|Douglas R. Reno
Heya! Finally, here's systemd 233. Tons of new features, even more bugfixes. Enjoy! https://github.com/systemd/systemd/releases/tag/v233 CHANGES WITH 233: * The "hybrid" control group mode has been modified to improve compatibility with "legacy" cgroups-v1 setups. Specifically, the "hybrid" setup of /sys/fs/cgroup is now pretty much identical to "legacy" (including /sys/fs/cgroup/systemd as "name=systemd" named cgroups-v1 hierarchy), the only externally visible change being that the cgroups-v2 hierarchy is also mounted, to /sys/fs/cgroup/unified. This should provide a large degree of compatibility with "legacy" cgroups-v1, while taking benefit of the better management capabilities of cgroups-v2. * The default control group setup mode may be selected both a boot-time via a set of kernel command line parameters (specifically: systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy= and systemd.legacy_systemd_cgroup_controller=), as well as a compile-time default selected on the configure command line (--with-default-hierarchy=). The upstream default is "hybrid" (i.e. the cgroups-v1 + cgroups-v2 mixture discussed above) now, but this will change in a future systemd version to be "unified" (pure cgroups-v2 mode). The third option for the compile time option is "legacy", to enter pure cgroups-v1 mode. We recommend downstream distributions to default to "hybrid" mode for release distributions, starting with v233. We recommend "unified" for development distributions (specifically: distributions such as Fedora's rawhide) as that's where things are headed in the long run. Use "legacy" for greatest stability and compatibility only. * Note one current limitation of "unified" and "hybrid" control group setup modes: the kernel currently does not permit the systemd --user instance (i.e. unprivileged code) to migrate processes between two disconnected cgroup subtrees, even if both are managed and owned by the user. This effectively means "systemd-run --user --scope" doesn't work when invoked from outside of any "systemd --user" service or scope. Specifically, it is not supported from session scopes. We are working on fixing this in a future systemd version. (See #3388 for further details about this.) * DBus policy files are now installed into /usr rather than /etc. Make sure your system has dbus >= 1.9.18 running before upgrading to this version, or override the install path with --with-dbuspolicydir= . * All python scripts shipped with systemd (specifically: the various tests written in Python) now require Python 3. * systemd unit tests can now run standalone (without the source or build directories), and can be installed into /usr/lib/systemd/tests/ with 'make install-tests'. * Note that from this version on, CONFIG_CRYPTO_USER_API_HASH, CONFIG_CRYPTO_HMAC and CONFIG_CRYPTO_SHA256 need to be enabled in the kernel. * Support for the %c, %r, %R specifiers in unit files has been removed. Specifiers are not supposed to be dependent on configuration in the unit file itself (so that they resolve the same regardless where used in the unit files), but these specifiers were influenced by the Slice= option. * The shell invoked by debug-shell.service now defaults to /bin/sh in all cases. If distributions want to use a different shell for this purpose (for example Fedora's /sbin/sushell) they need to specify this explicitly at configure time using --with-debug-shell=. * The confirmation spawn prompt has been reworked to offer the following choices: (c)ontinue, proceed without asking anymore (D)ump, show the state of the unit (f)ail, don't execute the command and pretend it failed (h)elp (i)nfo, show a short summary of the unit (j)obs, show jobs that are in progress (s)kip, don't execute the command and pretend it succeeded (y)es, execute the command The 'n' choice for the confirmation spawn prompt has been removed, because its meaning was confusing. The prompt may now also be redirected to an alternative console by specifying the console as parameter to systemd.confirm_spawn=. * Services of Type=notify require a READY=1 notification to be sent during startup. If no such message is sent, the service now fails, even if the main process exited with a successful exit code. * Services that fail to start up correctly now always have their ExecStopPost= commands executed. Previously, they'd enter "failed" state directly, without executing these commands. * The option MulticastDNS= of network configuration files has acquired an actual implementation. With MulticastDNS=yes a host can resolve names of remote hosts and reply to mDNS A and AAAA requests. * When units are about to be started an additional check is now done to ensure that all dependencies of type BindsTo= (when used in combination with After=) have been started. * systemd-analyze gained a new verb "syscall-filter" which shows which system call groups are defined for the SystemCallFilter= unit file setting, and which system calls they contain. * A new system call filter group "@filesystem" has been added, consisting of various file system related system calls. Group "@reboot" has been added, covering reboot, kexec and shutdown related calls. Finally, group "@swap" has been added covering swap configuration related calls. * A new unit file option RestrictNamespaces= has been added that may be used to restrict access to the various process namespace types the Linux kernel provides. Specifically, it may be used to take away the right for a service unit to create additional file system, network, user, and other namespaces. This sandboxing option is particularly relevant due to the high amount of recently discovered namespacing related vulnerabilities in the kernel. * systemd-udev's .link files gained support for a new AutoNegotiation= setting for configuring Ethernet auto-negotiation. * systemd-networkd's .network files gained support for a new ListenPort= setting in the [DHCP] section to explicitly configure the UDP client port the DHCP client shall listen on. * .network files gained a new Unmanaged= boolean setting for explicitly excluding one or more interfaces from management by systemd-networkd. * The systemd-networkd ProxyARP= option has been renamed to IPV4ProxyARP=. Similarly, VXLAN-specific option ARPProxy= has been renamed to ReduceARPProxy=. The old names continue to be available for compatibility. * systemd-networkd gained support for configuring IPv6 Proxy NDP addresses via the new IPv6ProxyNDPAddress= .network file setting. * systemd-networkd's bonding device support gained support for two new configuration options ActiveSlave= and PrimarySlave=. * The various options in the [Match] section of .network files gained support for negative matching. * New systemd-specific mount options are now understood in /etc/fstab: x-systemd.mount-timeout= may be used to configure the maximum permitted runtime of the mount command. x-systemd.device-bound may be set to bind a mount point to its backing device unit, in order to automatically remove a mount point if its backing device is unplugged. This option may also be configured through the new SYSTEMD_MOUNT_DEVICE_BOUND udev property on the block device, which is now automatically set for all CDROM drives, so that mounted CDs are automatically unmounted when they are removed from the drive. x-systemd.after= and x-systemd.before= may be used to explicitly order a mount after or before another unit or mount point. * Enqueued start jobs for device units are now automatically garbage collected if there are no jobs waiting for them anymore. * systemctl list-jobs gained two new switches: with --after, for every queued job the jobs it's waiting for are shown; with --before the jobs which it's blocking are shown. * systemd-nspawn gained support for ephemeral boots from disk images (or in other words: --ephemeral and --image= may now be combined). Moreover, ephemeral boots are now supported for normal directories, even if the backing file system is not btrfs. Of course, if the file system does not support file system snapshots or reflinks, the initial copy operation will be relatively expensive, but this should still be suitable for many use cases. * Calendar time specifications in .timer units now support specifications relative to the end of a month by using "~" instead of "-" as separator between month and day. For example, "*-02~03" means "the third last day in February". In addition a new syntax for repeated events has been added using the "/" character. For example, "9..17/2:00" means "every two hours from 9am to 5pm". * systemd-socket-proxyd gained a new parameter --connections-max= for configuring the maximum number of concurrent connections. * sd-id128 gained a new API for generating unique IDs for the host in a way that does not leak the machine ID. Specifically, sd_id128_get_machine_app_specific() derives an ID based on the machine ID a in well-defined, non-reversible, stable way. This is useful whenever an identifier for the host is needed but where the identifier shall not be useful to identify the system beyond the scope of the application itself. (Internally this uses HMAC-SHA256 as keyed hash function using the machine ID as input.) * NotifyAccess= gained a new supported value "exec". When set notifications are accepted from all processes systemd itself invoked, including all control processes. * .nspawn files gained support for defining overlay mounts using the Overlay= and OverlayReadOnly= options. Previously this functionality was only available on the systemd-nspawn command line. * systemd-nspawn's --bind= and --overlay= options gained support for bind/overlay mounts whose source lies within the container tree by prefixing the source path with "+". * systemd-nspawn's --bind= and --overlay= options gained support for automatically allocating a temporary source directory in /var/tmp that is removed when the container dies. Specifically, if the source directory is specified as empty string this mechanism is selected. An example usage is --overlay=+/var::/var, which creates an overlay mount based on the original /var contained in the image, overlayed with a temporary directory in the host's /var/tmp. This way changes to /var are automatically flushed when the container shuts down. * systemd-nspawn --image= option does now permit raw file system block devices (in addition to images containing partition tables, as before). * The disk image dissection logic in systemd-nspawn gained support for automatically setting up LUKS encrypted as well as Verity protected partitions. When a container is booted from an encrypted image the passphrase is queried at start-up time. When a container with Verity data is started, the root hash is search in a ".roothash" file accompanying the disk image (alternatively, pass the root hash via the new --root-hash= command line option). * A new tool /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-dissect has been added that may be used to dissect disk images the same way as systemd-nspawn does it, following the Bootable Partition Specification. It may even be used to mount disk images with complex partition setups (including LUKS and Verity partitions) to a local host directory, in order to inspect them. This tool is not considered public API (yet), and is thus not installed into /usr/bin. Please do not rely on its existence, since it might go away or be changed in later systemd versions. * A new generator "systemd-verity-generator" has been added, similar in style to "systemd-cryptsetup-generator", permitting automatic setup of Verity root partitions when systemd boots up. In order to make use of this your partition setup should follow the Discoverable Partitions Specification, and the GPT partition ID of the root file system partition should be identical to the upper 128bit of the Verity root hash. The GPT partition ID of the Verity partition protecting it should be the lower 128bit of the Verity root hash. If the partition image follows this model it is sufficient to specify a single "roothash=" kernel command line argument to both configure which root image and verity partition to use as well as the root hash for it. Note that systemd-nspawn's Verity support follows the same semantics, meaning that disk images with proper Verity data in place may be booted in containers with systemd-nspawn as well as on physical systems via the verity generator. Also note that the "mkosi" tool available at https://github.com/systemd/mkosi has been updated to generate Verity protected disk images following this scheme. In fact, it has been updated to generate disk images that optionally implement a complete UEFI SecureBoot trust chain, involving a signed kernel and initrd image that incorporates such a root hash as well as a Verity-enabled root partition. * The hardware database (hwdb) udev supports has been updated to carry accelerometer quirks. * All system services are now run with a fresh kernel keyring set up for them. The invocation ID is stored by default in it, thus providing a safe, non-overridable way to determine the invocation ID of each service. * Service unit files gained new BindPaths= and BindReadOnlyPaths= options for bind mounting arbitrary paths in a service-specific way. When these options are used, arbitrary host or service files and directories may be mounted to arbitrary locations in the service's view. * Documentation has been added that lists all of systemd's low-level environment variables: https://github.com/systemd/systemd/blob/master/ENVIRONMENT.md * sd-daemon gained a new API sd_is_socket_sockaddr() for determining whether a specific socket file descriptor matches a specified socket address. * systemd-firstboot has been updated to check for the systemd.firstboot= kernel command line option. It accepts a boolean and when set to false the first boot questions are skipped. * systemd-fstab-generator has been updated to check for the systemd.volatile= kernel command line option, which either takes an optional boolean parameter or the special value "state". If used the system may be booted in a "volatile" boot mode. Specifically, "systemd.volatile" is used, the root directory will be mounted as tmpfs, and only /usr is mounted from the actual root file system. If "systemd.volatile=state" is used, the root directory will be mounted as usual, but /var is mounted as tmpfs. This concept provides similar functionality as systemd-nspawn's --volatile= option, but provides it on physical boots. Use this option for implementing stateless systems, or testing systems with all state and/or configuration reset to the defaults. (Note though that many distributions are not prepared to boot up without a populated /etc or /var, though.) * systemd-gpt-auto-generator gained support for LUKS encrypted root partitions. Previously it only supported LUKS encrypted partitions for all other uses, except for the root partition itself. * Socket units gained support for listening on AF_VSOCK sockets for communication in virtualized QEMU environments. * The "configure" script gained a new option --with-fallback-hostname= for specifying the fallback hostname to use if none is configured in /etc/hostname. For example, by specifying --with-fallback-hostname=fedora it is possible to default to a hostname of "fedora" on pristine installations. * systemd-cgls gained support for a new --unit= switch for listing only the control groups of a specific unit. Similar --user-unit= has been added for listing only the control groups of a specific user unit. * systemd-mount gained a new --umount switch for unmounting a mount or automount point (and all mount/automount points below it). * systemd will now refuse full configuration reloads (via systemctl daemon-reload and related calls) unless at least 16MiB of free space are available in /run. This is a safety precaution in order to ensure that generators can safely operate after the reload completed. * A new unit file option RootImage= has been added, which has a similar effect as RootDirectory= but mounts the service's root directory from a disk image instead of plain directory. This logic reuses the same image dissection and mount logic that systemd-nspawn already uses, and hence supports any disk images systemd-nspawn supports, including those following the Discoverable Partition Specification, as well as Verity enabled images. This option enables systemd to run system services directly off disk images acting as resource bundles, possibly even including full integrity data. * A new MountAPIVFS= unit file option has been added, taking a boolean argument. If enabled /proc, /sys and /dev (collectively called the "API VFS") will be mounted for the service. This is only relevant if RootDirectory= or RootImage= is used for the service, as these mounts are of course in place in the host mount namespace anyway. * systemd-nspawn gained support for a new --pivot-root= switch. If specified the root directory within the container image is pivoted to the specified mount point, while the original root disk is moved to a different place. This option enables booting of ostree images directly with systemd-nspawn. * The systemd build scripts will no longer complain if the NTP server addresses are not changed from the defaults. Google now supports these NTP servers officially. We still recommend downstreams to properly register an NTP pool with the NTP pool project though. * coredumpctl gained new new "--reverse" option for printing the list of coredumps in reverse order. * coredumpctl will now show additional information about truncated and inaccessible coredumps, as well as coredumps that are still being processed. It also gained a new --quiet switch for suppressing additional informational message in its output. * coredumpctl gained support for only showing coredumps newer and/or older than specific timestamps, using the new --since= and --until= options, reminiscent of journalctl's options by the same name. * The systemd-coredump logic has been improved so that it may be reused to collect backtraces in non-compiled languages, for example in scripting languages such as Python. * machinectl will now show the UID shift of local containers, if user namespacing is enabled for them. * systemd will now optionally run "environment generator" binaries at configuration load time. They may be used to add environment variables to the environment block passed to services invoked. One user environment generator is shipped by default that sets up environment variables based on files dropped into /etc/environment.d and ~/.config/environment.d/. * systemd-resolved now includes the new, recently published 2017 DNSSEC root key (KSK). * hostnamed has been updated to report a new chassis type of "convertible" to cover "foldable" laptops that can both act as a tablet and as a laptop, such as various Lenovo Yoga devices. Contributions from: Adrián López, Alexander Galanin, Alexander Kochetkov, Alexandros Frantzis, Andrey Ulanov, Antoine Eiche, Baruch Siach, Bastien Nocera, Benjamin Robin, Björn, Brandon Philips, Cédric Schieli, Charles (Chas) Williams, Christian Hesse, Daniele Medri, Daniel Drake, Daniel Rusek, Daniel Wagner, Dan Streetman, Dave Reisner, David Glasser, David Herrmann, David Michael, Djalal Harouni, Dmitry Khlebnikov, Dmitry Rozhkov, Dongsu Park, Douglas Christman, Earnestly, Emil Soleyman, Eric Cook, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Felipe Sateler, Fionn Cleary, Florian Klink, Francesco Brozzu, Franck Bui, Gabriel Rauter, Gianluca Boiano, Giedrius Statkevičius, Graeme Lawes, Hans de Goede, Harald Hoyer, Ian Kelling, Ivan Shapovalov, Jakub Wilk, Janne Heß, Jan Synacek, Jason Reeder, Jonathan Boulle, Jörg Thalheim, Jouke Witteveen, Karl Kraus, Kees Cook, Keith Busch, Kieran Colford, kilian-k, Lennart Poettering, Lubomir Rintel, Lucas Werkmeister, Lukas Rusak, Maarten de Vries, Maks Naumov, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Andre Lureau, Marcin Bachry, Mark Stosberg, Martin Ejdestig, Martin Pitt, Mauricio Faria de Oliveira, micah, Michael Biebl, Michael Shields, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Michel Kraus, Mike Gilbert, Mikko Ylinen, Mirza Krak, Namhyung Kim, nikolaof, peoronoob, Peter Hutterer, Peter Körner, Philip Withnall, Piotr Drąg, Ray Strode, Reverend Homer, Rike-Benjamin Schuppner, Robert Kreuzer, Ronny Chevalier, Ruslan Bilovol, sammynx, Sergey Ptashnick, Sergiusz Urbaniak, Stefan Berger, Stefan Hajnoczi, Stefan Schweter, Stuart McLaren, Susant Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève, Taylor Smock, Tejun Heo, Thomas Blume, Thomas H. P. Andersen, Tibor Nagy, Tobias Stoeckmann, Tom Gundersen, Torstein Husebø, Viktar Vaŭčkievič, Viktor Mihajlovski, Vitaly Sulimov, Waldemar Brodkorb, Walter Garcia-Fontes, Wim de With, Yassine Imounachen, Yi EungJun, YunQiang Su, Yu Watanabe, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Александр Тихонов — Berlin, 2017-03-01
Change History (9)
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