Opened 5 years ago

Closed 5 years ago

Last modified 5 years ago

#4456 closed task (fixed)


Reported by: Bruce Dubbs Owned by: Douglas R. Reno
Priority: high Milestone: 9.1
Component: Book Version: SVN
Severity: normal Keywords:


Change History (10)

comment:1 by Douglas R. Reno, 5 years ago

Owner: changed from lfs-book to Douglas R. Reno
Status: newassigned

comment:2 by Douglas R. Reno, 5 years ago

Some other changes to be made:

In 7.10.8, we need to set the proper configuration file. This needs to be set to /etc/systemd/logind.conf.

Also in 7.10.8, we need to change -Ddefault-kill-user-processes=no TO -Ddefault-kill-user-processess=false.

In systemd itself, the following needs to be done:

Remove -Dkill-path Add -Drpmmacrosdir=no, and then remove the /usr/lib/rpm/macros.d instruction. Document -Db_pie=true Remove the symlinks after creating them in the beginning of the page (related to util-linux) Add 'systemctl preset-all' as a post-installation command for setting the default target struture up.

In man-db, add a sed to have the proper path to 'find' (/bin over /usr/bin).

A possible upstream commit (or three) may need to be patched. We'll see how things go.

comment:3 by Xi Ruoyao, 5 years ago

We need CFLAGS+=" -Wno-format-overflow" because GCC-9.1 has some false positives with -Werror=format-overflow.

comment:4 by Douglas R. Reno, 5 years ago

Milestone: 8.5Future
Priority: normallow
Summary: systemd-242systemd-242 (Hold until 243)

Because of the amount of bugs that have been found in 242 after release, I think we are better off staying with 241 until 243 comes out.

comment:5 by Douglas R. Reno, 5 years ago

Milestone: Future9.1
Summary: systemd-242 (Hold until 243)systemd-243
Changes since the previous release:

        * This release enables unprivileged programs (i.e. requiring neither
          setuid nor file capabilities) to send ICMP Echo (i.e. ping) requests
          by turning on the "net.ipv4.ping_group_range" sysctl of the Linux
          kernel for the whole UNIX group range, i.e. all processes. This
          change should be reasonably safe, as the kernel support for it was
          specifically implemented to allow safe access to ICMP Echo for
          processes lacking any privileges. If this is not desirable, it can be
          disabled again by setting the parameter to "1 0".

        * Previously, filters defined with SystemCallFilter= would have the
          effect that any calling of an offending system call would terminate
          the calling thread. This behaviour never made much sense, since
          killing individual threads of unsuspecting processes is likely to
          create more problems than it solves. With this release the default
          action changed from killing the thread to killing the whole
          process. For this to work correctly both a kernel version (>= 4.14)
          and a libseccomp version (>= 2.4.0) supporting this new seccomp
          action is required. If an older kernel or libseccomp is used the old
          behaviour continues to be used. This change does not affect any
          services that have no system call filters defined, or that use
          SystemCallErrorNumber= (and thus see EPERM or another error instead
          of being killed when calling an offending system call). Note that
          systemd documentation always claimed that the whole process is
          killed. With this change behaviour is thus adjusted to match the

        * On 64 bit systems, the "kernel.pid_max" sysctl is now bumped to
          4194304 by default, i.e. the full 22bit range the kernel allows, up
          from the old 16bit range. This should improve security and
          robustness, as PID collisions are made less likely (though certainly
          still possible). There are rumours this might create compatibility
          problems, though at this moment no practical ones are known to
          us. Downstream distributions are hence advised to undo this change in
          their builds if they are concerned about maximum compatibility, but
          for everybody else we recommend leaving the value bumped. Besides
          improving security and robustness this should also simplify things as
          the maximum number of allowed concurrent tasks was previously bounded
          by both "kernel.pid_max" and "kernel.threads-max" and now effectively
          only a single knob is left ("kernel.threads-max"). There have been
          concerns that usability is affected by this change because larger PID
          numbers are harder to type, but we believe the change from 5 digits
          to 7 digits doesn't hamper usability.

        * MemoryLow= and MemoryMin= gained hierarchy-aware counterparts,
          DefaultMemoryLow= and DefaultMemoryMin=, which can be used to
          hierarchically set default memory protection values for a particular
          subtree of the unit hierarchy.

        * Memory protection directives can now take a value of zero, allowing
          explicit opting out of a default value propagated by an ancestor.

        * systemd now defaults to the "unified" cgroup hierarchy setup during
          build-time, i.e. -Ddefault-hierarchy=unified is now the build-time
          default. Previously, -Ddefault-hierarchy=hybrid was the default. This
          change reflects the fact that cgroupsv2 support has matured
          substantially in both systemd and in the kernel, and is clearly the
          way forward. Downstream production distributions might want to
          continue to use -Ddefault-hierarchy=hybrid (or even =legacy) for
          their builds as unfortunately the popular container managers have not
          caught up with the kernel API changes.

        * Man pages are not built by default anymore (html pages were already
          disabled by default), to make development builds quicker. When
          building systemd for a full installation with documentation, meson
          should be called with -Dman=true and/or -Dhtml=true as appropriate.
          The default was changed based on the assumption that quick one-off or
          repeated development builds are much more common than full optimized
          builds for installation, and people need to pass various other
          options to when doing "proper" builds anyway, so the gain from making
          development builds quicker is bigger than the one time disruption for

          Two scripts are created in the *build* directory to generate and
          preview man and html pages on demand, e.g.:

          build/man/man systemctl
          build/man/html systemd.index

        * libidn2 is used by default if both libidn2 and libidn are installed.
          Please use -Dlibidn=true if libidn is preferred.

        * The D-Bus "wire format" of the CPUAffinity= attribute is changed on
          big-endian machines. Before, bytes were written and read in native
          machine order as exposed by the native libc __cpu_mask interface.
          Now, little-endian order is always used (CPUs 0–7 are described by
          bits 0–7 in byte 0, CPUs 8–15 are described by byte 1, and so on).
          This change fixes D-Bus calls that cross endianness boundary.

          The presentation format used for CPUAffinity= by "systemctl show" and
          "systemd-analyze dump" is changed to present CPU indices instead of
          the raw __cpu_mask bitmask. For example, CPUAffinity=0-1 would be
          shown as CPUAffinity=03000000000000000000000000000… (on
          little-endian) or CPUAffinity=00000000000000300000000000000… (on
          64-bit big-endian), and is now shown as CPUAffinity=0-1, matching the
          input format. The maximum integer that will be printed in the new
          format is 8191 (four digits), while the old format always used a very
          long number (with the length varying by architecture), so they can be
          unambiguously distinguished.

        * /usr/sbin/halt.local is no longer supported. Implementation in
          distributions was inconsistent and it seems this functionality was
          very rarely used.

          To replace this functionality, users should:
          - either define a new unit and make it a dependency of
            (systemctl add-wants my-halt-local.service)
          - or move the shutdown script to /usr/lib/systemd/system-shutdown/
            and ensure that it accepts "halt", "poweroff", "reboot", and
            "kexec" as an argument, see the description in systemd-shutdown(8).

        * When a [Match] section in .link or .network file is empty (contains
          no match patterns), a warning will be emitted. Please add any "match
          all" pattern instead, e.g. OriginalName=* or Name=* in case all
          interfaces should really be matched.

        * A new setting NUMAPolicy= may be used to set process memory
          allocation policy. This setting can be specified in
          /etc/systemd/system.conf and hence will set the default policy for
          PID1. The default policy can be overridden on a per-service
          basis. The related setting NUMAMask= is used to specify NUMA node
          mask that should be associated with the selected policy.

        * PID 1 will now listen to Out-Of-Memory (OOM) events the kernel
          generates when processes it manages are reaching their memory limits,
          and will place their units in a special state, and optionally kill or
          stop the whole unit.

        * The service manager will now expose bus properties for the IO
          resources used by units. This information is also shown in "systemctl
          status" now (for services that have IOAccounting=yes set). Moreover,
          the IO accounting data is included in the resource log message
          generated whenever a unit stops.

        * Units may now configure an explicit time-out to wait for when killed
          with SIGABRT, for example when a service watchdog is hit. Previously,
          the regular TimeoutStopSec= time-out was applied in this case too —
          now a separate time-out may be set using TimeoutAbortSec=.

        * Services may now send a special WATCHDOG=trigger message with
          sd_notify() to trigger an immediate "watchdog missed" event, and thus
          trigger service termination. This is useful both for testing watchdog
          handling, but also for defining error paths in services, that shall
          be handled the same way as watchdog events.

        * There are two new per-unit settings IPIngressFilterPath= and
          IPEgressFilterPath= which allow configuration of a BPF program
          (usually by specifying a path to a program uploaded to /sys/fs/bpf/)
          to apply to the IP packet ingress/egress path of all processes of a
          unit. This is useful to allow running systemd services with BPF
          programs set up externally.

        * systemctl gained a new "clean" verb for removing the state, cache,
          runtime or logs directories of a service while it is terminated. The
          new verb may also be used to remove the state maintained on disk for
          timer units that have Persistent= configured.

        * During the last phase of shutdown systemd will now automatically
          increase the log level configured in the "kernel.printk" sysctl so
          that any relevant loggable events happening during late shutdown are
          made visible. Previously, loggable events happening so late during
          shutdown were generally lost if the "kernel.printk" sysctl was set to
          high thresholds, as regular logging daemons are terminated at that
          time and thus nothing is written to disk.

        * If processes terminated during the last phase of shutdown do not exit
          quickly systemd will now show their names after a short time, to make
          debugging easier. After a longer time-out they are forcibly killed,
          as before.

        * journalctl (and the other tools that display logs) will now highlight
          warnings in yellow (previously, both LOG_NOTICE and LOG_WARNING where
          shown in bright bold, now only LOG_NOTICE is). Moreover, audit logs
          are now shown in blue color, to separate them visually from regular
          logs. References to configuration files are now turned into clickable
          links on terminals that support that.

        * systemd-journald will now stop logging to /var/log/journal during
          shutdown when /var/ is on a separate mount, so that it can be
          unmounted safely during shutdown.

        * systemd-resolved gained support for a new 'strict' DNS-over-TLS mode.

        * systemd-resolved "Cache=" configuration option in resolved.conf has
          been extended to also accept the 'no-negative' value. Previously,
          only a boolean option was allowed (yes/no), having yes as the
          default. If this option is set to 'no-negative', negative answers are
          not cached while the old cache heuristics are used positive answers.
          The default remains unchanged.

        * The predictable naming scheme for network devices now supports
          generating predictable names for "netdevsim" devices.

          Moreover, the "en" prefix was dropped from the ID_NET_NAME_ONBOARD
          udev property.

          Those two changes form a new net.naming-policy-scheme= entry.
          Distributions which want to preserve naming stability may want to set
          the -Ddefault-net-naming-scheme= configuration option.

        * systemd-networkd now supports MACsec, nlmon, IPVTAP and Xfrm
          interfaces natively.

        * systemd-networkd's bridge FDB support now allows configuration of a
          destination address for each entry (Destination=), as well as the
          VXLAN VNI (VNI=), as well as an option to declare what an entry is
          associated with (AssociatedWith=).

        * systemd-networkd's DHCPv4 support now understands a new MaxAttempts=
          option for configuring the maximum number of DHCP lease requests.  It
          also learnt a new BlackList= option for blacklisting DHCP servers (a
          similar setting has also been added to the IPv6 RA client), as well
          as a SendRelease= option for configuring whether to send a DHCP
          RELEASE message when terminating.

        * systemd-networkd's DHCPv4 and DHCPv6 stacks can now be configured
          separately in the [DHCPv4] and [DHCPv6] sections.

        * systemd-networkd's DHCP support will now optionally create an
          implicit host route to the DNS server specified in the DHCP lease, in
          addition to the routes listed explicitly in the lease. This should
          ensure that in multi-homed systems DNS traffic leaves the systems on
          the interface that acquired the DNS server information even if other
          routes such as default routes exist. This behaviour may be turned on
          with the new RoutesToDNS= option.

        * systemd-networkd's VXLAN support gained a new option
          GenericProtocolExtension= for enabling VXLAN Generic Protocol
          Extension support, as well as IPDoNotFragment= for setting the IP
          "Don't fragment" bit on outgoing packets. A similar option has been
          added to the GENEVE support.

        * In systemd-networkd's [Route] section you may now configure
          FastOpenNoCookie= for configuring per-route TCP fast-open support, as
          well as TTLPropagate= for configuring Label Switched Path (LSP) TTL
          propagation. The Type= setting now supports local, broadcast,
          anycast, multicast, any, xresolve routes, too.

        * systemd-networkd's [Network] section learnt a new option
          DefaultRouteOnDevice= for automatically configuring a default route
          onto the network device.

        * systemd-networkd's bridging support gained two new options ProxyARP=
          and ProxyARPWifi= for configuring proxy ARP behaviour as well as
          MulticastRouter= for configuring multicast routing behaviour. A new
          option MulticastIGMPVersion= may be used to change bridge's multicast
          Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) version.

        * systemd-networkd's FooOverUDP support gained the ability to configure
          local and peer IP addresses via Local= and Peer=. A new option
          PeerPort= may be used to configure the peer's IP port.

        * systemd-networkd's TUN support gained a new setting VnetHeader= for
          tweaking Generic Segment Offload support.

        * networkctl gained a new "delete" command for removing virtual network
          devices, as well as a new "--stats" switch for showing device

        * networkd.conf gained a new setting SpeedMeter= and
          SpeedMeterIntervalSec=, to measure bitrate of network interfaces. The
          measured speed may be shown by 'networkctl status'.

        * "networkctl status" now displays MTU and queue lengths, and more
          detailed information about VXLAN and bridge devices.

        * systemd-networkd's .network and .link files gained a new Property=
          setting in the [Match] section, to match against devices with
          specific udev properties.

        * systemd-networkd's tunnel support gained a new option
          AssignToLoopback= for selecting whether to use the loopback device
          "lo" as underlying device.

        * systemd-networkd's MACAddress= setting in the [Neighbor] section has
          been renamed to LinkLayerAddress=, and it now allows configuration of
          IP addresses, too.

        * systemd-networkd's handling of the kernel's disable_ipv6 sysctl is
          simplified: systemd-networkd will disable the sysctl (enable IPv6) if
          IPv6 configuration (static or DHCPv6) was found for a given
          interface. It will not touch the sysctl otherwise.

        * The order of entries is $PATH used by the user manager instance was
          changed to put bin/ entries before the corresponding sbin/ entries.
          It is recommended to not rely on this order, and only ever have one
          binary with a given name in the system paths under /usr.

        * A new tool systemd-network-generator has been added that may generate
          .network, .netdev and .link files from IP configuration specified on
          the kernel command line in the format used by Dracut.

        * The CriticalConnection= setting in .network files is now deprecated,
          and replaced by a new KeepConfiguration= setting which allows more
          detailed configuration of the IP configuration to keep in place.

        * systemd-analyze gained a few new verbs:

          - "systemd-analyze timestamp" parses and converts timestamps. This is
            similar to the existing "systemd-analyze calendar" command which
            does the same for recurring calendar events.

          - "systemd-analyze timespan" parses and converts timespans (i.e.
            durations as opposed to points in time).

          - "systemd-analyze condition" will parse and test ConditionXYZ=

          - "systemd-analyze exit-status" will parse and convert exit status
            codes to their names and back.

          - "systemd-analyze unit-files" will print a list of all unit
            file paths and unit aliases.

        * SuccessExitStatus=, RestartPreventExitStatus=, and
          RestartForceExitStatus= now accept exit status names (e.g. "DATAERR"
          is equivalent to "65"). Those exit status name mappings may be
          displayed with the sytemd-analyze exit-status verb describe above.

        * systemd-logind now exposes a per-session SetBrightness() bus call,
          which may be used to securely change the brightness of a kernel
          brightness device, if it belongs to the session's seat. By using this
          call unprivileged clients can make changes to "backlight" and "leds"
          devices securely with strict requirements on session membership.
          Desktop environments may use this to generically make brightness
          changes to such devices without shipping private SUID binaries or
          udev rules for that purpose.

        * "udevadm info" gained a --wait-for-initialization switch to wait for
          a device to be initialized.

        * systemd-hibernate-resume-generator will now look for resumeflags= on
          the kernel command line, which is similar to rootflags= and may be
          used to configure device timeout for the hibernation device.

        * sd-event learnt a new API call sd_event_source_disable_unref() for
          disabling and unref'ing an event source in a single function. A
          related call sd_event_source_disable_unrefp() has been added for use
          with gcc's cleanup extension.

        * The sd-id128.h public API gained a new definition
          SD_ID128_UUID_FORMAT_STR for formatting a 128bit ID in UUID format
          with printf().

        * "busctl introspect" gained a new switch --xml-interface for dumping
          XML introspection data unmodified.

        * PID 1 may now show the unit name instead of the unit description
          string in its status output during boot. This may be configured in
          the StatusUnitFormat= setting in /etc/systemd/system.conf or the
          kernel command line option systemd.status_unit_format=.

        * PID 1 now understands a new option KExecWatchdogSec= in
          /etc/systemd/system.conf to set a watchdog timeout for kexec reboots.
          Previously watchdog functionality was only available for regular
          reboots. The new setting defaults to off, because we don't know in
          the general case if the watchdog will be reset after kexec (some
          drivers do reset it, but not all), and the new userspace might not be
          configured to handle the watchdog.

          Moreover, the old ShutdownWatchdogSec= setting has been renamed to
          RebootWatchdogSec= to more clearly communicate what it is about. The
          old name is still accepted for compatibility.

        * The systemd.debug_shell kernel command line option now optionally
          takes a tty name to spawn the debug shell on, which allows a
          different tty to be selected than the built-in default.

        * Service units gained a new ExecCondition= setting which will run
          before ExecStartPre= and either continue execution of the unit (for
          clean exit codes), stop execution without marking the unit failed
          (for exit codes 1 through 254), or stop execution and fail the unit
          (for exit code 255 or abnormal termination).

        * A new service systemd-pstore.service has been added that pulls data
          from /sys/fs/pstore/ and saves it to /var/lib/pstore for later

        * timedatectl gained new verbs for configuring per-interface NTP
          service configuration for systemd-timesyncd.

        * "localectl list-locales" won't list non-UTF-8 locales anymore. It's
          2019. (You can set non-UTF-8 locales though, if you know their name.)

        * If variable assignments in sysctl.d/ files are prefixed with "-" any
          failures to apply them are now ignored.

        * systemd-random-seed.service now optionally credits entropy when
          applying the seed to the system. Set $SYSTEMD_RANDOM_SEED_CREDIT to
          true for the service to enable this behaviour, but please consult the
          documentation first, since this comes with a couple of caveats.

        * systemd-random-seed.service is now a synchronization point for full
          initialization of the kernel's entropy pool. Services that require
          /dev/urandom to be correctly initialized should be ordered after this

        * The systemd-boot boot loader has been updated to optionally maintain
          a random seed file in the EFI System Partition (ESP). During the boot
          phase, this random seed is read and updated with a new seed
          cryptographically derived from it. Another derived seed is passed to
          the OS. The latter seed is then credited to the kernel's entropy pool
          very early during userspace initialization (from PID 1). This allows
          systems to boot up with a fully initialized kernel entropy pool from
          earliest boot on, and thus entirely removes all entropy pool
          initialization delays from systems using systemd-boot. Special care
          is taken to ensure different seeds are derived on system images
          replicated to multiple systems. "bootctl status" will show whether
          a seed was received from the boot loader.

        * bootctl gained two new verbs:

          - "bootctl random-seed" will generate the file in ESP and an EFI
            variable to allow a random seed to be passed to the OS as described

          - "bootctl is-installed" checks whether systemd-boot is currently

        * bootctl will warn if it detects that boot entries are misconfigured
          (for example if the kernel image was removed without purging the
          bootloader entry).

        * A new document has been added describing systemd's use and support
          for the kernel's entropy pool subsystem:

        * When the system is hibernated the swap device to write the
          hibernation image to is now automatically picked from all available
          swap devices, preferring the swap device with the highest configured
          priority over all others, and picking the device with the most free
          space if there are multiple devices with the highest priority.

        * /etc/crypttab support has learnt a new keyfile-timeout= per-device
          option that permits selecting the timout how long to wait for a
          device with an encryption key before asking for the password.

        * IOWeight= has learnt to properly set the IO weight when using the
          BFQ scheduler officially found in kernels 5.0+.

        * A new mailing list has been created for reporting of security issues:
 For mode details, see

comment:6 by Douglas R. Reno, 5 years ago

Going to need to backport the patch in the issue listed here:

Issues like missing symlinks in /dev are completely unacceptable and should be noticed during pre-release testing.

comment:7 by Douglas R. Reno, 5 years ago

Priority: lownormal

comment:8 by Douglas R. Reno, 5 years ago

  • Added systemd-243-udev_fix-1.patch at r3998
  • Added backported security patch (since I already had it done) for 241 as well.
  • Copied man pages onto Anduin.

comment:9 by Douglas R. Reno, 5 years ago

Resolution: fixed
Status: assignedclosed

Fixed at r11678

comment:10 by Douglas R. Reno, 5 years ago

Priority: normalhigh

A new patch was added earlier as well, a few days ago, to fix various bugs discovered since release and some work to allow Samba-4.11 to not cause mount failures.

243 fixes this. An errata will be going in.


Nadav Markus from Palo Alto Networks discovered that systemd-resolved
does not enforce appropriate access controls on its D-Bus interface and
allows unprivileged users to execute methods that are meant to be
available only to privileged users. This can be exploited by local users
to modify the system's DNS resolver settings.

Details of the issue follow:


manager_connect_bus() in src/resolve/resolved-bus.c opens a connection
to the system bus using the
bus_open_system_watch_bind_with_description() helper function, which is
defined in src/shared/bus-util.c.

This helper function calls sd_bus_set_trusted(). This has the effect of
disabling access controls, even for members that are defined without the
SD_BUS_VTABLE_UNPRIVILEGED flag - the absence of which should deny
access from unprivileged clients. See check_access() in

static int check_access(sd_bus *bus, sd_bus_message *m, struct
vtable_member *c, sd_bus_error *error) {
        uint64_t cap;
        int r;


        /* If the entire bus is trusted let's grant access */
        if (bus->trusted)
                return 0;

        /* If the member is marked UNPRIVILEGED let's grant access */
        if (c->vtable->flags & SD_BUS_VTABLE_UNPRIVILEGED)
                return 0;

timesyncd and networkd both use the same helper function to connect to
the system bus, but both of these are unaffected by this bug. In
timesyncd's case, it only exposes some read-only properties and these
don't have access controls. In networkd's case, all methods are
annotated with SD_BUS_VTABLE_UNPRIVILEGED and it uses policykit for
enforcing access controls.


The complete fix for this issue can be found at and is in the systemd v243
release, although
on its own is sufficient to address the vulnerability.

Many thanks
- Chris
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