Changeset a3d0817


Ignore:
Timestamp:
06/12/2020 08:42:32 PM (16 months ago)
Author:
Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs@…>
Branches:
10.0, 10.0-rc1, 10.1, 10.1-rc1, 11.0, 11.0-rc1, 11.0-rc2, 11.0-rc3, ml-11.0, multilib, trunk, xry111/git-transition, xry111/glibc-2.34, xry111/tester-nohack, xry111/usr-move
Children:
9e7475a
Parents:
96f04d7
Message:

Text updated for cross2 chapter 9

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/branches/cross2@11928 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

Location:
chapter09
Files:
8 edited

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Unmodified
Added
Removed
  • chapter09/etcshells.xml

    r96f04d7 ra3d0817  
    2424  login shells on the system. Applications use this file to determine
    2525  whether a shell is valid. For each shell a single line should be
    26   present, consisting of the shell's path, relative to the root of the
     26  present, consisting of the shell's path relative to the root of the
    2727  directory structure (/).</para>
    2828
  • chapter09/inputrc.xml

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    1616
    1717  <para>The <filename>inputrc</filename> file is the configuration file for
    18   the Readline library, which provides editing capabilities while the user is
     18  the readline library, which provides editing capabilities while the user is
    1919  entering  a line from the terminal. It works by translating keyboard inputs
    20   into specific actions.  Readline is used by Bash and most other shells as
     20  into specific actions.  Readline is used by bash and most other shells as
    2121  well as many other applications.</para>
    2222
    2323  <para>Most people do not need user-specific functionality so the command
    2424  below creates a global <filename>/etc/inputrc</filename> used by everyone who
    25   logs in. If you later decide you need to override the defaults on a per-user
     25  logs in. If you later decide you need to override the defaults on a per user
    2626  basis, you can create a <filename>.inputrc</filename> file in the user's home
    2727  directory with the modified mappings.</para>
  • chapter09/introduction.xml

    r96f04d7 ra3d0817  
    1919    order but, at the same time, be executed as fast as possible.</para>
    2020
    21 <!--    <para>In the packages that were installed in Chapter&nbsp;6, there were two
    22     different boot systems installed.  LFS provides the ability to easily
    23     select which system the user wants to use and to compare and contrast the
    24     two systems by actually running each system on the local computer.  The
    25     advantages and disadvantages of these systems is presented below.</para>-->
    26 
    2721  <sect2 id='sysv-desc'>
    2822    <title>System V</title>
     
    4034    can be run by the user:</para>
    4135
    42 <literallayout>
    43 0 &mdash; halt
     36<literallayout>0 &mdash; halt
    44371 &mdash; Single user mode
    45382 &mdash; Multiuser, without networking
     
    47404 &mdash; User definable
    48415 &mdash; Full multiuser mode with display manager
    49 6 &mdash; reboot
    50 </literallayout>
     426 &mdash; reboot</literallayout>
    5143
    5244    <para>The usual default run level is 3 or 5.</para>
     
    7062    <itemizedlist>
    7163      <listitem>
    72           <para>Slower to boot.  A medium speed base LFS system
     64          <para>May be slower to boot.  A medium speed base LFS system
    7365          takes 8-12 seconds where the boot time is measured from the
    7466          first kernel message to the login prompt.  Network
     
    9587
    9688  </sect2>
    97 <!--
    98   <sect2 id='sysd-desc'>
    99     <title>Systemd</title>
    10089
    101     <para>Systemd is a group of interconnected programs that handles system and
    102     individual process requests.  It provides a dependency system between
    103     various entities called "units".  It automatically addresses dependencies
    104     between units and can execute several startup tasks in parallel.  It
    105     provides login, inetd, logging, time, and networking services. </para>
     90</sect1>
    10691
    107     <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Advantages</bridgehead>
    108 
    109     <itemizedlist>
    110       <listitem>
    111           <para>Used on many established distributions by default.</para>
    112       </listitem>
    113 
    114       <listitem>
    115           <para>There is extensive documentation.
    116           See <ulink url="http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/"/>.</para>
    117       </listitem>
    118 
    119       <listitem>
    120           <para>Parallel execution of boot processes. A medium speed
    121           base LFS system takes 6-10 seconds from kernel start to a
    122           login prompt.  Network connectivity is typically established
    123           about 2 seconds after the login prompt.  More complex startup
    124           procedures may show a greater speedup when compared to System V.</para>
    125       </listitem>
    126 
    127       <listitem>
    128           <para>Implements advanced features such as control groups to
    129           manage related processes.</para>
    130       </listitem>
    131 
    132       <listitem>
    133           <para>Maintains backward compatibility with System V programs
    134           and scripts.</para>
    135       </listitem>
    136     </itemizedlist>
    137 
    138     <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Disadvantages</bridgehead>
    139 
    140     <itemizedlist>
    141       <listitem>
    142           <para>There is a substantial learning curve.</para>
    143       </listitem>
    144 
    145       <listitem>
    146           <para>Some advanced features such as dbus or cgroups cannot be
    147           disabled if they are not otherwise needed.</para>
    148       </listitem>
    149 
    150       <listitem>
    151           <para>Although implemented as several executable programs
    152           the user cannot choose to implement only the portions desired.</para>
    153       </listitem>
    154 
    155       <listitem>
    156           <para>Due to the nature of using compiled programs, systemd is
    157           more difficult to debug.</para>
    158       </listitem>
    159 
    160       <listitem>
    161           <para>Logging is done in a binary format.  Extra tools must
    162           be used to process logs or additional processes must be implemented
    163           to duplicate traditional logging programs.</para>
    164       </listitem>
    165 
    166     </itemizedlist>
    167 
    168   </sect2>
    169 -->
    170 <!--
    171   <sect2 id='sysv'>
    172     <title>Selecting a Boot Method</title>
    173 
    174     <para>Selecting a boot method in LFS is relatively easy. 
    175     Both systems are installed side-by-side.  The only task needed is to
    176     ensure the files that are needed by the system have the correct names.
    177     The following scripts do that.</para>
    178 
    179 <screen><userinput remap="install">cat &gt; /usr/sbin/set-systemd &lt;&lt; "EOF"
    180 #! /bin/bash
    181 
    182 ln -svfn init-systemd   /sbin/init
    183 ln -svfn init.d-systemd /etc/init.d
    184 
    185 for tool in halt poweroff reboot runlevel shutdown telinit; do
    186   ln -sfvn  ${tool}-systemd   /sbin/${tool}
    187   ln -svfn  ${tool}-systemd.8 /usr/share/man/man8/${tool}.8
    188 done
    189 
    190 echo "Now reboot with /sbin/reboot-sysv"
    191 EOF
    192 
    193 chmod 0744 /usr/sbin/set-systemd
    194 
    195 cat &gt; /usr/sbin/set-sysv &lt;&lt; "EOF"
    196 #! /bin/bash
    197 
    198 ln -sfvn init-sysv    /sbin/init
    199 ln -svfn init.d-sysv  /etc/init.d
    200 
    201 for tool in halt poweroff reboot runlevel shutdown telinit; do
    202   ln -sfvn  ${tool}-sysv   /sbin/${tool}
    203   ln -svfn  ${tool}-sysv.8 /usr/share/man/man8/${tool}.8
    204 done
    205 
    206 echo "Now reboot with /sbin/reboot-systemd"
    207 EOF
    208 
    209 chmod 0744 /usr/sbin/set-sysv</userinput></screen>
    210 
    211   <note><para>The comment about the correct command to reboot in the
    212   above scripts is correct.  The reboot command for the current boot
    213   system must be used after the script changes the default reboot command.
    214   </para></note>
    215 
    216   <para>Now set the desired boot system.  The default is System V:</para>
    217 
    218 <screen><userinput remap="install">/usr/sbin/set-sysv</userinput></screen>
    219 
    220   <para>Changing the boot system can be done at any time by running the
    221   appropriate script above and rebooting.</para>
    222 
    223   </sect2>
    224 -->
    225 </sect1>
  • chapter09/network.xml

    r96f04d7 ra3d0817  
    1414    <primary sortas="d-network">network</primary>
    1515  <secondary>configuring</secondary></indexterm>
    16 <!--
    17   <para>This section only applies if a network card is to be
    18   configured.</para>
    19 
    20   <para>If a network card will not be used, there is likely no need to create
    21   any configuration files relating to network cards. If that is the case, you
    22   will need to remove the <filename class="symlink">network</filename> symlinks
    23   from all run-level directories (<filename
    24   class="directory">/etc/rc.d/rc*.d</filename>) after the bootscripts are
    25   installed in <xref linkend="ch-config-bootscripts"/>.</para>
    26 -->
     16
    2717  <sect2>
    2818    <title>Creating Network Interface Configuration Files</title>
     
    3828    the filename be <emphasis>ifconfig</emphasis>.</para>
    3929
    40     <note><para>If the procedure in the previous section was not used, Udev
     30    <note><para>If the procedure in the previous section was not used, udev
    4131    will assign network card interface names based on system physical
    4232    characteristics such as enp2s1. If you are not sure what your interface
     
    6555    <para>If the <envar>ONBOOT</envar> variable is set to <quote>yes</quote> the
    6656    System V network script will bring up the Network Interface Card (NIC) during
    67     booting of the system. If set to anything but <quote>yes</quote> the NIC
     57    the system boot process. If set to anything but <quote>yes</quote> the NIC
    6858    will be ignored by the network script and not be automatically brought up.
    6959    The interface can be manually started or stopped with the
  • chapter09/profile.xml

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    104104  before the telephone number in order to get into the country. If any of the
    105105  commands above fail with a message similar to the one shown below, this means
    106   that your locale was either not installed in Chapter&nbsp;6 or is not supported by
    107   the default installation of Glibc.</para>
     106  that your locale was either not installed in <xref linkend="ch-system-glibc"/>
     107  or is not supported by the default installation of Glibc.</para>
    108108
    109109<screen><computeroutput>locale: Cannot set LC_* to default locale: No such file or directory</computeroutput></screen>
     
    115115
    116116  <!-- FIXME: the xlib example will became obsolete real soon -->
    117   <para>Some packages beyond LFS may also lack support for your chosen locale. One
     117  <!--<para>Some packages beyond LFS may also lack support for your chosen locale. One
    118118  example is the X library (part of the X Window System), which outputs the
    119119  following error message if the locale does not exactly match one of the character
     
    129129  For example, one would have to change "de_DE.ISO-8859-15@euro" to
    130130  "de_DE@euro" in order to get this locale recognized by Xlib.</para>
    131 
     131-->
    132132  <para>Other packages can also function incorrectly (but may not necessarily
    133133  display any error messages) if the locale name does not meet their expectations.
     
    146146EOF</userinput></screen>
    147147
    148   <para>The <quote>C</quote> (default) and <quote>en_US</quote> (the recommended
     148  <para>The <quote>C</quote> (default) and <quote>en_US.utf8</quote> (the recommended
    149149  one for United States English users) locales are different. <quote>C</quote>
    150150  uses the US-ASCII 7-bit character set, and treats bytes with the high bit set
  • chapter09/symlinks.xml

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    2222    Intel and Realtek, the network card manufactured by Intel may become eth0
    2323    and the Realtek card becomes eth1. In some cases, after a reboot the cards
    24     get renumbered the other way around.</para>
     24    could get renumbered the other way around.</para>
    2525   
    2626    <para>In the new naming scheme, typical network device names would then
     
    4545      <title>Creating Custom Udev Rules</title>
    4646   
    47       <para>The naming scheme can be customized by creating custom Udev
     47      <para>The naming scheme can be customized by creating custom udev
    4848      rules.  A script has been included that generates the initial rules.
    4949      Generate these rules by running:</para>
     
    6969      the hardware ID nor the driver is used to determine which name to give an
    7070      interface; this information is only for reference. The second line is the
    71       Udev rule that matches this NIC and actually assigns it a name.</para>
    72  
    73       <para>All Udev rules are made up of several keys, separated by commas and
     71      udev rule that matches this NIC and actually assigns it a name.</para>
     72 
     73      <para>All udev rules are made up of several keys, separated by commas and
    7474      optional whitespace. This rule's keys and an explanation of each of them
    7575      are as follows:</para>
     
    7777      <itemizedlist>
    7878        <listitem>
    79           <para><literal>SUBSYSTEM=="net"</literal> - This tells Udev to ignore
     79          <para><literal>SUBSYSTEM=="net"</literal> - This tells udev to ignore
    8080          devices that are not network cards.</para>
    8181        </listitem>
    8282        <listitem>
    83           <para><literal>ACTION=="add"</literal> - This tells Udev to ignore this
     83          <para><literal>ACTION=="add"</literal> - This tells udev to ignore this
    8484          rule for a uevent that isn't an add ("remove" and "change" uevents also
    8585          happen, but don't need to rename network interfaces).</para>
    8686        </listitem>
    8787        <listitem>
    88           <para><literal>DRIVERS=="?*"</literal> - This exists so that Udev will
     88          <para><literal>DRIVERS=="?*"</literal> - This exists so that udev will
    8989          ignore VLAN or bridge sub-interfaces (because these sub-interfaces do
    9090          not have drivers). These sub-interfaces are skipped because the name
     
    9797        <listitem>
    9898          <para><literal>ATTR{type}=="1"</literal> - This ensures the rule only
    99           matches the primary interface in the case of certain wireless drivers,
     99          matches the primary interface in the case of certain wireless drivers
    100100          which create multiple virtual interfaces. The secondary interfaces are
    101101          skipped for the same reason that VLAN and bridge sub-interfaces are
     
    104104        <listitem>
    105105          <para><literal>NAME</literal> - The value of this key is the name that
    106           Udev will assign to this interface.</para>
     106          udev will assign to this interface.</para>
    107107        </listitem>
    108108      </itemizedlist>
     
    134134    the physical path to the CD or DVD device. Second, it can operate in
    135135    <quote>by-id</quote> mode (default for IDE and SCSI devices), where the
    136     rules it creates depend on identification strings stored in the CD or DVD
    137     device itself. The path is determined by Udev's <command>path_id</command>
     136    rules it creates depend on identification strings stored on the CD or DVD
     137    device itself. The path is determined by udev's <command>path_id</command>
    138138    script, and the identification strings are read from the hardware by its
    139139    <command>ata_id</command> or <command>scsi_id</command> programs, depending
     
    160160    should not use by-path persistence, because each time the device is plugged
    161161    into a new external port, its physical path will change. All
    162     externally-connected devices will have this problem if you write Udev rules
     162    externally-connected devices will have this problem if you write udev rules
    163163    to recognize them by their physical path; the problem is not limited to CD
    164164    and DVD drives.</para></important>
    165165
    166     <para>If you wish to see the values that the Udev scripts will use, then
     166    <para>If you wish to see the values that the udev scripts will use, then
    167167    for the appropriate CD-ROM device, find the corresponding directory under
    168168    <filename class="directory">/sys</filename> (e.g., this can be
     
    183183    <quote>by-id</quote> or <quote>by-path</quote>):</para>
    184184
    185 <screen role="nodump"><userinput>sed -i -e 's/"write_cd_rules"/"write_cd_rules <replaceable>mode</replaceable>"/' \
    186     /etc/udev/rules.d/83-cdrom-symlinks.rules</userinput></screen>
     185<screen role="nodump"><userinput>sed -e 's/"write_cd_rules"/"write_cd_rules <replaceable>mode</replaceable>"/' \
     186    -i /etc/udev/rules.d/83-cdrom-symlinks.rules</userinput></screen>
    187187
    188188    <para>Note that it is not necessary to create the rules files or symlinks
    189     at this time, because you have bind-mounted the host's
    190     <filename class="directory">/dev</filename> directory into the LFS system,
     189    at this time because you have bind-mounted the host's
     190    <filename class="directory">/dev</filename> directory into the LFS system
    191191    and we assume the symlinks exist on the host. The rules and symlinks will
    192192    be created the first time you boot your LFS system.</para>
     
    194194    <para>However, if you have multiple CD-ROM devices, then the symlinks
    195195    generated at that time may point to different devices than they point to on
    196     your host, because devices are not discovered in a predictable order. The
     196    your host because devices are not discovered in a predictable order. The
    197197    assignments created when you first boot the LFS system will be stable, so
    198198    this is only an issue if you need the symlinks on both systems to point to
     
    213213    <filename>/dev/video0</filename> refers to the camera and
    214214    <filename>/dev/video1</filename> refers to the tuner, and sometimes
    215     after a reboot the order changes to the opposite one.
     215    after a reboot the order changes.
    216216    For all classes of hardware except sound cards and network cards, this is
    217     fixable by creating Udev rules for custom persistent symlinks.
     217    fixable by creating udev rules for custom persistent symlinks.
    218218    The case of network cards is covered separately in
    219219    <xref linkend="ch-config-network"/>, and sound card configuration can
     
    238238<literal>
    239239# Persistent symlinks for webcam and tuner
    240 KERNEL=="video*", ATTRS{idProduct}=="1910", ATTRS{idVendor}=="0d81", \
    241     SYMLINK+="webcam"
    242 KERNEL=="video*", ATTRS{device}=="0x036f", ATTRS{vendor}=="0x109e", \
    243     SYMLINK+="tvtuner"
     240KERNEL=="video*", ATTRS{idProduct}=="1910", ATTRS{idVendor}=="0d81", SYMLINK+="webcam"
     241KERNEL=="video*", ATTRS{device}=="0x036f",  ATTRS{vendor}=="0x109e", SYMLINK+="tvtuner"
    244242</literal>
    245243EOF</userinput></screen>
  • chapter09/udev.xml

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    1616  </indexterm>
    1717
    18   <para>In <xref linkend="chapter-building-system"/>, we installed the Udev
     18  <para>In <xref linkend="chapter-building-system"/>, we installed the udev
    1919  package when <phrase revision="sysv">eudev</phrase>
    2020  <phrase revision="systemd">systemd</phrase> was built. Before we go into the
     
    3131  the world.</para>
    3232
    33   <para>Using the Udev method, only those devices which are detected by the
     33  <para>Using the udev method, only those devices which are detected by the
    3434  kernel get device nodes created for them. Because these device nodes will be
    3535  created each time the system boots, they will be stored on a <systemitem
     
    136136      might contain the string
    137137      <quote>pci:v00001319d00000801sv00001319sd00001319bc04sc01i00</quote>.
    138       The default rules provided with Udev will cause <command>udevd</command>
     138      The default rules provided with udev will cause <command>udevd</command>
    139139      to call out to <command>/sbin/modprobe</command> with the contents of the
    140140      <envar>MODALIAS</envar> uevent environment variable (which should be the
     
    150150
    151151      <para>The kernel itself is also able to load modules for network
    152       protocols, filesystems and NLS support on demand.</para>
     152      protocols, filesystems, and NLS support on demand.</para>
    153153
    154154    </sect3>
     
    178178      bus driver properly exports the necessary aliases to <systemitem
    179179      class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem>. In other cases, one should
    180       arrange module loading by other means. With Linux-&linux-version;, Udev is
     180      arrange module loading by other means. With Linux-&linux-version;, udev is
    181181      known to load properly-written drivers for INPUT, IDE, PCI, USB, SCSI,
    182182      SERIO, and FireWire devices.</para>
    183183
    184184      <para>To determine if the device driver you require has the necessary
    185       support for Udev, run <command>modinfo</command> with the module name as
     185      support for udev, run <command>modinfo</command> with the module name as
    186186      the argument.  Now try locating the device directory under
    187187      <filename class="directory">/sys/bus</filename> and check whether there is
     
    191191      class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem>, the driver supports the device and
    192192      can talk to it directly, but doesn't have the alias, it is a bug in the
    193       driver. Load the driver without the help from Udev and expect the issue
     193      driver. Load the driver without the help from udev and expect the issue
    194194      to be fixed later.</para>
    195195
     
    207207
    208208    <sect3>
    209       <title>A kernel module is not loaded automatically, and Udev is not
     209      <title>A kernel module is not loaded automatically, and udev is not
    210210      intended to load it</title>
    211211
     
    215215      <emphasis>snd-pcm</emphasis> by making the sound cards available to OSS
    216216      applications), configure <command>modprobe</command> to load the wrapper
    217       after Udev loads the wrapped module. To do this, add a
     217      after udev loads the wrapped module. To do this, add a
    218218      <quote>softdep</quote> line to the corresponding
    219219      <filename>/etc/modprobe.d/<replaceable>&lt;filename&gt;</replaceable>.conf</filename>
     
    280280      <para>Further text assumes that the driver is built statically into the
    281281      kernel or already loaded as a module, and that you have already checked
    282       that Udev doesn't create a misnamed device.</para>
     282      that udev doesn't create a misnamed device.</para>
    283283
    284284      <para>Udev has no information needed to create a device node if a kernel
     
    298298      <title>Device naming order changes randomly after rebooting</title>
    299299
    300       <para>This is due to the fact that Udev, by design, handles uevents and
     300      <para>This is due to the fact that udev, by design, handles uevents and
    301301      loads modules in parallel, and thus in an unpredictable order. This will
    302302      never be <quote>fixed</quote>. You should not rely upon the kernel device
    303303      names being stable. Instead, create your own rules that make symlinks with
    304304      stable names based on some stable attributes of the device, such as a
    305       serial number or the output of various *_id utilities installed by Udev.
     305      serial number or the output of various *_id utilities installed by udev.
    306306      See <xref linkend="ch-config-symlinks"/> and
    307307      <xref linkend="ch-config-network"/> for examples.</para>
  • chapter09/usage.xml

    r96f04d7 ra3d0817  
    236236      <para>For information on kernel module loading and udev, see
    237237      <xref linkend="module-loading"/>.</para>
    238 <!--
    239     <sect3>
    240       <title>Module Loading</title>
    241 
    242       <para>Device drivers compiled as modules may have aliases built into them.
    243       Aliases are visible in the output of the <command>modinfo</command>
    244       program and are usually related to the bus-specific identifiers of devices
    245       supported by a module. For example, the <emphasis>snd-fm801</emphasis>
    246       driver supports PCI devices with vendor ID 0x1319 and device ID 0x0801,
    247       and has an alias of <quote>pci:v00001319d00000801sv*sd*bc04sc01i*</quote>.
    248       For most devices, the bus driver exports the alias of the driver that
    249       would handle the device via <systemitem
    250       class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem>. E.g., the
    251       <filename>/sys/bus/pci/devices/0000:00:0d.0/modalias</filename> file
    252       might contain the string
    253       <quote>pci:v00001319d00000801sv00001319sd00001319bc04sc01i00</quote>.
    254       The default rules provided with Udev will cause <command>udevd</command>
    255       to call out to <command>/sbin/modprobe</command> with the contents of the
    256       <envar>MODALIAS</envar> uevent environment variable (which should be the
    257       same as the contents of the <filename>modalias</filename> file in sysfs),
    258       thus loading all modules whose aliases match this string after wildcard
    259       expansion.</para>
    260 
    261       <para>In this example, this means that, in addition to
    262       <emphasis>snd-fm801</emphasis>, the obsolete (and unwanted)
    263       <emphasis>forte</emphasis> driver will be loaded if it is
    264       available. See below for ways in which the loading of unwanted drivers can
    265       be prevented.</para>
    266 
    267       <para>The kernel itself is also able to load modules for network
    268       protocols, filesystems and NLS support on demand.</para>
    269 
    270     </sect3>
    271 
    272     <sect3>
    273       <title>Handling Hotpluggable/Dynamic Devices</title>
    274 
    275       <para>When you plug in a device, such as a Universal Serial Bus (USB) MP3
    276       player, the kernel recognizes that the device is now connected and
    277       generates a uevent. This uevent is then handled by
    278       <command>udevd</command> as described above.</para>
    279 
    280     </sect3>
    281 -->
    282238  </sect2>
    283239
     
    294250    hardware clock's time to the local time using the
    295251    <filename>/etc/localtime</filename> file (which tells the
    296     <command>hwclock</command> program which timezone the user is in). There is no
     252    <command>hwclock</command> program which timezone to use). There is no
    297253    way to detect whether or not the hardware clock is set to UTC, so this
    298254    needs to be configured manually.</para>
    299255
    300     <para>The <command>setclock</command> is run via
     256    <para>The <command>setclock</command> program is run via
    301257    <application>udev</application> when the kernel detects the hardware
    302258    capability upon boot.  It can also be run manually with the stop parameter to
     
    316272    <para>Change the value of the <envar>UTC</envar> variable below
    317273    to a value of <parameter>0</parameter> (zero) if the hardware clock
    318     is <emphasis>not</emphasis> set to UTC time.</para>
     274    is <emphasis>NOT</emphasis> set to UTC time.</para>
    319275
    320276    <para>Create a new file <filename>/etc/sysconfig/clock</filename> by running
     
    337293    time zones, UTC, and the <envar>TZ</envar> environment variable.</para>
    338294
    339     <note><para>The CLOCKPARAMS and UTC paramaters may be alternatively set
     295    <note><para>The CLOCKPARAMS and UTC paramaters may also be set
    340296    in the <filename>/etc/sysconfig/rc.site</filename> file.</para></note>
    341297
     
    353309
    354310  <para>This section discusses how to configure the <command>console</command>
    355   bootscript that sets up the keyboard map, console font and console kernel log
     311  bootscript that sets up the keyboard map, console font, and console kernel log
    356312  level. If non-ASCII characters (e.g., the copyright sign, the British pound
    357313  sign and Euro symbol) will not be used and the keyboard is a U.S. one, much
     
    506462      <para>Due to the use of a 512-glyph LatArCyrHeb-16 font in the previous
    507463      example, bright colors are no longer available on the Linux console unless
    508       a framebuffer is used. If one wants to have bright colors without
     464      a framebuffer is used. If one wants to have bright colors without a
    509465      framebuffer and can live without characters not belonging to his language,
    510466      it is still possible to use a language-specific 256-glyph font, as
     
    549505      languages, because there accents are added to unaccented ASCII
    550506      characters, or two ASCII characters are composed together. However, in
    551       UTF-8 mode it is a problem, e.g., for the Greek language, where one
     507      UTF-8 mode it is a problem; e.g., for the Greek language, where one
    552508      sometimes needs to put an accent on the letter <quote>alpha</quote>.
    553509      The solution is either to avoid the use of UTF-8, or to install the
     
    557513
    558514    <listitem>
    559       <para>For Chinese, Japanese, Korean and some other languages, the Linux
     515      <para>For Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and some other languages, the Linux
    560516      console cannot be configured to display the needed characters. Users
    561517      who need such languages should install the X Window System, fonts that
    562518      cover the necessary character ranges, and the proper input method (e.g.,
    563       SCIM, it supports a wide variety of languages).</para>
     519      SCIM, supports a wide variety of languages).</para>
    564520    </listitem>
    565521
     
    572528    the Linux text console localization. It has nothing to do with setting
    573529    the proper keyboard layout and terminal fonts in the X Window System, with
    574     ssh sessions or with a serial console. In such situations, limitations
     530    ssh sessions, or with a serial console. In such situations, limitations
    575531    mentioned in the last two list items above do not apply.</para>
    576532  </note>
     
    586542    </indexterm>
    587543 
    588     <para>At times, it is desired to create files at boot time.  For instance,
     544    <para>At times, it is desirable to create files at boot time.  For instance,
    589545    the <filename class="directory">/tmp/.ICE-unix</filename> directory
    590     may be desired.  This can be done by creating an entry in the
     546    is often needed.  This can be done by creating an entry in the
    591547    <filename>/etc/sysconfig/createfiles</filename> configuration script.
    592548    The format of this file is embedded in the comments of the default
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