Changes between Version 4 and Version 5 of TracInstall


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Timestamp:
04/07/2021 11:15:20 PM (7 months ago)
Author:
trac
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  • TracInstall

    v4 v5  
    1 = Trac Installation Guide for 1.0 =
     1= Trac Installation Guide for 1.5
    22[[TracGuideToc]]
    33
    4 Trac is written in the Python programming language and needs a database, [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], or [http://mysql.com/ MySQL]. For HTML rendering, Trac uses the [http://genshi.edgewall.org Genshi] templating system.
    5 
    6 Since version 0.12, Trac can also be localized, and there's probably a translation available for your language. If you want to be able to use the Trac interface in other languages, then make sure you have installed the optional package [#OtherPythonPackages Babel]. Pay attention to the extra steps for localization support in the [#InstallingTrac Installing Trac] section below. Lacking Babel, you will only get the default english version, as usual.
    7 
    8 If you're interested in contributing new translations for other languages or enhance the existing translations, then please have a look at [[trac:TracL10N]].
    9 
    10 What follows are generic instructions for installing and setting up Trac and its requirements. While you may find instructions for installing Trac on specific systems at [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms] on the main Trac site, please be sure to '''first read through these general instructions''' to get a good understanding of the tasks involved.
     4Trac is written in the Python programming language and needs a database, [https://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [https://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], or [https://mysql.com/ MySQL]. For HTML rendering, Trac uses the [http://jinja.pocoo.org Jinja2] templating system, though Genshi templates are supported until Trac 1.5.1.
     5
     6Trac can also be localized, and there is probably a translation available in your language. If you want to use the Trac interface in other languages, then make sure you have installed the optional package [#OtherPythonPackages Babel]. Pay attention to the extra steps for localization support in the [#InstallingTrac Installing Trac] section below. Lacking Babel, you will only get the default English version.
     7
     8If you're interested in contributing new translations for other languages or enhancing the existing translations, please have a look at [trac:wiki:TracL10N TracL10N].
     9
     10What follows are generic instructions for installing and setting up Trac. While you may find instructions for installing Trac on specific systems at [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], please '''first read through these general instructions''' to get a good understanding of the tasks involved.
    1111
    1212[[PageOutline(2-3,Installation Steps,inline)]]
    1313
    14 == Dependencies ==
     14== Dependencies
    1515=== Mandatory Dependencies
    1616To install Trac, the following software packages must be installed:
    1717
    18  * [http://www.python.org/ Python], version >= 2.5 and < 3.0
    19    (note that we dropped the support for Python 2.4 in this release)
    20  * [http://peak.telecommunity.com/DevCenter/setuptools setuptools], version >= 0.6, or better yet, [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/distribute distribute]
    21  * [http://genshi.edgewall.org/wiki/Download Genshi], version >= 0.6 (unreleased version 0.7dev should work as well)
    22 
    23 You also need a database system and the corresponding python bindings.
    24 The database can be either SQLite, PostgreSQL or MySQL.
     18 * [https://www.python.org/ Python], version >= 3.5
     19 * [https://pypi.org/project/setuptools setuptools], version > 5.6
     20 * [https://pypi.org/project/Jinja2 Jinja2], version >= 2.9.3
     21
     22You also need a database system and the corresponding python bindings. The database can be either SQLite, PostgreSQL or MySQL.
    2523
    2624==== For the SQLite database #ForSQLite
    2725
    28 As you must be using Python 2.5, 2.6 or 2.7, you already have the SQLite database bindings bundled with the standard distribution of Python (the `sqlite3` module).
    29 
    30 However, if you'd like, you can download the latest and greatest version of [[trac:Pysqlite]] from
    31 [http://code.google.com/p/pysqlite/downloads/list google code], where you'll find the Windows
    32 installers or the `tar.gz` archive for building from source:
    33 {{{
    34 $ tar xvfz <version>.tar.gz
    35 $ cd <version>
    36 $ python setup.py build_static install
    37 }}}
    38  
    39 This will download the latest SQLite code and build the bindings.
    40 
    41 SQLite 2.x is no longer supported.
    42 
    43 A known bug PySqlite versions 2.5.2-4 prohibits upgrade of trac databases
    44 from 0.11.x to 0.12. Please use versions 2.5.5 and newer or 2.5.1 and
    45 older. See #9434 for more detail.
    46 
    47 See additional information in [trac:PySqlite PySqlite].
     26You already have the SQLite database bindings bundled with the standard distribution of Python (the `sqlite3` module).
     27
     28Optionally, you may install a newer version of [https://pypi.org/project/pysqlite pysqlite] than the one provided by the Python distribution. See [trac:PySqlite#ThePysqlite2bindings PySqlite] for details.
    4829
    4930==== For the PostgreSQL database #ForPostgreSQL
    5031
    5132You need to install the database and its Python bindings:
    52  * [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], version 8.0 or later
    53  * [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/psycopg2 psycopg2]
     33 * [https://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], version 9.1 or later
     34 * [https://pypi.org/project/psycopg2 psycopg2], version 2.5 or later
    5435
    5536See [trac:DatabaseBackend#Postgresql DatabaseBackend] for details.
    5637
    57 
    5838==== For the MySQL database #ForMySQL
    5939
    60 Trac can now work quite well with MySQL, provided you follow the guidelines.
    61 
    62  * [http://mysql.com/ MySQL], version 5.0 or later
    63  * [http://sf.net/projects/mysql-python MySQLdb], version 1.2.2 or later
    64 
    65 It is '''very''' important to read carefully the [trac:MySqlDb] page before creating the database.
     40Trac works well with MySQL, provided you use the following:
     41
     42 * [https://mysql.com/ MySQL], version 5.0 or later
     43 * [https://pypi.org/project/PyMySQL PyMySQL]
     44
     45Given the caveats and known issues surrounding MySQL, read carefully the [trac:MySqlDb] page before creating the database.
    6646
    6747=== Optional Dependencies
    6848
    69 ==== Version Control System ====
    70 
    71 ===== Subversion =====
    72  * [http://subversion.apache.org/ Subversion], 1.5.x or 1.6.x and the '''''corresponding''''' Python bindings. Older versions starting from 1.0, like 1.2.4, 1.3.2 or 1.4.2, etc. should still work. For troubleshooting information, check the [trac:TracSubversion#Troubleshooting TracSubversion] page.
    73 
    74 There are [http://subversion.apache.org/packages.html pre-compiled SWIG bindings] available for various platforms. (Good luck finding precompiled SWIG bindings for any Windows package at that listing. TracSubversion points you to [http://alagazam.net Algazam], which works for me under Python 2.6.)
    75 
    76 Note that Trac '''doesn't''' use [http://pysvn.tigris.org/ PySVN], neither does it work yet with the newer `ctype`-style bindings.
    77 
    78 
    79 '''Please note:''' if using Subversion, Trac must be installed on the '''same machine'''. Remote repositories are currently [trac:ticket:493 not supported].
    80 
    81 
    82 ===== Others =====
    83 
    84 Support for other version control systems is provided via third-parties. See [trac:PluginList] and [trac:VersionControlSystem].
    85 
    86 ==== Web Server ====
    87 A web server is optional because Trac is shipped with a server included, see the [#RunningtheStandaloneServer Running the Standalone Server ] section below.
    88 
    89 Alternatively you configure Trac to run in any of the following environments.
    90  * [http://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] with
    91    - [http://code.google.com/p/modwsgi/ mod_wsgi], see [wiki:TracModWSGI] and
    92      http://code.google.com/p/modwsgi/wiki/IntegrationWithTrac
    93    - [http://modpython.org/ mod_python 3.3.1], deprecated: see TracModPython)
    94  * a [http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI]-capable web server (see TracFastCgi)
    95  * an [http://tomcat.apache.org/connectors-doc/ajp/ajpv13a.html AJP]-capable web
     49==== Subversion
     50
     51[https://subversion.apache.org/ Subversion], 1.14.x or later and the '''''corresponding''''' Python bindings.
     52
     53There are [https://subversion.apache.org/packages.html pre-compiled SWIG bindings] available for various platforms. See [trac:TracSubversion#GettingSubversion getting Subversion] for more information.
     54
     55{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     56**Note:**
     57* Trac '''doesn't''' use [http://pysvn.tigris.org/ PySVN], nor does it work yet with the newer `ctype`-style bindings.
     58* If using Subversion, Trac must be installed on the '''same machine'''. Remote repositories are [trac:ticket:493 not supported].
     59}}}
     60
     61For troubleshooting information, see the [trac:TracSubversion#Troubleshooting TracSubversion] page.
     62
     63==== Git
     64
     65[https://git-scm.com/ Git] 1.5.6 or later is supported. More information is available on the [trac:TracGit] page.
     66
     67==== Other Version Control Systems
     68
     69Support for other version control systems is provided via third-party plugins. See [trac:PluginList#VersionControlSystems] and [trac:VersionControlSystem].
     70
     71==== Web Server
     72A web server is optional because Trac is shipped with a server included, see the [#RunningtheStandaloneServer Running the Standalone Server] section below.
     73
     74Alternatively you can configure Trac to run in any of the following environments:
     75 * [https://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] with
     76   - [https://github.com/GrahamDumpleton/mod_wsgi mod_wsgi], see [wiki:TracModWSGI] and
     77     [https://code.google.com/p/modwsgi/wiki/IntegrationWithTrac ModWSGI IntegrationWithTrac].
     78   - [http://modpython.org/ mod_python 3.5.0], see TracModPython
     79 * a [https://fastcgi-archives.github.io FastCGI]-capable web server (see TracFastCgi)
     80 * an [https://tomcat.apache.org/connectors-doc/ajp/ajpv13a.html AJP]-capable web
    9681   server (see [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp TracOnWindowsIisAjp])
    97  * a CGI-capable web server (see TracCgi), '''but usage of Trac as a cgi script
    98    is highly discouraged''', better use one of the previous options.
    99    
    100 
    101 ==== Other Python Packages ====
    102 
    103  * [http://babel.edgewall.org Babel], version >= 0.9.5,
    104    needed for localization support (unreleased version 1.0dev should work as well)
    105  * [http://docutils.sourceforge.net/ docutils], version >= 0.3.9
    106    for WikiRestructuredText.
    107  * [http://pygments.pocoo.org Pygments] for
    108    [wiki:TracSyntaxColoring syntax highlighting].
    109    [http://silvercity.sourceforge.net/ SilverCity] and/or
    110    [http://gnu.org/software/enscript/enscript.html Enscript] may still be used
    111    but are deprecated and you really should be using Pygments.
    112  * [http://pytz.sf.net pytz] to get a complete list of time zones,
    113    otherwise Trac will fall back on a shorter list from
    114    an internal time zone implementation.
    115 
    116 '''Attention''': The various available versions of these dependencies are not necessarily interchangable, so please pay attention to the version numbers above. If you are having trouble getting Trac to work please double-check all the dependencies before asking for help on the [trac:MailingList] or [trac:IrcChannel].
    117 
    118 Please refer to the documentation of these packages to find out how they are best installed. In addition, most of the [trac:TracInstallPlatforms platform-specific instructions] also describe the installation of the dependencies. Keep in mind however that the information there ''probably concern older versions of Trac than the one you're installing'' (there are even some pages that are still talking about Trac 0.8!).
    119 
    120 
    121 == Installing Trac ==
    122 === Using `easy_install`
    123 One way to install Trac is using [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/setuptools setuptools].
    124 With setuptools you can install Trac from the subversion repository;
    125 
    126 A few examples:
    127 
    128  - install Trac 1.0:
    129    {{{
    130    easy_install Trac==1.0
    131    }}}
    132    (NOT YET ENABLED)
    133  - install latest development version 1.0dev:
    134    {{{
    135    easy_install Trac==dev
    136    }}}
    137    Note that in this case you won't have the possibility to run a localized version of Trac;
    138    either use a released version or install from source
     82 * Microsoft IIS with FastCGI and a FastCGI-to-WSGI gateway (see [trac:CookBook/Installation/TracOnWindowsIisWfastcgi IIS with FastCGI])
     83 * a CGI-capable web server (see TracCgi), '''but usage of Trac as a cgi script
     84   is highly discouraged''', better use one of the previous options.
     85
     86
     87==== Other Python Packages
     88
     89 * [http://babel.pocoo.org Babel], version >= 2.2,
     90   needed for localization support
     91 * [http://pytz.sourceforge.net pytz] to get a complete list of time zones,
     92   otherwise Trac will fall back on a shorter list from
     93   an internal time zone implementation. Installing Babel
     94   will install pytz.
     95 * [http://docutils.sourceforge.net docutils],
     96   version >= 0.14, for WikiRestructuredText.
     97 * [http://pygments.org Pygments], version >= 1.0,
     98   for [TracSyntaxColoring syntax highlighting].
     99 * [https://pypi.org/project/textile Textile],
     100   version >= 2.3,
     101   for rendering the [https://github.com/textile/python-textile Textile markup language].
     102 * [https://pypi.org/project/passlib passlib] on Windows to decode [TracStandalone#BasicAuthorization:Usingahtpasswdpasswordfile htpasswd formats] other than `SHA-1`.
     103 * [https://pypi.org/project/pyreadline pyreadline] on Windows for trac-admin [TracAdmin#InteractiveMode command completion].
     104
     105{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     106**Attention**: The available versions of these dependencies are not necessarily interchangeable, so please pay attention to the version numbers. If you are having trouble getting Trac to work, please double-check all the dependencies before asking for help on the [trac:MailingList] or [trac:IrcChannel].
     107}}}
     108
     109Please refer to the documentation of these packages to find out how they are best installed. In addition, most of the [trac:TracInstallPlatforms platform-specific instructions] also describe the installation of the dependencies. Keep in mind however that the information there ''probably concern older versions of Trac than the one you're installing''.
     110
     111== Installing Trac
     112
     113The [TracAdmin trac-admin] command-line tool, used to create and maintain [TracEnvironment project environments], as well as the [TracStandalone tracd] standalone server are installed along with Trac. There are several methods for installing Trac.
     114
     115It is assumed throughout this guide that you have elevated permissions as the `root` user or by prefixing commands with `sudo`. The umask `0002` should be used for a typical installation on a Unix-based platform.
    139116
    140117=== Using `pip`
    141 'pip' is an easy_install replacement that is very useful to quickly install python packages.
    142 To get a trac installation up and running in less than 5 minutes:
    143 
    144 Assuming you want to have your entire pip installation in `/opt/user/trac`
    145 
    146  -
    147 {{{
    148 pip -E /opt/user/trac install trac psycopg2
    149 }}}
    150 or
    151  -
    152 {{{
    153 pip -E /opt/user/trac install trac mysql-python
    154 }}}
    155 
    156 Make sure your OS specific headers are available for pip to automatically build PostgreSQL (libpq-dev) or MySQL (libmysqlclient-dev) bindings.
    157 
    158 pip will automatically resolve all dependencies (like Genshi, pygments, etc.) and download the latest packages on pypi.python.org and create a self contained installation in `/opt/user/trac`.
    159 
    160 All commands (`tracd`, `trac-admin`) are available in `/opt/user/trac/bin`. This can also be leveraged for `mod_python` (using `PythonHandler` directive) and `mod_wsgi` (using `WSGIDaemonProcess` directive)
    161 
    162 Additionally, you can install several trac plugins (listed [http://pypi.python.org/pypi?:action=search&term=trac&submit=search here]) through pip.
    163 
    164 
    165 
    166 === From source
    167 Of course, using the python-typical setup at the top of the source directory also works.
    168 
    169 You can obtain the source for a .tar.gz or .zip file corresponding to a release (e.g. Trac-1.0.tar.gz), or you can get the source directly from the repository (see Trac:SubversionRepository for details).
    170 
    171 {{{
    172 $ python ./setup.py install
    173 }}}
    174 
    175 ''You'll need root permissions or equivalent for this step.''
    176 
    177 This will byte-compile the python source code and install it as an .egg file or folder in the `site-packages` directory
    178 of your Python installation. The .egg will also contain all other resources needed by standard Trac, such as htdocs and templates.
    179 
    180 The script will also install the [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin] command-line tool, used to create and maintain [wiki:TracEnvironment project environments], as well as the [wiki:TracStandalone tracd] standalone server.
    181 
    182 If you install from source and want to make Trac available in other languages, make sure  Babel is installed. Only then, perform the `install` (or simply redo the `install` once again afterwards if you realize Babel was not yet installed):
    183 {{{
    184 $ python ./setup.py install
    185 }}}
    186 Alternatively, you can do a `bdist_egg` and copy the .egg from dist/ to the place of your choice, or you can create a Windows installer (`bdist_wininst`).
    187 
    188 === Advanced Options ===
    189 
    190 To install Trac to a custom location, or find out about other advanced installation options, run:
    191 {{{
    192 easy_install --help
    193 }}}
    194 
    195 Also see [http://docs.python.org/inst/inst.html Installing Python Modules] for detailed information.
    196 
    197 Specifically, you might be interested in:
    198 {{{
    199 easy_install --prefix=/path/to/installdir
    200 }}}
    201 or, if installing Trac to a Mac OS X system:
    202 {{{
    203 easy_install --prefix=/usr/local --install-dir=/Library/Python/2.5/site-packages
    204 }}}
    205 Note: If installing on Mac OS X 10.6 running {{{ easy_install http://svn.edgewall.org/repos/trac/trunk }}} will install into {{{ /usr/local }}} and {{{ /Library/Python/2.6/site-packages }}} by default
    206 
    207 The above will place your `tracd` and `trac-admin` commands into `/usr/local/bin` and will install the Trac libraries and dependencies into `/Library/Python/2.5/site-packages`, which is Apple's preferred location for third-party Python application installations.
    208 
    209 
    210 == Creating a Project Environment ==
    211 
    212 A [TracEnvironment Trac environment] is the backend storage where Trac stores information like wiki pages, tickets, reports, settings, etc. An environment is basically a directory that contains a human-readable [TracIni configuration file], and various other files and directories.
    213 
    214 A new environment is created using [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin]:
    215 {{{
     118`pip` is the modern Python package manager and is included in Python distributions. `pip` will automatically
     119resolve the //required// dependencies (Jinja2 and
     120setuptools) and download the latest packages from pypi.org.
     121
     122You can also install directly from a source package. You can obtain the source in a tar or zip from the [trac:TracDownload] page. After extracting the archive, change to the directory containing `setup.py` and run:
     123
     124{{{#!sh
     125$ pip install .
     126}}}
     127
     128`pip` supports numerous other install mechanisms. It can be passed the URL of an archive or other download location. Here are some examples:
     129
     130* Install the latest stable version from a zip archive:
     131{{{#!sh
     132$ pip install https://download.edgewall.org/trac/Trac-latest.zip
     133}}}
     134* Install the latest development version from a tar archive:
     135{{{#!sh
     136$ pip install https://download.edgewall.org/trac/Trac-latest-dev.tar.gz
     137}}}
     138* Install the unreleased 1.4-stable from subversion:
     139{{{#!sh
     140$ pip install svn+https://svn.edgewall.org/repos/trac/branches/1.2-stable
     141}}}
     142* Install the latest development preview (//not recommended for production installs//):
     143{{{#!sh
     144$ pip install --find-links=https://trac.edgewall.org/wiki/TracDownload Trac
     145}}}
     146
     147The optional dependencies can be installed from PyPI using `pip`:
     148{{{#!sh
     149$ pip install babel docutils pygments textile
     150}}}
     151
     152The optional dependencies can alternatively be
     153specified using the `extras` keys in the setup file:
     154{{{#!sh
     155$ pip install Trac[babel,rest,pygments,textile]
     156}}}
     157
     158`rest` is the extra that installs the `docutils`
     159dependency.
     160
     161Include `mysql` or `psycopg2-binary` in the
     162list if using the MySQL or PostgreSQL database.
     163
     164Additionally, you can install several Trac plugins from PyPI (listed [https://pypi.org/search/?c=Framework+%3A%3A+Trac here]) using pip. See TracPlugins for more information.
     165
     166=== Using installer
     167
     168On Windows, Trac can be installed using the exe installers available on the [trac:TracDownload] page. Installers are available for the 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Python. Make sure to use the installer that matches the architecture of your Python installation.
     169
     170=== Using package manager
     171
     172Trac may be available in your platform's package repository. However, your package manager may not provide the latest release of Trac.
     173
     174== Creating a Project Environment
     175
     176A [TracEnvironment Trac environment] is the backend where Trac stores information like wiki pages, tickets, reports, settings, etc. An environment is a directory that contains a human-readable [TracIni configuration file], and other files and directories.
     177
     178A new environment is created using [TracAdmin trac-admin]:
     179{{{#!sh
    216180$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
    217181}}}
    218182
    219 [TracAdmin trac-admin] will prompt you for the information it needs to create the environment, such as the name of the project and the [TracEnvironment#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string]. If you're not sure what to specify for one of these options, just press `<Enter>` to use the default value.
    220 
    221 Using the default database connection string in particular will always work as long as you have SQLite installed.
    222 For the other [DatabaseBackend database backends] you should plan ahead and already have a database ready to use at this point.
    223 
    224 Since 0.12, Trac doesn't ask for a [TracEnvironment#SourceCodeRepository source code repository] anymore when creating an environment. Repositories can be [TracRepositoryAdmin added] afterward, or the version control support can be disabled completely if you don't need it.
    225 
    226 Also note that the values you specify here can be changed later by directly editing the [TracIni conf/trac.ini] configuration file.
     183[TracAdmin trac-admin] will prompt you for the information it needs to create the environment: the name of the project and the [TracEnvironment#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string]. If you're not sure what to specify for any of these options, just press `<Enter>` to use the default value.
     184
     185Using the default database connection string will always work as long as you have SQLite installed. For the other [trac:DatabaseBackend database backends] you should plan ahead and already have a database ready to use at this point.
     186
     187Also note that the values you specify here can be changed later using TracAdmin or directly editing the [TracIni conf/trac.ini] configuration file.
    227188
    228189Finally, make sure the user account under which the web front-end runs will have '''write permissions''' to the environment directory and all the files inside. This will be the case if you run `trac-admin ... initenv` as this user. If not, you should set the correct user afterwards. For example on Linux, with the web server running as user `apache` and group `apache`, enter:
    229 {{{
    230 # chown -R apache.apache /path/to/myproject
    231 }}}
     190{{{#!sh
     191$ chown -R apache:apache /path/to/myproject
     192}}}
     193
     194The actual username and groupname of the apache server may not be exactly `apache`, and are specified in the Apache configuration file by the directives `User` and `Group` (if Apache `httpd` is what you use).
    232195
    233196{{{#!div class=important
     
    235198}}}
    236199
    237 
    238200== Deploying Trac
    239201
    240 === Running the Standalone Server ===
    241 
    242 After having created a Trac environment, you can easily try the web interface by running the standalone server [wiki:TracStandalone tracd]:
    243 {{{
     202=== Running the Standalone Server
     203
     204After having created a Trac environment, you can easily try the web interface by running the standalone server [TracStandalone tracd]:
     205{{{#!sh
    244206$ tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
    245207}}}
    246208
    247 Then, fire up a browser and visit `http://localhost:8000/`. You should get a simple listing of all environments that `tracd` knows about. Follow the link to the environment you just created, and you should see Trac in action. If you only plan on managing a single project with Trac you can have the standalone server skip the environment list by starting it like this:
    248 {{{
     209Then, open a browser and visit `http://localhost:8000/`. You should get a simple listing of all environments that `tracd` knows about. Follow the link to the environment you just created, and you should see Trac in action. If you only plan on managing a single project with Trac you can have the standalone server skip the environment list by starting it like this:
     210{{{#!sh
    249211$ tracd -s --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
    250212}}}
    251213
    252 === Running Trac on a Web Server ===
    253 
    254 Trac provides various options for connecting to a "real" web server:
    255  - [wiki:TracFastCgi FastCGI]
    256  - [wiki:TracModWSGI mod_wsgi]
    257  - //[wiki:TracModPython mod_python] (no longer recommended, as mod_python is not actively maintained anymore)//
    258  - //[wiki:TracCgi CGI] (should not be used, as the performance is far from optimal)//
    259 
    260 Trac also supports [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP] which may be your choice if you want to connect to IIS. Other deployment scenarios are possible: [trac:TracNginxRecipe nginx], [http://projects.unbit.it/uwsgi/wiki/Example#Traconapacheinasub-uri uwsgi], [trac:TracOnWindowsIisIsapi Isapi-wsgi] etc.
    261 
    262 ==== Generating the Trac cgi-bin directory ==== #cgi-bin
    263 
    264 In order for Trac to function properly with FastCGI you need to have a `trac.fcgi` file and for mod_wsgi a `trac.wsgi` file. These are Python scripts which load the appropriate Python code. They can be generated using the `deploy` option of [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin].
    265 
    266 There is, however, a bit of a chicken-and-egg problem. The [wiki:TracAdmin trac-admin] command requires an existing environment to function, but complains if the deploy directory already exists. This is a problem, because environments are often stored in a subdirectory of the deploy. The solution is to do something like this:
    267 {{{
    268 mkdir -p /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project
    269 trac-admin /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project initenv
    270 trac-admin /usr/share/trac/projects/my-project deploy /tmp/deploy
    271 mv /tmp/deploy/* /usr/share/trac
    272 }}}
    273 
    274 
    275 ==== Mapping Static Resources ====
    276 
    277 Out of the box, Trac will pass static resources such as style sheets or images through itself. For anything but a tracd only based deployment, this is far from optimal as the web server could be set up to directly serve those static resources (for CGI setup, this is '''highly undesirable''' and will cause abysmal performance).
    278 
    279 Web servers such as [http://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] allow you to create “Aliases” to resources, giving them a virtual URL that doesn't necessarily reflect the layout of the servers file system. We also can map requests for static resources directly to the directory on the file system, avoiding processing these requests by Trac itself.
    280 
    281 There are two primary URL paths for static resources - `/chrome/common` and `/chrome/site`. Plugins can add their own resources, usually accessible by `/chrome/<plugin>` path, so its important to override only known paths and not try to make universal `/chrome` alias for everything.
    282 
    283 Note that in order to get those static resources on the filesystem, you need first to extract the relevant resources from Trac using the [TracAdmin trac-admin]` <environment> deploy` command:
     214=== Running Trac on a Web Server
     215
     216Trac provides various options for connecting to a "real" web server:
     217 - [TracFastCgi FastCGI]
     218 - [wiki:TracModWSGI Apache with mod_wsgi]
     219 - [TracModPython Apache with mod_python]
     220 - [TracCgi CGI] //(should not be used, as the performance is far from optimal)//
     221
     222Trac also supports [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP] which may be your choice if you want to connect to IIS. Other deployment scenarios are possible: [trac:TracNginxRecipe nginx], [https://uwsgi-docs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/#Traconapacheinasub-uri uwsgi], [trac:TracOnWindowsIisIsapi Isapi-wsgi] etc.
     223
     224==== Generating the Trac cgi-bin directory #cgi-bin
     225
     226Application scripts for CGI, FastCGI and mod-wsgi can be generated using the [TracAdmin trac-admin] `deploy` command:
    284227[[TracAdminHelp(deploy)]]
    285228
    286 The target `<directory>` will then contain an `htdocs` directory with:
    287  - `site/` - a copy of the environment's directory `htdocs/`
    288  - `common/` - the static resources of Trac itself
    289  - `<plugins>/` - one directory for each resource directory managed by the plugins enabled for this environment
    290 
    291 ===== Example: Apache and `ScriptAlias` ===== #ScriptAlias-example
    292 
    293 Assuming the deployment has been done this way:
    294 {{{
    295 $ trac-admin /var/trac/env deploy /path/to/trac/htdocs/common
    296 }}}
    297 
    298 Add the following snippet to Apache configuration ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` (which map all the other requests to the Trac application), changing paths to match your deployment:
    299 {{{
     229Grant the web server execution right on scripts in the `cgi-bin` directory.
     230
     231For example, the following yields a typical directory structure:
     232{{{#!sh
     233$ mkdir -p /var/trac
     234$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> initenv
     235$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> deploy /var/www
     236$ ls /var/www
     237cgi-bin htdocs
     238$ chmod ugo+x /var/www/cgi-bin/*
     239}}}
     240
     241==== Mapping Static Resources
     242
     243Without additional configuration, Trac will handle requests for static resources such as stylesheets and images. For anything other than a TracStandalone deployment, this is not optimal as the web server can be set up to directly serve the static resources. For CGI setup, this is '''highly undesirable''' as it causes abysmal performance.
     244
     245Web servers such as [https://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] allow you to create //Aliases// to resources, giving them a virtual URL that doesn't necessarily reflect their location on the file system. We can map requests for static resources directly to directories on the file system, to avoid Trac processing the requests.
     246
     247There are two primary URL paths for static resources: `/chrome/common` and `/chrome/site`. Plugins can add their own resources, usually accessible at the `/chrome/<plugin>` path.
     248
     249A single `/chrome` alias can used if the static resources are extracted for all plugins. This means that the `deploy` command (discussed in the previous section) must be executed after installing or updating a plugin that provides static resources, or after modifying resources in the `$env/htdocs` directory. This is probably appropriate for most installations but may not be what you want if, for example, you wish to upload plugins through the //Plugins// administration page.
     250
     251The `deploy` command creates an `htdocs` directory with:
     252 - `common/` - the static resources of Trac
     253 - `site/` - a copy of the environment's `htdocs/` directory
     254 - `shared` - the static resources shared by multiple Trac environments, with a location defined by the `[inherit]` `htdocs_dir` option
     255 - `<plugin>/` - one directory for each resource directory provided by the plugins enabled for this environment
     256
     257The example that follows will create a single `/chrome` alias. If that isn't the correct approach for your installation you simply need to create more specific aliases:
     258{{{#!apache
    300259Alias /trac/chrome/common /path/to/trac/htdocs/common
    301260Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/trac/htdocs/site
     261Alias /trac/chrome/shared /path/to/trac/htdocs/shared
     262Alias /trac/chrome/<plugin> /path/to/trac/htdocs/<plugin>
     263}}}
     264
     265===== Example: Apache and `ScriptAlias` #ScriptAlias-example
     266
     267Assuming the deployment has been done this way:
     268{{{#!sh
     269$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> deploy /var/www
     270}}}
     271
     272Add the following snippet to Apache configuration, changing paths to match your deployment. The snippet must be placed ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` directive, because those directives map all requests to the Trac application:
     273{{{#!apache
     274Alias /trac/chrome /path/to/trac/htdocs
    302275
    303276<Directory "/path/to/www/trac/htdocs">
    304   Order allow,deny
    305   Allow from all
     277  # For Apache 2.2
     278  <IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
     279    Order allow,deny
     280    Allow from all
     281  </IfModule>
     282  # For Apache 2.4
     283  <IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
     284    Require all granted
     285  </IfModule>
    306286</Directory>
    307287}}}
    308288
    309 If using mod_python, you might want to add this too (otherwise, the alias will be ignored):
    310 {{{
    311 <Location "/trac/chrome/common/">
     289If using mod_python, add this too, otherwise the alias will be ignored:
     290{{{#!apache
     291<Location "/trac/chrome/common">
    312292  SetHandler None
    313293</Location>
    314294}}}
    315295
    316 Note that we mapped `/trac` part of the URL to the `trac.*cgi` script, and the path `/trac/chrome/common` is the path you have to append to that location to intercept requests to the static resources.
    317 
    318 Similarly, if you have static resources in a project's `htdocs` directory (which is referenced by `/trac/chrome/site` URL in themes), you can configure Apache to serve those resources (again, put this ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` for the .*cgi scripts, and adjust names and locations to match your installation):
    319 {{{
     296Alternatively, if you wish to serve static resources directly from your project's `htdocs` directory rather than the location to which the files are extracted with the `deploy` command, you can configure Apache to serve those resources. Again, put this ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` for the .*cgi scripts, and adjust names and locations to match your installation:
     297{{{#!apache
    320298Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/projectenv/htdocs
    321299
    322300<Directory "/path/to/projectenv/htdocs">
    323   Order allow,deny
    324   Allow from all
     301  # For Apache 2.2
     302  <IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
     303    Order allow,deny
     304    Allow from all
     305  </IfModule>
     306  # For Apache 2.4
     307  <IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
     308    Require all granted
     309  </IfModule>
    325310</Directory>
    326311}}}
    327312
    328 Alternatively to aliasing `/trac/chrome/common`, you can tell Trac to generate direct links for those static resources (and only those), using the [[wiki:TracIni#trac-section| [trac] htdocs_location]] configuration setting:
    329 {{{
     313Another alternative to aliasing `/trac/chrome/common` is having Trac generate direct links for those static resources (and only those), using the [TracIni#trac-htdocs_location-option trac.htdocs_location] configuration setting:
     314{{{#!ini
    330315[trac]
    331316htdocs_location = http://static.example.org/trac-common/
    332317}}}
    333 Note that this makes it easy to have a dedicated domain serve those static resources (preferentially [http://code.google.com/speed/page-speed/docs/request.html#ServeFromCookielessDomain cookie-less]).
     318
     319Note that this makes it easy to have a dedicated domain serve those static resources, preferentially cookie-less.
    334320
    335321Of course, you still need to make the Trac `htdocs/common` directory available through the web server at the specified URL, for example by copying (or linking) the directory into the document root of the web server:
    336 {{{
     322{{{#!sh
    337323$ ln -s /path/to/trac/htdocs/common /var/www/static.example.org/trac-common
    338324}}}
    339325
    340 
    341 ==== Setting up the Plugin Cache ====
    342 
    343 Some Python plugins need to be extracted to a cache directory. By default the cache resides in the home directory of the current user. When running Trac on a Web Server as a dedicated user (which is highly recommended) who has no home directory, this might prevent the plugins from starting. To override the cache location you can set the PYTHON_EGG_CACHE environment variable. Refer to your server documentation for detailed instructions on how to set environment variables.
    344 
    345 == Configuring Authentication ==
    346 
    347 Trac uses HTTP authentication. You'll need to configure your webserver to request authentication when the `.../login` URL is hit (the virtual path of the "login" button). Trac will automatically pick the REMOTE_USER variable up after you provide your credentials. Therefore, all user management goes through your web server configuration. Please consult the documentation of your web server for more info.
    348 
    349 The process of adding, removing, and configuring user accounts for authentication depends on the specific way you run Trac.
     326==== Setting up the Plugin Cache
     327
     328Some Python plugins need to be extracted to a cache directory. By default the cache resides in the home directory of the current user. When running Trac on a Web Server as a dedicated user (which is highly recommended) who has no home directory, this might prevent the plugins from starting. To override the cache location you can set the `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` environment variable. Refer to your server documentation for detailed instructions on how to set environment variables.
     329
     330== Configuring Authentication
     331
     332Trac uses HTTP authentication. You'll need to configure your webserver to request authentication when the `.../login` URL is hit (the virtual path of the "login" button). Trac will automatically pick the `REMOTE_USER` variable up after you provide your credentials. Therefore, all user management goes through your web server configuration. Please consult the documentation of your web server for more info.
     333
     334The process of adding, removing, and configuring user accounts for authentication depends on the specific way you run Trac.
    350335
    351336Please refer to one of the following sections:
    352337 * TracStandalone#UsingAuthentication if you use the standalone server, `tracd`.
    353  * [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] if you use the Apache web server, with any of its front end: `mod_wsgi` of course, but the same instructions applies also for `mod_python`, `mod_fcgi` or `mod_fastcgi`.
     338 * [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] if you use the Apache web server, with any of its front end: `mod_wsgi`, `mod_python`, `mod_fcgi` or `mod_fastcgi`.
    354339 * TracFastCgi if you're using another web server with FCGI support (Cherokee, Lighttpd, !LiteSpeed, nginx)
     340
     341[trac:TracAuthenticationIntroduction] also contains some useful information for beginners.
    355342
    356343== Granting admin rights to the admin user
    357344Grant admin rights to user admin:
    358 {{{
     345{{{#!sh
    359346$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject permission add admin TRAC_ADMIN
    360347}}}
    361 This user will have an "Admin" entry menu that will allow you to admin your trac project.
    362 
    363 == Finishing the install
    364 
    365 === Automatic reference to the SVN changesets in Trac tickets ===
    366 
    367 You can configure SVN to automatically add a reference to the changeset into the ticket comments, whenever changes are committed to the repository. The description of the commit needs to contain one of the following formulas:
    368  * '''`Refs #123`''' - to reference this changeset in `#123` ticket
    369  * '''`Fixes #123`''' - to reference this changeset and close `#123` ticket with the default status ''fixed''
    370 
    371 This functionality requires a post-commit hook to be installed as described in [wiki:TracRepositoryAdmin#ExplicitSync TracRepositoryAdmin], and enabling the optional commit updater components by adding the following line to the `[components]` section of your [wiki:TracIni#components-section trac.ini], or enabling the components in the "Plugins" admin panel.
    372 {{{
    373 tracopt.ticket.commit_updater.* = enabled
    374 }}}
    375 For more information, see the documentation of the `CommitTicketUpdater` component in the "Plugins" admin panel.
    376 
    377 === Using Trac ===
     348
     349This user will have an //Admin// navigation item that directs to pages for administering your Trac project.
     350
     351== Configuring Trac
     352
     353Configuration options are documented on the TracIni page.
     354
     355TracRepositoryAdmin provides information on configuring version control repositories for your project.
     356
     357In addition to the optional version control backends, Trac provides several optional features that are disabled by default:
     358* [TracFineGrainedPermissions#AuthzPolicy Fine-grained permission policy]
     359* [TracPermissions#CreatingNewPrivileges Custom permissions]
     360* [TracTickets#deleter Ticket deletion]
     361* [TracTickets#cloner Ticket cloning]
     362* [TracRepositoryAdmin#CommitTicketUpdater Ticket changeset references]
     363
     364== Using Trac
    378365
    379366Once you have your Trac site up and running, you should be able to create tickets, view the timeline, browse your version control repository if configured, etc.
    380367
    381 Keep in mind that //anonymous// (not logged in) users can by default access only a few of the features, in particular they will have a read-only access to the resources. You will need to configure authentication and grant additional [wiki:TracPermissions permissions] to authenticated users to see the full set of features.
     368Keep in mind that //anonymous// (not logged in) users can by default access only a few of the features, in particular they will have a read-only access to the resources. You will need to configure authentication and grant additional [TracPermissions permissions] to authenticated users to see the full set of features.
    382369
    383370'' Enjoy! ''
     
    386373
    387374----
    388 See also: [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], TracGuide, TracUpgrade, TracPermissions
     375See also: [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], TracGuide, TracUpgrade