Changeset bf58c1e


Ignore:
Timestamp:
04/21/2014 09:44:04 PM (8 years ago)
Author:
Bruce Dubbs <bdubbs@…>
Branches:
10.0, 10.0-rc1, 10.1, 10.1-rc1, 11.0, 11.0-rc1, 11.0-rc2, 11.0-rc3, 7.10, 7.10-rc1, 7.6, 7.6-rc1, 7.7, 7.7-rc1, 7.8, 7.8-rc1, 7.9, 7.9-rc1, 7.9-rc2, 8.0, 8.0-rc1, 8.1, 8.1-rc1, 8.1-rc2, 8.2, 8.2-rc1, 8.3, 8.3-rc1, 8.3-rc2, 8.4, 8.4-rc1, 9.0, 9.0-rc1, 9.1, 9.1-rc1, BOOK.old, cross-chap5, hybrid, ml-11.0, multilib, nosym, old-trunk, trunk, xry111/git-transition, xry111/glibc-2.34, xry111/tester-nohack, xry111/usr-move
Children:
5af3f9e
Parents:
c65dd23e
Message:

Rewrite and reorganize Chapter 7.
Update systemd customization.

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/trunk/BOOK@10542 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

Files:
11 edited

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
  • chapter01/changelog.xml

    rc65dd23e rbf58c1e  
    3737-->
    3838    <listitem>
     39      <para>2014-03-21</para>
     40      <itemizedlist>
     41        <listitem>
     42          <para>[bdubbs] - Rewrote and reorganized Chapter 7.
     43          Updated systemd customization.</para>
     44        </listitem>
     45      </itemizedlist>
     46    </listitem>
     47
     48    <listitem>
    3949      <para>2014-04-18</para>
    4050      <itemizedlist>
  • chapter07/bootscripts.xml

    rc65dd23e rbf58c1e  
    2525
    2626    <para>The LFS-Bootscripts package contains a set of scripts to start/stop
    27     the LFS system at bootup/shutdown.  The networking systemd unit file is
    28     also installed.</para>
     27    the LFS system at bootup/shutdown.  A networking systemd unit file is
     28    also installed.  The configuration files and procedures needed to
     29    customize the boot process are described in the following sections.</para>
    2930
    3031    <segmentedlist>
  • chapter07/chapter07.xml

    rc65dd23e rbf58c1e  
    1414  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="introduction.xml"/>
    1515  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="bootscripts.xml"/>
    16   <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="network.xml"/>
    17   <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="hosts.xml"/>
    1816  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="udev.xml"/>
    1917  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="symlinks.xml"/>
     18  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="network.xml"/>
     19<!--  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="hosts.xml"/>-->
    2020  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="usage.xml"/>
    2121  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="sysd-custom.xml"/>
    22   <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="hostname.xml"/>
    23   <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="setclock.xml"/>
    24   <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="console.xml"/>
    25   <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="sysklogd.xml"/>
    26   <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="site.xml"/>
     22<!--  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="hostname.xml"/>-->
     23<!--  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="setclock.xml"/>-->
     24<!--  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="console.xml"/>-->
     25<!--  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="sysklogd.xml"/>-->
     26<!--  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="site.xml"/>-->
    2727  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="profile.xml"/>
    2828  <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" href="inputrc.xml"/>
  • chapter07/introduction.xml

    rc65dd23e rbf58c1e  
    4040    can be run by the user:</para>
    4141
    42     <itemizedlist>
    43       <listitem><para>0 &mdash; halt</para></listitem>
    44       <listitem><para>1 &mdash; Single user mode</para></listitem>
    45       <listitem><para>2 &mdash; Multiuser, without networking</para></listitem>
    46       <listitem><para>3 &mdash; Full multiuser mode</para></listitem>
    47       <listitem><para>4 &mdash; User definable</para></listitem>
    48       <listitem><para>5 &mdash; Full multiuser mode with display manager</para></listitem>
    49       <listitem><para>6 &mdash; reboot</para></listitem>
    50     </itemizedlist>
     42<literallayout>
     430 &mdash; halt
     441 &mdash; Single user mode
     452 &mdash; Multiuser, without networking
     463 &mdash; Full multiuser mode
     474 &mdash; User definable
     485 &mdash; Full multiuser mode with display manager
     496 &mdash; reboot
     50</literallayout>
    5151
    5252    <para>The usual default run level is 3 or 5.</para>
     
    208208chmod 0744 /usr/sbin/set-sysv</userinput></screen>
    209209
     210  <note><para>The comment about the correct command to reboot in the
     211  above scripts is correct.  The reboot command for the current boot
     212  system must be used after the script changes the default reboot command.
     213  </para></note>
     214
    210215  <para>Now set the desired boot system.  The default is System V:</para>
    211216
  • chapter07/network.xml

    rc65dd23e rbf58c1e  
    2525  installed in <xref linkend="ch-scripts-bootscripts"/>.</para>
    2626
    27   <sect2 id='stable-net-names'>
    28     <title>Creating stable names for network interfaces</title>
    29 
    30     <para>If there is only one network interface in the system to be
    31     configured, this section is optional, although it will never be wrong to do
    32     it.  In many cases (e.g. a laptop with a wireless and a wired interface),
    33     accomplishing the configuration in this section is necessary.</para>
    34 
    35     <para>With Udev and modular network drivers, the network interface numbering
    36     is not persistent across reboots by default, because the drivers are loaded
    37     in parallel and, thus, in random order. For example, on a computer having
    38     two network cards made by Intel and Realtek, the network card manufactured
    39     by Intel may become <filename class="devicefile">eth0</filename> and the
    40     Realtek card becomes  <filename class="devicefile">eth1</filename>. In some
    41     cases, after a reboot the cards get renumbered the other way around. To
    42     avoid this, Udev comes with a script and some rules to assign stable names
    43     to network cards based on their MAC address.</para>
    44 
    45     <para>If using the traditional network interface names such as eth0 is desired,
    46     generate a custom Udev rule:</para>
    47 
    48 <screen><userinput>bash /lib/udev/init-net-rules.sh</userinput></screen>   
    49 
    50     <para> Now, inspect the
    51     <filename>/etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules</filename> file, to
    52     find out which name was assigned to which network device:</para>
    53 
    54 <screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules</userinput></screen>
    55 
    56     <note><para>In some cases such as when MAC addresess have been assigned to
    57     a network card manually or in a virtual environment such as Xen,
    58     the network rules file may not have been generated because addresses
    59     are not consistently assigned.  In these cases, just continue to
    60     the next section.</para></note>
    61 
    62     <para>The file begins with a comment block followed by two lines for each
    63     NIC. The first line for each NIC is a commented description showing its
    64     hardware IDs (e.g. its PCI vendor and device IDs, if it's a PCI card),
    65     along with its driver in parentheses, if the driver can be found. Neither
    66     the hardware ID nor the driver is used to determine which name to give an
    67     interface; this information is only for reference. The second line is the
    68     Udev rule that matches this NIC and actually assigns it a name.</para>
    69 
    70     <para>All Udev rules are made up of several keys, separated by commas and
    71     optional whitespace. This rule's keys and an explanation of each of them
    72     are as follows:</para>
    73 
    74     <itemizedlist>
    75       <listitem>
    76         <para><literal>SUBSYSTEM=="net"</literal> - This tells Udev to ignore
    77         devices that are not network cards.</para>
    78       </listitem>
    79       <listitem>
    80         <para><literal>ACTION=="add"</literal> - This tells Udev to ignore this
    81         rule for a uevent that isn't an add ("remove" and "change" uevents also
    82         happen, but don't need to rename network interfaces).</para>
    83       </listitem>
    84       <listitem>
    85         <para><literal>DRIVERS=="?*"</literal> - This exists so that Udev will
    86         ignore VLAN or bridge sub-interfaces (because these sub-interfaces do
    87         not have drivers). These sub-interfaces are skipped because the name
    88         that would be assigned would collide with their parent devices.</para>
    89       </listitem>
    90       <listitem>
    91         <para><literal>ATTR{address}</literal> - The value of this key is the
    92         NIC's MAC address.</para>
    93       </listitem>
    94       <listitem>
    95         <para><literal>ATTR{type}=="1"</literal> - This ensures the rule only
    96         matches the primary interface in the case of certain wireless drivers,
    97         which create multiple virtual interfaces. The secondary interfaces are
    98         skipped for the same reason that VLAN and bridge sub-interfaces are
    99         skipped: there would be a name collision otherwise.</para>
    100       </listitem>
    101       <listitem>
    102         <para><literal>KERNEL=="eth*"</literal> - This key was added to the
    103         Udev rule generator to handle machines that have multiple network
    104         interfaces, all with the same MAC address (the PS3 is one such
    105         machine).  If the independent interfaces have different basenames,
    106         this key will allow Udev to tell them apart.  This is generally not
    107         necessary for most Linux From Scratch users, but does not hurt.</para>
    108       </listitem>
    109       <listitem>
    110         <para><literal>NAME</literal> - The value of this key is the name that
    111         Udev will assign to this interface.</para>
    112       </listitem>
    113     </itemizedlist>
    114 
    115     <para>The value of <literal>NAME</literal> is the important part. Make sure
    116     you know which name has been assigned to each of your network cards before
    117     proceeding, and be sure to use that <literal>NAME</literal> value when
    118     creating your configuration files below.</para>
    119 
    120   </sect2>
    121 
    12227  <sect2>
    12328    <title>Creating Network Interface Configuration Files</title>
    12429
    12530    <para>Which interfaces are brought up and down by the network script
    126     depends on the files in <filename
     31    usually depends on the files in <filename
    12732    class="directory">/etc/sysconfig/</filename>.  This directory should
    12833    contain a file for each interface to be configured, such as
     
    217122    name as described on the beginning of this page.</para>
    218123
     124    <note><para>These procedures require the configuartion files as specified
     125    in the previous section.</para></note>
     126
    219127    <note><para>The network card can also be started or stopped
    220128    with the traditional <command>ifup &lt;device&gt;</command> or
    221129    <command>ifdown &lt;device&gt;</command> commands.</para></note>
     130
     131  </sect2>
     132
     133  <sect2 id="systemd2-net-enable">
     134    <title>Configuring the Network Interface Card for systemd-networkd</title>
     135
     136    <para>An alternative way to configure a NIC when booting with with
     137    systemd is to create a configuration file recognized by the
     138    systemd-networkd daemon.  To configure the device create a file similar
     139    to this:</para>
     140
     141<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/systemd/network/10-static-eth0.network &lt;&lt; "EOF"
     142[Match]
     143Name=eth0
     144
     145[Network]
     146Address=192.168.0.2/24
     147Gateway=192.168.0.1
     148EOF</userinput></screen>
     149
     150  <para>You can use multiple .network files if desired.  You can also specify
     151  DHCP=yes instead of the Address and Gateway settings.  See the man page for
     152  systemd.network for more details,</para>
    222153
    223154  </sect2>
     
    263194  </sect2>
    264195
     196  <sect2 id="ch-scripts-hostname">
     197    <title>Configuring the system hostname</title>
     198
     199    <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-hostname">
     200      <primary sortas="d-hostname">hostname</primary>
     201      <secondary>configuring</secondary>
     202    </indexterm>
     203
     204     <para>During the boot process, both Systemd and System V use the same file
     205     for establishing the system's hostname.  This needs to be configured by
     206     creating <filename>/etc/hostname</filename>.</para>
     207
     208     <para>Create the <filename>/etc/hostname</filename> file and enter a
     209     hostname by running:</para>
     210
     211<screen><userinput>echo "<replaceable>&lt;lfs&gt;</replaceable>" &gt; /etc/hostname</userinput></screen>
     212
     213     <para><replaceable>&lt;lfs&gt;</replaceable> needs to be replaced with the
     214     name given to the computer. Do not enter the Fully Qualified Domain Name
     215     (FQDN) here. That information is put in the
     216     <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> file.</para>
     217
     218  </sect2>
     219
     220  <sect2 id="ch-scripts-hosts">
     221     <title>Customizing the /etc/hosts File</title>
     222
     223     <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-hosts">
     224       <primary sortas="e-/etc/hosts">/etc/hosts</primary>
     225     </indexterm>
     226   
     227     <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-hosts">
     228       <primary sortas="d-localnet">localnet</primary>
     229       <secondary>/etc/hosts</secondary>
     230     </indexterm>
     231   
     232     <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-hosts">
     233       <primary sortas="d-network">network</primary>
     234       <secondary>/etc/hosts</secondary>
     235     </indexterm>
     236   
     237     <para>Decide on the IP address, fully-qualified domain name (FQDN), and
     238     possible aliases for use in the <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> file. The
     239     syntax is:</para>
     240   
     241<screen><literal>IP_address myhost.example.org aliases</literal></screen>
     242
     243     <para>Unless the computer is to be visible to the Internet (i.e., there is
     244     a registered domain and a valid block of assigned IP addresses&mdash;most
     245     users do not have this), make sure that the IP address is in the private
     246     network IP address range. Valid ranges are:</para>
     247
     248<screen><literal>Private Network Address Range      Normal Prefix
     24910.0.0.1 - 10.255.255.254           8
     250172.x.0.1 - 172.x.255.254           16
     251192.168.y.1 - 192.168.y.254         24</literal></screen>
     252
     253     <para>x can be any number in the range 16-31. y can be any number in the
     254     range 0-255.</para>
     255   
     256     <para>A valid private IP address could be 192.168.1.1. A valid FQDN for
     257     this IP could be lfs.example.org.</para>
     258   
     259     <para>Even if not using a network card, a valid FQDN is still required.
     260     This is necessary for certain programs to operate correctly.</para>
     261   
     262     <para>Create the  <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> file by running:</para>
     263
     264<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/hosts &lt;&lt; "EOF"
     265<literal># Begin /etc/hosts (network card version)
     266
     267127.0.0.1 localhost
     268<replaceable>&lt;192.168.1.1&gt;</replaceable> <replaceable>&lt;HOSTNAME.example.org&gt;</replaceable> <replaceable>[alias1] [alias2 ...]</replaceable>
     269
     270# End /etc/hosts (network card version)</literal>
     271EOF</userinput></screen>
     272
     273     <para>The <replaceable>&lt;192.168.1.1&gt;</replaceable> and
     274     <replaceable>&lt;HOSTNAME.example.org&gt;</replaceable> values need to be
     275     changed for specific uses or requirements (if assigned an IP address by a
     276     network/system administrator and the machine will be connected to an
     277     existing network). The optional alias name(s) can be omitted.</para>
     278   
     279     <para>If a network card is not going to be configured, create the
     280     <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> file by running:</para>
     281
     282<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/hosts &lt;&lt; "EOF"
     283<literal># Begin /etc/hosts (no network card version)
     284
     285127.0.0.1 <replaceable>&lt;HOSTNAME.example.org&gt;</replaceable> <replaceable>&lt;HOSTNAME&gt;</replaceable> localhost
     286
     287# End /etc/hosts (no network card version)</literal>
     288EOF</userinput></screen>
     289
     290   </sect2>
     291
    265292</sect1>
  • chapter07/symlinks.xml

    rc65dd23e rbf58c1e  
    99  <?dbhtml filename="symlinks.html"?>
    1010
    11   <title>Creating Custom Symlinks to Devices</title>
     11  <title>Managing Devices</title>
     12
     13  <sect2>
     14
     15    <title>Network Devices</title>
     16
     17    <para>Udev, by default, names network devices according to Firmware/BIOS
     18    data or physical characteristics like the bus, slot, or MAC address.  The
     19    purpose of this naming convention is to ensure that network devices are
     20    named consistently and not based on the time the network card was
     21    discovered.  For example, on a computer having two network cards made by
     22    Intel and Realtek, the network card manufactured by Intel may become eth0
     23    and the Realtek card becomes eth1. In some cases, after a reboot the cards
     24    get renumbered the other way around.</para>
     25   
     26    <para>In the new naming scheme, typical network device names would then
     27    be something like enp5s0 or wlp3s0.  If this naming convention is not
     28    desired, the traditional naming scheme or a custom scheme can be
     29    implemented.</para>
     30
     31    <sect3>
     32      <title>Disabling Persistent Naming on the Kernel Command Line</title>
     33   
     34      <para>The traditional naming scheme using eth0, eth1, etc can be
     35      restored by adding <userinput>net.ifnames=0</userinput> on the
     36      kernel command line.  This is most appropriate for those systems
     37      that have only one ethernet device of the same type.  Laptops
     38      often have multiple ethernet connections that are named eth0 and
     39      wlan0 and are also candidates for this method.  The command line
     40      is passed in the GRUB configuration file.
     41      See <xref linkend="grub-cfg"/>.</para>
     42    </sect3>
     43
     44    <sect3>
     45      <title>Creating Custom Udev Rules</title>
     46   
     47      <para>The naming scheme can be customized by creating custom Udev
     48      rules.  A script has been included that generates the initial rules.
     49      Generate these rules by running:</para>
     50
     51<screen role="nodump"><userinput>bash /lib/udev/init-net-rules.sh</userinput></screen>
     52
     53      <para> Now, inspect th
     54      <filename>/etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules</filename> file, to
     55      find out which name was assigned to which network device:</para>
     56
     57<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules</userinput></screen>
     58
     59      <note><para>In some cases such as when MAC addresess have been assigned to
     60      a network card manually or in a virtual environment such as Qemu or Xen,
     61      the network rules file may not have been generated because addresses
     62      are not consistently assigned.  In these cases, this method cannot
     63      be used.</para></note>
     64 
     65      <para>The file begins with a comment block followed by two lines for each
     66      NIC. The first line for each NIC is a commented description showing its
     67      hardware IDs (e.g. its PCI vendor and device IDs, if it's a PCI card),
     68      along with its driver in parentheses, if the driver can be found. Neither
     69      the hardware ID nor the driver is used to determine which name to give an
     70      interface; this information is only for reference. The second line is the
     71      Udev rule that matches this NIC and actually assigns it a name.</para>
     72 
     73      <para>All Udev rules are made up of several keys, separated by commas and
     74      optional whitespace. This rule's keys and an explanation of each of them
     75      are as follows:</para>
     76 
     77      <itemizedlist>
     78        <listitem>
     79          <para><literal>SUBSYSTEM=="net"</literal> - This tells Udev to ignore
     80          devices that are not network cards.</para>
     81        </listitem>
     82        <listitem>
     83          <para><literal>ACTION=="add"</literal> - This tells Udev to ignore this
     84          rule for a uevent that isn't an add ("remove" and "change" uevents also
     85          happen, but don't need to rename network interfaces).</para>
     86        </listitem>
     87        <listitem>
     88          <para><literal>DRIVERS=="?*"</literal> - This exists so that Udev will
     89          ignore VLAN or bridge sub-interfaces (because these sub-interfaces do
     90          not have drivers). These sub-interfaces are skipped because the name
     91          that would be assigned would collide with their parent devices.</para>
     92        </listitem>
     93        <listitem>
     94          <para><literal>ATTR{address}</literal> - The value of this key is the
     95          NIC's MAC address.</para>
     96        </listitem>
     97        <listitem>
     98          <para><literal>ATTR{type}=="1"</literal> - This ensures the rule only
     99          matches the primary interface in the case of certain wireless drivers,
     100          which create multiple virtual interfaces. The secondary interfaces are
     101          skipped for the same reason that VLAN and bridge sub-interfaces are
     102          skipped: there would be a name collision otherwise.</para>
     103        </listitem>
     104        <listitem>
     105          <para><literal>NAME</literal> - The value of this key is the name that
     106          Udev will assign to this interface.</para>
     107        </listitem>
     108      </itemizedlist>
     109 
     110      <para>The value of <literal>NAME</literal> is the important part. Make sure
     111      you know which name has been assigned to each of your network cards before
     112      proceeding, and be sure to use that <literal>NAME</literal> value when
     113      creating your configuration files below.</para>
     114
     115    </sect3>
     116
     117    <sect3>
     118      <title>Custom Naming in Systemd</title>
     119   
     120      <para>Network interface names can also be customized with a set of
     121      files spcific to systemd.  A file with a name such as 10-eth0.link
     122      in the /etc/systemd/network directory can set an interface name. All
     123      files in the directory will be applied in lexical order.  Files
     124      in the /lib/systemd/network directory with the same name as those
     125      in /etc/systemd/network will be overridden.  See the man page
     126      for systemd.link for a full explanation.</para>
     127
     128      <para>An example file looks like:</para>
     129
     130<screen role="nodump">[Match]
     131MACAddress=12:34:56:78:9a:bc
     132Driver=brcmsmac
     133Path=pci-0000:02:00.0-*
     134Type=wlan
     135Virtualization=no
     136Host=my-laptop
     137Architecture=x86-64
     138
     139[Link]
     140Name=wireless0
     141MTUBytes=1450
     142BitsPerSecond=10M
     143WakeOnLan=magic
     144MACAddress=cb:a9:87:65:43:21</screen>
     145
     146    <para>The [Match] section specifies when to apply the rule.  In
     147    the example above, the entries can be shortened to the minimum
     148    needed to uniquely identify the network device.  Similarly,
     149    the [Link] section only needs to specify the changes from the
     150    default that are desired.  In many cases, the only thing needed is
     151    the Name entry.</para>
     152
     153    </sect3>
     154
     155  </sect2>
    12156
    13157  <sect2>
     
    109253    after a reboot the order changes to the opposite one.
    110254    For all classes of hardware except sound cards and network cards, this is
    111     fixable by creating udev rules for custom persistent symlinks.
     255    fixable by creating Udev rules for custom persistent symlinks.
    112256    The case of network cards is covered separately in
    113257    <xref linkend="ch-scripts-network"/>, and sound card configuration can
  • chapter07/sysd-custom.xml

    rc65dd23e rbf58c1e  
    99  <?dbhtml filename="sysd-custom.html"?>
    1010
    11   <title>Systemd Customization</title>
     11  <title>Systemd Usage and Confiuration</title>
    1212
    1313  <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-sysd-custom">
     
    9999  </sect2>
    100100
     101  <sect2 id="ch-scripts-systemd-console">
     102    <title>Setting Console Fonts and Keyboard</title>
     103
     104    <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-systemd-console">
     105      <primary sortas="d-console">systemd console</primary>
     106      <secondary>configuring</secondary>
     107    </indexterm>
     108 
     109    <para>This section discusses how to configure the
     110    <command>systemd-vconsole-setup</command> system service, which configures
     111    the virtual console font and console keymap.</para>
     112 
     113    <para>The <command>systemd-vconsole-setup</command> service reads the
     114    <filename>/etc/vconsole.conf</filename> file for configuration
     115    information. Decide which keymap and screen font will be used. Various
     116    language-specific HOWTOs can also help with this, see <ulink
     117    url="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX/other-lang.html"/>.
     118    Examine <command>localectl list-keymaps</command> output for a list of
     119    valid console keymaps. Look in
     120    <filename class="directory">/usr/share/consolefonts</filename>
     121    directory for valid screen fonts.</para>
     122 
     123    <para>The <filename>/etc/vconsole.conf</filename> file should contain lines
     124    of the form: VARIABLE="value". The following variables are recognized:</para>
     125 
     126    <variablelist>
     127 
     128      <varlistentry>
     129        <term>KEYMAP</term>
     130        <listitem>
     131          <para>This variable specifies the key mapping table for the keyboard. If
     132          unset, it defaults to <literal>us</literal>.</para>
     133        </listitem>
     134      </varlistentry>
     135 
     136      <varlistentry>
     137        <term>KEYMAP_TOGGLE</term>
     138        <listitem>
     139          <para>This variable can be used to configure a second toggle keymap and
     140          is unset by default.</para>
     141        </listitem>
     142      </varlistentry>
     143      <varlistentry>
     144        <term>FONT</term>
     145        <listitem>
     146          <para>This variable specifies the font used by the virtual
     147          console.</para>
     148        </listitem>
     149      </varlistentry>
     150      <varlistentry>
     151        <term>FONT_MAP</term>
     152        <listitem>
     153          <para>This variable specifies the console map to be used.</para>
     154        </listitem>
     155      </varlistentry>
     156 
     157      <varlistentry>
     158        <term>FONT_UNIMAP</term>
     159        <listitem>
     160          <para>This variable specifies the unicode font map.</para>
     161        </listitem>
     162      </varlistentry>
     163 
     164    </variablelist>
     165 
     166    <para>An example for a German keyboard and console is given below:</para>
     167
     168<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/vconsole.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
     169<literal>KEYMAP=de-latin1
     170FONT=Lat2-Terminus16</literal>
     171EOF</userinput></screen>
     172
     173    <para>You can change KEYMAP value at runtime by using the
     174    <command>localectl</command> utility:</para>
     175
     176<screen role="nodump"><userinput>localectl set-keymap MAP</userinput></screen>
     177
     178    <note><para>Please note that <command>localectl</command> command can
     179    be used  only on a system booted with Systemd.</para></note>
     180
     181  </sect2>
     182
     183  <sect2>
     184    <title>Clock Configuration</title>
     185
     186    <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-clock">
     187      <primary sortas="d-clock">clock</primary>
     188    <secondary>configuring</secondary></indexterm>
     189 
     190    <para>This section discusses how to configure the
     191    <command>systemd-timedated</command> system service, which configures
     192    system clock and timezone.</para>
     193 
     194    <para><command>systemd-timedated</command> reads
     195    <filename>/etc/adjtime</filename>, and depending on the contents of the file,
     196    it sets the clock to either UTC or local time.  Create the
     197    <filename>/etc/adjtime</filename> file with the following contents <emphasis>if your
     198    hardware clock is set to local time</emphasis>:</para>
     199
     200<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/adjtime &lt;&lt; "EOF"
     201<literal>0.0 0 0.0
     2020
     203LOCAL</literal>
     204EOF</userinput></screen>
     205
     206    <para>If <filename>/etc/adjtime</filename> isn't present at first boot,
     207    <command>systemd-timedated</command> will assume that hardware clock is
     208    set to UTC and create the file using that setting.</para>
     209
     210    <para>You can also use the <command>timedatectl</command> utility to tell
     211    <command>systemd-timedated</command> if your hardware clock is set to
     212    UTC or local time:</para>
     213
     214<screen role="nodump"><userinput>timedatectl set-local-rtc 1</userinput></screen>
     215
     216    <para><command>timedatectl</command> can also be used to change system time and
     217    time zone.</para>
     218
     219    <para>To change your current system time, issue:</para>
     220
     221<screen role="nodump"><userinput>timedatectl set-time YYYY:MM:DD HH:MM:SS</userinput></screen>
     222
     223    <para>Hardware clock will also be updated accordingly.</para>
     224
     225    <para>To change your current time zone, issue:</para>
     226
     227<screen role="nodump"><userinput>timedatectl set-timezone TIMEZONE</userinput></screen>
     228
     229    <para>You can get list of available time zones by running:</para>
     230
     231<screen role="nodump"><userinput>timedatectl list-timezones</userinput></screen>
     232
     233    <note><para>The <command>timedatectl</command> command can
     234    be used only on a system booted with Systemd.</para></note>
     235
     236  </sect2>
     237
    101238  <sect2>
    102239    <title>Debugging the Boot Sequence</title>
  • chapter07/udev.xml

    rc65dd23e rbf58c1e  
    99  <?dbhtml filename="udev.html"?>
    1010
    11   <title>Device and Module Handling on an LFS System</title>
     11  <title>Overview of Device and Module Handling</title>
    1212
    1313  <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-udev">
     
    1717
    1818  <para>In <xref linkend="chapter-building-system"/>, we installed the Udev
    19   package. Before we go into the details regarding how this works,
    20   a brief history of previous methods of handling devices is in
     19  package as a part of systemd. Before we go into the details regarding how
     20  this works, a brief history of previous methods of handling devices is in
    2121  order.</para>
    2222
    23   <para>Linux systems in general traditionally use a static device creation
    24   method, whereby a great many device nodes are created under <filename
     23  <para>Linux systems in general traditionally used a static device creation
     24  method, whereby a great many device nodes were created under <filename
    2525  class="directory">/dev</filename> (sometimes literally thousands of nodes),
    26   regardless of whether the corresponding hardware devices actually exist. This
    27   is typically done via a <command>MAKEDEV</command> script, which contains a
     26  regardless of whether the corresponding hardware devices actually existed. This
     27  was typically done via a <command>MAKEDEV</command> script, which contains a
    2828  number of calls to the <command>mknod</command> program with the relevant
    2929  major and minor device numbers for every possible device that might exist in
     
    5454    should be up to a system administrator, not imposed on them by any
    5555    particular developer(s). The <systemitem
    56     class="filesystem">devfs</systemitem> file system also suffers from race
    57     conditions that are inherent in its design and cannot be fixed without a
     56    class="filesystem">devfs</systemitem> file system also suffered from race
     57    conditions that were inherent in its design and could not be fixed without a
    5858    substantial revision to the kernel. It was marked as deprecated for a long
    5959    period &ndash; due to a lack of maintenance &ndash; and was finally removed
     
    6565    <systemitem class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> is to export a view of
    6666    the system's hardware configuration to userspace processes. With this
    67     userspace-visible representation, the possibility of seeing a userspace
     67    userspace-visible representation, the possibility of developing a userspace
    6868    replacement for <systemitem class="filesystem">devfs</systemitem> became
    6969    much more realistic.</para>
     
    9898      <para>Device files are created by the kernel by the <systemitem
    9999      class="filesystem">devtmpfs</systemitem> filesystem.  Any driver that
    100       wishes to register a device node will go through <systemitem
     100      wishes to register a device node will go through the <systemitem
    101101      class="filesystem">devtmpfs</systemitem> (via the driver core) to do it.
    102102      When a <systemitem class="filesystem">devtmpfs</systemitem> instance is
     
    114114      <command>udevd</command> database entry (name) for that object.</para>
    115115
    116       <para>The rules in these three directories are numbered in a similar
    117       fashion to the LFS-Bootscripts package and all three directories are
    118       merged together. If <command>udevd</command> can't find a rule for the
    119       device it is creating, it will leave the permissions and ownership at
    120       whatever <systemitem class="filesystem">devtmpfs</systemitem> used
    121       initially.</para> </sect3>
    122 
    123     <sect3>
    124       <title>Udev Bootscripts</title>
    125 
    126       <para>The first LFS bootscript,
    127       <filename>/etc/init.d/mountvirtfs</filename> will copy any devices
    128       located in <filename class="directory">/lib/udev/devices</filename> to
    129       <filename class="directory">/dev</filename>. This is necessary because
    130       some devices, directories, and symlinks are needed before the dynamic
    131       device handling processes are available during the early stages of
    132       booting a system, or are required by <command>udevd</command> itself.
    133       Creating static device nodes in <filename
    134       class="directory">/lib/udev/devices</filename> also provides an easy
    135       workaround for devices that are not supported by the dynamic device
    136       handling infrastructure.</para>
    137 
    138       <para>The <filename>/etc/rc.d/init.d/udev</filename> initscript starts
    139       <command>udevd</command>, triggers any "coldplug" devices that have
    140       already been created by the kernel and waits for any rules to complete.
    141       The script also unsets the uevent handler from the default of
    142       <filename>/sbin/hotplug </filename>.  This is done because the kernel no
    143       longer needs to call out to an external binary.  Instead
    144       <command>udevd</command> will listen on a netlink socket for uevents that
    145       the kernel raises.</para>
    146 
    147       <para>The <command>/etc/rc.d/init.d/udev_retry</command> initscript takes
    148       care of re-triggering events for subsystems whose rules may rely on
    149       filesystems that are not mounted until the <command>mountfs</command>
    150       script is run (in particular, <filename class="directory">/usr</filename>
    151       and <filename class="directory">/var</filename> may cause this).  This
    152       script runs after the <command>mountfs</command> script, so those rules
    153       (if re-triggered) should succeed the second time around.  It is
    154       configured from the <filename>/etc/sysconfig/udev_retry</filename> file;
    155       any words in this file other than comments are considered subsystem names
    156       to trigger at retry time.  To find the subsystem of a device, use
    157       <command>udevadm info --attribute-walk &lt;device&gt;</command> where
    158       &lt;device&gt; is an absolute path in /dev or /sys such as /dev/sr0 or
    159       /sys/class/rtc.</para>
    160 
    161     </sect3>
    162 
     116      <para>The rules in these three directories are numbered and all three
     117      directories are merged together. If <command>udevd</command> can't find a
     118      rule for the device it is creating, it will leave the permissions and
     119      ownership at whatever <systemitem
     120      class="filesystem">devtmpfs</systemitem> used initially.</para> </sect3>
     121     
    163122    <sect3>
    164123      <title>Module Loading</title>
     
    315274
    316275    <sect3>
    317       <title>Udev does not create a device</title>
    318 
    319       <para>Further text assumes that the driver is built statically into the
    320       kernel or already loaded as a module, and that you have already checked
    321       that Udev doesn't create a misnamed device.</para>
    322 
    323       <para>Udev has no information needed to create a device node if a kernel
    324       driver does not export its data to <systemitem
    325       class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem>.
    326       This is most common with third party drivers from outside the kernel
    327       tree. Create a static device node in
    328       <filename>/lib/udev/devices</filename> with the appropriate major/minor
    329       numbers (see the file <filename>devices.txt</filename> inside the kernel
    330       documentation or the documentation provided by the third party driver
    331       vendor). The static device node will be copied to
    332       <filename class="directory">/dev</filename> by the
    333       <command>udev</command> bootscript.</para>
    334 
    335     </sect3>
    336 
    337     <sect3>
    338276      <title>Device naming order changes randomly after rebooting</title>
    339277
  • chapter07/usage.xml

    rc65dd23e rbf58c1e  
    33  "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
    44  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
     5  <!ENTITY site               SYSTEM "../appendices/rc.site.script">
    56  %general-entities;
    67]>
     
    910  <?dbhtml filename="usage.html"?>
    1011
    11   <title>How Do the System V Bootscripts Work?</title>
     12  <title>System V Bootscript Usage and Configuration</title>
    1213
    1314  <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-usage">
     
    1617  </indexterm>
    1718
    18   <para>Linux uses a special booting facility named SysVinit that is based on a
    19   concept of <emphasis>run-levels</emphasis>. It can be quite different from one
    20   system to another, so it cannot be assumed that because things worked in one
    21   particular Linux distribution, they should work the same in LFS too. LFS has its
    22   own way of doing things, but it respects generally accepted standards.</para>
    23 
    24   <para>SysVinit (which will be referred to as <quote>init</quote> from now on)
    25   works using a run-levels scheme. There are seven (numbered 0 to 6) run-levels
    26   (actually, there are more run-levels, but they are for special cases and are
    27   generally not used. See <filename>init(8)</filename> for more details), and
    28   each one of those corresponds to the actions the computer is supposed to
    29   perform when it starts up. The default run-level is 3. Here are the
    30   descriptions of the different run-levels as they are implemented:</para>
     19  <sect2>
     20    <title>How Do the System V Bootscripts Work?</title>
     21
     22    <para>Linux uses a special booting facility named SysVinit that is based on a
     23    concept of <emphasis>run-levels</emphasis>. It can be quite different from one
     24    system to another, so it cannot be assumed that because things worked in one
     25    particular Linux distribution, they should work the same in LFS too. LFS has its
     26    own way of doing things, but it respects generally accepted standards.</para>
     27 
     28    <para>SysVinit (which will be referred to as <quote>init</quote> from now on)
     29    works using a run-levels scheme. There are seven (numbered 0 to 6) run-levels
     30    (actually, there are more run-levels, but they are for special cases and are
     31    generally not used. See <filename>init(8)</filename> for more details), and
     32    each one of those corresponds to the actions the computer is supposed to
     33    perform when it starts up. The default run-level is 3. Here are the
     34    descriptions of the different run-levels as they are implemented:</para>
    3135
    3236<literallayout>0: halt the computer
     
    37415: same as 4, it is usually used for GUI login (like X's <command>xdm</command> or KDE's <command>kdm</command>)
    38426: reboot the computer</literallayout>
     43
     44  </sect2>
    3945
    4046  <sect2 id="conf-sysvinit" role="configuration">
     
    107113  <filename>/var/log/boot.log</filename> at the end of the boot process.</para>
    108114
    109   </sect2>
    110 
    111   <sect2 id="init-levels" >
     115  <sect3 id="init-levels" >
    112116  <title>Changing Run Levels</title>
    113117
     
    201205  it can be done.</para>
    202206
     207  </sect3>
    203208  </sect2>
    204209
     210  <sect2 id="ch-scripts-clock">
     211    <title>Configuring the System Clock</title>
     212
     213    <sect3 id="ch-scripts-setclock">
     214    <title>System V Clock Configuration</title>
     215
     216    <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-setclock">
     217      <primary sortas="d-setclock">setclock</primary>
     218    <secondary>configuring</secondary></indexterm>
     219
     220    <para>The <command>setclock</command> script reads the time from the hardware
     221    clock, also known as the BIOS or the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
     222    (CMOS) clock. If the hardware clock is set to UTC, this script will convert the
     223    hardware clock's time to the local time using the
     224    <filename>/etc/localtime</filename> file (which tells the
     225    <command>hwclock</command> program which timezone the user is in). There is no
     226    way to detect whether or not the hardware clock is set to UTC, so this
     227    needs to be configured manually.</para>
     228
     229    <para>The <command>setclock</command> is run via
     230    <application>udev</application> when the kernel detects the hardware
     231    capability upon boot.  It can also be run manually with the stop parameter to
     232    store the system time to the CMOS clock.</para>
     233
     234    <para>If you cannot remember whether or not the hardware clock is set to UTC,
     235    find out by running the <userinput>hwclock --localtime --show</userinput>
     236    command. This will display what the current time is according to the hardware
     237    clock. If this time matches whatever your watch says, then the hardware clock is
     238    set to local time. If the output from <command>hwclock</command> is not local
     239    time, chances are it is set to UTC time. Verify this by adding or subtracting
     240    the proper amount of hours for the timezone to the time shown by
     241    <command>hwclock</command>. For example, if you are currently in the MST
     242    timezone, which is also known as GMT -0700, add seven hours to the local
     243    time.</para>
     244
     245    <para>Change the value of the <envar>UTC</envar> variable below
     246    to a value of <parameter>0</parameter> (zero) if the hardware clock
     247    is <emphasis>not</emphasis> set to UTC time.</para>
     248
     249    <para>Create a new file <filename>/etc/sysconfig/clock</filename> by running
     250    the following:</para>
     251
     252<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/sysconfig/clock &lt;&lt; "EOF"
     253<literal># Begin /etc/sysconfig/clock
     254
     255UTC=1
     256
     257# Set this to any options you might need to give to hwclock,
     258# such as machine hardware clock type for Alphas.
     259CLOCKPARAMS=
     260
     261# End /etc/sysconfig/clock</literal>
     262EOF</userinput></screen>
     263
     264    <para>A good hint explaining how to deal with time on LFS is available
     265    at <ulink url="&hints-root;time.txt"/>. It explains issues such as
     266    time zones, UTC, and the <envar>TZ</envar> environment variable.</para>
     267
     268    <note><para>The CLOCKPARAMS and UTC paramaters may be alternatively set
     269    in the <filename>/etc/sysconfig/rc.site</filename> file.</para></note>
     270
     271     </sect3>
     272  </sect2>
     273
     274  <sect2 id="ch-scripts-console">
     275  <?dbhtml filename="console.html"?>
     276
     277  <title>Configuring the Linux Console</title>
     278
     279  <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-console">
     280    <primary sortas="d-console">console</primary>
     281    <secondary>configuring</secondary>
     282  </indexterm>
     283
     284  <para>This section discusses how to configure the <command>console</command>
     285  bootscript that sets up the keyboard map, console font and console kernel log
     286  level. If non-ASCII characters (e.g., the copyright sign, the British pound
     287  sign and Euro symbol) will not be used and the keyboard is a U.S. one, much
     288  of this section can be skipped. Without the configuration file, (or
     289  equivalent settings in <filename>rc.site</filename>), the
     290  <command>console</command> bootscript will do nothing.</para>
     291
     292  <para>The <command>console</command> script reads the
     293  <filename>/etc/sysconfig/console</filename> file for configuration
     294  information.  Decide which keymap and screen font will be used. Various
     295  language-specific HOWTOs can also help with this, see <ulink
     296  url="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX/other-lang.html"/>. If still in
     297  doubt, look in the <filename class="directory">/usr/share/keymaps</filename>
     298  and <filename class="directory">/usr/share/consolefonts</filename> directories
     299  for valid keymaps and screen fonts. Read <filename>loadkeys(1)</filename> and
     300  <filename>setfont(8)</filename> manual pages to determine the correct
     301  arguments for these programs.</para>
     302
     303  <para>The <filename>/etc/sysconfig/console</filename> file should contain lines
     304  of the form: VARIABLE="value". The following variables are recognized:</para>
     305  <variablelist>
     306
     307    <varlistentry>
     308      <term>LOGLEVEL</term>
     309      <listitem>
     310        <para>This variable specifies the log level for kernel messages sent
     311        to the console as set by <command>dmesg</command>. Valid levels are
     312        from "1" (no messages) to "8". The default level is "7".</para>
     313      </listitem>
     314    </varlistentry>
     315
     316    <varlistentry>
     317      <term>KEYMAP</term>
     318      <listitem>
     319        <para>This variable specifies the arguments for the
     320        <command>loadkeys</command> program, typically, the name of keymap
     321        to load, e.g., <quote>es</quote>. If this variable is not set, the
     322        bootscript will not run the <command>loadkeys</command> program,
     323        and the default kernel keymap will be used.</para>
     324      </listitem>
     325    </varlistentry>
     326
     327    <varlistentry>
     328      <term>KEYMAP_CORRECTIONS</term>
     329      <listitem>
     330        <para>This (rarely used) variable
     331        specifies the arguments for the second call to the
     332        <command>loadkeys</command> program. This is useful if the stock keymap
     333        is not completely satisfactory and a small adjustment has to be made. E.g.,
     334        to include the Euro sign into a keymap that normally doesn't have it,
     335        set this variable to <quote>euro2</quote>.</para>
     336      </listitem>
     337    </varlistentry>
     338
     339    <varlistentry>
     340      <term>FONT</term>
     341      <listitem>
     342        <para>This variable specifies the arguments for the
     343        <command>setfont</command> program. Typically, this includes the font
     344        name, <quote>-m</quote>, and the name of the application character
     345        map to load. E.g., in order to load the <quote>lat1-16</quote> font
     346        together with the <quote>8859-1</quote> application character map
     347        (as it is appropriate in the USA),
     348        <!-- because of the copyright sign -->
     349        set this variable to <quote>lat1-16 -m 8859-1</quote>.
     350        In UTF-8 mode, the kernel uses the application character map for
     351        conversion of composed 8-bit key codes in the keymap to UTF-8, and thus
     352        the argument of the "-m" parameter should be set to the encoding of the
     353        composed key codes in the keymap.</para>
     354
     355      </listitem>
     356    </varlistentry>
     357
     358    <varlistentry>
     359      <term>UNICODE</term>
     360      <listitem>
     361        <para>Set this variable to <quote>1</quote>, <quote>yes</quote> or
     362        <quote>true</quote> in order to put the
     363        console into UTF-8 mode. This is useful in UTF-8 based locales and
     364        harmful otherwise.</para>
     365      </listitem>
     366    </varlistentry>
     367
     368    <varlistentry>
     369      <term>LEGACY_CHARSET</term>
     370      <listitem>
     371        <para>For many keyboard layouts, there is no stock Unicode keymap in
     372        the Kbd package. The <command>console</command> bootscript will
     373        convert an available keymap to UTF-8 on the fly if this variable is
     374        set to the encoding of the available non-UTF-8 keymap.</para>
     375      </listitem>
     376    </varlistentry>
     377
     378  </variablelist>
     379
     380  <para>Some examples:</para>
     381
     382  <itemizedlist>
     383
     384    <listitem>
     385      <para>For a non-Unicode setup, only the KEYMAP and FONT variables are
     386      generally needed. E.g., for a Polish setup, one would use:</para>
     387<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/sysconfig/console &lt;&lt; "EOF"
     388<literal># Begin /etc/sysconfig/console
     389
     390KEYMAP="pl2"
     391FONT="lat2a-16 -m 8859-2"
     392
     393# End /etc/sysconfig/console</literal>
     394EOF</userinput></screen>
     395    </listitem>
     396
     397    <listitem>
     398      <para>As mentioned above, it is sometimes necessary to adjust a
     399      stock keymap slightly. The following example adds the Euro symbol to the
     400      German keymap:</para>
     401
     402<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/sysconfig/console &lt;&lt; "EOF"
     403<literal># Begin /etc/sysconfig/console
     404
     405KEYMAP="de-latin1"
     406KEYMAP_CORRECTIONS="euro2"
     407FONT="lat0-16 -m 8859-15"
     408
     409# End /etc/sysconfig/console</literal>
     410EOF</userinput></screen>
     411    </listitem>
     412
     413    <listitem>
     414      <para>The following is a Unicode-enabled example for Bulgarian, where a
     415      stock UTF-8 keymap exists:</para>
     416
     417<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/sysconfig/console &lt;&lt; "EOF"
     418<literal># Begin /etc/sysconfig/console
     419
     420UNICODE="1"
     421KEYMAP="bg_bds-utf8"
     422FONT="LatArCyrHeb-16"
     423
     424# End /etc/sysconfig/console</literal>
     425EOF</userinput></screen>
     426    </listitem>
     427
     428    <listitem>
     429      <para>Due to the use of a 512-glyph LatArCyrHeb-16 font in the previous
     430      example, bright colors are no longer available on the Linux console unless
     431      a framebuffer is used. If one wants to have bright colors without
     432      framebuffer and can live without characters not belonging to his language,
     433      it is still possible to use a language-specific 256-glyph font, as
     434      illustrated below:</para>
     435
     436<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/sysconfig/console &lt;&lt; "EOF"
     437<literal># Begin /etc/sysconfig/console
     438
     439UNICODE="1"
     440KEYMAP="bg_bds-utf8"
     441FONT="cyr-sun16"
     442
     443# End /etc/sysconfig/console</literal>
     444EOF</userinput></screen>
     445    </listitem>
     446
     447    <listitem>
     448      <para>The following example illustrates keymap autoconversion from
     449      ISO-8859-15 to UTF-8 and enabling dead keys in Unicode mode:</para>
     450
     451<screen role="nodump"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/sysconfig/console &lt;&lt; "EOF"
     452<literal># Begin /etc/sysconfig/console
     453
     454UNICODE="1"
     455KEYMAP="de-latin1"
     456KEYMAP_CORRECTIONS="euro2"
     457LEGACY_CHARSET="iso-8859-15"
     458FONT="LatArCyrHeb-16 -m 8859-15"
     459
     460# End /etc/sysconfig/console</literal>
     461EOF</userinput></screen>
     462    </listitem>
     463
     464    <listitem>
     465      <para>Some keymaps have dead keys (i.e., keys that don't produce a
     466      character by themselves, but put an accent on the character produced
     467      by the next key) or define composition rules (such as: <quote>press
     468      Ctrl+. A E to get &AElig;</quote> in the default keymap).
     469      Linux-&linux-version; interprets dead keys and composition rules in the
     470      keymap correctly only when the source characters to be composed together
     471      are not multibyte. This deficiency doesn't affect keymaps for European
     472      languages, because there accents are added to unaccented ASCII
     473      characters, or two ASCII characters are composed together. However, in
     474      UTF-8 mode it is a problem, e.g., for the Greek language, where one
     475      sometimes needs to put an accent on the letter <quote>alpha</quote>.
     476      The solution is either to avoid the use of UTF-8, or to install the
     477      X window system that doesn't have this limitation in its input
     478      handling.</para>
     479    </listitem>
     480
     481    <listitem>
     482      <para>For Chinese, Japanese, Korean and some other languages, the Linux
     483      console cannot be configured to display the needed characters. Users
     484      who need such languages should install the X Window System, fonts that
     485      cover the necessary character ranges, and the proper input method (e.g.,
     486      SCIM, it supports a wide variety of languages).</para>
     487    </listitem>
     488
     489  </itemizedlist>
     490
     491  <!-- Added because folks keep posting their console file with X questions
     492  to blfs-support list -->
     493  <note>
     494    <para>The <filename>/etc/sysconfig/console</filename> file only controls
     495    the Linux text console localization. It has nothing to do with setting
     496    the proper keyboard layout and terminal fonts in the X Window System, with
     497    ssh sessions or with a serial console. In such situations, limitations
     498    mentioned in the last two list items above do not apply.</para>
     499  </note>
     500
     501  </sect2>
     502
     503  <sect2 id="ch-scripts-createfiles">
     504    <title>Creating Files at Boot</title>
     505 
     506    <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-createfiles">
     507      <primary sortas="d-createfiles">File creation at boot</primary>
     508      <secondary>configuring</secondary>
     509    </indexterm>
     510 
     511    <para>At times, it is desired to create files at boot time.  For instance,
     512    the <filename class="directory">/tmp/.ICE-unix</filename> directory
     513    may be desired.  This can be done by creating an entry in the
     514    <filename>/etc/sysconfig/createfiles</filename> configuration script.
     515    The format of this file is embedded in the comments of the default
     516    configuration file.</para>
     517  </sect2>
     518
     519  <sect2 id="ch-scripts-sysklogd">
     520    <title>Configuring the sysklogd Script</title>
     521 
     522    <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-sysklogd">
     523      <primary sortas="d-sysklogd">sysklogd</primary>
     524      <secondary>configuring</secondary>
     525    </indexterm>
     526 
     527    <para>The <filename>sysklogd</filename> script invokes the
     528    <command>syslogd</command> program as a part of System V initialization.  The
     529    <parameter>-m 0</parameter> option turns off the periodic timestamp mark that
     530    <command>syslogd</command> writes to the log files every 20 minutes by
     531    default.  If you want to turn on this periodic timestamp mark, edit
     532    <filename>/etc/sysconfig/rc.site</filename> and define the variable
     533    SYSKLOGD_PARMS to the desired value.  For instance, to remove all parameters,
     534    set the variable to a null value:</para>
     535
     536<screen role="nodump">SYSKLOGD_PARMS=</screen>
     537
     538    <para>See <userinput>man syslogd</userinput> for more options.</para>
     539
     540  </sect2>
     541
     542  <sect2 id="ch-scripts-site">
     543    <title>The rc.site File</title>
     544 
     545    <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-site">
     546      <primary sortas="a-rc.site">rc.site</primary>
     547    </indexterm>
     548 
     549    <para>The optional <filename>/etc/sysconfig/rc.site</filename> file contains
     550    settings that are automatically set for each SystemV boot script.  It can
     551    alternatively set the values specified in the <filename>hostname</filename>,
     552    <filename>console</filename>, and <filename>clock</filename> files in the
     553    <filename class='directory'>/etc/sysconfig/</filename> directory.  If the
     554    associated variables are present in both these separate files and
     555    <filename>rc.site</filename>, the values in the script specific files have
     556    precedence. </para>
     557 
     558    <para><filename>rc.site</filename> also contains parameters that can
     559    customize other aspects of the boot process.  Setting the IPROMPT variable
     560    will enable selective running of bootscripts.  Other options are described
     561    in the file comments.  The default version of the file is as follows:</para>
     562 
     563    <!-- Use role to fix a pdf generation problem -->
     564    <screen role="auto">&site;</screen>
     565 
     566    <sect3>
     567      <title>Customizing the Boot and Shutdown Scripts</title>
     568 
     569      <para>The LFS boot scripts boot and shut down a system in a fairly
     570      efficient manner, but there are a few tweaks that you can make in the
     571      rc.site file to improve speed even more and to adjust messages according
     572      to your preferences. To do this, adjust the settings in
     573      the <filename>/etc/sysconfig/rc.site</filename> file above.</para>
     574 
     575      <itemizedlist>
     576 
     577      <listitem><para>During the boot script <filename>udev</filename>, there is
     578      a call to <command>udev settle</command> that requires some time to
     579      complete. This time may or may not be required depending on devices present
     580      in the system.  If you only have simple partitions and a single ethernet
     581      card, the boot process will probably not need to wait for this command.  To
     582      skip it, set the variable OMIT_UDEV_SETTLE=y.</para></listitem>
     583 
     584      <listitem><para>The boot script <filename>udev_retry</filename> also runs
     585      <command>udev settle</command> by default.  This command is only needed by
     586      default if the <filename class='directory'>/var</filename> directory is
     587      separately mounted.  This is because the clock needs the file
     588      <filename>/var/lib/hwclock/adjtime</filename>.  Other customizations may
     589      also need to wait for udev to complete, but in many installations it is not
     590      needed.  Skip the command by setting the variable OMIT_UDEV_RETRY_SETTLE=y.
     591      </para></listitem>
     592 
     593      <listitem><para>By default, the file system checks are silent.  This can
     594      appear to be a delay during the bootup process.  To turn on the
     595      <command>fsck</command> output, set the variable VERBOSE_FSCK=y.
     596      </para></listitem>
     597 
     598      <listitem><para>When rebooting, you may want to skip the filesystem check,
     599      <command>fsck</command>, completely.  To do this, either create the file
     600      <filename>/fastboot</filename> or reboot the system with the command
     601      <command>/sbin/shutdown -f -r now</command>.  On the other hand, you can
     602      force all file systems to be checked by creating
     603      <filename>/forcefsck</filename> or running <command>shutdown</command> with
     604      the <parameter>-F</parameter> parameter instead of <parameter>-f</parameter>.
     605      </para>
     606 
     607      <para>Setting the variable FASTBOOT=y will disable <command>fsck</command>
     608      during the boot process until it is removed.  This is not recommended
     609      on a permanent basis.</para></listitem>
     610 
     611      <listitem><para>Normally, all files in the <filename
     612      class='directory'>/tmp</filename> directory are deleted at boot time.
     613      Depending on the number of files or directories present, this can cause a
     614      noticeable delay in the boot process.  To skip removing these files set the
     615      variable SKIPTMPCLEAN=y.</para></listitem>
     616 
     617      <listitem><para>During shutdown, the <command>init</command> program sends
     618      a TERM signal to each program it has started (e.g. agetty), waits for a set
     619      time (default 3 seconds), and sends each process a KILL signal and waits
     620      again.  This process is repeated in the <command>sendsignals</command>
     621      script for any processes that are not shut down by their own scripts.  The
     622      delay for <command>init</command> can be set by passing a parameter.  For
     623      example to remove the delay in <command>init</command>, pass the -t0
     624      parameter when shutting down or rebooting (e.g.  <command>/sbin/shutdown
     625      -t0 -r now</command>).  The delay for the  <command>sendsignals</command>
     626      script can be skipped by setting the parameter
     627      KILLDELAY=0.</para></listitem>
     628 
     629      </itemizedlist>
     630 
     631    </sect3>
     632  </sect2>
    205633</sect1>
  • chapter08/grub.xml

    rc65dd23e rbf58c1e  
    114114  </sect2>
    115115
    116   <sect2>
    117     <title>Creating the Configuration File</title>
     116  <sect2 id="grub-cfg">
     117    <title>Creating the GRUB Configuration File</title>
    118118
    119119    <para>Generate <filename>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</filename>:</para>
  • general.ent

    rc65dd23e rbf58c1e  
    1 <!ENTITY version         "SVN-20140418">
    2 <!ENTITY releasedate     "April 18, 2014">
     1<!ENTITY version         "SVN-20140421">
     2<!ENTITY releasedate     "April 21, 2014">
    33<!ENTITY copyrightdate   "1999-2014"><!-- jhalfs needs a literal dash, not &ndash; -->
    44<!ENTITY milestone       "8.0">
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