Changeset 37e35d2 for chapter08/grub.xml


Ignore:
Timestamp:
06/29/2020 07:55:01 AM (19 months ago)
Author:
Thomas Trepl <thomas@…>
Branches:
multilib-10.1
Children:
c4804e8
Parents:
d4fdde6
Message:

Update to new lfs structure

git-svn-id: http://svn.linuxfromscratch.org/LFS/branches/multilib@11986 4aa44e1e-78dd-0310-a6d2-fbcd4c07a689

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  • chapter08/grub.xml

    rd4fdde6 r37e35d2  
    66]>
    77
    8 <sect1 id="ch-bootable-grub" role="wrap">
     8<sect1 id="ch-system-grub" role="wrap">
    99  <?dbhtml filename="grub.html"?>
    1010
     
    1515  </sect1info>
    1616
    17   <title>Using GRUB to Set Up the Boot Process</title>
    18 
    19   <sect2>
    20     <title>Introduction</title>
    21 
    22     <warning><para>Configuring GRUB incorrectly can render your system
    23     inoperable without an alternate boot device such as a CD-ROM.  This
    24     section is not required to boot your LFS system.  You may just
    25     want to modify your current boot loader, e.g. Grub-Legacy, GRUB2, or
    26     LILO.</para></warning>
    27 
    28 
    29     <para> Ensure that an emergency boot disk is ready to <quote>rescue</quote>
    30     the computer if the computer becomes unusable (un-bootable).  If you do not
    31     already have a boot device, you can create one.  In order for the procedure
    32     below to work, you need to jump ahead to BLFS and install
    33     <userinput>xorriso</userinput> from the <ulink
    34     url="&blfs-book;multimedia/libisoburn.html">
    35     libisoburn</ulink> package.</para>
    36 
    37 <screen role="nodump"><userinput>cd /tmp
    38 grub-mkrescue --output=grub-img.iso
    39 xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrw blank=as_needed grub-img.iso</userinput></screen>
    40 
    41     <note>
    42       <para>
    43         To boot LFS on host systems that have UEFI enabled, the kernel needs to
    44         have been built with the CONFIG_EFI_STUB capabality described in the
    45         previous section.  However, LFS can be booted using GRUB2 without such
    46         an addition. To do this, the UEFI Mode and Secure Boot capabilities in
    47         the host system's BIOS need to be turned off.  For details, see <ulink
    48         url="&hints-root;lfs-uefi.txt">
    49         the lfs-uefi.txt hint</ulink> at
    50         &hints-root;lfs-uefi.txt.
    51       </para>
    52     </note>
     17  <title>GRUB-&grub-version;</title>
     18
     19  <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub">
     20    <primary sortas="a-Grub">GRUB</primary>
     21  </indexterm>
     22
     23  <sect2 role="package">
     24    <title/>
     25
     26    <para>The GRUB package contains the GRand Unified Bootloader.</para>
     27
     28    <segmentedlist>
     29      <segtitle>&buildtime;</segtitle>
     30      <segtitle>&diskspace;</segtitle>
     31
     32      <seglistitem>
     33        <seg>&grub-fin-sbu;</seg>
     34        <seg>&grub-fin-du;</seg>
     35      </seglistitem>
     36    </segmentedlist>
    5337
    5438  </sect2>
    5539
    56   <sect2>
    57     <title>GRUB Naming Conventions</title>
    58 
    59     <para>GRUB uses its own naming structure for drives and partitions in
    60     the form of <emphasis>(hdn,m)</emphasis>, where <emphasis>n</emphasis>
    61     is the hard drive number and <emphasis>m</emphasis> is the partition
    62     number. The hard drive number starts from zero, but the partition number
    63     starts from one for normal partitions and five for extended partitions.
    64     Note that this is different from earlier versions where
    65     both numbers started from zero. For example, partition <filename
    66     class="partition">sda1</filename> is <emphasis>(hd0,1)</emphasis> to
    67     GRUB and <filename class="partition">sdb3</filename> is
    68     <emphasis>(hd1,3)</emphasis>. In contrast to Linux, GRUB does not
    69     consider CD-ROM drives to be hard drives. For example, if using a CD
    70     on <filename class="partition">hdb</filename> and a second hard drive
    71     on <filename class="partition">hdc</filename>, that second hard drive
    72     would still be <emphasis>(hd1)</emphasis>.</para>
     40  <sect2 role="installation">
     41    <title>Installation of GRUB</title>
     42
     43    <para>Prepare GRUB for compilation:</para>
     44
     45<screen><userinput remap="configure">./configure --prefix=/usr          \
     46            --sbindir=/sbin        \
     47            --sysconfdir=/etc      \
     48            --disable-efiemu       \
     49            --disable-werror</userinput></screen>
     50
     51    <variablelist>
     52      <title>The meaning of the new configure options:</title>
     53
     54      <varlistentry>
     55        <term><parameter>--disable-werror</parameter></term>
     56        <listitem>
     57          <para>This allows the build to complete with warnings introduced
     58          by more recent Flex versions.</para>
     59        </listitem>
     60      </varlistentry>
     61
     62      <varlistentry>
     63        <term><parameter>--disable-efiemu</parameter></term>
     64        <listitem>
     65          <para>This option minimizes what is built by disabling a feature and
     66          testing programs not needed for LFS.</para>
     67        </listitem>
     68      </varlistentry>
     69
     70    </variablelist>
     71
     72    <para>Compile the package:</para>
     73
     74<screen><userinput remap="make">make</userinput></screen>
     75
     76    <para>This package does not come with a test suite.</para>
     77
     78    <para>Install the package:</para>
     79
     80<screen><userinput remap="install">make install
     81mv -v /etc/bash_completion.d/grub /usr/share/bash-completion/completions</userinput></screen>
     82
     83  <para>Using GRUB to make your LFS system bootable will be discussed in
     84  <xref linkend="ch-bootable-grub"/>.</para>
    7385
    7486  </sect2>
    7587
    76   <sect2>
    77     <title>Setting Up the Configuration</title>
    78 
    79     <para>GRUB works by writing data to the first physical track of the
    80     hard disk.  This area is not part of any file system.  The programs
    81     there access GRUB modules in the boot partition.  The default location
    82     is /boot/grub/.</para>
    83 
    84     <para>The location of the boot partition is a choice of the user that
    85     affects the configuration.  One recommendation is to have a separate small
    86     (suggested size is 100 MB) partition just for boot information.  That way
    87     each build, whether LFS or some commercial distro, can access the same boot
    88     files and access can be made from any booted system.  If you choose to do
    89     this, you will need to mount the separate partition, move all files in the
    90     current <filename class="directory">/boot</filename> directory (e.g. the
    91     linux kernel you just built in the previous section) to the new partition.
    92     You will then need to unmount the partition and remount it as <filename
    93     class="directory">/boot</filename>.  If you do this, be sure to update
    94     <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>.</para>
    95 
    96     <para>Using the current lfs partition will also work, but configuration
    97     for multiple systems is more difficult.</para>
    98 
    99     <para>Using the above information, determine the appropriate
    100     designator for the root partition (or boot partition, if a separate
    101     one is used). For the following example, it is assumed that the root
    102     (or separate boot) partition is <filename
    103     class="partition">sda2</filename>.</para>
    104 
    105     <para>Install the GRUB files into <filename
    106     class="directory">/boot/grub</filename> and set up the boot track:</para>
    107 
    108     <warning>
    109       <para>The following command will overwrite the current boot loader. Do not
    110       run the command if this is not desired, for example, if using a third party
    111       boot manager to manage the Master Boot Record (MBR).</para>
    112     </warning>
    113 
    114 <screen role="nodump"><userinput>grub-install /dev/sda</userinput></screen>
    115 
    116     <note>
    117       <para>If the system has been booted using UEFI,
    118       <command>grub-install</command> will try to install files for the
    119       <emphasis>x86_64-efi</emphasis> target, but those files
    120       have not been installed in chapter 6. If this is the case, add
    121       <option>--target i386-pc</option> to the command above.</para>
    122     </note>
    123 
    124 <!-- This does not seem to be true any more
    125     <note><para><application>grub-install</application> is a script and calls another
    126     program, grub-probe, that may fail with a message "cannot stat `/dev/root'".
    127     If so, create a temporary symbolic link from your root partition to /dev/root:</para>
    128 
    129 <screen role="nodump"><userinput>ln -sv /dev/sda2 /dev/root</userinput></screen>
    130 
    131     <para>The symbolic link will only be present until the system is rebooted.
    132     The link is only needed for the installation procedure.
    133     </para></note>
    134 -->
     88  <sect2 id="contents-gRUB" role="content">
     89    <title>Contents of GRUB</title>
     90
     91    <segmentedlist>
     92      <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
     93      <segtitle>Installed directories</segtitle>
     94
     95      <seglistitem>
     96
     97       <seg>grub-bios-setup,      grub-editenv,    grub-file,        grub-fstest,
     98            grub-glue-efi,        grub-install,    grub-kbdcomp,     grub-macbless,   
     99            grub-menulst2cfg,     grub-mkconfig,
     100                                  grub-mkimage,    grub-mklayout,    grub-mknetdir,
     101            grub-mkpasswd-pbkdf2, grub-mkrelpath,  grub-mkrescue,    grub-mkstandalone,
     102            grub-ofpathname,      grub-probe,      grub-reboot,      grub-render-label,
     103            grub-script-check,
     104            grub-set-default,     grub-sparc64-setup, and grub-syslinux2cfg</seg>
     105
     106        <seg>/usr/lib/grub, /etc/grub.d, /usr/share/grub, and /boot/grub (when grub-install
     107        is first run)</seg>
     108      </seglistitem>
     109    </segmentedlist>
     110
     111    <variablelist>
     112      <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
     113      <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
     114      <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
     115
     116      <varlistentry id="grub-bios-setup">
     117        <term><command>grub-bios-setup</command></term>
     118        <listitem>
     119          <para>Is a helper program for grub-install</para>
     120          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-bios-setup">
     121            <primary sortas="b-grub-bios-setup">grub-bios-setup</primary>
     122          </indexterm>
     123        </listitem>
     124      </varlistentry>
     125
     126      <varlistentry id="grub-editenv">
     127        <term><command>grub-editenv</command></term>
     128        <listitem>
     129          <para>A tool to edit the environment block</para>
     130          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-editenv">
     131            <primary sortas="b-grub-editenv">grub-editenv</primary>
     132          </indexterm>
     133        </listitem>
     134      </varlistentry>
     135
     136      <varlistentry id="grub-file">
     137        <term><command>grub-file</command></term>
     138        <listitem>
     139          <para>Checks if FILE is of the specified type.</para>
     140          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-file">
     141            <primary sortas="b-grub-file">grub-file</primary>
     142          </indexterm>
     143        </listitem>
     144      </varlistentry>
     145
     146      <varlistentry id="grub-fstest">
     147        <term><command>grub-fstest</command></term>
     148        <listitem>
     149          <para>Tool to debug the filesystem driver</para>
     150          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-fstest">
     151            <primary sortas="b-grub-fstest">grub-fstest</primary>
     152          </indexterm>
     153        </listitem>
     154      </varlistentry>
     155
     156      <varlistentry id="grub-glue-efi">
     157        <term><command>grub-glue-efi</command></term>
     158        <listitem>
     159          <para>Processes ia32 and amd64 EFI images and glues them
     160          according to Apple format.</para>
     161          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-glue-efi">
     162            <primary sortas="b-grub-glue-efi">grub-glue-efi</primary>
     163          </indexterm>
     164        </listitem>
     165      </varlistentry>
     166
     167      <varlistentry id="grub-install">
     168        <term><command>grub-install</command></term>
     169        <listitem>
     170          <para>Install GRUB on your drive</para>
     171          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-install">
     172            <primary sortas="b-grub-install">grub-install</primary>
     173          </indexterm>
     174        </listitem>
     175      </varlistentry>
     176
     177      <varlistentry id="grub-kbdcomp">
     178        <term><command>grub-kbdcomp</command></term>
     179        <listitem>
     180          <para>Script that converts an xkb layout into one recognized by
     181          GRUB</para>
     182          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-kbdcomp">
     183            <primary sortas="b-grub-kbdcomp">grub-kbdcomp</primary>
     184          </indexterm>
     185        </listitem>
     186      </varlistentry>
     187
     188      <varlistentry id="grub-macbless">
     189        <term><command>grub-macbless</command></term>
     190        <listitem>
     191          <para>Mac-style bless on HFS or HFS+ files</para>
     192          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-macbless">
     193            <primary sortas="b-grub-macbless">grub-macbless</primary>
     194          </indexterm>
     195        </listitem>
     196      </varlistentry>
     197
     198      <varlistentry id="grub-menulst2cfg">
     199        <term><command>grub-menulst2cfg</command></term>
     200        <listitem>
     201          <para>Converts a GRUB Legacy <filename>menu.lst</filename>
     202          into a <filename>grub.cfg</filename> for use with GRUB 2</para>
     203          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-menulst2cfg">
     204            <primary sortas="b-grub-menulst2cfg">grub-menulst2cfg</primary>
     205          </indexterm>
     206        </listitem>
     207      </varlistentry>
     208
     209      <varlistentry id="grub-mkconfig">
     210        <term><command>grub-mkconfig</command></term>
     211        <listitem>
     212          <para>Generate a grub config file</para>
     213          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-mkconfig">
     214            <primary sortas="b-grub-mkconfig">grub-mkconfig</primary>
     215          </indexterm>
     216        </listitem>
     217      </varlistentry>
     218
     219      <varlistentry id="grub-mkimage">
     220        <term><command>grub-mkimage</command></term>
     221        <listitem>
     222          <para>Make a bootable image of GRUB</para>
     223          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-mkimage">
     224            <primary sortas="b-grub-mkimage">grub-mkimage</primary>
     225          </indexterm>
     226        </listitem>
     227      </varlistentry>
     228
     229      <varlistentry id="grub-mklayout">
     230        <term><command>grub-mklayout</command></term>
     231        <listitem>
     232          <para>Generates a GRUB keyboard layout file</para>
     233          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-mklayout">
     234            <primary sortas="b-grub-mklayout">grub-mklayout</primary>
     235          </indexterm>
     236        </listitem>
     237      </varlistentry>
     238
     239      <varlistentry id="grub-mknetdir">
     240        <term><command>grub-mknetdir</command></term>
     241        <listitem>
     242          <para>Prepares a GRUB netboot directory</para>
     243          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-mknetdir">
     244            <primary sortas="b-grub-mknetdir">grub-mknetdir</primary>
     245          </indexterm>
     246        </listitem>
     247      </varlistentry>
     248
     249      <varlistentry id="grub-mkpasswd-pbkdf2">
     250        <term><command>grub-mkpasswd-pbkdf2</command></term>
     251        <listitem>
     252          <para>Generates an encrypted PBKDF2 password for use in the boot
     253          menu</para>
     254          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-mkpasswd-pbkdf2">
     255            <primary sortas="b-grub-mkpasswd-pbkdf2">grub-mkpasswd-pbkdf2</primary>
     256          </indexterm>
     257        </listitem>
     258      </varlistentry>
     259
     260      <varlistentry id="grub-mkrelpath">
     261        <term><command>grub-mkrelpath</command></term>
     262        <listitem>
     263          <para>Makes a system pathname relative to its root</para>
     264          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-mkrelpath">
     265            <primary sortas="b-grub-mkrelpath">grub-mkrelpath</primary>
     266          </indexterm>
     267        </listitem>
     268      </varlistentry>
     269
     270      <varlistentry id="grub-mkrescue">
     271        <term><command>grub-mkrescue</command></term>
     272        <listitem>
     273          <para>Make a bootable image of GRUB suitable for a floppy disk or CDROM/DVD</para>
     274          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-mkrescue">
     275            <primary sortas="b-grub-mkrescue">grub-mkrescue</primary>
     276          </indexterm>
     277        </listitem>
     278      </varlistentry>
     279
     280      <varlistentry id="grub-mkstandalone">
     281        <term><command>grub-mkstandalone</command></term>
     282        <listitem>
     283          <para>Generates a standalone image</para>
     284          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-mkstandalone">
     285            <primary sortas="b-grub-mkstandalone">grub-mkstandalone</primary>
     286          </indexterm>
     287        </listitem>
     288      </varlistentry>
     289
     290      <varlistentry id="grub-ofpathname">
     291        <term><command>grub-ofpathname</command></term>
     292        <listitem>
     293          <para>Is a helper program that prints the path of a GRUB device</para>
     294          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-ofpathname">
     295            <primary sortas="b-grub-ofpathname">grub-ofpathname</primary>
     296          </indexterm>
     297        </listitem>
     298      </varlistentry>
     299
     300      <varlistentry id="grub-probe">
     301        <term><command>grub-probe</command></term>
     302        <listitem>
     303          <para>Probe device information for a given path or device</para>
     304          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-probe">
     305            <primary sortas="b-grub-probe">grub-probe</primary>
     306          </indexterm>
     307        </listitem>
     308      </varlistentry>
     309
     310      <varlistentry id="grub-reboot">
     311        <term><command>grub-reboot</command></term>
     312        <listitem>
     313          <para>Sets the default boot entry for GRUB for the next boot only</para>
     314          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-reboot">
     315            <primary sortas="b-grub-reboot">grub-reboot</primary>
     316          </indexterm>
     317        </listitem>
     318      </varlistentry>
     319
     320      <varlistentry id="grub-render-label">
     321        <term><command>grub-render-label</command></term>
     322        <listitem>
     323          <para>Render Apple .disk_label for Apple Macs</para>
     324          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-render-label">
     325            <primary sortas="b-grub-render-label">grub-render-label</primary>
     326          </indexterm>
     327        </listitem>
     328      </varlistentry>
     329
     330      <varlistentry id="grub-script-check">
     331        <term><command>grub-script-check</command></term>
     332        <listitem>
     333          <para>Checks GRUB configuration script for syntax errors</para>
     334          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-script-check">
     335            <primary sortas="b-grub-script-check">grub-script-check</primary>
     336          </indexterm>
     337        </listitem>
     338      </varlistentry>
     339
     340      <varlistentry id="grub-set-default">
     341        <term><command>grub-set-default</command></term>
     342        <listitem>
     343          <para>Sets the default boot entry for GRUB</para>
     344          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-set-default">
     345            <primary sortas="b-grub-set-default">grub-set-default</primary>
     346          </indexterm>
     347        </listitem>
     348      </varlistentry>
     349
     350      <varlistentry id="grub-sparc64-setup">
     351        <term><command>grub-sparc64-setup</command></term>
     352        <listitem>
     353          <para>Is a helper program for grub-setup</para>
     354          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-sparc64-setup">
     355            <primary sortas="b-grub-sparc64-setup">grub-setup</primary>
     356          </indexterm>
     357        </listitem>
     358      </varlistentry>
     359
     360      <varlistentry id="grub-syslinux2cfg">
     361        <term><command>grub-syslinux2cfg</command></term>
     362        <listitem>
     363          <para>Transform a syslinux config file into grub.cfg format</para>
     364          <indexterm zone="ch-system-grub grub-syslinux2cfg">
     365            <primary sortas="b-grub-syslinux2cfg">grub-syslinux2cfg</primary>
     366          </indexterm>
     367        </listitem>
     368      </varlistentry>
     369
     370    </variablelist>
     371
    135372  </sect2>
    136373
    137   <sect2 id="grub-cfg">
    138     <title>Creating the GRUB Configuration File</title>
    139 
    140     <para>Generate <filename>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</filename>:</para>
    141 
    142     <screen arch="default" revision="sysv"><userinput>cat &gt; /boot/grub/grub.cfg &lt;&lt; "EOF"
    143 <literal># Begin /boot/grub/grub.cfg
    144 set default=0
    145 set timeout=5
    146 
    147 insmod ext2
    148 set root=(hd0,2)
    149 
    150 menuentry "GNU/Linux, Linux &linux-version;-lfs-&version;" {
    151         linux   /boot/vmlinuz-&linux-version;-lfs-&version; root=/dev/sda2 ro
    152 }</literal>
    153 EOF</userinput></screen>
    154 
    155     <screen arch="default" revision="systemd"><userinput>cat &gt; /boot/grub/grub.cfg &lt;&lt; "EOF"
    156 <literal># Begin /boot/grub/grub.cfg
    157 set default=0
    158 set timeout=5
    159 
    160 insmod ext2
    161 set root=(hd0,2)
    162 
    163 menuentry "GNU/Linux, Linux &linux-version;-lfs-&versiond;" {
    164         linux   /boot/vmlinuz-&linux-version;-lfs-&versiond; root=/dev/sda2 ro
    165 }</literal>
    166 EOF</userinput></screen>
    167 
    168     <screen arch="ml_32,ml_x32,ml_all" revision="sysv"><userinput>cat &gt; /boot/grub/grub.cfg &lt;&lt; "EOF"
    169 <literal># Begin /boot/grub/grub.cfg
    170 set default=0
    171 set timeout=5
    172 
    173 insmod ext2
    174 set root=(hd0,2)
    175 
    176 menuentry "GNU/Linux, Linux &linux-version;-lfs-&version;-multilib" {
    177         linux   /boot/vmlinuz-&linux-version;-lfs-&version;-multilib root=/dev/sda2 ro
    178 }</literal>
    179 EOF</userinput></screen>
    180 
    181     <screen arch="ml_32,ml_x32,ml_all" revision="systemd"><userinput>cat &gt; /boot/grub/grub.cfg &lt;&lt; "EOF"
    182 <literal># Begin /boot/grub/grub.cfg
    183 set default=0
    184 set timeout=5
    185 
    186 insmod ext2
    187 set root=(hd0,2)
    188 
    189 menuentry "GNU/Linux, Linux &linux-version;-lfs-&versiond;-multilib" {
    190         linux   /boot/vmlinuz-&linux-version;-lfs-&versiond;-multilib root=/dev/sda2 ro
    191 }</literal>
    192 EOF</userinput></screen>
    193 
    194 
    195     <note><para>From <application>GRUB</application>'s perspective, the
    196     kernel files are relative to the partition used.  If you
    197     used a separate /boot partition, remove /boot from the above
    198     <emphasis>linux</emphasis> line.  You will also need to change the
    199     <emphasis>set root</emphasis> line to point to the boot partition.
    200     </para></note>
    201 
    202     <para>GRUB is an extremely powerful program and it provides a tremendous
    203     number of options for booting from a wide variety of devices, operating
    204     systems, and partition types.  There are also many options for customization
    205     such as graphical splash screens, playing sounds, mouse input, etc.  The
    206     details of these options are beyond the scope of this introduction.</para>
    207 
    208     <caution><para>There is a command, <application>grub-mkconfig</application>, that
    209     can write a configuration file automatically.  It uses a set of scripts in
    210     /etc/grub.d/ and will destroy any customizations that you make.  These scripts
    211     are designed primarily for non-source distributions and are not recommended for
    212     LFS.  If you install a commercial Linux distribution, there is a good chance
    213     that this program will be run.  Be sure to back up your grub.cfg file.</para></caution>
    214 
    215    </sect2>
    216 
    217374</sect1>
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