSIX 1003.1e capabilities available in Linux kernels.
325 </para>
326 </listitem>
327
328 <listitem>
329 <para>Libelf</para>
330
331 <para>The elfutils project provides libraries and tools for ELF files
332 and DWARF data. Most utilities in this package are available in
333 other packages, but the library is needed to build the Linux
334 kernel using the default (and most efficient) configuration.</para>
335
336 </listitem>
337
338 <listitem>
339 <para>Libffi</para>
340
341 <para>This package implements a portable, high level programming
342 interface to various calling conventions. Some programs may not know
343 at the time of compilation what arguments are to be passed to a
344 function. For instance, an interpreter may be told at run-time about
345 the number and types of arguments used to call a given function. Libffi
346 can be used in such programs to provide a bridge from the interpreter
347 program to compiled code.</para>
348
349 </listitem>
350
351 <listitem>
352 <para>Libpipeline</para>
353
354 <para>The Libpipeline package contains a library for manipulating
355 pipelines of subprocesses in a flexible and convenient way. It is
356 required by the Man-DB package.</para>
357 </listitem>
358
359 <listitem>
360 <para>Libtool</para>
361
362 <para>This package contains the GNU generic library support
363 script. It wraps the complexity of using shared libraries in a
364 consistent, portable interface. It is needed by the test
365 suites in other LFS packages.</para>
366 </listitem>
367
368 <listitem>
369 <para>Linux Kernel</para>
370
371 <para>This package is the Operating System. It is the Linux in
372 the GNU/Linux environment.</para>
373 </listitem>
374
375 <listitem>
376 <para>M4</para>
377
378 <para>This package contains a general text macro processor useful
379 as a build tool for other programs.</para>
380 </listitem>
381
382 <listitem>
383 <para>Make</para>
384
385 <para>This package contains a program for directing the building
386 of packages. It is required by almost every package in LFS.</para>
387 </listitem>
388
389 <listitem>
390 <para>Man-DB</para>
391
392 <para>This package contains programs for finding and viewing man pages.
393 It was chosen instead of the <application>man</application> package
394 due to superior internationalization capabilities. It supplies
395 the man program.</para>
396 </listitem>
397
398 <listitem>
399 <para>Man-pages</para>
400
401 <para>This package contains the actual contents of the basic
402 Linux man pages.</para>
403 </listitem>
404
405 <listitem>
406 <para>Meson</para>
407
408 <para>This package provides a software tool for automating the building
409 of software. The main goal for Meson is to minimize the amount of time
410 that software developers need to spend configuring their build
411 system.</para>
412
413 </listitem>
414
415 <listitem>
416 <para>MPC</para>
417
418 <para>This package contains functions for the arithmetic of complex
419 numbers. It is required by GCC.</para>
420 </listitem>
421
422 <listitem>
423 <para>MPFR</para>
424
425 <para>This package contains functions for multiple precision
426 arithmetic. It is required by GCC.</para>
427 </listitem>
428
429 <listitem>
430 <para>Ninja</para>
431
432 <para>This package contains a small build system with a focus on speed.
433 It is designed to have its input files generated by a higher-level build
434 system, and to run builds as fast as possible.</para>
435
436 </listitem>
437
438 <listitem>
439 <para>Ncurses</para>
440
441 <para>This package contains libraries for terminal-independent
442 handling of character screens. It is often used to provide
443 cursor control for a menuing system. It is needed by a number of
444 packages in LFS.</para>
445 </listitem>
446
447 <listitem>
448 <para>Openssl</para>
449
450 <para>This package provides management tools and libraries relating to
451 cryptography. These are useful for providing cryptographic functions to
452 other packages, including the Linux kernel.</para>
453 </listitem>
454
455 <listitem>
456 <para>Patch</para>
457
458 <para>This package contains a program for modifying or creating files by
459 applying a <emphasis>patch</emphasis> file typically created
460 by the <application>diff</application> program. It is needed by
461 the build procedure for several LFS packages.</para>
462 </listitem>
463
464 <listitem>
465 <para>Perl</para>
466
467 <para>This package is an interpreter for the runtime language
468 PERL. It is needed for the installation and test suites of several LFS
469 packages.</para>
470 </listitem>
471
472 <listitem>
473 <para>Pkg-config</para>
474
475 <para>This package provides a program that returns meta-data about an
476 installed library or package.</para>
477 </listitem>
478
479 <listitem>
480 <para>Procps-NG</para>
481
482 <para>This package contains programs for monitoring processes. These
483 programs are useful for system administration, and are also used by
484 the LFS Bootscripts.</para>
485 </listitem>
486
487 <listitem>
488 <para>Psmisc</para>
489
490 <para>This package contains programs for displaying information
491 about running processes. These programs are useful for system
492 administration.</para>
493 </listitem>
494
495 <listitem>
496 <para>Python 3</para>
497
498 <para>This package provides an interpreted language that has a design
499 philosophy that emphasizes code readability.</para>
500
501 </listitem>
502
503 <listitem>
504 <para>Readline</para>
505
506 <para>This package is a set of libraries that offers command-line
507 editing and history capabilities. It is used by Bash.</para>
508 </listitem>
509
510 <listitem>
511 <para>Sed</para>
512
513 <para>This package allows editing of text without opening it in a
514 text editor. It is also needed by most LFS packages' configure
515 scripts.</para>
516 </listitem>
517
518 <listitem>
519 <para>Shadow</para>
520
521 <para>This package contains programs for handling passwords
522 in a secure way.</para>
523 </listitem>
524
525 <listitem revision="sysv">
526 <para>Sysklogd</para>
527
528 <para>This package contains programs for logging system messages,
529 such as those given by the kernel or daemon processes when unusual
530 events occur.</para>
531 </listitem>
532
533 <listitem revision="systemd">
534 <para>Systemd</para>
535
536 <para>This package provides an <application>init</application> program
537 and several additional boot and system control capabilities as an
538 alternative to Sysvinit. It is used by many commercial distributions.
539 </para>
540 </listitem>
541
542 <listitem revision="sysv">
543 <para>Sysvinit</para>
544
545 <para>This package provides the <application>init</application>
546 program, which is the parent of all other processes on the Linux
547 system. </para>
548 </listitem>
549
550 <listitem>
551 <para>Tar</para>
552
553 <para>This package provides archiving and extraction capabilities
554 of virtually all packages used in LFS.</para>
555 </listitem>
556
557 <listitem>
558 <para>Tcl</para>
559
560 <para>This package contains the Tool Command Language used
561 in many test suites in LFS packages.</para>
562 </listitem>
563
564 <listitem>
565 <para>Texinfo</para>
566
567 <para>This package contains programs for reading, writing, and
568 converting info pages. It is used in the installation
569 procedures of many LFS packages.</para>
570 </listitem>
571
572 <listitem>
573 <para>Util-linux</para>
574
575 <para>This package contains miscellaneous utility programs.
576 Among them are utilities for handling file systems, consoles,
577 partitions, and messages.</para>
578 </listitem>
579
580 <listitem>
581 <para>Vim</para>
582
583 <para>This package contains an editor. It was chosen because of its
584 compatibility with the classic vi editor and its huge number of powerful
585 capabilities. An editor is a very personal choice for
586 many users and any other editor could be substituted if desired.</para>
587 </listitem>
588
589 <listitem>
590 <para>XML::Parser</para>
591
592 <para>This package is a Perl module that interfaces with Expat.</para>
593 </listitem>
594
595 <listitem>
596 <para>XZ Utils</para>
597
598 <para>This package contains programs for compressing and decompressing
599 files. It provides the highest compression generally available
600 and is useful for decompressing packages in XZ or LZMA format.</para>
601 </listitem>
602
603 <listitem>
604 <para>Zlib</para>
605
606 <para>This package contains compression and decompression routines
607 used by some programs.</para>
608 </listitem>
609
610 <listitem>
611 <para>Zstd</para>
612
613 <para>This package contains compression and decompression routines
614 used by some programs. It provide high compression ratios and a very
615 wide range of compression / speed trade-offs.</para>
616 </listitem>
617
618 </itemizedlist>
619
620</sect1>
621
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