Changeset dd61c77


Ignore:
Timestamp:
10/01/2022 08:03:20 AM (4 months ago)
Author:
Xi Ruoyao <xry111@…>
Branches:
xry111/clfs-ng
Children:
ef1f48b
Parents:
259794e (diff), 2bf32ff (diff)
Note: this is a merge changeset, the changes displayed below correspond to the merge itself.
Use the (diff) links above to see all the changes relative to each parent.
Message:

Merge remote-tracking branch 'origin/trunk' into xry111/clfs-ng

Files:
18 edited

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
  • chapter01/changelog.xml

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    4040    appropriate for the entry or if needed the entire day's listitem.
    4141    -->
     42
     43    <listitem>
     44      <para>2022-10-01</para>
     45      <itemizedlist>
     46        <listitem>
     47          <para>[bdubbs] - Update to iana-etc-20220922. Addresses
     48          <ulink url="&lfs-ticket-root;5006">#5006</ulink>.</para>
     49        </listitem>
     50        <listitem>
     51          <para>[bdubbs] - Update to tzdata-2022d. Fixes
     52          <ulink url="&lfs-ticket-root;5119">#5119</ulink>.</para>
     53        </listitem>
     54        <listitem>
     55          <para>[bdubbs] - Update to readline-8.2. Fixes
     56          <ulink url="&lfs-ticket-root;5121">#5121</ulink>.</para>
     57        </listitem>
     58        <listitem>
     59          <para>[bdubbs] - Update to linux-5.19.12. Fixes
     60          <ulink url="&lfs-ticket-root;5115">#5115</ulink>.</para>
     61        </listitem>
     62        <listitem>
     63          <para>[bdubbs] - Update to libffi-3.4.3. Fixes
     64          <ulink url="&lfs-ticket-root;5116">#5116</ulink>.</para>
     65        </listitem>
     66        <listitem>
     67          <para>[bdubbs] - Update to libcap-2.66. Fixes
     68          <ulink url="&lfs-ticket-root;512">#5120</ulink>.</para>
     69        </listitem>
     70        <listitem revision="systemd">
     71          <para>[bdubbs] - Update to dbus-1.14.2. Fixes
     72          <ulink url="&lfs-ticket-root;5123">#5123</ulink>.</para>
     73        </listitem>
     74        <listitem>
     75          <para>[bdubbs] - Update to bc-6.0.4. Fixes
     76          <ulink url="&lfs-ticket-root;5114">#5114</ulink>.</para>
     77        </listitem>
     78        <listitem>
     79          <para>[bdubbs] - Update to bash-5.2. Fixes
     80          <ulink url="&lfs-ticket-root;5122">#5122</ulink>.</para>
     81        </listitem>
     82      </itemizedlist>
     83    </listitem>
    4284
    4385    <listitem>
  • chapter01/whatsnew.xml

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    1212  <title>What's new since the last release</title>
    1313
     14  <para>In 11.3 release, <parameter>--enable-default-pie</parameter>
     15  and <parameter>--enable-default-ssp</parameter> are enabled for GCC.
     16  They can mitigate some type of malicious attacks but they cannot provide
     17  a full protection.  In case if you are reading a programming textbook,
     18  you may need to disable PIE and SSP with GCC options
     19  <parameter>-fno-pie -no-pie -fno-stack-protection</parameter>
     20  because some textbooks assume they were disabled by default.</para>
     21
    1422  <para>Below is a list of package updates made since the previous
    1523  release of the book.</para>
     
    3947      <para>Automake-&automake-version;</para>
    4048    </listitem>-->
    41     <!--<listitem>
     49    <listitem>
    4250      <para>Bash &bash-version;</para>
    43     </listitem>-->
     51    </listitem>
    4452    <listitem>
    4553      <para>Bc &bc-version;</para>
     
    6371      <para>DejaGNU-&dejagnu-version;</para>
    6472    </listitem>-->
    65     <!--<listitem revision="systemd">
     73    <listitem revision="systemd">
    6674      <para>D-Bus-&dbus-version;</para>
    67     </listitem>-->
     75    </listitem>
    6876    <!--<listitem>
    6977      <para>Diffutils-&diffutils-version;</para>
     
    123131      <para>Gzip-&gzip-version;</para>
    124132    </listitem>-->
    125     <!--<listitem>
     133    <listitem>
    126134      <para>IANA-Etc-&iana-etc-version;</para>
    127    </listitem>-->
     135    </listitem>
    128136    <!--<listitem>
    129137      <para>Inetutils-&inetutils-version;</para>
     
    150158      <para>LFS-Bootscripts-&lfs-bootscripts-version;</para>
    151159    </listitem>-->
    152     <!--<listitem>
     160    <listitem>
    153161      <para>Libcap-&libcap-version;</para>
    154     </listitem>-->
     162    </listitem>
    155163    <!--<listitem>
    156164      <para>Libelf-&elfutils-version; (from elfutils)</para>
    157165    </listitem>-->
    158     <!--<listitem>
     166    <listitem>
    159167      <para>Libffi-&libffi-version;</para>
    160     </listitem>-->
     168    </listitem>
    161169    <!--<listitem>
    162170      <para>Libpipeline-&libpipeline-version;</para>
     
    219227      <para>Python-&python-version;</para>
    220228    </listitem>
    221     <!--<listitem>
     229    <listitem>
    222230      <para>Readline-&readline-version;</para>
    223     </listitem>-->
     231    </listitem>
    224232    <!--<listitem>
    225233      <para>Sed-&sed-version;</para>
     
    246254      <para>Texinfo-&texinfo-version;</para>
    247255    </listitem>-->
    248     <!--<listitem>
     256    <listitem>
    249257      <para>Tzdata-&tzdata-version;</para>
    250     </listitem>-->
     258    </listitem>
    251259    <!--<listitem>
    252260      <para>Util-Linux-&util-linux-version;</para>
  • chapter02/mounting.xml

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    1616  <envar>LFS</envar> environment variable described in the previous section.
    1717  </para>
     18 
     19  <para>Strictly speaking, one cannot "mount a partition". One mounts the <emphasis>file
     20  system</emphasis> embedded in that partition. But since a single partition can't contain
     21  more than one file system, people often speak of the partition and the
     22  associated file system as if they were one and the same.</para>
    1823
    1924  <para>Create the mount point and mount the LFS file system with these commands:</para>
  • chapter04/aboutsbus.xml

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    1414  it takes to compile and install each package. Because Linux From
    1515  Scratch can be built on many different systems, it is impossible to
    16   provide accurate time estimates. The biggest package (Glibc) will
     16  provide absolute time estimates. The biggest package (Glibc) will
    1717  take approximately 20 minutes on the fastest systems, but could take
    1818  up to three days on slower systems! Instead of providing actual times,
     
    2121
    2222  <para>The SBU measure works as follows. The first package to be compiled
    23   from this book is binutils in <xref linkend="chapter-cross-tools"/>. The
    24   time it takes to compile this package is what will be referred to as the
    25   Standard Build Unit or SBU. All other compile times will be expressed relative
    26   to this time.</para>
     23  is binutils in <xref linkend="chapter-cross-tools"/>. The
     24  time it takes to compile this package is what we will refer to as the
     25  Standard Build Unit or SBU. All other compile times will be expressed in
     26  terms of this unit of time.</para>
    2727
    2828  <para>For example, consider a package whose compilation time is 4.5
    29   SBUs. This means that if a system took 10 minutes to compile and
     29  SBUs. This means that if your system took 10 minutes to compile and
    3030  install the first pass of binutils, it will take
    31   <emphasis>approximately</emphasis> 45 minutes to build this example package.
    32   Fortunately, most build times are shorter than the one for binutils.</para>
     31  <emphasis>approximately</emphasis> 45 minutes to build the example package.
     32  Fortunately, most build times are shorter than one SBU.</para>
    3333
    34   <para>In general, SBUs are not entirely accurate because they depend on many
     34  <para>SBUs are not entirely accurate because they depend on many
    3535  factors, including the host system's version of GCC.  They are provided here
    3636  to give an estimate of how long it might take to install a package, but the
     
    5454    <screen role="nodump"><userinput>export MAKEFLAGS='-j4'</userinput></screen>
    5555
    56     <para>or just building with:</para>
     56    <para>or by building with:</para>
    5757
    5858    <screen role="nodump"><userinput>make -j4</userinput></screen>
     
    6161    book will vary even more than they normally would.  In some cases, the make
    6262    step will simply fail.  Analyzing the output of the build process will also
    63     be more difficult because the lines of different processes will be
    64     interleaved.  If you run into a problem with a build step, revert back to a
     63    be more difficult because the lines from different processes will be
     64    interleaved.  If you run into a problem with a build step, revert to a
    6565    single processor build to properly analyze the error messages.</para>
    6666  </note>
  • chapter04/abouttestsuites.xml

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    2828    <para>Running the test suites in <xref linkend="chapter-cross-tools"/>
    2929    and <xref linkend="chapter-temporary-tools"/>
    30     is impossible, since the programs are compiled with a cross-compiler,
    31     so are not supposed to be able to run on the build host.</para>
     30    is pointless; since the test programs are compiled with a cross-compiler,
     31    they probably can't run on the build host.</para>
    3232  </note>
    3333
    3434  <para>A common issue with running the test suites for binutils and GCC
    35   is running out of pseudo terminals (PTYs). This can result in a high
     35  is running out of pseudo terminals (PTYs). This can result in a large
    3636  number of failing tests. This may happen for several reasons, but the
    3737  most likely cause is that the host system does not have the
     
    4040  <ulink url="&lfs-root;lfs/faq.html#no-ptys"/>.</para>
    4141
    42   <para>Sometimes package test suites will fail, but for reasons which the
     42  <para>Sometimes package test suites will fail for reasons which the
    4343  developers are aware of and have deemed non-critical. Consult the logs located
    4444  at <ulink url="&test-results;"/> to verify whether or not these failures are
    45   expected. This site is valid for all tests throughout this book.</para>
     45  expected. This site is valid for all test suites throughout this book.</para>
    4646
    4747</sect1>
  • chapter04/addinguser.xml

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    1515  the packages in the next two chapters are built as an unprivileged user.
    1616  You could use your own user name, but to make it easier to set up a clean
    17   working environment, create a new user called <systemitem
     17  working environment, we will create a new user called <systemitem
    1818  class="username">lfs</systemitem> as a member of a new group (also named
    19   <systemitem class="groupname">lfs</systemitem>) and use this user during
     19  <systemitem class="groupname">lfs</systemitem>) and run commands as &lfs-user; during
    2020  the installation process. As <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>,
    2121  issue the following commands to add the new user:</para>
     
    2525
    2626  <variablelist>
    27     <title>The meaning of the command line options:</title>
     27    <title>This is what the command line options mean:</title>
    2828
    2929    <varlistentry>
     
    5555      <listitem>
    5656        <para>This parameter prevents possible copying of files from a skeleton
    57         directory (default is <filename class="directory">/etc/skel</filename>)
     57        directory (the default is <filename class="directory">/etc/skel</filename>)
    5858        by changing the input location to the special null device.</para>
    5959      </listitem>
     
    6969  </variablelist>
    7070
    71   <para>To log in as <systemitem class="username">lfs</systemitem> (as opposed
    72   to switching to user <systemitem class="username">lfs</systemitem> when logged
    73   in as <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>, which does not require
    74   the <systemitem class="username">lfs</systemitem> user to have a password),
    75   give <systemitem class="username">lfs</systemitem> a password:</para>
     71  <para>If you want to log in as &lfs-user; or switch to &lfs-user; from a
     72  non-&root; user (as opposed to switching to user &lfs-user;
     73  when logged in as &root;, which does not require the &lfs-user; user to
     74  have a password), you need to set a password of &lfs-user;.  Issue the
     75  following command as the &root; user to set the password:</para>
    7676
    7777<screen role="nodump"><userinput>passwd lfs</userinput></screen>
    7878
    7979  <para>Grant <systemitem class="username">lfs</systemitem> full access to
    80   all directories under <filename class="directory">$LFS</filename> by making
    81   <systemitem class="username">lfs</systemitem> the directory owner:</para>
     80  all the directories under <filename class="directory">$LFS</filename> by making
     81  <systemitem class="username">lfs</systemitem> the owner:</para>
    8282
    8383<screen><userinput>chown -v lfs $LFS/{usr{,/*},lib*,boot,var,etc,bin,sbin,tools}</userinput></screen>
    8484
    85   <note><para>In some host systems, the following command does not complete
    86   properly and suspends the login to the &lfs-user; user to the background.
     85<note><para>In some host systems, the following <command>su</command> command does not complete
     86  properly and suspends the login for the &lfs-user; user to the background.
    8787  If the prompt "lfs:~$" does not appear immediately, entering the
    8888  <command>fg</command> command will fix the issue.</para></note>
    8989
    90   <para>Next, login as user <systemitem class="username">lfs</systemitem>.
    91   This can be done via a virtual console, through a display manager, or with
    92   the following substitute/switch user command:</para>
     90  <para>Next, start a shell running as user &lfs-user;. This can be done by
     91  logging in as &lfs-user; on a virtual console, or with the following
     92  substitute/switch user command:</para>
    9393
    9494<screen role="nodump"><userinput>su - lfs</userinput></screen>
     
    9696  <para>The <quote><parameter>-</parameter></quote> instructs
    9797  <command>su</command> to start a login shell as opposed to a non-login shell.
    98   The difference between these two types of shells can be found in detail in
     98  The difference between these two types of shells is described in detail in
    9999  <filename>bash(1)</filename> and <command>info bash</command>.</para>
    100100
  • chapter04/creatingminlayout.xml

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    1111  <title>Creating a limited directory layout in LFS filesystem</title>
    1212
    13   <para>The next task to be performed in the LFS partition is to create a limited
    14   directory hierarchy, so that the programs compiled in <xref
     13  <para>In this section, we begin populating the LFS filesystem with the
     14  pieces that will constitute the final Linux system. The first step is to
     15  create a limited directory hierarchy, so that the programs compiled in <xref
    1516  linkend="chapter-temporary-tools"/> (as well as glibc and libstdc++ in <xref
    1617  linkend="chapter-cross-tools"/>) can be installed in their final
  • chapter04/settingenviron.xml

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    2020EOF</userinput></screen>
    2121
    22   <para>When logged on as user <systemitem class="username">lfs</systemitem>,
    23   the initial shell is usually a <emphasis>login</emphasis> shell which reads
     22  <para>When logged on as user <systemitem class="username">lfs</systemitem>
     23  or switched to the &lfs-user; user using a <command>su</command> command
     24  with <quote><parameter>-</parameter></quote> option,
     25  the initial shell is a <emphasis>login</emphasis> shell which reads
    2426  the <filename>/etc/profile</filename> of the host (probably containing some
    2527  settings and environment variables) and then <filename>.bash_profile</filename>.
     
    3335
    3436  <para>The new instance of the shell is a <emphasis>non-login</emphasis>
    35   shell, which does not read, and execute, the contents of <filename>/etc/profile</filename> or
     37  shell, which does not read, and execute, the contents of the <filename>/etc/profile</filename> or
    3638  <filename>.bash_profile</filename> files, but rather reads, and executes, the
    3739  <filename>.bashrc</filename> file instead. Create the
     
    6062  <command>bash</command>'s hash function. Hashing is ordinarily a useful
    6163  feature&mdash;<command>bash</command> uses a hash table to remember the
    62   full path of executable files to avoid searching the <envar>PATH</envar>
     64  full path to executable files to avoid searching the <envar>PATH</envar>
    6365  time and again to find the same executable. However, the new tools should
    64   be used as soon as they are installed. By switching off the hash function,
    65   the shell will always search the <envar>PATH</envar> when a program is to
     66  be used as soon as they are installed. Switching off the hash function forces
     67  the shell to search the <envar>PATH</envar> whenever a program is to
    6668  be run. As such, the shell will find the newly compiled tools in
    6769  <filename class="directory">$LFS/tools/bin</filename> as soon as they are
     
    119121      <term><parameter>PATH=/usr/bin</parameter></term>
    120122      <listitem>
    121   <para>Many modern linux distributions have merged <filename
     123  <para>Many modern Linux distributions have merged <filename
    122124  class="directory">/bin</filename> and <filename
    123125  class="directory">/usr/bin</filename>. When this is the case, the standard
    124   <envar>PATH</envar> variable needs just to be set to <filename
     126  <envar>PATH</envar> variable should be set to <filename
    125127  class="directory">/usr/bin/</filename> for the <xref
    126128  linkend="chapter-temporary-tools"/> environment. When this is not the
     
    145147  of <xref linkend="chapter-cross-tools"/> is picked up by the shell
    146148  immediately after its installation. This, combined with turning off hashing,
    147   limits the risk that the compiler from the host be used instead of the
     149  limits the risk that the compiler from the host is used instead of the
    148150  cross-compiler.</para>
    149151      </listitem>
     
    199201
    200202  <para>Finally, to have the environment fully prepared for building the
    201   temporary tools, source the just-created user profile:</para>
     203  temporary tools, force the <command>bash</command> shell to read
     204  the new user profile:</para>
    202205
    203206<screen><userinput>source ~/.bash_profile</userinput></screen>
  • chapter07/creatingdirs.xml

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    1111  <title>Creating Directories</title>
    1212
    13   <para>It is time to create the full structure in the LFS file system.</para>
     13  <para>It is time to create the full directory structure in the LFS file system.</para>
    1414
    15   <note><para>Some of the directories mentioned in this section may be
    16   already created earlier with explicit instructions or when installing some
     15  <note><para>Some of the directories mentioned in this section may have
     16  already been created earlier with explicit instructions, or when installing some
    1717  packages.  They are repeated below for completeness.</para></note>
    1818
     
    4343
    4444  <para>Directories are, by default, created with permission mode 755, but
    45   this is not desirable for all directories. In the commands above, two
     45  this is not desirable everywhere. In the commands above, two
    4646  changes are made&mdash;one to the home directory of user <systemitem
    4747  class="username">root</systemitem>, and another to the directories for
     
    4949
    5050  <para>The first mode change ensures that not just anybody can enter
    51   the <filename class="directory">/root</filename> directory&mdash;the
    52   same as a normal user would do with his or her home directory. The
     51  the <filename class="directory">/root</filename> directory&mdash;just
     52  like a normal user would do with his or her own home directory. The
    5353  second mode change makes sure that any user can write to the
    5454  <filename class="directory">/tmp</filename> and <filename
     
    6060    <title>FHS Compliance Note</title>
    6161
    62     <para>The directory tree is based on the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
     62    <para>This directory tree is based on the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
    6363    (FHS) (available at <ulink
    6464    url="https://refspecs.linuxfoundation.org/fhs.shtml"/>).  The FHS also specifies
    65     the optional existence of some directories such as <filename
     65    the optional existence of additional directories such as <filename
    6666    class="directory">/usr/local/games</filename> and <filename
    67     class="directory">/usr/share/games</filename>.  We create only the
    68     directories that are needed. However, feel free to create these
    69     directories.  </para>
     67    class="directory">/usr/share/games</filename>.  In LFS, we create only the
     68    directories that are really necessary. However, feel free to create more
     69    directories, if you wish.  </para>
    7070
    7171  </sect2>
  • chapter07/introduction.xml

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    2121
    2222  <para>This chapter shows how to build the last missing bits of the temporary
    23   system: the tools needed by the build machinery of various packages.  Now
     23  system: the tools needed to build the various packages.  Now
    2424  that all circular dependencies have been resolved and the temporary system
    2525  is already bootable, we can boot it on the target machine and it would be
     
    2929  <para>For proper operation of the temporary system, some communication
    3030  with the running kernel must be established. This is done through the
    31   so-called <emphasis>Virtual Kernel File Systems</emphasis>, which must be
     31  so-called <emphasis>Virtual Kernel File Systems</emphasis>, which will be
    3232  mounted as soon as possible after boot. You may want to check
    3333  that they are mounted by issuing <command>mount</command>.</para>
     
    3636  target system, fortunately without access to the host system.
    3737  Be careful anyway, as if the storage devices of your target system already
    38   contain some important data, it's possible to destroy them with badly
    39   formed commands.</para>
     38  contain some important data, it's possible to destroy them with bad
     39  commands.</para>
    4040
    4141</sect1>
  • chapter07/kernfs.xml

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    1515  </indexterm>
    1616
    17     <para>Various file systems exported by the kernel are used to communicate to
    18     and from the kernel itself. These file systems are virtual in that no disk
     17    <para>Applications running in user space utilize various file
     18    systems exported by the kernel to communicate
     19    with the kernel itself. These file systems are virtual: no disk
    1920    space is used for them. The content of the file systems resides in
    20     memory.</para>
     21    memory. These file systems must be mounted in the $LFS directory tree
     22    so the applications can find them in the chroot environment.</para>
    2123
    22     <para>Begin by creating directories onto which the file systems will be
     24    <para>Begin by creating directories on which the file systems will be
    2325    mounted:</para>
    2426
  • chapter08/autoconf.xml

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    4141  <sect2 role="installation">
    4242    <title>Installation of Autoconf</title>
    43 <!--
    44     <para>First, apply a patch fixes several problems that occur with the latest
    45     perl, libtool, and bash versions.</para>
    4643
    47 <screen><userinput remap="pre">patch -Np1 -i ../&autoconf-fixes-patch;</userinput></screen>
    48 -->
     44    <para>First, fix several problems with the tests caused by bash-5.2 and later:</para>
     45
     46    <screen><userinput remap="pre">sed -e 's/SECONDS|/&amp;SHLVL|/'               \
     47    -e '/BASH_ARGV=/a\        /^SHLVL=/ d' \
     48    -i.orig tests/local.at</userinput></screen>
     49
    4950    <para>Prepare Autoconf for compilation:</para>
    5051
  • chapter09/udev.xml

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    9494    </sect3>
    9595
    96     <sect3>
     96    <sect3 id='ch-config-udev-device-node-creation'>
    9797      <title>Device Node Creation</title>
    9898
  • general.ent

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    122122<!ENTITY root            "<systemitem class='username'>root</systemitem>">
    123123<!ENTITY lfs-user        "<systemitem class='username'>lfs</systemitem>">
     124<!ENTITY devtmpfs        "<systemitem class='filesystem'>devtmpfs</systemitem>">
    124125<!ENTITY fstab           "<filename>/etc/fstab</filename>">
    125126<!ENTITY boot-dir        "<filename class='directory'>/boot</filename>">
     127<!ENTITY ch-final        "<xref linkend='chapter-building-system'/>">
     128<!ENTITY ch-tmp-cross    "<xref linkend='chapter-temporary-tools'/>">
     129<!ENTITY ch-tmp-chroot   "<xref linkend='chapter-chroot-temporary-tools'/>">
    126130
    127131<!ENTITY % packages-entities SYSTEM "packages.ent">
  • packages.ent

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    4949<!ENTITY automake-fin-sbu "less than 0.1 SBU (about 7.7 SBU with tests)">
    5050
    51 <!ENTITY bash-version "5.1.16">
    52 <!ENTITY bash-size "10,277 KB">
     51<!ENTITY bash-version "5.2">
     52<!ENTITY bash-size "10,695 KB">
    5353<!ENTITY bash-url "&gnu;bash/bash-&bash-version;.tar.gz">
    54 <!ENTITY bash-md5 "c17b20a09fc38d67fb303aeb6c130b4e">
     54<!ENTITY bash-md5 "cfb4cf795fc239667f187b3d6b3d396f">
    5555<!ENTITY bash-home "&gnu-software;bash/">
    5656<!ENTITY bash-tmp-du "64 MB">
     
    5959<!ENTITY bash-fin-sbu "1.4 SBU">
    6060
    61 <!ENTITY bc-version "6.0.2">
     61<!ENTITY bc-version "6.0.4">
    6262<!ENTITY bc-size "442 KB">
    6363<!ENTITY bc-url "https://github.com/gavinhoward/bc/releases/download/&bc-version;/bc-&bc-version;.tar.xz">
    64 <!ENTITY bc-md5 "101e62dd9c2b90bf18c38d858aa36f0d">
     64<!ENTITY bc-md5 "1e1c90de1a11f3499237425de1673ef1">
    6565<!ENTITY bc-home "https://git.yzena.com/gavin/bc">
    6666<!ENTITY bc-fin-du "7.4 MB">
     
    115115<!ENTITY coreutils-fin-sbu "2.8 SBU">
    116116
    117 <!ENTITY dbus-version "1.14.0">
     117<!ENTITY dbus-version "1.14.2">
    118118<!ENTITY dbus-size "1,332 KB">
    119119<!ENTITY dbus-url "https://dbus.freedesktop.org/releases/dbus/dbus-&dbus-version;.tar.xz">
    120 <!ENTITY dbus-md5 "ddd5570aff05191dbee8e42d751f1b7d">
     120<!ENTITY dbus-md5 "2d9a6b441e6f844d41c35a004f0ef50b">
    121121<!ENTITY dbus-home "https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/dbus">
    122122<!ENTITY dbus-fin-du "19 MB">
     
    320320<!ENTITY gzip-fin-sbu "0.3 SBU">
    321321
    322 <!ENTITY iana-etc-version "20220812">
     322<!ENTITY iana-etc-version "20220922">
    323323<!ENTITY iana-etc-size "584 KB">
    324324<!ENTITY iana-etc-url "https://github.com/Mic92/iana-etc/releases/download/&iana-etc-version;/iana-etc-&iana-etc-version;.tar.gz">
    325 <!ENTITY iana-etc-md5 "851a53efd53c77d0ad7b3d2b68d8a3fc">
     325<!ENTITY iana-etc-md5 "2fdc746cfc1bc10f841760fd6a92618c">
    326326<!ENTITY iana-etc-home "https://www.iana.org/protocols">
    327327<!ENTITY iana-etc-fin-du "4.8 MB">
     
    395395<!ENTITY lfs-bootscripts-cfg-sbu "less than 0.1 SBU">
    396396
    397 <!ENTITY libcap-version "2.65">
    398 <!ENTITY libcap-size "176 KB">
     397<!ENTITY libcap-version "2.66">
     398<!ENTITY libcap-size "178 KB">
    399399<!ENTITY libcap-url "&kernel;linux/libs/security/linux-privs/libcap2/libcap-&libcap-version;.tar.xz">
    400 <!ENTITY libcap-md5 "3543e753dd941255c4def6cc67a462bb">
     400<!ENTITY libcap-md5 "00afd6e13bc94b2543b1a70770bdb41f">
    401401<!ENTITY libcap-home "https://sites.google.com/site/fullycapable/">
    402402<!ENTITY libcap-fin-du "2.7 MB">
    403403<!ENTITY libcap-fin-sbu "less than 0.1 SBU">
    404404
    405 <!ENTITY libffi-version "3.4.2">
    406 <!ENTITY libffi-size "1,320 KB">
     405<!ENTITY libffi-version "3.4.3">
     406<!ENTITY libffi-size "1,327 KB">
    407407<!ENTITY libffi-url "https://github.com/libffi/libffi/releases/download/v&libffi-version;/libffi-&libffi-version;.tar.gz">
    408 <!ENTITY libffi-md5 "294b921e6cf9ab0fbaea4b639f8fdbe8">
     408<!ENTITY libffi-md5 "b57b0ac1d1072681cee9148a417bd2ec">
    409409<!ENTITY libffi-home "https://sourceware.org/libffi/">
    410410<!ENTITY libffi-fin-du "10 MB">
     
    429429<!ENTITY linux-major-version "5">
    430430<!ENTITY linux-minor-version "19">
    431 <!ENTITY linux-patch-version "8">
     431<!ENTITY linux-patch-version "12">
    432432<!--<!ENTITY linux-version "&linux-major-version;.&linux-minor-version;">-->
    433433<!ENTITY linux-version "&linux-major-version;.&linux-minor-version;.&linux-patch-version;">
    434 <!ENTITY linux-size "128,547 KB">
     434<!ENTITY linux-size "128,599 KB">
    435435<!ENTITY linux-url "&kernel;linux/kernel/v&linux-major-version;.x/linux-&linux-version;.tar.xz">
    436 <!ENTITY linux-md5 "ae08d14f9b7ed3d47c0d22b6d235507a">
     436<!ENTITY linux-md5 "6a8c953d04986027b033bc92185745bf">
    437437<!ENTITY linux-home "https://www.kernel.org/">
    438438<!-- measured for 5.13.4 / gcc-11.1.0 on x86_64 : minimum is
     
    609609<!ENTITY python-docs-size "7,176 KB">
    610610
    611 <!ENTITY readline-version "8.1.2">
    612 <!ENTITY readline-soversion "8.1"><!-- used for stripping -->
    613 <!ENTITY readline-size "2,923 KB">
     611<!ENTITY readline-version "8.2">
     612<!ENTITY readline-soversion "8.2"><!-- used for stripping -->
     613<!ENTITY readline-size "2,973 KB">
    614614<!ENTITY readline-url "&gnu;readline/readline-&readline-version;.tar.gz">
    615 <!ENTITY readline-md5 "12819fa739a78a6172400f399ab34f81">
     615<!ENTITY readline-md5 "4aa1b31be779e6b84f9a96cb66bc50f6">
    616616<!ENTITY readline-home "https://tiswww.case.edu/php/chet/readline/rltop.html">
    617617<!ENTITY readline-fin-du "15 MB">
     
    701701<!ENTITY texinfo-fin-sbu "0.6 SBU">
    702702
    703 <!ENTITY tzdata-version "2022c">
    704 <!ENTITY tzdata-size "423 KB">
     703<!ENTITY tzdata-version "2022d">
     704<!ENTITY tzdata-size "424 KB">
    705705<!ENTITY tzdata-url "https://www.iana.org/time-zones/repository/releases/tzdata&tzdata-version;.tar.gz">
    706 <!ENTITY tzdata-md5 "4e3b2369b68e713ba5d3f7456f20bfdb">
     706<!ENTITY tzdata-md5 "e55dbeb2121230a0ae7c58dbb47ae8c8">
    707707<!ENTITY tzdata-home "https://www.iana.org/time-zones">
    708708
  • part3intro/generalinstructions.xml

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    1212  <title>General Compilation Instructions</title>
    1313
    14   <para>When building packages there are several assumptions made within
    15   the instructions:</para>
     14  <para>Here are some things you should know about building each package:</para>
    1615
    1716  <itemizedlist>
    1817
    1918  <listitem>
    20     <para>Several of the packages are patched before compilation, but only when
     19    <para>Several packages are patched before compilation, but only when
    2120    the patch is needed to circumvent a problem. A patch is often needed in
    22     both this and the following chapters, but sometimes in only one location.
     21    both the current and the following chapters, but sometimes, when the same package
     22    is built more than once, the patch is not needed right away.
    2323    Therefore, do not be concerned if instructions for a downloaded patch seem
    2424    to be missing.  Warning messages about <emphasis>offset</emphasis> or
    2525    <emphasis>fuzz</emphasis> may also be encountered when applying a patch. Do
    26     not worry about these warnings, as the patch was still successfully
     26    not worry about these warnings; the patch was still successfully
    2727    applied.</para>
    2828  </listitem>
    2929
    3030  <listitem>
    31     <para>During the compilation of most packages, there will be several
    32     warnings that scroll by on the screen. These are normal and can safely be
    33     ignored.  These warnings are as they appear&mdash;warnings about
     31    <para>During the compilation of most packages, some
     32    warnings will scroll by on the screen. These are normal and can safely be
     33    ignored.  These warnings are usually about
    3434    deprecated, but not invalid, use of the C or C++ syntax. C standards change
    35     fairly often, and some packages still use the older standard. This is not a
    36     problem, but does prompt the warning.</para>
     35    fairly often, and some packages have not yet been updated. This is not a
     36    serious problem, but it does cause the warnings to appear.</para>
    3737  </listitem>
    3838
     
    7070
    7171        <listitem override='bullet'><para><command>/usr/bin/yacc</command> is a
    72         symbolic link to <command>bison</command> or a small script that
     72        symbolic link to <command>bison</command>, or to a small script that
    7373        executes bison.</para></listitem>
    7474
     
    7777
    7878    <important>
    79       <para>To re-emphasize the build process:</para>
     79      <para>Here is a synopsis of the build process.</para>
    8080
    8181      <orderedlist numeration="arabic" spacing="compact">
    8282        <listitem>
    8383          <para>Place all the sources and patches in a directory that will be
    84           accessible from the chroot environment such as
     84          accessible from the chroot environment, such as
    8585          <filename class="directory">/mnt/lfs/sources/</filename>.<!-- Do
    8686          <emphasis>not</emphasis> put sources in
     
    8888        </listitem>
    8989        <listitem>
    90           <para>Change to the sources directory.</para>
     90          <para>Change to the <filename class="directory">/mnt/lfs/sources/</filename> directory.</para>
    9191        </listitem>
    9292        <listitem id='buildinstr' xreflabel='Package build instructions'>
     
    9898              <xref linkend="chapter-temporary-tools"/>, ensure you are
    9999              the <emphasis>lfs</emphasis> user when extracting the package.</para>
    100               <para>All methods to get the source code tree being built
    101               in-position, except extracting the package tarball, are not
    102               supported. Notably, using <command>cp -R</command> to copy the
     100            <para>Do not use any method except the <command>tar</command> command
     101              to extract the source code. Notably, using the <command>cp -R</command>
     102              command to copy the
    103103              source code tree somewhere else can destroy links and
    104               timestamps in the sources tree and cause building
    105               failure.</para>
     104              timestamps in the source tree, and cause the build to fail.</para>
    106105            </listitem>
    107106            <listitem>
     
    110109            </listitem>
    111110            <listitem>
    112               <para>Follow the book's instructions for building the package.</para>
     111              <para>Follow the instructions for building the package.</para>
    113112            </listitem>
    114113            <listitem>
    115               <para>Change back to the sources directory.</para>
     114              <para>Change back to the sources directory when the build is complete.</para>
    116115            </listitem>
    117116            <listitem>
  • part3intro/introduction.xml

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    1111  <title>Introduction</title>
    1212
    13   <para>This part is divided into three stages: first building a cross
    14   compiler and its associated libraries; second, use this cross toolchain
     13  <para>This part is divided into three stages: first, building a cross
     14  compiler and its associated libraries; second, using this cross toolchain
    1515  to build several utilities in a way that isolates them from the host
    16   distribution; third, enter the chroot environment, which further improves
    17   host isolation, and build the remaining tools needed to build the final
     16  distribution; and third, entering the chroot environment (which further improves
     17  host isolation) and constructing the remaining tools needed to build the final
    1818  system.</para>
    1919
    20   <important><para>With this part begins the real work of building a new
    21   system. It requires much care in ensuring that the instructions are
    22   followed exactly as the book shows them. You should try to understand
    23   what they do, and whatever your eagerness to finish your build, you should
    24   refrain from blindly type them as shown, but rather read documentation when
     20  <important><para>This is where the real work of building a new system
     21  begins. Be very careful to follow the instructions exactly as the book
     22  shows them. You should try to understand what each command does,
     23  and no matter how eager you are to finish your build, you should
     24  refrain from blindly typing the commands as shown. Read the documentation when
    2525  there is something you do not understand. Also, keep track of your typing
    26   and of the output of commands, by sending them to a file, using the
    27   <command>tee</command> utility. This allows for better diagnosing
    28   if something gets wrong.</para></important>
     26  and of the output of commands, by using the <command>tee</command> utility
     27  to send the terminal output to a file. This makes debugging easier
     28  if something goes wrong.</para></important>
    2929
    30   <para>The next section gives a technical introduction to the build process,
    31   while the following one contains <emphasis role="strong">very
     30  <para>The next section is a technical introduction to the build process,
     31  while the following one presents <emphasis role="strong">very
    3232  important</emphasis> general instructions.</para>
    3333
  • part3intro/toolchaintechnotes.xml

    r259794e rdd61c77  
    1212
    1313  <para>This section explains some of the rationale and technical details
    14   behind the overall build method. It is not essential to immediately
     14  behind the overall build method. Don't try to immediately
    1515  understand everything in this section. Most of this information will be
    16   clearer after performing an actual build. This section can be referred
    17   to at any time during the process.</para>
     16  clearer after performing an actual build. Come back and re-read this chapter
     17  at any time during the build process.</para>
    1818
    1919  <para>The overall goal of <xref linkend="chapter-cross-tools"/> and <xref
    20   linkend="chapter-temporary-tools"/> is to produce a temporary area that
    21   contains a known-good set of tools that can be isolated from the host system.
    22   By using <command>chroot</command>, the commands in the remaining chapters
    23   will be contained within that environment, ensuring a clean, trouble-free
     20  linkend="chapter-temporary-tools"/> is to produce a temporary area
     21  containing a set of tools that are known to be good, and that are isolated from the host system.
     22  By using the <command>chroot</command> command, the compilations in the remaining chapters
     23  will be isolated within that environment, ensuring a clean, trouble-free
    2424  build of the target LFS system. The build process has been designed to
    25   minimize the risks for new readers and to provide the most educational value
     25  minimize the risks for new readers, and to provide the most educational value
    2626  at the same time.</para>
    2727
    28   <para>The build process is based on the process of
     28  <para>This build process is based on
    2929  <emphasis>cross-compilation</emphasis>. Cross-compilation is normally used
    30   for building a compiler and its toolchain for a machine different from
    31   the one that is used for the build. This is not strictly needed for LFS,
     30  to build a compiler and its associated toolchain for a machine different from
     31  the one that is used for the build. This is not strictly necessary for LFS,
    3232  since the machine where the new system will run is the same as the one
    33   used for the build. But cross-compilation has the great advantage that
     33  used for the build. But cross-compilation has one great advantage:
    3434  anything that is cross-compiled cannot depend on the host environment.</para>
    3535
     
    4040    <note>
    4141      <para>
    42         The LFS book is not, and does not contain a general tutorial to
    43         build a cross (or native) toolchain. Don't use the command in the
    44         book for a cross toolchain which will be used for some purpose other
     42        The LFS book is not (and does not contain) a general tutorial to
     43        build a cross (or native) toolchain. Don't use the commands in the
     44        book for a cross toolchain for some purpose other
    4545        than building LFS, unless you really understand what you are doing.
    4646      </para>
    4747    </note>
    4848
    49     <para>Cross-compilation involves some concepts that deserve a section on
    50     their own. Although this section may be omitted in a first reading,
    51     coming back to it later will be beneficial to your full understanding of
     49    <para>Cross-compilation involves some concepts that deserve a section of
     50    their own. Although this section may be omitted on a first reading,
     51    coming back to it later will help you gain a fuller understanding of
    5252    the process.</para>
    5353
    54     <para>Let us first define some terms used in this context:</para>
     54    <para>Let us first define some terms used in this context.</para>
    5555
    5656    <variablelist>
    57       <varlistentry><term>build</term><listitem>
     57      <varlistentry><term>The build</term><listitem>
    5858        <para>is the machine where we build programs. Note that this machine
    59         is referred to as the <quote>host</quote> in other
    60         sections.</para></listitem>
     59        is also referred to as the <quote>host</quote>.</para></listitem>
    6160      </varlistentry>
    6261
    63       <varlistentry><term>host</term><listitem>
     62      <varlistentry><term>The host</term><listitem>
    6463        <para>is the machine/system where the built programs will run. Note
    6564        that this use of <quote>host</quote> is not the same as in other
     
    6766      </varlistentry>
    6867
    69       <varlistentry><term>target</term><listitem>
     68      <varlistentry><term>The target</term><listitem>
    7069        <para>is only used for compilers. It is the machine the compiler
    71         produces code for. It may be different from both build and
    72         host.</para></listitem>
     70        produces code for. It may be different from both the build and
     71        the host.</para></listitem>
    7372      </varlistentry>
    7473
     
    7675
    7776    <para>As an example, let us imagine the following scenario (sometimes
    78     referred to as <quote>Canadian Cross</quote>): we may have a
     77    referred to as <quote>Canadian Cross</quote>): we have a
    7978    compiler on a slow machine only, let's call it machine A, and the compiler
    80     ccA. We may have also a fast machine (B), but with no compiler, and we may
    81     want to produce code for another slow machine (C). To build a
    82     compiler for machine C, we would have three stages:</para>
     79    ccA. We also have a fast machine (B), but no compiler for (B), and we
     80    want to produce code for a third, slow machine (C). We will build a
     81    compiler for machine C in three stages.</para>
    8382
    8483    <informaltable align="center">
     
    9695          <row>
    9796            <entry>1</entry><entry>A</entry><entry>A</entry><entry>B</entry>
    98             <entry>build cross-compiler cc1 using ccA on machine A</entry>
     97            <entry>Build cross-compiler cc1 using ccA on machine A.</entry>
    9998          </row>
    10099          <row>
    101100            <entry>2</entry><entry>A</entry><entry>B</entry><entry>C</entry>
    102             <entry>build cross-compiler cc2 using cc1 on machine A</entry>
     101            <entry>Build cross-compiler cc2 using cc1 on machine A.</entry>
    103102          </row>
    104103          <row>
    105104            <entry>3</entry><entry>B</entry><entry>C</entry><entry>C</entry>
    106             <entry>build compiler ccC using cc2 on machine B</entry>
     105            <entry>Build compiler ccC using cc2 on machine B.</entry>
    107106          </row>
    108107        </tbody>
     
    110109    </informaltable>
    111110
    112     <para>Then, all the other programs needed by machine C can be compiled
     111    <para>Then, all the programs needed by machine C can be compiled
    113112    using cc2 on the fast machine B. Note that unless B can run programs
    114     produced for C, there is no way to test the built programs until machine
    115     C itself is running. For example, for testing ccC, we may want to add a
     113    produced for C, there is no way to test the newly built programs until machine
     114    C itself is running. For example, to run a test suite on ccC, we may want to add a
    116115    fourth stage:</para>
    117116
     
    130129          <row>
    131130            <entry>4</entry><entry>C</entry><entry>C</entry><entry>C</entry>
    132             <entry>rebuild  and test ccC using itself on machine C</entry>
     131            <entry>Rebuild and test ccC using ccC on machine C.</entry>
    133132          </row>
    134133        </tbody>
     
    147146
    148147    <note>
    149       <para>Almost all the build systems use names of the form
    150       cpu-vendor-kernel-os referred to as the machine triplet. An astute
    151       reader may wonder why a <quote>triplet</quote> refers to a four component
    152       name. The reason is history: initially, three component names were enough
    153       to designate a machine unambiguously, but with new machines and systems
    154       appearing, that proved insufficient. The word <quote>triplet</quote>
    155       remained. A simple way to determine your machine triplet is to run
    156       the <command>config.guess</command>
     148      <para>All packages involved with cross compilation in the book use an
     149      autoconf-based building system.  The autoconf-based building system
     150      accepts system types in the form cpu-vendor-kernel-os,
     151      referred to as the system triplet.  Since the vendor field is mostly
     152      irrelevant, autoconf allows to omit it. An astute reader may wonder
     153      why a <quote>triplet</quote> refers to a four component name. The
     154      reason is the kernel field and the os field originiated from one
     155      <quote>system</quote> field.  Such a three-field form is still valid
     156      today for some systems, for example
     157      <literal>x86_64-unknown-freebsd</literal>.  But for other systems,
     158      two systems can share the same kernel but still be too different to
     159      use a same triplet for them.  For example, an Android running on a
     160      mobile phone is completely different from Ubuntu running on an ARM64
     161      server, despite they are running on the same type of CPU (ARM64) and
     162      using the same kernel (Linux).
     163      Without an emulation layer, you cannot run an
     164      executable for the server on the mobile phone or vice versa.  So the
     165      <quote>system</quote> field is separated into kernel and os fields to
     166      designate these systems unambiguously.  For our example, the Android
     167      system is designated <literal>aarch64-unknown-linux-android</literal>,
     168      and the Ubuntu system is designated
     169      <literal>aarch64-unknown-linux-gnu</literal>.  The word
     170      <quote>triplet</quote> remained. A simple way to determine your
     171      system triplet is to run the <command>config.guess</command>
    157172      script that comes with the source for many packages. Unpack the binutils
    158173      sources and run the script: <userinput>./config.guess</userinput> and note
    159174      the output. For example, for a 32-bit Intel processor the
    160175      output will be <emphasis>i686-pc-linux-gnu</emphasis>. On a 64-bit
    161       system it will be <emphasis>x86_64-pc-linux-gnu</emphasis>.</para>
    162 
    163       <para>Also be aware of the name of the platform's dynamic linker, often
     176      system it will be <emphasis>x86_64-pc-linux-gnu</emphasis>. On most
     177      Linux systems the even simpler <command>gcc -dumpmachine</command> command
     178      will give you similar information.</para>
     179
     180      <para>You should also be aware of the name of the platform's dynamic linker, often
    164181      referred to as the dynamic loader (not to be confused with the standard
    165182      linker <command>ld</command> that is part of binutils). The dynamic linker
    166       provided by Glibc finds and loads the shared libraries needed by a
     183      provided by package glibc finds and loads the shared libraries needed by a
    167184      program, prepares the program to run, and then runs it. The name of the
    168185      dynamic linker for a 32-bit Intel machine is <filename
    169       class="libraryfile">ld-linux.so.2</filename> and is <filename
    170       class="libraryfile">ld-linux-x86-64.so.2</filename> for 64-bit systems. A
     186      class="libraryfile">ld-linux.so.2</filename>; it's <filename
     187      class="libraryfile">ld-linux-x86-64.so.2</filename> on 64-bit systems. A
    171188      sure-fire way to determine the name of the dynamic linker is to inspect a
    172189      random binary from the host system by running: <userinput>readelf -l
    173190      &lt;name of binary&gt; | grep interpreter</userinput> and noting the
    174191      output. The authoritative reference covering all platforms is in the
    175       <filename>shlib-versions</filename> file in the root of the Glibc source
     192      <filename>shlib-versions</filename> file in the root of the glibc source
    176193      tree.</para>
    177194    </note>
     
    179196    <para>In order to fake a cross compilation in LFS, the name of the host triplet
    180197    is slightly adjusted by changing the &quot;vendor&quot; field in the
    181     <envar>LFS_TGT</envar> variable. We also use the
     198    <envar>LFS_TGT</envar> variable so it says &quot;lfs&quot;. We also use the
    182199    <parameter>--with-sysroot</parameter> option when building the cross linker and
    183200    cross compiler to tell them where to find the needed host files. This
    184201    ensures that none of the other programs built in <xref
    185202    linkend="chapter-temporary-tools"/> can link to libraries on the build
    186     machine. Only two stages are mandatory, and one more for tests:</para>
     203    machine. Only two stages are mandatory, plus one more for tests.</para>
    187204
    188205    <informaltable align="center">
     
    200217          <row>
    201218            <entry>1</entry><entry>pc</entry><entry>pc</entry><entry>lfs</entry>
    202             <entry>build cross-compiler cc1 using cc-pc on pc</entry>
     219            <entry>Build cross-compiler cc1 using cc-pc on pc.</entry>
    203220          </row>
    204221          <row>
    205222            <entry>2</entry><entry>pc</entry><entry>lfs</entry><entry>lfs</entry>
    206             <entry>build compiler cc-lfs using cc1 on pc</entry>
     223            <entry>Build compiler cc-lfs using cc1 on pc.</entry>
    207224          </row>
    208225          <row>
    209226            <entry>3</entry><entry>lfs</entry><entry>lfs</entry><entry>lfs</entry>
    210             <entry>rebuild and test cc-lfs using itself on lfs</entry>
     227            <entry>Rebuild and test cc-lfs using cc-lfs on lfs.</entry>
    211228          </row>
    212229        </tbody>
     
    214231    </informaltable>
    215232
    216     <para>In the above table, <quote>on pc</quote> means the commands are run
     233    <para>In the preceding table, <quote>on pc</quote> means the commands are run
    217234    on a machine using the already installed distribution. <quote>On
    218235    lfs</quote> means the commands are run in a chrooted environment.</para>
     
    220237    <para>Now, there is more about cross-compiling: the C language is not
    221238    just a compiler, but also defines a standard library. In this book, the
    222     GNU C library, named glibc, is used. This library must
    223     be compiled for the lfs machine, that is, using the cross compiler cc1.
     239    GNU C library, named glibc, is used (there is an alternative, &quot;musl&quot;). This library must
     240    be compiled for the LFS machine; that is, using the cross compiler cc1.
    224241    But the compiler itself uses an internal library implementing complex
    225     instructions not available in the assembler instruction set. This
    226     internal library is named libgcc, and must be linked to the glibc
     242    subroutines for functions not available in the assembler instruction set. This
     243    internal library is named libgcc, and it must be linked to the glibc
    227244    library to be fully functional! Furthermore, the standard library for
    228     C++ (libstdc++) also needs being linked to glibc. The solution to this
    229     chicken and egg problem is to first build a degraded cc1 based libgcc,
    230     lacking some functionalities such as threads and exception handling, then
    231     build glibc using this degraded compiler (glibc itself is not
    232     degraded), then build libstdc++. But this last library will lack the
    233     same functionalities as libgcc.</para>
    234 
    235     <para>This is not the end of the story: the conclusion of the preceding
     245    C++ (libstdc++) must also be linked with glibc. The solution to this
     246    chicken and egg problem is first to build a degraded cc1-based libgcc,
     247    lacking some functionalities such as threads and exception handling, and then
     248    to build glibc using this degraded compiler (glibc itself is not
     249    degraded), and also to build libstdc++. This last library will lack some of the
     250    functionality of libgcc.</para>
     251
     252    <para>This is not the end of the story: the upshot of the preceding
    236253    paragraph is that cc1 is unable to build a fully functional libstdc++, but
    237254    this is the only compiler available for building the C/C++ libraries
    238255    during stage 2! Of course, the compiler built during stage 2, cc-lfs,
    239256    would be able to build those libraries, but (1) the build system of
    240     GCC does not know that it is usable on pc, and (2) using it on pc
    241     would be at risk of linking to the pc libraries, since cc-lfs is a native
    242     compiler. So we have to build libstdc++ later, in chroot.</para>
     257    gcc does not know that it is usable on pc, and (2) using it on pc
     258    would create a risk of linking to the pc libraries, since cc-lfs is a native
     259    compiler. So we have to re-build libstdc++ later as a part of
     260    gcc stage 2.</para>
     261
     262    <para>In &ch-final; (or <quote>stage 3</quote>), all packages needed for
     263    the LFS system are built. Even if a package is already installed into
     264    the LFS system in a previous chapter, we still rebuild the package
     265    unless we are completely sure it's unnecessary.  The main reason for
     266    rebuilding these packages is to settle them down: if we reinstall a LFS
     267    package on a complete LFS system, the installed content of the package
     268    should be same as the content of the same package installed in
     269    &ch-final;.  The temporary packages installed in &ch-tmp-cross; or
     270    &ch-tmp-chroot; cannot satisify this expectation because some of them
     271    are built without optional dependencies installed, and autoconf cannot
     272    perform some feature checks in &ch-tmp-cross; because of cross
     273    compilation, causing the temporary packages to lack optional features
     274    or use suboptimal code routines. Additionally, a minor reason for
     275    rebuilding the packages is allowing to run the testsuite.</para>
    243276
    244277  </sect2>
     
    253286
    254287    <para>Binutils is installed first because the <command>configure</command>
    255     runs of both GCC and Glibc perform various feature tests on the assembler
     288    runs of both gcc and glibc perform various feature tests on the assembler
    256289    and linker to determine which software features to enable or disable. This
    257     is more important than one might first realize. An incorrectly configured
    258     GCC or Glibc can result in a subtly broken toolchain, where the impact of
     290    is more important than one might realize at first. An incorrectly configured
     291    gcc or glibc can result in a subtly broken toolchain, where the impact of
    259292    such breakage might not show up until near the end of the build of an
    260293    entire distribution. A test suite failure will usually highlight this error
     
    275308    will show all the files successfully opened during the linking.</para>
    276309
    277     <para>The next package installed is GCC. An example of what can be
     310    <para>The next package installed is gcc. An example of what can be
    278311    seen during its run of <command>configure</command> is:</para>
    279312
     
    282315
    283316    <para>This is important for the reasons mentioned above. It also
    284     demonstrates that GCC's configure script does not search the PATH
     317    demonstrates that gcc's configure script does not search the PATH
    285318    directories to find which tools to use. However, during the actual
    286319    operation of <command>gcc</command> itself, the same search paths are not
     
    296329
    297330    <para>Next installed are sanitized Linux API headers. These allow the
    298     standard C library (Glibc) to interface with features that the Linux
     331    standard C library (glibc) to interface with features that the Linux
    299332    kernel will provide.</para>
    300333
    301     <para>The next package installed is Glibc. The most important
    302     considerations for building Glibc are the compiler, binary tools, and
    303     kernel headers. The compiler is generally not an issue since Glibc will
     334    <para>The next package installed is glibc. The most important
     335    considerations for building glibc are the compiler, binary tools, and
     336    kernel headers. The compiler is generally not an issue since glibc will
    304337    always use the compiler relating to the <parameter>--host</parameter>
    305338    parameter passed to its configure script; e.g. in our case, the compiler
     
    314347    and the use of the <parameter>-nostdinc</parameter> and
    315348    <parameter>-isystem</parameter> flags to control the compiler's include
    316     search path. These items highlight an important aspect of the Glibc
     349    search path. These items highlight an important aspect of the glibc
    317350    package&mdash;it is very self-sufficient in terms of its build machinery
    318351    and generally does not rely on toolchain defaults.</para>
    319352
    320     <para>As said above, the standard C++ library is compiled next, followed in
    321     <xref linkend="chapter-temporary-tools"/> by all the programs that need
    322     themselves to be built. The install step of all those packages uses the
    323     <envar>DESTDIR</envar> variable to have the
    324     programs land into the LFS filesystem.</para>
     353    <para>As mentioned above, the standard C++ library is compiled next, followed in
     354    <xref linkend="chapter-temporary-tools"/> by other programs that need
     355    to be cross compiled for breaking circular dependencies at build time.
     356    The install step of all those packages uses the
     357    <envar>DESTDIR</envar> variable to force installation
     358    in the LFS filesystem.</para>
    325359
    326360    <para>At the end of <xref linkend="chapter-temporary-tools"/> the native
    327     lfs compiler is installed. First binutils-pass2 is built,
    328     with the same <envar>DESTDIR</envar> install as the other programs,
    329     then the second pass of GCC is constructed, omitting libstdc++
    330     and other non-important libraries.  Due to some weird logic in GCC's
     361    LFS compiler is installed. First binutils-pass2 is built,
     362    in the same <envar>DESTDIR</envar> directory as the other programs,
     363    then the second pass of gcc is constructed, omitting some
     364    non-critical libraries.  Due to some weird logic in gcc's
    331365    configure script, <envar>CC_FOR_TARGET</envar> ends up as
    332     <command>cc</command> when the host is the same as the target, but is
     366    <command>cc</command> when the host is the same as the target, but
    333367    different from the build system. This is why
    334     <parameter>CC_FOR_TARGET=$LFS_TGT-gcc</parameter> is put explicitly into
    335     the configure options.</para>
     368    <parameter>CC_FOR_TARGET=$LFS_TGT-gcc</parameter> is declared explicitly
     369    as one of the configuration options.</para>
    336370
    337371    <para>Upon entering the chroot environment in <xref
    338     linkend="chapter-chroot-temporary-tools"/>, the first task is to install
    339     libstdc++. Then temporary installations of programs needed for the proper
     372    linkend="chapter-chroot-temporary-tools"/>,
     373    the temporary installations of programs needed for the proper
    340374    operation of the toolchain are performed. From this point onwards, the
    341375    core toolchain is self-contained and self-hosted. In
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